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Leadership School on Electronic Governance

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					         UNeGov.net Leadership School on
             Electronic Governance

                       Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 May 2008



National Information   e-Government Department       United Nations          United Nations
 Technology Center        Prime Minister Office   Development Program   University IIST Center for
  Kyrgyz Republic            Kyrgyz Republic           Kyrgyzstan        Electronic Governance
Background – Case for Change

                  Governments around the world are under pressure:
                     o   from globalisation
                     o   from fiscal demands
                     o   from evolving societies
                         from citizen expectations
CASE FOR CHANGE




                     o
                     o   from international institutions, etc.
                  They are expected:
                     o   to be responsive to social change,
                     o   to address public concerns,
                     o   to deliver effective government programs,
                     o   to manage public funds efficiently,
                     o   to implement the principles of good governance as a precondition for assistance
                         programs/grants, etc.
                  The pressure is likely to increase as the Information Society becomes more widespread.




UNU-IIST Center for Electronic Governance, www.egov.iist.unu.edu          Leadership School, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 2
Background – Change Through Technology

                        Electronic Government - How to apply Information and Communication Technology,
                        particularly the Internet, as a tool to achieve better government. [OECD]
ELECTRONIC GOVERNMENT




                        Electronic Government is not an aim in itself.
                        It is a tool to enable:

                           o   better policy outcomes
                           o   higher quality of public services
                           o   more effective government programs
                           o   more efficient and judicious use of public funds
                           o   greater engagement with citizens and businesses, etc.
                        Electronic Government is more about Government than about “e”!




UNU-IIST Center for Electronic Governance, www.egov.iist.unu.edu                  Leadership School, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 3
Background – Change Through Reform

                       Public Sector Reform (PSR):
PUBLIC SECTOR REFORM




                        o   introducing customer orientation
                        o   providing quality public services
                        o   adopting business-like management
                        o   promoting cooperation between agencies
                        o   increasing citizen engagement and trust, etc.
                       Electronic Government and Public Sector Reform are inter-dependant:
                            Electronic Government enables Public Sector Reform
                            PSR is needed for Electronic Government to deliver concrete benefits




UNU-IIST Center for Electronic Governance, www.egov.iist.unu.edu               Leadership School, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 4
Background – Implementing Change

           Processes            Reengineered administrative processes
ENABLERS




           Technology           Integrated enterprise solutions connecting agencies
           Policies             Rules and regulations governing implementation and execution
           People               Public workforces trained in leadership, managerial and technical skills


           1)   Over-reliance on technology
           2)   Inadequate public consultation
           3)   Insufficient collaboration in government
           4)   Lack of emphasis on building human capacity
RISKS




           5)   Absence internal ownership, vision or strategy
           6)   Poor management and lack of business case
           7)   Direct adoption of solutions designed for other governments
           8)   Insufficient learning and research to precede implementation
           9)   Insufficient administrative reform to accompany e-Government, etc.



UNU-IIST Center for Electronic Governance, www.egov.iist.unu.edu            Leadership School, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 5
Background – Prescribed Approach

Focus                       Extending the focus:
                                    o from Electronic Government
                                      technology-based improvement inside government
                                    o to Electronic Governance
                                      improvements in interactions between government, non-government
                                      and civil society entities
Alignment                   Alignment of Electronic Government and Public Sector Reform roadmaps, with
                            well-defined and updated policies and strategies to drive initiatives.
Inclusiveness               Multi-disciplinary, multi-stakeholder and community-oriented approach.
Partnerships                Governments, academia, industry, civil society working together.
Local Capacity Local capacity existing for research, strategy development and planning.
International               International efforts to share experiences, transfer knowledge, develop generic
Cooperation                 and customizable solutions, and align national approaches.




UNU-IIST Center for Electronic Governance, www.egov.iist.unu.edu          Leadership School, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 6
Institution – United Nations University

Mission            To contribute, through research and capacity development, to efforts to resolve the
                   pressing global problems that are the concern of the United Nations, its Peoples and
                   its Member States.
Roles              o     An International Community of Scholars
                   o     A bridge between UN and international academic community
                   o     A think tank for the UN system
                   o     A developer of capacity, particularly in developing countries
                   o     A platform for dialogue and creative new ideas




UNU-IIST Center for Electronic Governance, www.egov.iist.unu.edu        Leadership School, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 7
Institution – Structure

Structure o Headquarters – Tokyo, Japan
          o Three programs:
            1) Peace and Security
            2) Environment and Sustainable Development
            3) Capacity Building
          o 16 Research and Training Centers:
            1) World Institute for Development Economics Research, Helsinki
            2) International Network on Water and Health, Hamilton, Canada
            3) Programme for Biotechnology, Caracas, Venezuela
            4) Institute for Natural Resources in Africa, Accra, Ghana
            5) International Leadership Institute, Amman, Jordan
            6) International Institute for Software Technology, Macau, China
            7) …




UNU-IIST Center for Electronic Governance, www.egov.iist.unu.edu   Leadership School, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 8
Institution – Center for Electronic Governance

Identity           Part of UNU International Institute for Software Technology
Location           Macao:
                   o geography - Pearl River Delta, China
                   o population - 488,144
                   o languages - Chinese and Portuguese
                   o political status - Special Administrative Region of China
                   o currency – Pataca
                   o law – Chinese, in Portuguese tradition
                   o government – about 20,000 civil servants, 50+ agencies under 5 secretaries




UNU-IIST Center for Electronic Governance, www.egov.iist.unu.edu     Leadership School, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 9
Institution – Identity

Mission            To build capacity and provide know-how and advice in planning, implementing and
                   evaluating programs for e-Governance
Activities o Applied research
           o Development:
                  software development
                  good practice development
                  human capacity development
                  institutional capacity development
                  development of communities of practice
           o Dissemination
Partners           o      Government agencies in developing countries
                   o      Universities in developing countries
                   o      International and UN organizations
                   o      Other centers of excellence




UNU-IIST Center for Electronic Governance, www.egov.iist.unu.edu        Leadership School, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 10
Institution – Presence

Websites              www.egov.iist.unu.edu
                      www.icegov.org
                      www.unegov.net




UNU-IIST Center for Electronic Governance, www.egov.iist.unu.edu   Leadership School, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 11
Institution – Projects

Projects           No        Title                                                                              Type
                   1         Strategic IT Planning for Public Organizations                                     Strategic
                   2         Standards and Best Practices for Electronic Government                             Strategic
                   3         Alignment between e-Government and Public Sector Reform                            Strategic
                   4         Software Infrastructure for Electronic Government                                  Technical
                   5         Semantic Interoperability for Electronic Government                                Technical
                   6         e-Macao - Building a Foundation for e-Government in Macao                          Program
                   7         UNeGov.net – Community of Practice for e-Government                                Community
                   8         WEMS – Wildlife Enforcement Monitoring System                                      Environment
                   9         OCW – Open Courseware for UNU                                                      Educational




UNU-IIST Center for Electronic Governance, www.egov.iist.unu.edu              Leadership School, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 12
UNeGov.net

Mission
UNeGov.net aims to build a Community of Practice interested in developing, sharing and
applying concrete solutions for Electronic Governance through research, development and
community-wide collaboration, with emphasis on the needs of developing countries.


Objectives
1)       Advance the practice of Electronic Governance.
2)       Focus on solutions to concrete, practical problems.
3)       Reach consensus on best practices and advancing the field.
4)       Facilitate the sharing of experiences and resources.
5)       Support interactions between experts and practitioners.
6)       Consider the challenges facing developing countries.




UNU-IIST Center for Electronic Governance, www.egov.iist.unu.edu   Leadership School, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 13
UNeGov.net – Members

          1)   Public Administration                                               Government:
          2)   Information Technology                                              1) Technology/Reform Managers
          3)   Information Society                                                 2) Chief Information Officers
          4)   Knowledge Management
          5)   Sociology                                                           3) Decision Makers




                                                                   Practitioners
          6)   Economics
Experts




          7)   …                                                                   Industry:
                                                                                   5) Consultants
                                                                                   6) Solution Providers

                                                                                   Academia:
                                                                                   7) Researchers
                                                                                   8) Educators




UNU-IIST Center for Electronic Governance, www.egov.iist.unu.edu                               Leadership School, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 14
  UNeGov.net – Scope




                                                              Tunisia
                                                                        Palestine
                                                                                    Argentina
                                                                                                Nepal
                                                                                                        Colombia
                                                                                                                   Nigeria
                                                                                                                             India
                                                                                                                                        Korea
                                                                                                                                                China
                                                                                                                                                        Mongolia
                                                                                                                                                                   Cameroon
                                                                                                                                                                              etc.
                                           Countries:
                Themes/
                Affiliations:

                legislation
                financing
                organization
Experts
Experts




                capacity building
                electronic democracy
                electronic administration
                infrastructure development
                etc.
                government
Practitioners




                industry
                academia
                civil society

  UNU-IIST Center for Electronic Governance, www.egov.iist.unu.edu                                                                   Leadership School, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 15
UNeGov.net - Activities

1) portal                           repository of resources
2) practice                         collaborative problem-solving
3) workshops                        network-building workshops
4) schools                          capacity-building schools and courses
5) projects                         research, development, capacity-building projects
6) reports                          state-of-practice and state-of-the-art reports
7) surveys                          assessing the global state of e-Government
8) curriculum                       e-Government skills required for public workforce
9) conferences                      conference on Theory and Practice of e-Governance
10) other                           other activities to support and promote the initiative




UNU-IIST Center for Electronic Governance, www.egov.iist.unu.edu             Leadership School, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 16
UNeGov.net Leadership School – Aim
Aim



       To provide participants with a good understanding of Electronic Governance.




UNU-IIST Center for Electronic Governance, www.egov.iist.unu.edu   Leadership School, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 17
UNeGov.net Leadership School – Objectives

             To teach how to carry out strategic planning and develop both organizational and technical
Objectives




             structures for Electronic Governance.
             To exchange international and local experiences on e-Government development in general
             and within the framework of the UNeGov.net Community of Practice in particular.




UNU-IIST Center for Electronic Governance, www.egov.iist.unu.edu      Leadership School, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 18
UNeGov.net Leadership School – Program

          1 – Concepts                    Introducing e-Governance
                                          What is e-Governance about?
Program




          2 – Planning                    Strategic Planning for e-Governance
                                          How to realize the vision of e-Governance?
          3 – Organization                Engineering Structures and Processes for e-Governance
                                          How can organizations effectively use e-Governance?




UNU-IIST Center for Electronic Governance, www.egov.iist.unu.edu              Leadership School, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 19
                                                                                                                                      Overview
 Introduction to                                                                                                                      1. Concepts                         4. Front office
 Electronic Government                                                                                                                2. Reasons
                                                                                                                                                                             4.1. on-line services
                                                                                                                                                                             4.2. citizen engagement
                                                                                                                                         2.1. efficiency
                                                                                                                                         2.2. customer focus              5. Back office
                                                                                                                                         2.3. policy outcomes                5.1. organizational change
Tomasz Janowski                                                                                                                          2.4. economic objectives            5.2. leadership
                                                                                                                                         2.5. public reform                  5.3. coordination
                                                                                                                                         2.6. citizen engagement             5.4. inter agency collaboration
Center for Electronic Governance                                                                                                                                             5.5. e-government skills
                                 post        P.O. Box 3058, Macau
                                                                                                                                      3. Challenges                          5.6. public-private partnership
                                                                                                                                         3.1. legislative barriers
                                 email        tj@iist.unu.edu                                                                            3.2. budgetary barriers          6. Summary
                                 tel          +853 28712930                                                                              3.3. technology change
                                                                                                                                         3.4. digital divide
                                 fax          +853 28712940
                                 url          www.egov.iist.unu.edu


                                                                                                                                                                               UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 2




Government and Society                                                                                                                Response
Governments are under pressure:                                                                                                       Public reform:

 ●   from globalisation                                                                                                                 ● customer orientation
 ●   from fiscal demands                                                                                                                ● business-like management
 ●   from evolving societies                                                                                                            ● citizen engagement and trust, etc.
 ●   from citizen expectations
                                                                                                                                      ICT on governments' agendas:
They are expected to be responsive to social change, to address public
concerns, to manage public funds efficiently, etc.                                                                                      ● e-government strategies
                                                                                                                                        ● e-government development targets
The expectations on governments grow as IS is more widespread.                                                                          ● e-government coordination offices and structures




                                         UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 3                                            UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 4
Resistance                                                                                                                          e-Government
At the same time:                                                                                                                   Different definitions:

 ● Governments adapt slowly                                                                                                           ● Internet (on-line) service delivery and other Internet-based activity by
                                                                                                                                        governments – front-office only
 ● Governments tend to regard e-government as only one among many
   challenges they confront                                                                                                           ● All uses of ICT by governments, on-line and off-line, front-office and
                                                                                                                                        back-office

                                                                                                                                      ● Capacity to transform public administration through the use of ICT or
                                                                                                                                        new forms of government built around ICT

                                                                                                                                    They reflect different priorities in government strategies, and shift as
                                                                                                                                    priorities change and progress is made.




