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					     Challenges of a New Europe : diversity, dilemmas and directions
Inclusion and Exclusion in Contemporary European Societies, Edition 2006

                   BIG FISH – LITTLE FISH
    policy making and the skilled and mass migrants

                                                       Ana-Despina Tudor
                            SNSPA – Faculty for Communication and Public
                             Relations “David Ogilvy”, Bucharest, Romania

        Challenges of a New Europe : diversity, dilemmas and directions
   Inclusion and Exclusion in Contemporary European Societies, Edition 2006


The purpose of this paper is to present with the particular aspects of the migration
phenomenon, more precisely the migration of the skilled population.
I will try to give an isight into the migration process of the skilled ones while
comparing it to the masss migration process, on one hand, and by presenting the
actual solutions againt it. Where do the differences stand? Are there advantages and
disadvantages in both processes? How does the migration of highly skilled affect
both sending and recieving countries?

The “brain drain” effect and its derivates “brain gain” and “brain waste” stand as
proofs of some of the effects of migration. Accelerating the “brain drain” process
might be on the agendas of some of the most developed countries, as long as they can
harvest the results. What is then in response the policy on the agenda of the sending
countries which invest in the education of individuals who then leave and work
somewhere else? Of course the implications are much deeper than the question can
comprize. There is no clear delimitation between the advantages and the
desavantages of this migration movement. At a certain point each of the actors gets
their share of gain. It is then vital to be able to foresee when and how to take the right
steps in order to best take advantage of the positive effects.
These effects, either called remmitances, knowledge flow, flexibility or development
must be the ones that shape the general lines in a policy. A policy that promotes the
free circulation of people, but which pleads for returning advantages.

Further more, I will try to give an overview on the migration of the skilled work force
in Romania. Has it turned into brain drain? Is there a chance to transform it into
brain gain? How? The skilled migrants are something policies should not avoid. I
believe that, with the help of the nowadays research, we should start planning the
policies that will be able to collect and put into practice those advantages of brain
drain, that will be able to stop the brain waste and eventually lead towards the brain
gain that everyone is keen to earn.
This task is even more difficult considering the missing statistical data, the lack of
numbers or of previous research in Romania. The sources for the information are just
the Statistical Institute in Bucharest and the Migration Office. Also, a well known
newspaper ordered in December 2005 a survey on migration, and on this particular
aspect, skilled migrants. Other compared date on Romania, Bulgaria and other EU
countries on migration come from the European Commision.

        Challenges of a New Europe : diversity, dilemmas and directions
   Inclusion and Exclusion in Contemporary European Societies, Edition 2006

Where do we stand between the concepts?

Theories on migration approach this subject from different persectives, some trying to
comprize as many factors as they can, some focusing only on specific aspects.
One first point of view comes from the economic theories approach on one hand and
non-economic theories on the other. Considering that many non-economic theories
cover sociological and social aspects, it wold be therefore important to develop a
general theory that can be integrated into a human behaviour theory (Krieger, 80).

Another distinction can be made at the level of analysis: there are three levels of
analysis: the macro level, meso level, and the micro level. Thomas Faist is the one
that summarizes them in a table comprizing the aspects of each level (Krieger, 80).
MICRO                        MESO                          MACRO
Value or desires and Collectives and social Macro-level opportunity
expectancies                 network                       structures
Individual values and social ties                          economics
expectancies                 strong ties: families and income and unemployment
- improving and securing households                        differentials
survival, wealth, status, weak ties: networks of
comfort,       stimulation, potential movers, brokers politics
authonomy, affiliation and and stayers;                    regulations of spacial
morality                                                   mobility through national-
                             symbolic ties                 states and international
                             kin,     ethnic,  national, regimes;
                             political, and religious political repression, ethnic,
                             organisations,    symbolic national, and religious
                             communities                   conflicts

                             content      of   ties     –   cultural setting
                             transactions                   dominant       norms     and
                             obligations,    reciprocity,   discourses
                             and              solidarity;
                             information, control, and      demography and ecology
                             access to resources of         popilation growth;
                             others                         availability of arable land
                                                            level of technology

Macro economic theories focus mainly on the conditions that balance the regional
labour markets and consider the migrant as a supplier of labour. (Krieger, 80).
As Hiks states “differences in net economic advantages, chiefly differences in wages,
are the main cause of migration” (Hicks, 1963, 76). Migration therefore is caused
mainly by geographical differences in labour demand and labour supply, the potential
migrant being interested not only in the maximisation of the current income, but also
        Challenges of a New Europe : diversity, dilemmas and directions
   Inclusion and Exclusion in Contemporary European Societies, Edition 2006

of the long-term future income. (Krieger, 82). Other factor that sustains migration in
the areas with high unskilled work demand, is the refusal of the locals to take up the
jobs they may not consider fitting to their standards. Most likely, the unskilled jobs in
the recieving country are considerd better / more rewarding for the migrants than the
jobs offered home. The migrants are ready to take up jobs that are of both low
consideration regarding status and prestige in the recieving country. The migrant’s
perception on one particular job is not determined by reference groups in the host
country, but by the well being and status in the home country. A low status job in a
host country may be considered a high status job in the home country. (Krieger, 87)

Furthermore, at the macro level there are the socio-economic models, out of which
one important theory is the gravity theory (Anderson, Dodd). This theory states that
the further the distance between two regions in a migration process, the smaller the
volume of migration (Krieger, 85). Extending this theory, it results that migration into
EU is more convenient that migration outside Europe, which could be a pro argument
for the ERA Project.

Other theories are the network theories. Belonging to the meso level of analysis, these
theories stress the importance of the social connections among actual migrants, former
migrants, potential migrants and non-migrants in the sending country. They reffer to
the social ties based on shared friendship, family or experience in the
migrants’community in the recieving country. (Krieger, 81). The network theory also
stresses that the migrant networs serve to reduce the costs and risks of international
migration. The likelyhood of migration is thus increased, while at the same time,
governments develop policies to sustain family reunification, therefore possibly
intensifying the migration process. (Stanton Russell)

The micro level cover a wide range of theories, like the micro economic neoclassical
theories which focuses on the level of individual rational actors who take the decision
on migration upon a cost-benefit calculation with a positive net return. (Stanton
Russell). Considering these, the human capital characteristics that raise the potential
benefits of migration and the individual, social or technological advantages that lower
the costs, will lead to increased migration (Stanton Russell).

Other micro theories are the RREEMM model, that defines the social actors as
resourceful, restricted, evaluating, expecting, maximizing man, the SEU concept, the
Habit model, the push – pull model of Lee and the relative deprivation of Stark and
Tayolor (Krieger, 81) which states that international migration decisions are taken on
income considerations.
The integrative model of Lee encompases macro and micro economical factors (wage
or employment), as well as macro additional factors (schooling, social security
system). All in all, the four distinguishing factors that build up Lee’s model are: the
factors in the country of origin, the factors in the country of detination, existing
barriers and individual factors. The last two dimensions refer not only to the distance
        Challenges of a New Europe : diversity, dilemmas and directions
   Inclusion and Exclusion in Contemporary European Societies, Edition 2006

barriers, but also to the language or barrieres, while the individual factors refer to the
basic dempograhic indicators, or to age and family status. (Krieger, 87). What is an
important component in his theory is that Lee considers that not the objective
conditions determine the person to leave, but his/her perception of these conditions in
the recieving country. Still, Lee’s model misses the conceptual link that explains how
there factor relate to eachother and their order of importance. Empirically still, it
helped test the importance of personal variables like weather married people are more
inclined to migrate and in which life phase that is most likely to appear.

Wolpert brings into discussion the concept of “place utility”. Each migrant gives
his/her place of living a certain place utility according with his/her aspirations.
Following a process of comparison with other places, a potential migrant may
conclude weahter it is or it isn’t worth migrating. In this model it’s more about
accepting the conditions in the living place as long as the place utility is higher than
the aspiration
(Krieger, 88).

The SEU model of Kalter integrates both Lee’s theories as well as Wolpert’s,
becoming the “subjective expected utility model”, based on the value expectation
There would be therefore 3 levels of selection upon which an individual acts, to chose
the one with the highest utility: (1) “move” or “stay”, (2) the existance of various
target levels according to the distance and finally, (3) the definition of the specific
place. There is a subjective evaluation process taking place at the individual level, and
these are combined with a subjective cognition of the chances to reach the objectives
by this method. (Krieger. 88). Kalter sugessted that the SEU should substitute the
push-pull model. Not only it is integrated in a general theory of social action, but it is
also capable of absorbing economic, social, demographic, psychological and other
individual factors. (Krieger, 88)

Once the migration took place, the more there is an already formed network of former
migrants, the more the the posibility of others to follow. The most advantaged are
those migrants that can alredy find such a structured network at the arrival. The first
ones to set up such networks pay usually the highest costs. Therefore, the higher the
number of migrants from the sending country in a place, the higher its utility and the
propensity of future migration, as through these existing networks the risks and
uncertainty at the arrival are reduced.