                                       UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 5                                             UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 6




e-Government Definition                                                                                                             e-Government as a Tool
                                                                                                                                    e-Government is not an aim in itself.
Definition [e-Government]
e-Government refers to the use of ICT, particularly the Internet, as a tool to                                                      It is a tool to enable:
achieve better government.
                                                                                                                                      ●   better policy outcomes
                                                                                                                                      ●   higher quality of services
                                                                                                                                      ●   more efficient use of public funds
                                                                                                                                      ●   more efficient government processes
                                                                                                                                      ●   greater engagement with citizens and businesses
                                                                                                                                      ●   improvements in other selected performance indicators
                                                                                                                                      ●   etc.

                                                                                                                                    e-Government is more about government than about “e”!

                                                                                                                                    What starts as a technical exercise at developing more responsive public
                                                                                                                                    services becomes an exercise in governance.



                                       UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 7                                             UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 8
                                                                                                                                      Overview
                                                                                                                                      1. Concepts                          4. Front office
                                                                                                                                                                              4.1. on-line services
                                                                                                                                      2. Reasons                              4.2. citizen engagement
                                                                                                                                         2.1. efficiency
               Reasons for Electronic                                                                                                    2.2. customer focus
                                                                                                                                         2.3. policy outcomes
                                                                                                                                                                           5. Back office
                                                                                                                                                                              5.1. organizational change
                   Government                                                                                                            2.4. economic objectives
                                                                                                                                         2.5. public reform
                                                                                                                                                                              5.2. leadership
                                                                                                                                                                              5.3. coordination
                                                                                                                                         2.6. citizen engagement              5.4. inter agency collaboration
                                                                                                                                                                              5.5. e-government skills
                                                                                                                                      3. Challenges                           5.6. public-private partnership
                                                                                                                                         3.1. legislative barriers
                                                                                                                                         3.2. budgetary barriers           6. Summary
                                                                                                                                         3.3. technology change
                                                                                                                                         3.4. digital divide




                                                                                                                                                                              UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 10




Reasons for e-Government                                                                                                              Efficiency
The main reasons to embrace e-government:                                                                                             Cost reduction is the major driver for ICT use by governments:

 ●   e-Government improves efficiency                                                                                                   ● Replacing paper-based application processes with Internet applications –
 ●   e-Government improves service quality                                                                                                cut down costs of data re-entry and checking
 ●   e-Government helps achieve policy outcomes
 ●   e-Government contributes to achieving economic objectives                                                                          ● Improved booking arrangements – more efficient use of scarce resources:
 ●   e-Government can be the major contributor to reform                                                                                  skilled staff and facilities
 ●   e-Government builds trust between citizens and government
                                                                                                                                        ● Greater sharing of data within government – eliminate costs of multiple
Until now, the main drivers for e-government have been efficiency gains and                                                               collections, data reconciliation and checking
effective delivery of policy outcomes.
                                                                                                                                        ● Reduce government publication and distribution costs by relying more on
Recently, the focus has shifted to other objectives: improving services,                                                                  on-line publications, etc.
increasing accountability, facilitating engagement.
                                                                                                                                      Greater efficiencies are generated from ICT projects that involve transformation
                                                                                                                                      of business processes.



                                        UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 11                                           UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 12
Example: Efficiency                                                                                                                   Exercise: Efficiency
Example [e-Procurement in Italy]                                                                                                      Exercise [Efficiency]
Italian Ministry of Economy and Finance adopts e-procurement to increase                                                              Consider how your agency introduced ICT.
efficiency, policy outcomes and stimulate e-commerce.
                                                                                                                                      1) Was it an aim to reduce costs?                                                                   .......................
Three procurement channels:
                                                                                                                                      2) Were any cost reductions created?                                                                .......................
● e-auctions
● e-marketplaces                                                                                                                      3) Was ICT adoption preceded by process restructuring?                                              .......................
● on-line product catalogues

New legislation, transactional procurement website, ICT applications created,                                                         Provide examples of ICT-induced cost reductions that:
existing businesses processes re-engineered.
                                                                                                                                      4) have taken place                 ..............................................................................
Benefits: 30% reduction in the cost of goods and services, adoption of e-
commerce practices by suppliers, etc.
                                                                                                                                      5) could have taken place .............................................................................



                                        UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 13                                                           UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 14




Customer Focus                                                                                                                        Customer Focus Initiatives
Adopting customer focus is the main part of the countries' public reform                                                              e-Government initiatives to improve customer focus:
agendas and e-government strategies.
                                                                                                                                        ● On-line portals focused on particular topics or groups, bringing together
                                                                                                                                          relevant information and services
Definition [Customer Focus]
Customer focus is about providing citizens and businesses with a coherent                                                               ● Targeting of on-line information to specific groups of citizen so that relevant
interface with government which reflects their needs rather than the structure                                                            information can be found more readily
of the government.
                                                                                                                                        ● e-Mail lists to push customised information to specific groups, whenever
                                                                                                                                          the information becomes available

                                                                                                                                        ● Allowing identified users to carry out routine transactions with the
                                                                                                                                          government as on-line government services




                                        UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 15                                                           UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 16
Example: Customer Focus                                                                                                                Exercise: Customer Focus
Example [Customer-Focused Portals in Mexico]                                                                                           Exercise [Customer Focus]
The Government of Mexico launched a government-wide portal that                                                                        Consider how your agency serves citizens and businesses.
organizes information in a thematic and not institutional fashion.
                                                                                                                                       1) Is customer focus part of your agency's service policy?
For instance, under “work” theme one can find:
                                                                                                                                         ...................................................
●   labour rights
●   public housing                                                                                                                     2) Provide examples of the measures taken to enhance customer focus:
●   job matchmaker services
●   taxation on labour services, etc.                                                                                                    ...................................................

Over 1500 services from about 100 government agencies.                                                                                 3) What measures could have been taken?

The bundling of information and services in thematic channels required                                                                   ....................................................
horizontal coordination of government agencies.



                                         UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 17                                                            UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 18




Improved Policy Outcomes                                                                                                               Economic Objectives
e-Government can help achieve better outcomes in major policy areas, such as:                                                          Through reduced corruption, greater openness and increased trust in
                                                                                                                                       government, e-government contributes to economic objectives.
    ● Taxation policy - improved collection of taxes through increased sharing of
      information by agencies                                                                                                          Specific measures:

    ● Health policy - reduced demand for health services through better use of                                                          ● Improving business productivity by administrative simplification and on-
      health information and scarce health resources                                                                                      line support for small and medium-size businesses

    ● Fiscal policy - reduced unemployment payments owing to better matching                                                            ● Business portals providing access to economic information - market
      of the unemployed and vacancies                                                                                                     trends, export opportunities, assistance programmes

    ● Social policy - promoting the use of native languages and awareness of                                                            ● Reduced government calls on public funds through more effective
      indigenous people                                                                                                                   programs and operations

    ● Environmental policy – through better sharing of information between                                                              ● Direct consumption of ICT goods and services by government is
      national and sub-national governments                                                                                               significant and more stable than by private sector

It is expected that all policy areas will be affected by e-government.
                                         UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 19                                                            UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 20
Public Management Reform                                                                                                              Reform for e-Government
Public management reform has been on the agendas of many countries long                                                               Reform is necessary for e-government to deliver:
before e-government emerged.
                                                                                                                                        ● The promise of e-government will not materialise by simply digitising
Reform and e-government are mutually dependant:                                                                                           government information and placing it on-line.

  ● Reform is necessary for e-government to deliver                                                                                     ● Instead, e-government is about the use of ICT to transform the structures,
  ● e-government is an enabler of the reform                                                                                              operations and the culture of government.




                                        UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 21                                                               UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 22




e-Government for Reform                                                                                                               Exercise: Public Reform 1
e-Government is an enabler of the reform:                                                                                             Exercise [Public Reform]
                                                                                                                                      Consider a major process change performed by your agency.
 ● It serves as a tool for reform:
                                                                                                                                      1) What was the reason for the change?
   1) simplifies administrative processes
   2) makes such processes more transparent
                                                                                                                                          ...................................................................................
   3) helps to deliver services in more efficient ways
   4) facilitates the integration of services and processes
                                                                                                                                      2) Was the process change supported by ICT?
   5) enables seamless government
                                                                                                                                          ...................................................................................
 ● Highlights internal government inconsistencies
                                                                                                                                      3) Were the expected benefits produced? If not, why?
 ● Underscores commitment to good governance objectives
                                                                                                                                          ...................................................................................
Modernizing government structures and processes to meet e-government will
have a major impact on how services are delivered.


                                        UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 23                                                               UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 24
Exercise: Public Reform 2                                                                                                                                 Citizen Engagement
Exercise [Public Reform]                                                                                                                                  Building trust between government and citizens is fundamental.
Consider a major ICT system deployed in your agency.
                                                                                                                                                          In the absence of trust:
1) What is the system's function?
                                                                                                                                                           ● the rule of law
                                                                                                                                                           ● legitimacy of government decisions
    ...................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                           ● support for specific government reforms
2) Was the deployment followed by process change?
                                                                                                                                                          may be all called into question.
    ...................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                          ICT is an enabler to build trust by engaging citizens.
3) Were the expected benefits produced? If not, why?

    ...................................................................................




                                                            UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 25                                            UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 26




Citizen Engagement                                                                                                                                        Example: Citizen Engagement
Ways of engagement:                                                                                                                                       Example [Engaging the Citizen in Scottish Parliament]
                                                                                                                                                          Scottish Parliament maintains a website to inform and engage citizens in the
  ● Consultation and feedback by service users – web logs, questionnaires
                                                                                                                                                          democratic process:
    and feedback contacts
                                                                                                                                                          1) Public education about parliament
  ● Citizen engagement in policy making – consultation and active
                                                                                                                                                          2) Web casting of parliamentary sessions
    participation to better address constituents' needs
                                                                                                                                                          3) Enabling citizens to petition parliament on-line
                                                                                                                                                          4) Enabling citizens to contact their parliament members
  ● Helping individual's voice be heard
                                                                                                                                                          5) Providing for direct participation using discussion boards

                                                                                                                                                          All serve to advance the principles of openness, accountability and citizen
                                                                                                                                                          engagement in the parliamentary process.




                                                            UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 27                                            UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 28
Exercise: Citizen Engagement                                                                                                                              Summary: Reasons 1
Exercise [Citizen Engagement]                                                                                                                             The case for e-Government:
Consider the measures taken by your agency to engage citizens in deciding
                                                                                                                                                          1) Improves efficiency
how public services should be improved.
                                                                                                                                                            mass processing tasks, data collection and transmission, communication with
Provide examples of the measures taken:
                                                                                                                                                            customers, greater sharing of data within and between governments
1) .......................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                          2) Improves services
2) .......................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                            online services are build with understanding of user requirements, seamless
                                                                                                                                                            services for one-government interface, multi-channel service delivery
What other ICT-enabled measures could be taken? Provide ideas:
                                                                                                                                                          3) Can help achieve specific policy outcomes
1) .......................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                            more sharing of information means: improved collection of taxes, better use
2) .......................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                            of health services, better matching of unemployed and vacancies, etc.


                                                            UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 29                                          UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 30




Summary: Reasons 2
4) Can contribute to economic policy objectives

  improvements in business productivity, effective government programmes,
  promoting e-Commerce, government consumption of ICT goods, etc.

5) Can be a major contributor to the reform
                                                                                                                                                                    Challenges to Electronic
  e-government enables public reform through: transparency, simplification,                                                                                               Government
  information sharing, enabling seamless government, etc.

6) Can help build trust between government and citizens

  e-government enables citizen engagement in the policy process, prevents
  corruption, promotes accountability and openness, etc.