We know now why people might think about migrating: low incomes, dissatisfaction
with present perspectives compared to aspirations, comparison of options, distance,
environmental chages. Still, I believe that the reasons are much to different to be able
to generalize them for all those who think of migration. Starting with students,
through advanced abroad preparation like master degrees or PhD, continuing with

        Challenges of a New Europe : diversity, dilemmas and directions
   Inclusion and Exclusion in Contemporary European Societies, Edition 2006

unmarried specialist who work for short time contracts, migraton is a solution
embraced by people with many different backgrounds and future plans.
Therefore, if we speak about mass migration on one hand, and the migration of the
skilled ones on the other, how do we make the difference in terms of policies for
incouraging return?

The migration of the skilled population throughout Europe
-general overview-

The mass migration seems in general to be advantageous through the remittances sent
back home. Mass migration is mainly a temporary process, either with or without a
contract signed in advance, and the migrants mainly leave to gain enough to be able to
lift their living standard home. The wage differentials and the job demands may create
a wave of migrants who work in a country as long as they earn enough to come back
home and start their own bussines. At the extreme there are those migrants who leave
looking for jobs, but the found jobs are so much lower paid than expected, that the
migrant postpones the return on an idefinite period, this causing permanent migration.
The migrants that choose to work and to return home with money are leaving families
behind, and work mainly in lower paid jobs that the normal ones in the recieving
countries, therefore their profile for a potential policy to bring them back differs from
the one fit for the skilled migrants.

During the Second World War migration surveys were focused on the majoriy of
migrants from the poor countries. At the beginning, the highly skilled started
migrating from Europe to the US due to the political and racist reasons. German and
Italian scientists had to flee in order to escape repression. After the end of the Second
World War, as the social and political international picture has changed, the migration
of the skilled population took other dimensions.
The first investigations of this phenomenon focused on the Anglo-Saxon migrants. It
was then that the therm “brain drain” firstly appeared in a reprot published my the
Royal Society of London in the early ‘60s. (The Brain - Drain - Emigration flows for
the qualified scientist, part 2, 2).
While brain drain reffers to those highly qualified that leave to work elsewhere under
better conditions, brain waste reffers to those hilghly qualified that leave and take up
underqualified jobs. The result of the brain drain is what specialists call “reverse
transfer of technology”. This means that a poor country provides more those
developed with highly human resources “for free”. (The Brain - Drain - Emigration
flows for the qualified scientist, part 2, 2)

Of course we firslty see the disadvantages in the brain drain process, but there are also
advantages that we should not ignore. A study in the ‘70s demonstrated that many of
those who left their countreis, mainly the most brilliant of them, returned home later
in their careers and became important forces in the development of their home
        Challenges of a New Europe : diversity, dilemmas and directions
   Inclusion and Exclusion in Contemporary European Societies, Edition 2006

country. Taking this into consideration, we cannot consider the process as one-
directional. We can also speak about skilled mobility, a 2 ways mobility, from the
sending to the recieving country and back. Furthermore once the internet makes
communication and circulation of data available alomost everywhere, it isn’t even so
important for a scientist to phisically move from one place to another (The Brain -
Drain - Emigration flows for the qualified scientist, part 2, 3).
Still, at some certain point, the disadvantages of the migration of the skilled
population phemomenon outnumber the advantages, as the most beneffiting are the
host countries and not the sender ones. In order not to fail in its development, a
country whose specialist migrate must be capable of producing others to take the
empty places left behind . If this isn’t the case, the economic and scientific resources
are drained before the development in the sending place even takes place. This is what
has been happening in Romania in the past 17 years, after the change of the
communist system. Following the brain drain, as a macro level pheonomenon, there
would be the “brain waste”, but in the absence of empirical evidence, I can’t
promounce myself on this topic.
Research is missing in in other countries too, especially if the borders are not
monitored, as it happens in the EU. Even if there is a high mobility, authorities fail to
provide researchers with sufficient data, as many skilled people slip away from the
usual surveys.