                                                            UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 31
Overview                                                                                                                             Challenges to e-Government
1. Concepts                         4. Front office                                                                                  Implementation of e-government can face a number of challenges.
                                       4.1. on-line services
2. Reasons                             4.2. citizen engagement                                                                       The following have to be addressed on a whole-of-government basis in order
   2.1. efficiency                                                                                                                   to be overcome:
   2.2. customer focus              5. Back office
   2.3. policy outcomes                5.1. organizational change                                                                     ● Legislative barriers – e-government processes must have the same
   2.4. economic objectives            5.2. leadership                                                                                  standing as paper-based processes
   2.5. public reform                  5.3. coordination
   2.6. citizen engagement             5.4. inter agency collaboration                                                                ● Financial barriers – funding arrangements should account for the
                                       5.5. e-government skills                                                                         agencies working together on e-government projects
3. Challenges                          5.6. public-private partnership
   3.1. legislative barriers                                                                                                          ● Technology change – adoption of whole-of-government standards,
   3.2. budgetary barriers          6. Summary                                                                                          software integration and middleware technologies
   3.3. technology change
   3.4. digital divide                                                                                                                ● Digital divide – large differences in the level of access to the Internet and
                                                                                                                                        therefore ability to benefit from e-government


                                       UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 33                                           UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 34




Legislative Barriers                                                                                                                 Legislative Barriers
Governments must ensure that a proper legal framework exists before e-                                                               3) Overcoming collaboration barriers:
government initiatives and processes can take up.
                                                                                                                                        ● Accountability rules designed to ensure responsible use of public
What is needed:                                                                                                                           resources by clearly identifying who does what

  1) Recognition of electronic processes and services as equivalent with paper-                                                           Who is responsible for the shared project?
     based processes and services. Legal recognition of digital signatures!
                                                                                                                                        ● Performance management also follows clear distinction of who does what
  2) Clarification of requirements on the agencies implementing e-government:
     what they can and cannot do.                                                                                                         How to evaluate shared project?

                                                                                                                                     4) Legislations designed to protect the privacy and security of data, to balance
                                                                                                                                        free access with society's expectations.




                                       UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 35                                           UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 36
Example: Legislative Barriers                                                                                                                          Exercise: Legislative Barriers
Example [Privacy Rights in France]                                                                                                                     Exercise [Legislative Barriers]
The Law of 1978 “Informatique at libertes” recognizes that citizens have                                                                               Consider what kind of legal challenges your agency may face when
several rights with respect to automatic data processing:                                                                                              implementing e-government.

1)   The right to ask anybody whether it holds information concerning him/her                                                                          Provide examples:
2)   The knowledge of such data, directly or indirectly (data related to national
     defence or public safety)                                                                                                                         1)   .......................................................................................
3)   The right to rectify data
4)   The right to refuse that a file is kept on them when such a file is not                                                                           2)   .......................................................................................
     obligated by law
                                                                                                                                                       3)   .......................................................................................
Institutions wishing to process personal information must inform individuals of
the use that will be made of data concerning them.

Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libertes is the institution
charged with safeguarding privacy and data-sharing.



                                                         UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 37                                                               UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 38




Exercise: Cooperation Barriers                                                                                                                         Budgetary Barriers
Exercise [Cooperation Barriers]                                                                                                                        Traditional public management funding:
Consider what kind of inter-agency projects your agency has been involved or
                                                                                                                                                        ●   Vertical funding structure
could have been involved.
                                                                                                                                                        ●   Agency is held accountable for achieving its mission
Provide examples of legislative/regulatory challenges to such cooperation:                                                                              ●   Agency receives the resources to accomplish its mission
                                                                                                                                                        ●   The resources are budgeted on the annual or bi-annual basis
1)   project .........................................................................
                                                                                                                                                       This principle does not act in favour of e-government projects that involve
     challenge .........................................................................                                                               long-term funding and collaboration across agencies.

2)   project .........................................................................

     challenge .........................................................................




                                                         UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 39                                                               UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 40
Barriers to e-Government Funding                                                                                                      Measures to e-Government Funding
Factors acting against e-government funding:                                                                                          Measures to assist e-government funding:

 ● e-Government is unlikely to win out in competition with other public policy                                                         ● Classifying major e-government projects as capital investment with up-
   objectives e.g. health, education, security                                                                                           front capital outlays and subsequent benefits

 ● It is difficult to measure costs and potential benefits of e-government, so to                                                      ● Separate approval by the e-government coordination office to ensure no
   develop funding cases for projects                                                                                                    duplication of inconsistency with broader strategies

 ● If not treated as capital investment, e-government has to compete with                                                              ● Public-private partnerships to overcome: capital limitations, budget-time
   other pressing recurrent funding proposals, and will seem to involve                                                                  horizons, disincentives for collaboration
   comparatively large expenditure
                                                                                                                                       ● Central funding for innovation for high-risk demonstration project that
 ● Governments are reluctant to commit expenditure beyond budgeting                                                                      wouldn't receive funding otherwise
   horizons, and yet many e-government projects are of multi-annual nature
                                                                                                                                       ● Ability for agencies to retain savings created by e-government




                                        UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 41                                           UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 42




Example: Funding Barriers                                                                                                             Measures to e-Gov Collaboration
Example [UK, Capital Modernization Fund]                                                                                              Measures to assist e-government collaboration:
A 2.7 billion fund set up in 1998 to support capital investment to improve
public services. Funding is allocated on a competitive basis.                                                                          ● Central register of e-government initiatives seeking funding

Criteria:                                                                                                                              ● Central funds to encourage certain initiatives e.g. collaboration

1)   Extent to which the project is innovative                                                                                         ● Lead agency model – an agency funds a project that benefits other
2)   Quality of the project's economic appraisal                                                                                         agencies as well as itself
3)   Impact on the effectiveness of the service
4)   How far the project contributes to agency's mission                                                                               ● Several agencies coordinating their approach to obtain funding
5)   How solid is the management of the project
                                                                                                                                       ● Pooled funding – several agencies share funding for a common project,
Some successful projects:                                                                                                                under a semi-contractual arrangement

1)   470 million to build 1000 country-wide IT training centres                                                                        ● Agency payment model – co-ordinating agency funds the project, other
2)   1.1 million to develop a government “shopping mall” for low-value                                                                   agencies then pay to use the service
     transaction to and from government
3)   23.3 million to transform the Crown Court by reducing delays
                                                                                                                                       ● A mandatory levy on agencies to enable some joint projects
                                        UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 43                                           UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 44
Example: Collaboration Barriers                                                                                                       Exercise: Budgetary Barriers
Example [US, Clinger-Cohen Act]                                                                                                       Exercise [Budgetary Barriers]
Information Technology Management Reform Act explicitly encourages inter-                                                             Consider what kind of e-government projects your agency may like to carry
agency projects:                                                                                                                      out with other agencies:

1)   Office of Management of Budget (OMB) to issue guidance for                                                                       1)     .......................................................................................
     government-wide investment in Information Technology
2)   OMB has the authority to redirect funds from one agency to another to                                                            2)     ........................................................................................
     finance multi-agency projects
3)   agency are permitted to jointly fund IT projects – “pass the hat” funding                                                        How could such projects be funded under the current legislation and practice?

The “pass the hat” authority of OMB helped to fund:                                                                                   ...........................................................................................

1)   activities of the Chief Information Officer Council – principal coordinating                                                     ...........................................................................................
     body for federal ICT activities
2)   the FirstGov initiative




                                        UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 45                                                                 UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 46




Technology Change                                                                                                                     Legacy Systems
Technology-related barriers to e-government:                                                                                          Definition [Legacy System]
                                                                                                                                      Legacy System is a computer system or program which continues to be used
1) Legacy systems
                                                                                                                                      because of the cost of replacing or redesigning it.
2) Lack of shared infrastructure
3) Too rapid technological changes, etc.
                                                                                                                                      Legacy systems:
Complex technical issues arise.
                                                                                                                                      1) are old, large, monolithic and difficult to modify

                                                                                                                                      2) meet the basic needs of organisations, which neither can afford to stop,
                                                                                                                                         nor to update them




                                        UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 47                                                                 UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 48
Legacy Systems and e-Gov                                                                                                               Lack of Shared Infrastructure
Legacy systems can be a major barrier to e-government.                                                                                 Technology-related barriers to collaboration between agencies and
                                                                                                                                       the uptake of e-government:
Integrating back-office information systems with Internet to provide on-line
access to clients, has occupied many e-government projects.                                                                            1) Lack of shared standards
                                                                                                                                       2) Lack of compatible infrastructure between agencies
Common solutions:
                                                                                                                                       Infrastructure development is too expensive for a single agency.
1) Middleware and web services
2) Data-exchange standards relying on XML                                                                                              Shared development faces budgetary and collaboration barriers.

Also, promotion of government-wide frameworks, standards and data                                                                      What can be done?
definitions by e-government coordinators.




                                         UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 49                                           UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 50




Shared Infrastructure and e-Gov                                                                                                        Technology Change
Governments can provide a technological, legal and organizational framework                                                            How to plan development of e-government facing uncertainty over the fast-
for delivering electronic services:                                                                                                    moving technological change?

1) Common technical standards                                                                                                          Public-private partnership is one solution, provided they are in the areas where
2) Common technical infrastructure                                                                                                     established standards already exist in the market.
3) Whole-of-government approach to lower the legal and technical barriers for
   inter-agency cooperation                                                                                                            Other approaches:
4) Whole-of-government approach to reduce redundancy, e.g. by adopting
   common back-office processes                                                                                                        1)   Technology neutrality in legislation and regulation
                                                                                                                                       2)   Flexibility within broad regulatory frameworks
                                                                                                                                       3)   Adaptation of current laws to a digital world
                                                                                                                                       4)   Involvement of all stakeholders in the regulatory process
                                                                                                                                       5)   International cooperation to harmonise approaches
                                                                                                                                       6)   Performance requirements rather than technical specifications when
                                                                                                                                            procuring new technologies




                                         UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 51                                           UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 52
Digital Divide                                                                                                                         Summary: Challenges 1
e-Government can indirectly improve services to citizens with no Internet                                                              External barriers acting against e-government:
access through back-office improvements, however:
                                                                                                                                       1) Legislative barriers can impede the uptake of e-government
1) Advantages of on-line services cannot be replicated off-line, so people
   without Internet access will be unable to benefit.                                                                                      e-government processes are not legally recognized, agencies are unclear
                                                                                                                                           what they can do, barriers to collaboration exist (accountability,
2) The groups in society with lower level of access are already disengaged -                                                               performance), lack of privacy/security laws
   the target of government intervention.
                                                                                                                                       2) Budgetary frameworks can restrict e-government initiatives
    Such groups have higher level of interaction with government:
                                                                                                                                           ICT as recurrent expenditure, short budgeting horizons, lack of incentives
   a) establishing identity                                                                                                                for cross-agency projects, lack of tools for measuring returns on
   b) entitlement for assistance                                                                                                           investment and measures to retain the savings
   c) complex medical or social intervention

   Some, but not all, suited for on-line provision.

Many governments pursue policies to reduce digital divide.
                                         UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 53                                          UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 54




Summary: Challenges 2

3) Government need to prepare for technological change

     whole-of-government standards, data exchange and software integration
     technologies, development of shared infrastructure, technology-neutral
     legislation, performance-based purchasing...
                                                                                                                                                  Electronic Government
4) The digital divide impedes the uptake of e-government
                                                                                                                                                        Front-Office
     benefits of online services cannot be replicated offline, those without
     access to Internet cannot benefit, this group tends to also have the
     highest level of interaction with the government

External barriers to e-government have to be tackled on the whole-of-
government basis in order to be overcome.




                                         UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 55
Overview                                                                                                                              Front-Office
1. Concepts                          4. Front office                                                                                  Definition [Front Office]
                                        4.1. on-line services
                                                                                                                                      Front-office refers to the government as its constituents see it, meaning the
2. Reasons                              4.2. citizen engagement
                                                                                                                                      information and service providers, and the interaction between government
   2.1. efficiency
                                                                                                                                      and both citizens and businesses.
   2.2. customer focus               5. Back office
   2.3. policy outcomes                 5.1. organizational change
   2.4. economic objectives             5.2. leadership
   2.5. public reform                   5.3. coordination                                                                             Front-office implementation of e-government involves two issues:
   2.6. citizen engagement              5.4. inter agency collaboration
                                        5.5. e-government skills                                                                      1) On-line services
3. Challenges                           5.6. public-private partnership                                                               2) Citizen engagement
   3.1. legislative barriers
   3.2. budgetary barriers           6. Summary
   3.3. technology change
   3.4. digital divide




                                        UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 57                                           UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 58




On-Line Services Model                                                                                                                Stage 1: Information
Many models for on-line service delivery.                                                                                             A website publishing information about service(s).

None accepted as “standard”.                                                                                                          Information is static.

A four-stage model by the Australian National Audit Office:
                                                                                                                                      Challenges for implementing agencies:
1)   Information
2)   Interactive Information                                                                                                          1) Digitise the available information and make it accessible on-line.
3)   Transactions                                                                                                                     2) No process re-engineering needed.
4)   Data Sharing




                                        UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 59                                           UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 60
Stage 2: Interactive Information                                                                                                       Stage 3: Transactions
Stage 1 + users' ability to access agencies' databases:                                                                                Stages 1 and 2 + users' ability to enter secure information and engage in
                                                                                                                                       transactions with the agency.
1) browsing, exploring and interacting with data
2) performing electronic searches and calculations based on the user's criteria                                                        Requires real-time responsiveness by government agencies to the service
                                                                                                                                       demands by citizens and businesses.
Challenges for implementing agencies:
                                                                                                                                       Challenges for the implementing agencies:
1)   How will citizens use the information?
2)   What are the rules for making certain information public?                                                                         1)   Establish online service standards
3)   What is the target audience for specific information?                                                                             2)   Ensure security and privacy protection
4)   How to make information easier to find?                                                                                           3)   Prepare back-office processes for on-line delivery
5)   What tools can be used to enrich user's experience?                                                                               4)   Rethink relations with agencies for seamless service delivery




                                         UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 61                                           UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 62




Stage 4: Data Sharing                                                                                                                  Service Quality
Stages 1, 2 and 3 + agencies' ability to share with other agencies personal                                                            Successful services are built on an understanding of the user needs.
information, when approved by law and with the users consent.
                                                                                                                                       There is a growing empirical evidence on what works:
Data-sharing has many benefits:
                                                                                                                                       1) Effective services need not be complex.
1) simplify procedures                                                                                                                 2) Simple information services may meet the user needs.
2) create savings in administrations                                                                                                   3) Moving to transaction services may not necessarily add value.
3) reduce reporting burden for citizens and businesses                                                                                 4) Seamless services are more effective than delivering many separate
                                                                                                                                          services to the same user group.
However:                                                                                                                               5) Services should be offered through various delivery channels, with on-line
                                                                                                                                          delivery being just one of the options.
1) Sharing of data among agencies must be limited because of privacy
   protection legislation
2) All data-matching must be legally approved or explicitly permitted to prevent
   unauthorised/illegal combination of data




                                         UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 63                                           UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 64
Example: Service Quality                                                                                                                 Exercise: Service Maturity
Example [Evaluation of Services in Denmark]                                                                                              Exercise [Service Maturity]
The project “Top of the Web” carries out an annual evaluation of all public                                                              List the main online services delivered by your agency. For each service,
sector websites and collect users' opinions.                                                                                             specify its maturity level in the 4-level hierarchy.

Evaluation criteria:                                                                                                                     1)    service:    .........................................................................

1)   User-friendliness – users should find the website easy to use regardless                                                                  maturity:   .........................................................................
     of their level of expertise
2)   Practical value – users should benefit from the information, information is                                                         2)    service:    .........................................................................
     up to date and self-service options are provided
3)   Openness – users should understand who takes decisions and how they                                                                       maturity:   .........................................................................
     can influence a decision-making process
4)   Interactivity – users can ask questions and receive answers electronically                                                          3)    service:    .........................................................................

Public assessment of websites inspire agencies to improve the quality of their                                                                 maturity:   .........................................................................
services; few agencies want to rank at the bottom of the list.


                                           UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 65                                                          UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 66




Channel Strategy                                                                                                                         Citizen Engagement
e-Government services should be developed as part of a broader service                                                                   ICT can be used as a tool for providing information, consulting and engaging
channel strategy, especially given the digital divide.                                                                                   citizens in the policy-making.

Integrated approach to service delivery:                                                                                                 This can be done through:

1) “No wrong door” to access public services                                                                                             1)   reaching a wider audience
2) On-line delivery as just one possible access point, with traditional channels                                                         2)   tailoring information to the target audience
   - phone, kiosks, counter maintained                                                                                                   3)   engaging citizens through consultation and participation
3) Choice of channel is in itself a service quality attribute                                                                            4)   facilitating the analysis of citizen contributions
4) Channel integration is part of the overall transformation of a particular                                                             5)   providing feedback to citizens
   service to better serve particular customer groups
5) More efficient approach in the long term – more intensive use is made of
   common infrastructure and data




                                           UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 67                                                          UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 68
Access and Trust                                                                                                                       Access and Accessibility
Increasing citizen trust through access to information:                                                                                Two key issues to enable citizens to obtain online information:

1) Information on entitlements and costs of services reduce opportunities for                                                          Definition [Access]
   arbitrary behaviour
                                                                                                                                       Access is the real possibility of consulting or acquiring government information
                                                                                                                                       electronically.
2) Systems that guide applicants through complex entitlement procedures
   clarify the decision-making process
                                                                                                                                       Definition [Accessibility]
3) On-line tracking of applications, linked to timeliness standards for approval
   processes, reduce fears of corruption, etc.                                                                                         Accessibility is the ease with which citizens can make use of the possibility of
                                                                                                                                       consulting government information electronically: find, digest and use it.
All reduce administrative and judicial appeals, which impose costs on both
administrations and citizens.                                                                                                          Accessibility criteria: recognizability, availability, manageability,
                                                                                                                                       affordability, reliability, clarity, ability to cater for special needs.
Also increase citizens' confidence that laws are applied fairly.
                                                                                                                                       Accessibility measures: search engines, spell- and grammar-checkers,
                                                                                                                                       multilingual translations, online glossaries, etc.

                                         UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 69                                                UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 70




Example: Accessibility                                                                                                                 Summary: Front-Office
Example [Guidelines for Accessible Website Content, Japan]                                                                             Front-office development for e-government:
The guidelines for page designers and developers of website tools to make
sure that government websites are accessible for the disabled:                                                                         1) A maturity model for online services

1)   Provide alternatives to represent content                                                                                             (1) static information about services (2) users can access agencies'
2)   Avoid dependence on color information                                                                                                 databases (3) users can engage in secure transactions (4) agencies can
3)   Ensure clarity in the use of natural language                                                                                         share information
4)   Use markup languages and stylesheets
5)   Ensure that design does not rely on special devices                                                                               2) Services should rely on the understanding of the user needs
6)   Respect technical standards for the Internet
7)   Explain clearly the system of navigation                                                                                              More mature is not always best, most effective are seamless services,
8)   Ensure that users can convert to newer technologies                                                                                   online services are part of channel strategy, channel integration follows the
9)   Ensure that pages are accessible without newer technologies                                                                           overall process transformation.

Designed jointly by the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications and the                                                               3) e-Government as a tool for citizen engagement
Ministry of Health and Welfare.
                                                                                                                                           email lists, discussion forums, government consultation portals, online
                                                                                                                                           mediation systems to support deliberations about policy and service matters
                                         UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 71                                                UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 72
                                                                                                                                      Overview
                                                                                                                                      1. Concepts                          4. Front office
                                                                                                                                                                              4.1. on-line services
                                                                                                                                      2. Reasons                              4.2. citizen engagement
                                                                                                                                         2.1. efficiency
           Electronic Government                                                                                                         2.2. customer focus
                                                                                                                                         2.3. policy outcomes
                                                                                                                                                                           5. Back office
                                                                                                                                                                              5.1. organizational change
                 Back-Office                                                                                                             2.4. economic objectives
                                                                                                                                         2.5. public reform
                                                                                                                                                                              5.2. leadership
                                                                                                                                                                              5.3. coordination
                                                                                                                                         2.6. citizen engagement              5.4. inter agency collaboration
                                                                                                                                                                              5.5. e-government skills
                                                                                                                                      3. Challenges                           5.6. public-private partnership
                                                                                                                                         3.1. legislative barriers
                                                                                                                                         3.2. budgetary barriers           6. Summary
                                                                                                                                         3.3. technology change
                                                                                                                                         3.4. digital divide




                                                                                                                                                                              UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 74




Back-Office and Reform                                                                                                                Back-Office Implementation
Definition [Back Office]                                                                                                              Back-office implementation issues:
Back-office is the internal operations of an organization that support core
                                                                                                                                      1)   Organizational change
processes and are not accessible or visible to the general public.
                                                                                                                                      2)   Leadership and coordination
                                                                                                                                      3)   Inter-agency collaboration
                                                                                                                                      4)   e-Government skills
e-Government versus back-office reform:
                                                                                                                                      5)   Private-public partnership
 ● e-Government helps to reform administrative back-office
 ● e-Government also needs such reform in order to be successful




                                        UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 75                                           UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 76
ICT and Process Change                                                                                                                Types of Organizational Change
The introduction of ICT into government requires accompanying process                                                                 Small-scale ICT activity – development of a website as an additional
changes in order to make the most of e-government.                                                                                    information channel – may not require complex supporting changes.

However:                                                                                                                              Far reaching organizational change will be required when:

 ● ICT are often overlaid on an existing organizational structure without any                                                         1) The website begins to offer deeper, more complex services.
   thought how those structures can be improved.                                                                                      2) Agencies are asked to work together to deliver services according to the
                                                                                                                                         needs of citizens and not their structure.
 ● Governments tend to regard ICT as a patch to seamless interface with                                                               3) New work styles - tele-working, virtual teams - emerge.
   users to a complex administrative structure.                                                                                       4) With increased data-sharing and communication:

 ● National portals often involve rearrangement of existing information                                                                    ●     particular data holdings become redundant
   without any change in processes and procedures.                                                                                         ●     more decisions are made at the lower organization levels
                                                                                                                                           ●     special units are established for government-wide projects




                                        UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 77                                               UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 78




Internal Resistance to Change                                                                                                         Example: Change
Government structures are traditionally resilient to change.                                                                          Example [Creating an Agile Workforce in Canada]
                                                                                                                                      Public expectations for high-quality public services requires an agile,
Two issues to address when planning change:
                                                                                                                                      adaptable workforce.
1) The willingness and ability to adopt new ways of working:
                                                                                                                                      Government agency as a “learning organization”.
   ●    helping staff understand their role in ICT-enabled processes
                                                                                                                                      Agile workforce initiative by the Organizational Readiness Office in the Chief
   ●    providing job redesign and training programmes
                                                                                                                                      Information Officer Branch of the Treasury Board of Canada:
   ●    establishing ownership of reform
   ●    maintain dialogue with stakeholders
                                                                                                                                      1)       competency-based staffing
                                                                                                                                      2)       greater use of pre-qualified posts
2) The need for understanding/support by senior management:
                                                                                                                                      3)       generic competitions for executive-level positions
                                                                                                                                      4)       repositories of work descriptions
   ●    more than the statement of principle and good intentions
                                                                                                                                      5)       e-learning gateway
   ●    understanding the impact, benefits and risks of reform
   ●    willingness to sell the reform to staff and leaders
                                                                                                                                      Based on communities of public servants who play strategic roles in
                                                                                                                                      transforming and e-enabling service delivery.

                                        UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 79                                               UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 80
Exercise: Change                                                                                                                                          Leadership
Exercise [Creating an Agile Workforce in Canada]                                                                                                          e-Government implementation can be difficult, risky and expensive.
Consider what organizational changes had taken place in your agency in
                                                                                                                                                          Governments are asked to translate a broad vision into effective public
order to support the introduction of new ICT.
                                                                                                                                                          services, while facing time constraints, lack of resources and political pressure.
1)   ........................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                          Sustained leadership is essential:
2)   ........................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                          1)   to motivate people
                                                                                                                                                          2)   to create incentives for action
                                                                                                                                                          3)   to motivate and break down barriers to change
Consider what organizational changes had taken place in your agency that
                                                                                                                                                          4)   to put the right administrative mechanisms for e-government
were enabled by the introduction of ICT.

3)   ........................................................................................

4)   ........................................................................................



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Types of Leadership: Stage                                                                                                                                Types of Leadership: Level
Depending on the stage of e-government:                                                                                                                   Leadership is needed at all levels:

 ● Early stage - obtain views on what needs to change, share a common                                                                                       ● Political – establish the vision, define priorities, express citizen's needs,
   vision with staff, evaluate new ideas                                                                                                                      make decisions, provide the will to carry them out

 ● Middle stage – selling the benefits of the vision, creating personnel                                                                                    ● Ministerial – ensure vertical planning, get the resources, motivate staff,
   commitment                                                                                                                                                 ensure cooperation across agencies/ministries

 ● Late stage – sustain momentum and enthusiasm among stakeholders as                                                                                       ● Middle-level – innovation, ability to translate the vision or objectives into
   benefits take time to emerge                                                                                                                               precise actions and policies

                                                                                                                                                          Many e-government advances were driven in the past by the enthusiasm of
                                                                                                                                                          individuals and individual agencies.




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Leadership and Decentralisation                                                                                                                             Example: Leadership
Leadership is not about centralisation of competencies.                                                                                                     Example [IT Strategy Headquarters in Japan]
                                                                                                                                                            IT Strategy Headquarters were established in 2001 to “promote policy
Instead, e-Government Organization should be in line with the delegation of
                                                                                                                                                            measures to create an advanced Information Society”.
power and responsibility.
                                                                                                                                                            The Headquarters:
The key is to create local leaders:
                                                                                                                                                            1)   is chaired by the Prime Minister
  ● team leaders
                                                                                                                                                            2)   consists of all Cabinet Ministers, private sector, etc.
  ● project leaders
                                                                                                                                                            3)   has explicit duties and powers written in law
  ● coordination leaders, ...
                                                                                                                                                            4)   has its own secretariat with exclusive staff
                                                                                                                                                            5)   is in charge of formulating and adopting the overall national
With team-working and data-sharing, the crucial asset is the ability to
                                                                                                                                                            6)   IT strategies and policies, including e-government.
coordinate people, resources and responsibilities.
                                                                                                                                                            IT Headquarters reviews the IT policy annually, studies the
                                                                                                                                                            implementation twice-annually, makes the study results public.