Definig a skilled migrant is a difficult issues, as there isn’t any completely accepted
definition. The surveys in this domain are scarce and it seems hard to reach a common
point when we speak about those persons considered highly skilled. After Boulier
(The Brain - Drain - Emigration flows for the qualified scientist, part 2, 4), highly
qualified people are those skilled blue and white collar workers. Most of the
researchers however refer at highly qualified as to those who have university degree
or an equivalent, and who could be grouped into the category of intellectuals,
sceintists and techicians. Still having a degree is not sufficient to consider them highly
skilled migrants, as some of those may end up working in underqualified work, which
is already a brain waste.

Brain waste happens also through mobility also. Some skilled migrants plan to return
to the origin country, and have the disponibility of returned intelectual / cultural
remmitance. But if the origin country cannot supply the develpoment and research
systems, those returned home may be looked as overqualified, and obtain jobs under
their qualification level. If we were to compare the financial remittances through both
these 2 types of migration, the ones brought by the mass migrants are more
significant. Mass migrants do more savings that spend outside, while the skilled
migrants usually spend outside and do less savings. The most significan remittance
the skilled migrants bring home would be the intelectual and cultural one: the
knowledge they bring back and invest in the existing system.

         Challenges of a New Europe : diversity, dilemmas and directions
    Inclusion and Exclusion in Contemporary European Societies, Edition 2006

The time spent abroad also may predict weather the migrant will return or not, and
weather we can speak of brain drain or of simple mobility. The longer the absence, the
less chances of return, as the links with the origin country weaken. Also, if a migrant
leaves at the age of maximum working potential, after finishing schooling home, we
can speak of a clear loss. If instead, the researcher leaves for schooling abroad, when
his working abilities are only developing, and returns to put them into practice home,
than there is a clear win (The Brain - Drain - Emigration flows for the qualified
scientist, part 2, 11).

The mass migrants usually respond to push factors in the origin country, rather than
on pull factors of the host country. The skilled migrants usually have a clear migratory
project and the period of migration is mainly temporary, far fewer becoming residents
in the recieving country. They are more likely to travel with their entire family and
they have economic autonomy.

The migration of the skilled work force in Romania
- two approaches-

Few studies have been conducted in Romania about migration in general. Many
statuistical data is incomplete or not properly registered.
There are however 2 studyes, one ran by a Romanian author* and one by an Italian
one who try to draw a map of the migration of the skilled work force. The overall
results of the research ran by the romanian author point out that the migration process,
after a peak in 1992, has stabilized in “normal” limits. The numbers say that ther have
been around 36,000 highly educated migrants to leave between 1990 and 2001, out of
which 23,500 Romanians, 8,000 Germans, 3,800 Hungarians and 300 Jews (The
Brain - Drain - Emigration flows for the qualified scientist, part 5, 9). It is also
estimated that most of the Germans had left though, before the 90s. After the change
of the law which now gives back the former properties, many foreigners that had left
before the 90s came to take them back.

In general terms, there would be 3 pull factors that either determine or encourage the
high migration of the skilled ones:
    - Better paid jobs abroad
    - Family reunification
    - Upgrading the professional and instruction level (The Brain - Drain -
       Emigration flows for the qualified scientist, part 5, 7)
  I consider the comparison with the data on migration before 1990 irrelevant in this study. The factors
that led to the migration before the 90s were different than the ones nowadats After 1989, the
worsening standard of living and the high social cost of transition became the most important reasons
for migration, and not the political repression.
        Challenges of a New Europe : diversity, dilemmas and directions
   Inclusion and Exclusion in Contemporary European Societies, Edition 2006

The professionals quit their country of origin because they could not put into practice
their skills, and therefore leave to places with better prospects. This thing gave rise to
a debate on the costs of the brain drain phenomenon.

If we were to speak about a trend in Romania, the young people are those who have
most availability to migrate. The students choose to leave and to take up scholarship
opportunities in order to find better study opportunities outside than the ones provided
home. There are no statistical data, but many of those who left once would try to leave

Concerning the qualifications of the migrants, out of those 36,000 migrants between
1990 and 2000, 19,000 were engineers and architects, 4,500 doctors and farmacists
and 5,000 economists. The countries of destination were for 37% Germany and for
11% USA The Brain - Drain - Emigration flows for the qualified scientist, part 5, 5)
But in absolute terms, in 2001 the number of the migrants from Romania represents
only 0,04% of the total population. However, the study gives no account about what
certain engineer types decide to leave.
The author considers also that this number shows a declining tendancy.

On the other hand, the Italian author says that the official statistical data on migration
counts up to 300, 000 migrants between 1990 and 1998, this being considered an
underestimated number.The truth wpuld be around 800,000 highly skilled migrants,
an estimative 3,5% of the country’s population. About half of the 5,000 graduates in
computer science each year, emigrate each year. A poll ran in march 2001 showed
that 66% of the Romanian students would emigrate if they could (The Brain - Drain -
Emigration flows for the qualified scientist, part 5, 5).
There is an obvious difference between the 2 studies there in terms of numbers, the
latter marking a number of at least 10 times more skilled migrants than the first one.
However I must add that Ferro explains the inconsistance of the number with a quote
from a Romanian author (Nedelcu), who states that the the difference comes from the
fact that the migrants are counted on their declaration of migrants. Many of them
choose to never come back once they left, but don’t declare that at the departure.

An interesting aspect presented in the first study is that a higher number of engineers,
architects, phisicians and chemists continue their work in the same domanin, while
economists and teachers are more ready to change their profession for a better paid
job. Moreover highly qualified persons choose to accept underqualified jobs like
labourers, servants, gas station attendands, cleaners or baby sitters. (The Brain - Drain
- Emigration flows for the qualified scientist, part 5 ,11). Still we should be able here
to make a distinction between those here advertised jobs and those there advertised
jobs. If the work force companies advertise in Romania for low payed jobs, what is
the chance that a highly skilled person would chose those jobs? This is a subject for
further investigation, as there isn’t a clear connection between the factors that
determine an intelectual accept a low paid job, and, moreover there is no information
        Challenges of a New Europe : diversity, dilemmas and directions
   Inclusion and Exclusion in Contemporary European Societies, Edition 2006

on the decision moment. We don’t know therefore if the highly skilled choses to work
on a low paid job while he/she is still in the country, or accepts the job on the spot, in
the host country.

Considering the data presented in the first study, women seem to be more numerous
than men, outnumbering them by 2,000 in the general numbers, between 1990 and
2000. In terms of age, in 2001, the most important percentage of migrants is held by
those who have graduated and have also gained experience (30-34 years old) (The
Brain - Drain - Emigration flows for the qualified scientist, part 5, 12). The trend in
the period between 1990 and 2000 shows that the the 26 – 40 group age acounted for
over 57% of the total number of migrants. The percentage of the 30-35 is higher, but
we are not sure about the exact factors that led to migration, either are we sure about
the implication of family / friends ties or recruitment policies. And speaking of
recruiting policies, there are no clear regulations concerning the head hunters in
Romania (The Brain - Drain - Emigration flows for the qualified scientist, part 5, 7).
The monitoring of these companies would help policy makers understand better the
methods of recruitment and the profiles of highly skilled head hunters are looking for.
There are some official labour programs between Romania and some countries in
Western Europe, but for highly skilled migrants, recruiting companies have few
barriers to surpass, unlike for less skilled, where the regulations for the admission of
the recruiting companies are restrictive (The Brain - Drain - Emigration flows for the
qualified scientist, part 5, 7)

The study ran by the Italian author is more focused on the specific problem of
computer science qualified migrants, and on recent data (2004). The research is based
on a survey made online, and whose questions try to answer some of the most
important questions: why do the qualified workers decide to leave and what is their
migratory project, what are the used strategies, which are the barriers they must
overcome. The study tries also to present the role of the networks of former romanian
migrants or diaspora and the evaluation of the personal experience of the migrants.
(Ferro, 4)
The study gathered 128 answeres from computer scientist all over Europe, USA and
Canada. It is not relevant for the whole group of skilled migrants, but it is one useful
study to catch at least some trends in who those migrants are and what they do. The
avarage respondent is 33, 62% are married and most with a Romanian partner, and all
have university degree. (Ferro, 6)
The decision to migrate take by the IT specialists is a labour decision. After
graduating, and gathering experience home, the migration perspectives of migration
are clear. For many researchers, the pull factor are the better and continous education
abroad, and the possibility of international careers. (Ferro, 6)
Considering income, IT workers earn the best, in USA and Swiss, followed by PhD
researchers (again US on the first place, followed by the other countries).
The reasons however, as the author states, are hard to include into a specific theory of
migration. They differ than other reasons of mass migration and have secondary
        Challenges of a New Europe : diversity, dilemmas and directions
   Inclusion and Exclusion in Contemporary European Societies, Edition 2006