                                                              UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 85                                           UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 86




Exercise: Leadership                                                                                                                                        Central Coordination
Exercise [Leadership]                                                                                                                                       Central coordination is a feature of most e-government strategies
Consider what leadership potential exists in your agency, at all levels, for
                                                                                                                                                            This may take different forms:
leading e-government projects.
                                                                                                                                                              ● Formal units located within public administration
Provide examples, specify strengths and weaknesses:
                                                                                                                                                              ● Formal units linked to broader Information Society units
                                                                                                                                                              ● A coordination committee comprising representatives of key agencies,
1)     ........................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                                private sector and other levels of government
                                                                                                                                                              ● A committee of agency heads and chief information officers
       ........................................................................................

2)     ........................................................................................

       ........................................................................................

What measures could your agency adopt to create more leaders?

.............................................................................................

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Coordination - Roles                                                                                                                   Coordination - Implementation
The roles differ: from advisory and information sharing, to policy development                                                         Central coordination can facilitate efficient implementation by:
and implementation oversight.
                                                                                                                                       1) Promoting sharing of information and good practices – online registers of
In particular:                                                                                                                            projects, seminars, publications, websites, etc.

1)   developing e-government strategy                                                                                                  2) Facilitating efficient acquisition of ICT products and services - e-
2)   monitoring progress towards goals                                                                                                    procurement, central purchasing, sharing of information
3)   promoting benefits to the public
4)   linking e-government to broader public reform                                                                                     3) Promoting shared frameworks and standards across government to
5)   linking e-government to broader Information Society                                                                                  facilitate interoperability and efficiencies
6)   reasserting strategies in the light of experience and progress
                                                                                                                                       4) Taking steps to avoid duplication of efforts – information sharing,
                                                                                                                                          expenditure approval, brokering of joint contracts




                                         UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 89                                                               UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 90




Example: Coordination                                                                                                                  Exercise: Central Coordination
 Example [Standards and Architecture for e-Government, Germany]                                                                        Exercise [Central Coordination]
 The German government consolidated all government-wide standards and                                                                  Do you think there is a need for a central unit to coordinate e-government
 guidance into one document:                                                                                                           activities in your government? If so, why?

 ●    SAGA – Standards and Architecture for e-Government Applications                                                                  1)   ........................................................................................

 ●    Aim: to develop standards for the smooth flow of digital information, to                                                         2)   ........................................................................................
      build electronic services using uniform procedures and data models.
                                                                                                                                       3)   ........................................................................................
 ●    SAGA describes:
                                                                                                                                       What kind of support your agency would need from this unit to carry out
      1) compliance requirements (standards and architecture)                                                                          e-government projects?
      2) components for the functioning e-government architecture
      3) standards for the basic components, such as:                                                                                  1)   ........................................................................................
         - content management system
         - platform for payment transactions, etc.                                                                                     2)   ........................................................................................


                                         UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 91                                                               UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 92
Seamless Services                                                                                                                     Inter-Agency Collaboration
Agency-based division versus cross-agency services:                                                                                   Development of seamless services requires greater collaboration between
                                                                                                                                      agencies: authentication, shared processing, data exchange.
 ● Governments are divided into vertical units with mutually exclusive
   responsibility areas, control and political accountability                                                                         Collaboration is needed in both aspects:

 ● e-Government enables seamless, cross-agency services so that users can                                                              ● Front-office – better service to the customers
   interact with the government as a single organization                                                                               ● Back-office – efficiency and interoperability in government

Seamless services are central to customer-focus:                                                                                      Two complementary views:

                                                                                                                                       ● Customer's view – government appears as a single organization
Definition [Seamless Services]
                                                                                                                                       ● Government's view – customer appears as a single customer
Seamless services are services that transcend the agency-based structure of
the supply of information and services, and present users with a coherent,                                                            Attempts to implement seamless services highlight the need for change in
integrated package of information and services.                                                                                       internal governance frameworks of public administrations.




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Collaboration and Customers                                                                                                           Example: Agency Collaboration
Close cooperation is necessary for seamless transaction services:                                                                     Example [Processing Migration Cases, Sweden]
                                                                                                                                      Wilma is an IT tool shared by Swedish authorities involved in processing
1)   pooling of market research on shared customers
                                                                                                                                      migration cases: (1) Migration Board, (2) diplomatic missions, (3) Aliens
2)   common approaches to data presentation
                                                                                                                                      Appeals Board and (4) police border units.
3)   data sharing within government
4)   joint authentication
                                                                                                                                      Wilma supports the entire chain from application for a visa at the diplomatic
                                                                                                                                      mission to a decision in the case of any appeal.
Cooperation is imperative when agencies share customers: the greater the
sharing, the greater the level of required cooperation between agencies.
                                                                                                                                      Wilma has been part of broad process and structural changes:
A key organizational principle for e-government.
                                                                                                                                      1)   IT support
                                                                                                                                      2)   central help desk
Emerging organizational structure: clusters of agencies with shared customers
                                                                                                                                      3)   skills development
and strong levels of cooperation.
                                                                                                                                      4)   improved information and follow-up
                                                                                                                                      5)   more migration officers posted overseas



                                        UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 95                                           UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 96
Exercise: Collaboration                                                                                                                                   e-Government Skills
Exercise [Collaboration]                                                                                                                                  ICT skills have become a new general skill, like literacy or numeracy.
Consider in what ways your agency collaborates with other agencies to serve
                                                                                                                                                          e-Government increases the importance of ICT skills required by public
the shared groups of customers.
                                                                                                                                                          administration workforces.
Provide examples of the resulting seamless services:
                                                                                                                                                          Four skills sets are considered essential:
1)   ........................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                          1)   Information Technology (IT) skills
                                                                                                                                                          2)   Information Management (IM) skills
2)   ........................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                          3)   Information Society (IS) skills
                                                                                                                                                          4)   updated management skills
Provide examples of the resulting process/organization changes:

1)   ........................................................................................

2)   ........................................................................................



                                                            UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 97                                              UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 98




Who Needs the Skills?                                                                                                                                     Skills for Managers
e-Government skills are technical matters best left to specialists? No.                                                                                   Public managers must be able to:

Information Technology                                                              all employees                                                          ●    Lead (and not be led by) the IT departments
      IT literacy                                                                                                                                          ●    Integrate ICT strategy with organizational goals
      specialist IT skills                                                                                                                                 ●    Match government processes with technical solutions
Information Management                                                              managers, IM specialists
      internal information management                                                                                                                     To this end, they need to:
      external information management
      privacy protection                                                                                                                                  1)   have basic IT skills
Information Society                                                                 managers                                                              2)   understand how ICT works
      understand capabilities of ICT                                                                                                                      3)   understand limitations of ICT
      ability to evaluate trends                                                                                                                          4)   understand how ICT can be used
      ability to set ICT strategy                                                                                                                         5)   manage the agency's information strategy
Management/Business                                                                 managers                                                              6)   deal with the impact of e-government on the agency
      organizational change                                                                                                                               7)   see how e-gov applications can build new services/products
      accountability frameworks                                                                                                                           8)   see how e-gov applications can open new delivery channels
      cooperation and collaboration
      public-private partnership
                                                            UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 99                                             UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 100
Example: Manager Skills                                                                                                                 Management/Business Skills
Example [Skills for Public Managers, Italy]                                                                                             e-Government has a major impact on public administrations.
Department of Public Administration and Department of Innovation
                                                                                                                                        Public managers must update their traditional management skills to meet new
Technologies promote two new training programmes for managers:
                                                                                                                                        organizational needs:
●     Providing top management at the state government with training to
                                                                                                                                        1)   managing organizational change
      develop IM and IS skills.
                                                                                                                                        2)   improving customer responsiveness
                                                                                                                                        3)   developing accountability frameworks
●     Provide top- and middle-level managers of regional and local
                                                                                                                                        4)   creating incentives for cooperation and collaboration
      administrations with training to develop managerial skills in the context of
                                                                                                                                        5)   managing relationships with the private sector
      e-government and modernization plans.




                                         UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 101                                           UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 102




Skills Development                                                                                                                      Example: Skills Development
The scale, complexity and rate of e-government-related change requires                                                                  Example [Information Skills Map, UK]
structured initiatives to ensure that skills remain relevant.
                                                                                                                                        The Office of the E-Envoy has outlined a skills map to prepare government
                                                                                                                                        agencies for e-government adoption. Seven skill areas:
Example approaches:
                                                                                                                                        ●     leadership
1)   in-house training
                                                                                                                                        ●     project management
2)   hiring of skilled professionals
                                                                                                                                        ●     acquisition
3)   partnering with outside organizations
                                                                                                                                        ●     information professionalism
4)   more flexible remuneration arrangements
                                                                                                                                        ●     IT professionalism
5)   use of contractors and private outsourcing companies
                                                                                                                                        ●     IT-based service design
6)   more information on skills needs and opportunities
                                                                                                                                        ●     end-user skills
7)   new pathways to IT jobs for non-IT staff
                                                                                                                                        Skills assessment toolkit:
Maintaining skill levels is an ongoing process, not a one-time fix.
                                                                                                                                        ●     the level of e-readiness by agencies
                                                                                                                                        ●     what skills are available internally
                                                                                                                                        ●     what skill-gaps exist and how to address them (hiring or outsourcing)

                                         UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 103                                           UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 104
Chief Information Officer                                                                                                                Example: CIO
Many countries have created CIO positions:                                                                                               Example [CIO University, US]
                                                                                                                                         The Chief Information Officer University is a government-sponsored training
  ● within individual government agencies
                                                                                                                                         programme for those aspiring to take up CIO positions.
  ● for the whole of government
                                                                                                                                         CIO University covers 12 broad topics:
in order to improve:
                                                                                                                                         1)     policy and organization
  ● organization practices for the management of IT
                                                                                                                                         2)     leadership and management
  ● coordination and cooperation within government
                                                                                                                                         3)     process/change management
                                                                                                                                         4)     information resources strategy and planning
Some provide specific training opportunities for CIO positions.
                                                                                                                                         5)     performance assessment
                                                                                                                                         6)     project/programme management
                                                                                                                                         7)     capital planning and investment assessment
                                                                                                                                         8)     acquisition
                                                                                                                                         9)     e-government/e-business/e-commerce
                                                                                                                                         10)    IT security and information assurance
                                                                                                                                         11)    technical skills
                                                                                                                                         12)    desktop technology tools
                                          UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 105                                            UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 106




Private-Public Partnership                                                                                                               Partnerships - Evolution
Definition [Private-public Partnership]                                                                                                  Evolution of private-public relations:
Private-public partnership includes all arrangements where governments
                                                                                                                                         1)    Acquisition of ICT products
contractually engage with a non-government entity to provide goods/services.
                                                                                                                                         2)    Services for the use of ICT in government
                                                                                                                                         3)    Direct provision to end-users of government services
More narrowly, partnerships involve arrangements whereby work, risk and                                                                  4)    Access to advance technologies (public key infrastructure) for complex
rewards are shared between partners.                                                                                                           transactional services.

In practice all private supplier relationships will involve elements of partnership,                                                     Integration of public services with private activity can make use of the existing
so it is useful to see them as part of a continuum.                                                                                      infrastructure and patterns of interaction with citizens.

                                                                                                                                         For citizens, integration with private-firm and civil-society services may be more
                                                                                                                                         relevant than linking government services.




                                          UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 107                                            UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 108
Partnerships - Reasons                                                                                                                   Partnerships - Features
Why e-government increases the need to engage private partners?                                                                          All partnerships are covered by some form of contractual arrangement of
                                                                                                                                         varying level of detail and complexity.
1) With widespread use of ICT, governments may be drawn too deep into ICT
   production issues.                                                                                                                    Such arrangements specify:

2) Partnerships can free administrations to focus on core policy and business                                                              ●   outputs
   issues, instead of technical IT issues.                                                                                                 ●   costs
                                                                                                                                           ●   expectations
3) Partnerships can be used to access specialised skills which may be difficult                                                            ●   dispute resolution mechanisms, etc.
   or uneconomical to maintain in government.
                                                                                                                                         Partnerships operated within established arrangements for procurement,
4) Partnerships can help reduce risks by formal assessment of technical                                                                  accountability and reporting.
   solutions and sharing project risks.
                                                                                                                                         Transparency in such arrangements is a major governance issue!
5) Partnership can reduce the need to obtain sufficient up-front funding to
   establish a service.                                                                                                                  While governments use private firms to deliver goods/services, responsibility for
                                                                                                                                         the services ultimately rests with the government.