implications. The main reason was “job and carrier opportunities”. Along with this
pull factor comes the perspective of a better salary, but in a broader way, combined
with a better life perspective, with a carrer development and better and fulfilling job
opportunities. Many have argued that the jobs outside are more interesting. We can
speak therefore about professional rewards that come along with the work outside. We
are then shifting to the push factors, the frustration with Romania, the corruption and
the lack of possibilities. Enlisting the main reasons for migration, 36% chose “more
chances of career development” followed by “improve quality of life” with 21% and
study with 16%. (Ferro, 8) There is a rational conscienceness about the imposibility of
working under the same conditions as abroad.
Concerning the migratory project, 65% of all respondants said they did not have any
plan of remaining abroad. Still, the majority agreed that even without any clear plans
at departure, they don’t see themselves again in Romania. The return is not clearly
forseen, as many find it hard to readjust to the a system they don’t feel like fitting in
anymore, and which they don’t consider adequate with their current expectations.
Still, returning home from overseas would be a solution, if Romania makes it to join
the EU and manages to improve the living standards.

When it comes to the decision to migrate, the factors that influence it are mainly
related to the job opportunities, the availability of posistions, the country reputation.
The family / networks abroad don’t seem to determine much of the decision, while
previous experience in Romania is an important factor. (Ferro, 11)
It is interesting to know that working for a foreign company can create two different
situations: on one hand the specialist is given the chance to migrate through the
company, as the procedures are easyer than doing it independetly, on the other hand,
the wages and the work conditions in terms of management and technologies are
better, which would make migration a nonsense, since these advantages are home. If
the foreign companies open firms in Romania and hire local specialists, pay them
lower than a specialist in the companie’s origin country, but better than a specialist in
Romania, we have what is called “brains without bodies” (Ferro, 13). There is no need
for mobility then, the financial problem is solved and the company pays less for the
service of a highly skilled.

When looking for a job, high skilled migrants choose special online internationa
networks or just the internet to look for vacancies. But sometimes the migrants find
themselves trapped in the immigrant regulations of the host country.

Assuming the responsability for the solutions

If compared, brain drain and brain gain point out to a predominance of losses. What
would be therefore the solutions given to the problem of the skilled work force
migration? The loss is not only in economic terms, but also in sociological terms.

        Challenges of a New Europe : diversity, dilemmas and directions
   Inclusion and Exclusion in Contemporary European Societies, Edition 2006

Considering the aging of the population and the young migrants leaving, the country
development perspectives look rather not favorable.
The italian author points put some solutions given even by the respondants to the
survey. Some of them complain about the bad implementation of the policies to stop
the IT migration. It wouldn’t be the problem that there aren’t policies, but that there is
no coherent process to put them into practice. The migrants consider that the system
of evaluation in Romania is not based on true value but on other factors, therefore, the
ones that are valuable ideed are disconsidered and not “included in the scheme”. At a
general glance upon the answers, the main problem would be the corruption. With all
its political and financial implication, corruption is also the one that sets up an
unpleasant environment of uncertainty, of non-value, of ignorance. I believe that the
lack of perspectives in research area, combined with the lack of interest of the local
financers build up an unfavourable atmoshpere and determine people take up extreme
solutions, like leaving the country. Moreover a better administration is needed, as the
old one, “the old clique” (Ferro, 18) how one of the respondants calls it, seems to be
incapable of running development projects for saving the research in Romania. The
joining of the EU is also regarded as a solution, since it implies a renewal of certain
politics and an adaptation to new conditions. One of the respondants, suggested that
once the joining takes place, Romania should tempt new foreign graduates start their
own jobs here, by promoting tax exepmtion or other financial advantages.
In Romania, the most probable to come and ask for citizenship and for work permits
would be the citizens of the Republic of Moldova. A useful policy in this direction
would be to facilitate the visa procedures and attract them work here.
Indeed, ideeas for solutions is something anyone can think about, but in order put
them into proactice there must be specific bodies to start, conduct and monitor these