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Partnerships - Challenges                                                                                                                Partnerships - Collaboration
Some challenges for developing sound partnerships:                                                                                       It is difficult to determine which services:

1) Accountability/audit - balance the need for flexibility to foster innovation                                                            ● should use public-private partnerships
   while preserving oversight for public expenditure.                                                                                      ● should use conventional supplier relationships
                                                                                                                                           ● are best retained within public administration
2) If specifications of outputs are too tight - they will require renegotiation, if
   too broad - they will require clarification.                                                                                          A structured approach for the assessment of options should be made available
                                                                                                                                         to the agencies to make appropriate decisions.
3) Traditional procurement transfers risks but retains control. In partnerships,
   both partners share the risks and benefits.                                                                                           Three forces:

4) Risk management should assign respective risks to the parties best                                                                      ● e-government coordinators
   placed to manage them.                                                                                                                  ● procurement authorities
                                                                                                                                           ● key agencies
5) A danger exists that existing partnerships will be seen as the only
   approach, effectively excluding other service providers.                                                                              may develop an e-government private-public partnerships framework to help
                                                                                                                                         clarify what is allowed, but also retain decision on the merits.

                                          UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 111                                             UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 112
Exercise: Partnerships                                                                                                                                       Summary: Back-Office 1
Exercise [Partnership]                                                                                                                                       Front-office improvement must follow more fundamental changes at the
                                                                                                                                                             administrative back-office. The issues are:
Consider public-private partnerships your agency has established.
                                                                                                                                                             1) e-Government challenges existing ways of working
Provide ICT-related examples, with reasons, scope and challenges:
                                                                                                                                                                ICT should be incorporated into a package of modernization,
1)     ........................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                                organizational change and public reform, with greater team work, work
                                                                                                                                                                flexibility, knowledge management practices.
       ........................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                             2) e-Government requires leadership
2)     ........................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                                At all levels - from the political to the administrative, and stages: early -
       ........................................................................................
                                                                                                                                                                gain acceptance and create implementation frameworks, advanced -
                                                                                                                                                                manage change and sustain support.
How could the e-government public-private partnership framework help
manage such relationships?

................................................................................................

                                                              UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 113                                            UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 114




Summary: Back-Office 2
3) Seamless services will draw agencies closer together

     Development of seamless services require collaboration not just in
     technical terms but engaging deeper with share customers.

4) Managers need e-government skills                                                                                                                                       Electronic Government
     e-Government increases the need for ICT-related skills: information                                                                                                          Summary
     technology (IT), management (IM), society (IS) and updated management
     skills (accountability, collaboration, etc).

5) e-Government involves public-private partnerships

     Governments work with private sector to access skills, products and
     capital, share risks, integrate public and private services.




                                                              UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 115
Overview                                                                                                                                E-Government: Transformation
1. Concepts                            4. Front office                                                                                  E-Government is about using ICT to transform the structures, operations and
                                          4.1. on-line services                                                                         culture of governments.
2. Reasons                                4.2. citizen engagement
   2.1. efficiency                                                                                                                      E-Government will have a fundamental impact on:
   2.2. customer focus                 5. Back office
   2.3. policy outcomes                   5.1. organizational change                                                                     ● How services are delivered
   2.4. economic objectives               5.2. leadership                                                                                ● How public policies are developed
   2.5. public reform                     5.3. coordination                                                                              ● How public administrations operate
   2.6. citizen engagement                5.4. inter agency collaboration
                                          5.5. e-government skills                                                                      The challenge: balance between protecting citizen's rights and better matching
3. Challenges                             5.6. public-private partnership                                                               their needs with efficient, integrated, engaging processes.
   3.1. legislative barriers
   3.2. budgetary barriers             6. Summary                                                                                       What started as a technical exercise aimed at developing more responsive
   3.3. technology change                                                                                                               programs/services becomes an exercise in governance.
   3.4. digital divide




                                         UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 117                                          UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 118




E-Government: The Future                                                                                                                Acknowledgements
Now - initial impressive and visible results:                                                                                           The main source for this work is The e-Government Imperative, 2003 by
                                                                                                                                        OECD - Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
  ● government portals
  ● sophisticated transactional services                                                                                                Thanks to:
  ● examples of seamless, multi-channel services
                                                                                                                                         ● the OECD e-Government Working Group
In the future:                                                                                                                           ● Elsa Estevez, Adegboyega Ojo and Gabriel Oteniya for collaboration

  ●   connected back-office arrangements
  ●   seamless, multi-channel, transactional services
  ●   development of a hidden e-government infrastructure
  ●   methodology/tools to assemble infrastructure-compliant services

What is needed: greater collaboration within government, higher funding levels,
more awareness, deeper organizational change.




                                         UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 119                                          UNeGov.net Leadership School - Concepts Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 120
                                                                                                          Course License
 Strategic Planning for
                                                                                                          1) This course was created as part of the e-Macao Project and the
 Electronic Governance                                                                                       UNeGov.net Initiative, jointly funded by the Government of Macao
                                                                                                             SAR and the UNU-IIST Center for Electronic Governance.


 Adegboyega Ojo, Elsa Estevez
                                                                                                          2) The course is made available under the Creative Commons
                                                                                                             Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic License.
 Center for Electronic Governance

                                post        P.O. Box 3058, Macau                                          3) Please see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/ for
                                email       {ao,elsa}@iist.unu.edu                                           more information on the license.
                                tel         +853 28712930
                                fax         +853 28712940
                                url         http://www.iist.unu.edu
                                                                                                                         UNeGov.net Leadership School – Planning Module – Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 2




Outline
Concepts     definitions and basic concepts
Process      process for developing a strategic plan for e-governance
Summary      summary of module


                                                                                                                                         Concepts




             UNeGov.net Leadership School – Planning Module – Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 3
Government                                                                                                       Governance

Government is a collection of institutions that act with authority and create                                    Governance is a set of processes, formal and informal, through which social
formal obligations. A Government may administer or supervise a state, a set                                      action occurs. It is also a guiding process through which societies make decisions,
group of people, or a collection of assets.                                                                      manage daily activities and interact to achieve their goals.



                                                                                                                 government vs. governance                   government gets its work done through
In the public sector:                                                                                                                                        governance processes
who are these institutions?                       public agencies                                                governance only for government?              no, other organizations and groups engage
                                                                                                                                                              in governance as well
what is the source of the authority?              people
who is under these obligations?                   public agencies and people
why need a government?                            societal development


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e-Government                                                                                                     e-Governance
e-Government refers to the use by government agencies of information                                             e-Governance refers to the use of information and communication technologies
technologies (such as wide area networks, internet, and mobile computing) that                                   to transform and support the processes and structures of a governance system.
have the ability to transform relations with citizens, businesses, and other arms
of government [World Bank].
                                                                                                                 observation        1) many definitions exist
drivers        1)   better delivery of government services to citizens                                                              2) the notion of e-Governance strictly depends on the
               2)   improved interactions with business and industry                                                                   perspective taken on governance
               3)   citizen empowerment through access to information
               4)   more efficient government management                                                         our view           1) e-Governance = e-Government + e-Participation + …
                                                                                                                                    2) e-Government focuses more on public service delivery
benefits       1)   less corruption
                                                                                                                                    3) e-Governance, while including e-Government,
               2)   increased transparency
                                                                                                                                       emphasizes participation, interaction and engagement of
               3)   greater convenience
                                                                                                                                       stakeholders in decision processes
               4)   revenue growth
               5)   cost reduction
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e-Government Maturity                                                                                               Government Stakeholders
Specifies the level of maturity or development of e-Government.                                                     A person, group or any entity that can affect or is affected by an action taken by
                                                                                                                    government.


Gartner     Publish        Interact        Transact          Integrate                                              Typical government stakeholders:
UNDESA      Emerging          Enhanced           Interactive          Transactional           Networked             1) citizens
                                                                                                                    2) businesses
OECD        Information          Interaction          Transaction           and Transformation
                                                                                                                    3) government employees
The E-Government in Kyrgyzstan, Draft Concept Paper (August 2002) adopts the                                        4) government ministries, department and agencies
OECD model.                                                                                                         5) union leaders
                                                                                                                    6) community leaders
                                                                                                                    7) politicians
                                                                                                                    8) foreign investors

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Strategic Planning                                                                                                  Strategic Planning Process
 Strategic planning is a disciplined effort to produce fundamental decision and                                     Steps include:
 actions shaping the nature and the direction of an organization.                                                   • Planning the overall process
                                                                                                                    • Establishing vision, goals, values etc.
 It is a continuous and systematic process in which decisions are made about                                        • Assessing internal and external
 intended future outcomes (3 - 5 year horizon), how the outcomes are to be                                             environment – existing capabilities and
 accomplished (based on the analysis of internal capabilities and external                                             opportunities, stakeholders
 trends) and how success is measured and evaluated .                                                                   requirements
                                                                                                                    • Developing strategies and formulating
                                                                                                                       concrete and measurable objectives
A strategic plan:                                                                                                      from strategies
                                                                                                                    • Developing concrete initiatives from
1) is a road map to lead an organization from its present state to its desired                                         objectives
   medium or long term future state
                                                                                                                    • Developing monitoring framework and
2) specifies the mission, vision, goals, strategies and objectives                                                     communicating and reviewing the
                                                                                                                       strategic plan
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Strategies                                                                                                        Strategies
Attributes of a good strategy:                                                                                    Major strategic perspectives for any government agency:
1) builds on strength
2) resolve weaknesses                                                                                             1) Customers - entities served by or receiving services from the organization
3) exploit opportunities                                                                                          2) Other Stakeholders – other entities presenting some requirements that must
4) avoid threats                                                                                                     be satisfied by the organization
                                                                                                                  3) Internal Processes – internal operations carried out to deliver public services
with respect to specific goals
                                                                                                                  4) Organization Learning and Growth – available information, knowledge and
Note:                                                                                                                human capital to carry out and improve internal operations
1) implementing a strategy may unveil and cause new threats as well as                                            5) Financial – budgetary resources to support acquisition and maintenance of
   opportunities                                                                                                     assets (human, financial, fixed etc.) as well as internal operations
2) long term strategies therefore must be accompanied by periodic reassessments
   of strengths, weaknesses and opportunities and threats



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e-Governance Strategy                                                                                             Why e-Governance Strategy?
                                                                                                                   1) creating the right policy and institutional framework from the start
A long term plan for developing e-Governance specifying the vision and goals and
how these goals will be achieved based on the internal capabilities or readiness as                                2) maximizing the use of ICT initiatives within government
well as external factors and needs of stakeholders , through a coherent set of
                                                                                                                   3) managing the increasing costs of ICT in government
concrete initiatives. It also specifies priority initiatives, challenges, required
policies regulations and measures for success a whole.                                                             4) mapping path from pilot experiments to sustainable, scalable systems
                                                                                                                   5) pursuing real economic development goals and not just technology
                                                                                                                   6) establishing the foundation for designing technology architecture
                                                                                                                      (infrastructure, data and standards) for the public sector

                                                                                                                                                                                 Courtesy: Deepak Bhatia, ISG Group WB




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e-Governance Strategy Elements
 Basic elements include:
 1) definition of e-Governance and specification of desired outcomes
 2) e-Readiness assessment
 3) communication plan for stakeholders
 4) goals, strategies and objectives
 5) portfolio of initiatives and a process for executing them                                                                                             Process
 6) enabling and supporting policies
 7) business models for sustainability




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Strategic Planning Process                                                                                      Step 1: Readiness Assessment
Major steps include:                                                                                            1.   assessing readiness
1) assessing e-Governance readiness
                                                                                                                2.   elaborating vision and expected contributions
2) elaborating the vision and expected contributions
3) formulating strategic goals                                                                                  3.   formulating strategic goals
4) determining required interventions (strategies)                                                              4.   determining required interventions
5) setting the objectives
                                                                                                                5.   setting the objectives
6) prioritizing initiatives
7) establishing mechanisms for stakeholders involvement                                                         6.   prioritizing initiatives
8) determining monitoring and evaluation indicators                                                             7.   establishing mechanisms for stakeholders involvement
9) providing a business model
                                                                                                                8.   determining monitoring and evaluation indicators
                                                                                                                9.   providing a business model



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Assessing Readiness                                                                                              Political Readiness
Readiness assessment investigates the following eight areas:                                                      e-Governance requires strong commitments from political leaders, the private
                                                                                                                  sector and civil society to carry out the necessary transformations.

 1.1   political conditions
 1.2   regulatory framework                                                                                      Checklist:
 1.3   organizational conditions                                                                                 1) commitment to good governance
                                                                                                                 2) awareness of the leverage of e-Governance to good governance
 1.4   human and cultural conditions
                                                                                                                 3) leadership to manage the required change and buy-in from stakeholders
 1.5   financial conditions                                                                                      4) national identity and perception of government
 1.6   communication environment                                                                                 5) citizen and civil society’s participation in government affairs

 1.7   technology infrastructure
 1.8   data and information systems

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Regulatory Readiness                                                                                             Organizational Readiness
1) Essential for secure information exchange within government and between                                        1) e-Governance requires and causes evolutionary changes of institutional
   government, citizens, and businesses.                                                                             arrangements.
2) Necessary for creating economic conditions for accessible ICT infrastructure,                                  2) Guiding such transformations requires appropriate management and
   services and equipment.                                                                                           coordination.