At the European level, there is one idea based on the migration networks concept –
the ERA plan. ERA stands for the European Research Area and it intends to sustain
the creation of certain research spots around Europe, and interconnect them in
clusters. This would then keep available the high skileld mobility, would put into
common the information without phisically moving it along with the researchers, and
would encourage the exchage of ideas. The ERA plan was drawn aginst the visible
fragmentations of the science and technologies policies (The ERA, 1). the Lisbon
European Council adopted ERA in march 2000, and layed the foundation for the
common science and technologies policies. By 2010 the European governments
agreed to grow the expediture of development to 4% of the GDP, in order to be able
to keep up with the US and Japanese competition. What lacks Europe in the global
competition are the innovation, the human resources and the common efforts. (The
ERA, 5). In Romania, a chance to attract foreign highly skilled would be from the
Republic of Moldova.
At this point we may speak of a big-fish-eats-small-fish phenomenon. The EU
countries complain that many of their highly skilled choose to leave for better
development persepctives across the ocean. Still, EU countries represent a good
         Challenges of a New Europe : diversity, dilemmas and directions
    Inclusion and Exclusion in Contemporary European Societies, Edition 2006

destination for former EU candidates, out of which Poland and the Baltic states are the
most active. The actual candidates provide EU as well as the US and Canada with
highly qualified workers, but the preferred destination country for Romania is for the
EU countries, as I have stated before (Germany was on the first place). Therefore the
risk for the EU would not be only that the EU highly qualified citizens leave for the
US, but also that those europeans who are not part of the Union would do the same.
Translated, this means that the very source of “fresh” highly skilld in Europe, would
not belong to the Europeans anymore, but would choose to leave elswhere. The ERA
project was regarded as a viable solution which would keep the development on
“play”, here on the continent.

The solution is to implemet policies for sustaining cross – border projects and to take
advantage from the shared resources and “critical mass”. (The ERA 10) More
precisely, for projects that exceed the “critical mass” in terms of financial and human

All these plans are ran at the EU level, but there is still the national level. Before it
becomes part of the EU, Romania must find a solution to improve its outputs.
First of all there is the common sense prejudice in Romania, that studying and
working in engineering and science, if not focused on computers, can’t bring much in
terms of income and, therefore, personal satisfaction. It hasn’t been estimated yet, but
the number of students that drop out of engineering schools or don’t choose to take up
engineering courses is relevant for the present discussion. There are many reasons that
encourage a general attitude of hoplessness for science and technology domains that
have been ignored from investment flows.
The internal, and local investors fail from investing in development, as the they
mainly run after imediate gain, while development needs time and constant funding.

A few practical aprpoaches

The practical approaches of the solutions should focus on several levels, during clear
periods of time, and if needed ran at the same time.
There should be differt policies to address the different aspects of this type of
    - “Smart” policies (policies for promoting the technological research)
    - “Easy way” policies (to diminish the bureaucracy and to simplify the
       procedure for work visa / financial facilities like credits, insurances etc.)
    - “Direct investment” policies (for encouraging investment in the existing and in
       the future research)
    - “Come back” policies (for encouraging the return of those working abroad)

  The critical mass represents the smallest quanitiy of resources (either human or financial) needed to
run a any type of research at the European level
         Challenges of a New Europe : diversity, dilemmas and directions
    Inclusion and Exclusion in Contemporary European Societies, Edition 2006

    -    “Magnet” policies (for encouraging high skilled immigrants)

Each of these policies should bring useful changes in the way Romania regards brain
drain, brain gain and brain waste. The aim of these policies is to bring into attention
the importance of research and of science for the economic development, and to
mobilize the forces towards this goal, as there is a simple but vital relation between
science and the well being.

First of all I believe that there is a great need for information concerning the
importance of science and technology. A Smart policy should start with a long term
informing campaign, promoting the idea that science is useful, is not oldfashioned and
why not cool. The “geek” is someone who should not stay anymore with the Gods or
in the library, but someone who can actually do something, change something and
produce something useful. This policy should be sustained by the Direct investment
policy, through which local investors, organizations / companies / independent actors
are encouraged to make small but constant and long term investments in research and
development. These 2 types of policies should foscus on solving the problem of
research from inside, assuming there are enough available human resources and
enough expertise.

The Come back policies should primary focus on those migrants that don’t present
any intention of staying abroad, and who eventually come back home. Companies
should be encouraged to hire personell with experience abroad, again through
different fiscal methods. If the migrant knows that someone here is also interested in
his/her qualification, he/she might be more interested in coming back, than staying
But not only those who leave are the subjects of these “outside” policies. Foreigners,
especially those from the Republic of Moldova should be given more chances to
integrate faster in Romania. The Easy way policies and the Magnet policies should
take care of the bureaucratic aspects of immigration.‡
If the procedures simplify, and allow those potential immigrants find work easyer,
then, the high skilled that continously leave can be replaced, and even at a good price.
Moreover, if the government regulates the accesion procedures for the citizens of the
Republic of Moldova, it can controll better the black market and diminish it§.