Checklist:                                                                                                       Checklist:
1) privacy legislation                                                                                           1) administrative structures and legacies
2) security standards                                                                                            2) public administration reform
3) degree of liberalization of the telecommunications industry                                                   3) civil service reform
4) positive fiscal environment for acquiring ICT equipment                                                       4) central coordination unit
                                                                                                                 5) inter-governmental relations
                                                                                                                 6) change agent and management


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Human and Cultural Readiness                                                                                     Financial Readiness
1) Positive orientation, knowledge and skills are required within the public sector                              1) Start-up costs of e-Governance can be high.
   to initiate, implement and sustain e-Governance .
                                                                                                                 2) Proper resource planning and access to innovative financing mechanisms is
2) Cultural aspects may cause overall resistance to change.                                                         important and critical for e-Government sustainability.

Checklist:
1) culture, traditions and languages                                                                             Checklist:
2) attitude to change                                                                                            1) available financial resources
3) educational levels                                                                                            2) resource allocation process
4) culture of information and knowledge sharing                                                                  3) national income structure
5) ICT literacy and online users                                                                                 4) access to alternative funding mechanisms
6) organizational culture in the public administration                                                           5) partnership with private sector
7) managerial skill in the public sector                                                                         6) access to capital markets
8) service orientation of public administration towards its clients                                              7) mechanism for venture investment
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Communication Readiness                                                                                          Infrastructure Readiness
 1) e-Governance needs to be understood and accepted by all stakeholders to                                       1) Poor technological infrastructure is a major bottleneck for developing
    ensure that its benefits flow to the society as a whole.                                                         countries aiming to implement and maintain e-Government.
 2) Communication with all stakeholders is therefore essential to the change                                      2) Legacy systems present significant challenges.
    processes inherent during the deployment of e-Government.                                                     3) Demographic and geographic conditions affect the distribution of economic
                                                                                                                     activities and consequently the provisioning of ICT infrastructure by both
                                                                                                                     the government and the private sector.
Checklist:
1) knowledge of all stakeholders
                                                                                                                 Checklist:
2) knowledge of stakeholders’ communication culture and channels to reach
   them                                                                                                          1) telecommunication infrastructure
3) existence of a communication plan                                                                             2) penetration rates of telecommunication
4) awareness and understanding of ICT and e-Governance                                                           3) urban versus rural demographic bias
5) information and knowledge sharing                                                                             4) software and hardware
                                                                                                                 5) IT standards

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Data and Information Readiness                                                                                      Notes on Readiness Assessment
 Information systems, records and work processes must be in place to provide the                                    1) e-Readiness assessment serves as an advisory tool which aims at:
 necessary data to support e-Government.                                                                                a) raising awareness about the motivation and the prerequisites to establish
                                                                                                                            a foundation for successful e-Governance
                                                                                                                        b) identifying the weak-links in the environment for remedial action
Checklist:
                                                                                                                        c) informing sector-broad e-Government strategy and action plan
1) legacy systems
                                                                                                                        d) providing a monitoring and evaluation tool
2) available and accessible data
3) data collection procedures and data/information standardization
                                                                                                                    2) e-Readiness assessments should be carried out regularly using a consistent
4) data and information quality and data security
                                                                                                                       approach and collecting identical sets of data
5) capacity for data analysis and information utilization
6) information policy




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Step 2: Visioning Process                                                                                           Vision

1.   assessing readiness                                                                                             An e-Governance vision is a medium or long term statement concerning broad
                                                                                                                     goals which provides a roadmap and general guidance for institutional change.
2.   elaborating vision and expected contributions
3.   formulating strategic goals

4.   determining required interventions
                                                                                                                    1) must be clear, intuitive and simple
5.   setting objectives
                                                                                                                    2) states what will be done and what will not be done
6.   prioritizing initiatives                                                                                       3) can be central or public agency specific
7.   establishing mechanisms for stakeholders involvement                                                           4) considers needs and opportunities
8.   determining monitoring and evaluation indicators                                                               5) must be aligned with national development strategy
9.   providing a business model                                                                                     6) involves consensus building by stakeholders



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Example – Vision Statements                                                                                        Visioning
                                                                                                                   Steps in the vision building process include:
Western Australian        A more efficient public sector that delivers integrated
Government                services and improved opportunities for community                                        1) identifying and consulting stakeholders
                          participation.
                                                                                                                   2) allowing stakeholders to present or explain their own vision for e-Governance
Government of             Andhra Pradesh will leverage Information Technology to
Andhra Pradesh            attain a position of leadership and excellence in the                                    3) draft a common vision based stakeholders’ visions
                          information age and to transform into a knowledge society
Danish Government         Digitalization must contribute to the creation of an efficient                           4) aligning vision with more general national and local development needs and
                          and coherent public sector with high quality of service, with                               opportunities
                          citizens and businesses in the centre.
                                                                                                                   5) consolidating and agree on final vision
Mongolian                 Establishing the information society and founding the
Government                knowledge-based society in Mongolia by enhancing
                          extensive applications of ICT in all sectors of society. By
                          2012, Mongolia will become one of the top ten ICT
                          developed countries in Asia.
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Step 3: Strategic Goals                                                                                            Strategic Goals
1.   assessing readiness                                                                                            Statements that set the direction for e-Governance based on the vision.

2.   elaborating vision and expected contributions
                                                                                                                   Strategic goals typically include:
3.   formulating strategic goals                                                                                   1) social and economic development using ICT
4.   determining required interventions                                                                            2) effective delivery of quality public services, which are accessible and
                                                                                                                       affordable
5.   setting objectives                                                                                            3) improved capacity of government in participatory and consultative decision
6.   prioritizing initiatives                                                                                          making processes which progresses democracy
                                                                                                                   4) increased satisfaction of stakeholders through accountability, efficiency,
7.   establishing mechanisms for stakeholders involvement                                                              effectiveness, and cost reduction
8.   determining monitoring and evaluation indicators                                                              5) coordinated and transparent policy design, policy implementation, policy
                                                                                                                       maintenance, and policy review
9.   providing a business model


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Example 1 – Danish Goals                                                                                        Step 4: Interventions
Danish e-Government       1) Public sector must provide coherent services with
Goals                        citizens and businesses in the center.                                             1.    assessing readiness
                          2) e-Government must result in improved service quality
                                                                                                                2.    elaborating vision and expected contributions
                             and the release of resources.
                          3) Public must work and communicate digitally.                                        3.    formulating strategic goals
                          4) e-Government must be based on a coherent flexible                                  4.    determining required interventions
                             infrastructure.
                                                                                                                5.    setting objectives
                                                                                                                6.    prioritizing initiatives
                                                                                                                7.    establishing mechanisms for stakeholders involvement
                                                                                                                8.    determining monitoring and evaluation
                                                                                                                9.    providing a business model


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Determining Interventions                                                                                       Creating Leadership
 The creation of an enabling environment for the development of e-Governance                                    Leaders are a small group of e-Champions capable of providing political leadership
 based on the outcome of the e-readiness assessment, strategic vision, goals and                                with good understanding of the complexities of e-Governance.
 objectives.


Required intervention aligned with readiness assessment areas:
                                                                                                                Activities of this group include:
1) leadership
2) regulations                                                                                                  1)   defining broad deliverables
3) organizations                                                                                                2)   setting priorities
4) human resources                                                                                              3)   mobilizing necessary administrative mechanism and resources
                                                                                                                4)   assisting to overcome resistance and legacies
5) financial resources
                                                                                                                5)   sharing values and building consensus while possibly preserving cultures
6) communication
7) technology
8) data requirements

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Example - Leadership                                                                                             Regulatory Framework
United Kingdom’s    • Each local authority in England and Wales should have                                      New laws and regulations are required for e-Governance adoption.
e-Champions Network   two champions: one councilor and one officer.
by IDeA –
Improvement and     • Their job is to champion e-Government within the                                           Legal and regulatory measures typically cover:
Development Agency    authority and ensure that the authority is on-track to
                      meet the 2005 target for having services online.                                           1) data integration and sharing between public agencies
                                                                                                                 2) use of public information by third parties, especially private sector,
                           • All 388 English local authorities are now part of IDeA’s                               safeguarding privacy and security
                             e-champion network.                                                                 3) digital exchange and transactions between government agencies, citizens and
                                                                                                                    businesses
                           • Regular briefings and events on major issues and                                    4) recognition of digital exchange of information and digital transactions
                             members of the network have access to useful reports                                5) reaching citizens affordably and enabling citizens to reach government
                             and information as well as networking opportunities                                    affordably
                             through events and online communities.

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Example: Regulations                                                                                             Organization
Data Privacy               Data Protection Act, 1984, amended 1998                                               1) Two prevalent models for implementing e-Governance: centralized and
United Kingdom              • protects personal privacy and enables international                                   decentralized models.
                               free flow of personal data by harmonization                                       2) Whichever model is adopted, central coordination is required through an
                                                                                                                    agency which is either independent or nested within a ministry.
Electronic Document        Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendment 1996
USA                          • directs all federal agencies to use electronic
                               information technology to foster public availability                              Activities of central coordination:
                               of electronic documents                                                           1) coordinate the implementation of the e-Governance strategy
                             • grants individuals the right to access records in the                             2) review e-readiness on a regular basis
                               possession of federal government                                                  3) coordinate advocacy and awareness campaigns
Electronic Signature       Electronic Signature Directive 1999                                                   4) coordinate the use of seed funding for co-financing new and innovative pilot
European Union               • recognizes electronic signatures within the European                                  projects
                               Union and can be used as evidence in legal                                        5) provide advice on possible public-private partnerships
                               proceedings                                                                       6) monitor, evaluate and report on progress made in e-Government

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Example - Organization                                                                                           Developing Human Capacity
USA                  • Establishes an Administrator for the office of
                       Electronic Government within the Office of                                                 Public administration, citizens, businesses and local IT community must be
(e-Government Act of
                       Management and Budget.                                                                     equipped with the skills required for e-Governance.
2002)
                     • Administrator assists OMB Director by implementing e-
                       Government and other initiatives provided in the act.
                     • Establishes a CIO Council consisting of representation                                    Skills required by public administrations:
                       from CIO’s of all major federal agencies.
United Kingdom            • formulates IT strategy and policy                                                    1)   change management
(e-Government Unit        • develops common IT components for use across                                         2)   program management
of the Cabinet Office)      government                                                                           3)   IT systems development
                          • promotes best practices across government                                            4)   IT service management
                          • delivers citizen-centered online services                                            5)   IT outsourcing management
                                                                                                                 6)   client relationship management


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Example 1 – Capacity Development                                                                                 Financing
Italy     Skills for Managers                                                                                     Availability of funds determine the type of e-Government projects that can be
          Department of Public Administration in co-operation with Department                                     carried out.
          for Innovation Technologies
          Two programs:
          1) information society skills for top managers of state governments -
              National School for Public Administration                                                          Issues to consider:
          2) management skills for middle managers of regional and local
                                                                                                                 1) e-Government is cross-cutting, pooling of resources across agencies may be
              administration
                                                                                                                     necessary
USA       CIO University – Government sponsored training program                                                 2) reward system could be developed for management and employees to
          Learning objectives in 12 broad topics:                                                                    stimulate the drive for e-Government
          1) policy and organizational                                                                           3) extra-budgetary resources should be considered, e.g. partnership with private-
          2) leadership /managerial                                                                                  sector in infrastructure development and maintenance
          3) process/change management
          4) performance assessment
          5) project/program management, etc.

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Funding Strategies                                                                                                Communicating
Public Private        • government and private organizations share the costs, risks
                                                                                                                  Creating awareness and buy-in from all stakeholders.
Partnership             and benefits in e-Governance development

Outsourcing           • government invests directly but external enterprises carry
                        out the development                                                                       Communication strategies entail:
                      • government owns the system and has complete control                                       1) creating interest and expectations towards the benefits of e-Government
Issuance of Bonds     • bonds are issued by the government
                                                                                                                  2) addressing the interests of politicians, managers, employees, businesses and
                                                                                                                     citizens
                      • returns from investment are use to offset bond
                                                                                                                  3) making stakeholders appreciate the change process
Advertising           • controlled traditional advertisement on the government web
                                                                                                                  4) demystifying technological jargons
                        sites
                                                                                                                  5) using media such as TV, radio, newspaper and billboard
Government-           • project development is the responsibility of the enterprise
                                                                                                                  6) organizing conferences, workshops and seminars can be helpful to raise
Enterprise            • investment by enterprise is covered by transaction fees                                      political awareness and support


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Provisioning Technology                                                                                           Provisioning Data
Providing the necessary technology infrastructures.                                                               Data is required at different phases of e-Governance implementation.