The funds for such policies are one of the most delicate problem, as there is no clear
monitoring of the EU funds that enter the country, and if there is, it can be easily
overlooked. Funds get easily relocated with the help of the bureaucratic maze and
noone can tell for sure what happened with the money. It is then vital to point out the

  applying for a visa requires at least 4 years of residency in Romania. The process of obtaining a visa
and the right to work may last up to 7 years, during which the applicant must pay a yearly tax for the
residency here.
  there are Romanian companies that hire forein citizens without contracts and who don’t pay any taxes,
insurances or other taxes for an employee.
           Challenges of a New Europe : diversity, dilemmas and directions
      Inclusion and Exclusion in Contemporary European Societies, Edition 2006

importance of independent organizations that can monitor the development of the
policies projects, that can have full access to the information on funds’ spending, and
that can keep an internal balance of the system. The lack of a fund raising tradition in
Romania, maily because of the skepticism of being fooled, and the lack of research
on migration make it difficult to propose, start and even run a policy.

If any of these policies is to work, they must be promoted and brought into attention.
In this way several actors from the civil society can get involved and give their
expertise in the implementation process.
Policies must address the target groups, thus the migrants. This can be done once a
policy is passed. A policy maker actor should do more than just propose and pass a
policy, but should also discuss about it in the media. If a policy is not known it is just
as if it didn’t exist. And this is the point where public relations intervene. Let’s take
the example of a Come back policy and how its promotion could look like.

Come back policy for IT migrants:
From the previous research we know that IT migrants are on average 33 years old,
most of them are married (Ferro, 6), and earn between USD $35.000 – 45.000 a year.
Having only this data we can’t plan a proper communication plan of the Come back
policy, but starting with a minnimum guess that IT migrants use the internet we can
have an important starting point:
The policy will be promoted through the internet, on the websites of the Romanian
community / forums / weblogs / podcasts / splashblogs. All these media can provide a
good communication channel for the policy messages. Forums, weblogs and podcasts
can be hosted almost for free on the internet, therefore the costs are well reduced. A
message could be: “You are just one click away from home!” or “We want you here”
or “We need your expertise. Collaborate!”. These messages should be used as links to
the websites where the policy is presented**, so that the target group can read about it
and can give it’s feedback. The campaign must not only give information, but must
request for a feedback, must start a dialogue. Of course this is just one assumption
about how a promotion should start. But the researchers on migration must provinde
the public relations specialists with a clear profile of the target group. After that the
specialists can write the messages more clear, according to each target group, can use
the exact media to address the group and can advertise the policy for that group

As we can see, the success of a policy doesn’t entierly depend on the process of makin
it, but also on the process of making it public and known. There are several exaples of
policies against car accidents, against cutting the forests, but poor advertising doesn’t
make them go very far. That is why politicians and sociology researchers should take
into consideration the role of the other actors, like PR specialist, marketing specialists,
internet and media researchers.

     Possibly to lists of companies involved in the policy plan where IT specialists might apply for a job.
        Challenges of a New Europe : diversity, dilemmas and directions
   Inclusion and Exclusion in Contemporary European Societies, Edition 2006


Dustmann, Christian and Kirchkamp Oliver, The optimal migration duration and
Activity Choice after Re –migration -

Ferro, Anna, Brain drain and the Academicin the Intellectual Labour Market in South
East Europe, Romanians’email from aborad – a picture of the highly skilled migration
from Romania, -

Krieger, Hubert, Migration Trends in an Enlarged Europe, Annex2-

Launov, Andrey, An Alternative Approach to Testing Dual Labour Market Theroy - wifak/vwl/vwl2/mitarbeiter/launov/wp05

Stanton Russell, Sharon, International Migration, Implications for the World Bank - wifak/vwl/vwl2/mitarbeiter/launov/wp05

Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliment, the
Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, Towards a
European Research Area -

Heinrich Boell Stiftung, New report explodes migrantworkers               myhts    -

The European Commission -

The European Research Area –

United Nations University, The brain – drain – emigration flows for qualified
scientist Part 2, Part 5 (Prof. Dr. Gheorghe Zaman, Dr. Steliana Sandu), Part 8 –

CURS survey on migration, Jurnalul National newpspaper, Special Friday Edition,
February 28th 2006

Curierul National newspaper, Migratia fortei the munca scindeaza Europa (Work
force migration speparates Europe in two), 9th of February 2006 -


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