Technology interventions include:
                                                                                                                  A number of actions must be taken to ensure data availability:
1) making fixed line telecommunication available and affordable
                                                                                                                  1) standardizing data across agencies to facilitate exchange
2) making mobile telecommunication available and affordable
                                                                                                                  2) defining the roles and responsibilities of different agencies in the data
3) obtaining technical assistance for access to international best practices to
                                                                                                                     standardization process
   address technical constraints
                                                                                                                  3) obtaining agreement on some key identifiers, for instance geographic
4) developing the national ICT policy
                                                                                                                     locations, personal or institutional identifiers
5) teaming up with the private sector in resolving technical issues
                                                                                                                  4) ensuring that data capture is only through a single source
                                                                                                                  5) guaranteeing the safety and security concerns relating to data




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Example – Data Provisioning                                                                                       Step 5: Objectives

USA         Data Reference Model (DRM) in Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA):                                  1.   assessing readiness
            1) DRM helps promote common identification, use and appropriate                                       2.   elaborating vision and expected contributions
               sharing of data across government in three areas: categorization,
               exchange and structure                                                                             3.   formulating strategic goals
            2) DRM allows higher re-use of IT investments as a shared service                                     4.   determining required interventions
               within their own architecture
                                                                                                                  5.   setting objectives
            3) DRM is the major feature of the FEA and considered the most
               difficult model to develop                                                                         6.   prioritizing initiatives

                                                                                                                  7.   establishing mechanisms for stakeholders involvement
                                                                                                                  8.   determining monitoring and evaluation indicators

                                                                                                                  9.   providing a business model



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Strategic Objectives                                                                                              Example – Danish Objectives
Specific and measurable statements about strategic goals.
                                                                                                                  Danish e-Government             By the end of 2006:
                                                                                                                  objectives for the              • at least 60% of the population uses the public sector’s
                                                                                                                  goal:                             digital services (2003: 40%)
 A strategic objective specifies:
                                                                                                                                                  • at least 95% of all businesses use the public sector’s
                                                                                                                  public sector must                digital services (2002: 72%)
 1)   specific action                                                                                             provide coherent                • at least 60% of all public authorities receive at least a
 2)   extent of action                                                                                            services with citizens            quarter of all documents from citizens and businesses
 3)   target for action                                                                                           and businesses in the             in digital form (2003: citizen 15 percent, businesses
                                                                                                                  centre                            21%)
 4)   timeline for action

 Strategic objectives are related to the interventions and are implemented
 through programs and projects.


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Step 6: Prioritizing                                                                                              Criteria for Prioritizing
                                                                                                                       e-Governance cannot be introduced through a single initiative, but through
1.    assessing readiness
                                                                                                                       small achievable steps which can build success and credibility.
2.    elaborating vision and expected contributions
3.    formulating strategic goals
                                                                                                                  Criteria for prioritization include:
4.    determining required interventions

5.    setting objectives                                                                                          1)    available resources
6.    prioritizing initiatives                                                                                    2)    value potentials
                                                                                                                  3)    sustainability
7.    establishing mechanisms for stakeholders involvement
                                                                                                                  4)    impact on social, economic and governance dimensions
8.    determining monitoring and evaluation indicators
9.    providing a business model                                                                                  Priorities must be people and development centered and defined within the
                                                                                                                  context of government vision and objectives.

                    UNeGov.net Leadership School – Planning Module – Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 57                          UNeGov.net Leadership School – Planning Module – Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 58




Possible Impact of G2C Services                                                                                   Possible Impact of G2B Services
                                                                                                                  Service             Economic                             Social                          Governance
Service             Economic Impact/Benefits              Social                     Governance                                       Impact/Benefits                      Impact/Benefits                 Impact/Benefits
                                                          Impact/Benefits            Impact/Benefits
                                                                                                                  custom              lower transaction cost               ease of declaration             accountability and
employment          reduced advert and                    easier access to           openness, higher             declaration                                              with online help                transparency
opportunities       communication cost                    information on job         degree of fairness                               timely declaration
                                                          opportunities                                                                                                    lower thresholds for
                                                                                                                                                                           small sized firms
                    reduced transaction cost
                                                          easier (standard)                                       social              reduced transaction cost             easier to comply with           transparent
                                                          application                                             contributions for                                        rules                           application with
                                                                                                                  employee            timely payment received                                              online support
social security     reduced transaction cost              easier to receive          transparency                                     electronically
contributions                                             benefits
                                                                                                                                      increased coverage
land registration   reduced transaction cost              easier to transfer         rule of law,
                                                          properties                 transparency                 access to socio-    new business opportunities    greater use of                         transparency
                                                                                                                  demographic                                       information for
                                                                                                                  and other           new service opportunities for planning and provision
                                                                                                                  government          government                    of services for both
                                                                                                                  databases                                         public and private
                                                                                                                                                                    organizations
                    UNeGov.net Leadership School – Planning Module – Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 59                          UNeGov.net Leadership School – Planning Module – Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 60
Possible Impact of G2G Services                                                                                    General Principle
Service              Economic                        Social                        Governance
                     Impact/Benefits                 Impact/Benefits               Impact/Benefits                  Have the big picture, start with some quick wins, consolidate fast.
computerizing core   reduction in transaction        employment                    accountability
business of          cost                            opportunities
government                                                                         counter corruption                   development                                                      1     think big
                     counter corruption              speedier processing
decentralized data   data reuse can lead to          ease of use to data           security
processing with      significant cost savings
integrated access                                    eliminates                    privacy
to virtual data      cost of digital data            redundancies
warehouse            capture is low                                                transparency
                                                     speeds up operation
e-Procurement in     lower transaction cost          increased use of              transparency                                                                3     scale fast
Government                                           existing capacity
                                                     within government             accountability

                                                     competition with              competitiveness in                           2
                                                     private sector service        cross agency service                             start small                                                                   time
                                                     provider                      delivery
                     UNeGov.net Leadership School – Planning Module – Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 61                       UNeGov.net Leadership School – Planning Module – Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 62




Step 7: Involving Stakeholders                                                                                     Identifying Stakeholders’ Roles
                                                                                                                   Identifying and filling stakeholders roles is important for assigning responsibilities.
1.   assessing readiness
2.   elaborating vision and expected contributions
                                                                                                                   Typical stakeholders roles:
3.   formulating strategic goals
                                                                                                                    project team    those who will directly work on e-Governance projects
4.   determining required interventions
5.   setting objectives                                                                                             suppliers       suppliers of technologies, resources and expertise

6.   prioritizing initiatives                                                                                       operators       agency employees who will operate the e-Governance systems

7.   establishing mechanisms for stakeholders involvement                                                           champions       entities to drive and seek justification for the projects

8.   determining monitoring and evaluation indicators                                                               sponsors        entities paying for the expense and efforts for the projects
9.   providing a business model                                                                                     owner           management of the agency that will own and use the system

                                                                                                                    others          others with significant influence on the project

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Step 8: Monitoring and Evaluation                                                                                 Levels
                                                                                                                  There are numerous levels for monitoring and evaluation activities during the
1.   assessing readiness                                                                                          implementation of e-Governance.
2.   elaborating vision and expected contributions
3.   formulating strategic goals                                                                                  We consider the following levels during implementation:
4.   determining required interventions                                                                           1) implementation plan level

5.   setting objectives                                                                                           2) project plan level
6.   prioritizing initiatives
7.   establishing mechanisms for stakeholders involvement
8.   determining monitoring and evaluation indicators
9.   providing a business model


                    UNeGov.net Leadership School – Planning Module – Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 65                      UNeGov.net Leadership School – Planning Module – Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 66




Implementation Plan Level                                                                                         Project Plan Level
Monitoring:                                                                                                       Monitoring:
• tracks the amount of resources committed for implementing e-Government.                                         • examines the linkages between inputs used for implementation of activities and
                                                                                                                    the direct deliverables
Evaluation:                                                                                                       • systematic approach to allow quick review of project performance
• measures the impact on the implementation of the outcomes and of key
  indicators of progress                                                                                          Evaluation:
• measured through both quantitative and qualitative performance indicators                                       • measures the impact of deliverables on the performance of the organization
                                                                                                                    where the project was implemented




                    UNeGov.net Leadership School – Planning Module – Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 67                      UNeGov.net Leadership School – Planning Module – Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 68
Indicators for e-Governance                                                                                         Indicator Set 1
 Two categories of qualitative and quantitative performance indicators can be                                       Time                  Indicators
 identified to measure e-Governance progress.
                                                                                                                    after 12 months       • number of government departments that have started
                                                                                                                                            digitizing their basic data
                                                                                                                                          • number of local governments that have established web
1) overall classification of government institutions based on the level of                                                                  presence
   transformation attained                                                                                          after 3 years         • number of institutions and local governments that are in
                                                                                                                                            each maturity levels – informational, one-way interactive,
2) more qualitative measures directly relating to broad outcome areas:                                                                      two-way interactive, and transactional
      a) economic                                                                                                   after 5 years         • number of institutions that conform to the government
      b) social                                                                                                                             portal
      c) governance



                      UNeGov.net Leadership School – Planning Module – Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 69                        UNeGov.net Leadership School – Planning Module – Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 70




Indicator Set 2 – Economic                                                                                          Indicator Set 3 – Social
Outcomes                               Performance Indicators                                                       Outcomes                                    Performance Indicators

alternative and more cost              • % reduction in transaction and overall operating costs                     increased access to quality education       • e-learning systems in place
effective delivery of services         • % of transactions performed on-line                                                                                    • teacher ICT education programme in place
                                                                                                                                                                • number of schools with ICT education
redeployment and rebalancing           • number of personnel retrained                                                                                          • number of schools with Internet access
of the civil service                   • increased number of staff with new required skills                         improved educational management             •    education management information system
                                       • ratio of professional staff to general service staff                       capacity
increase in employment                 • % unemployed                                                               better delivery and access to health        •    tele medical services in place
                                       • % employed in ICT related industry                                         services                                    •    telemedicine service system
                                       • online job market established                                              improved health management                  •    number of medical doctors connected online
improved revenue collection            • on-line taxation system in place                                           capacity                                    •    integrated hospital information system
on taxes and service levies            • % increase in tax coverage                                                 improved social welfare                     •    % increase in eligible households and
                                       • % increase in tax revenue                                                                                                   individuals entitled to social welfare

promotion of internal and              • business registration system                                               move to development oriented and            •    % increase in customer satisfaction
external investment                                                                                                 people centered service delivery            •    % increase in people using on-line services
                                       • % increase in foreign direct investment                                    culture                                     •    availability of personalized portals for citizens
                                       • % increase in internal investment                                                                                           and businesses
                      UNeGov.net Leadership School – Planning Module – Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 71                        UNeGov.net Leadership School – Planning Module – Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 72
Indicator Set 4 – Governance                                                                                       Step 9: Business Model
Outcomes                  Performance Indicators
                                                                                                                   1.     assessing readiness
greater accountability    •    % of government business processes open to the public
and transparency in            (tendering, procurement, recruitment, etc.)                                         2.     elaborating vision and expected contributions
public administration     •    on-line availability of government’s budget, expenditure
                          •    on-line access to government reports, documents                                     3.     formulating strategic goals
better coordination and •      sharing of government data and information across agencies                          4.     determining required interventions
cooperation between
government agencies                                                                                                5.     setting objectives
improved                  •    availability of online interaction with public
                                                                                                                   6.     prioritizing initiatives
communications and        •    % of people interacting with government online
public relations          •    timely response by government                                                       7.     establishing mechanisms for stakeholders involvement
greater public            •    posting policy drafts online for public participation in policy
participation                  development process                                                                 8.     determining monitoring and evaluation indicators
enabling legal            •    legislation available online, with explanatory notes                                9.     providing a business model
infrastructure            •    legislation in place to deal with e-documentation, e-record
                               keeping, e-authentication, e-signature, etc.
                          •    legislation concerning e-protection, privacy, and cyber crime
                     UNeGov.net Leadership School – Planning Module – Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 73                         UNeGov.net Leadership School – Planning Module – Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 74




Developing a Business Model                                                                                        Strategy Imperatives
 A plan for ensuring the sustainability of e-Government in terms of resources and                                   Strategy must consider services, technology, processes and people.
 adoption.


A business model includes:                                                                                         1)   services must be accessible, affordable and user-friendly
1) how e-Government solutions would be developed – outsourcing versus                                              2)   technology must be reliable, scalable and interoperable
   internal development
                                                                                                                   3)   processes must be re-engineered, collaborative, integrated and trustworthy
2) funding options for provided services - pay-as-you-go, bonds, transaction fees,
                                                                                                                   4)   people must be trained, oriented and carried along
   partnership with third parties, etc.
3) how to ensure take up of the various e-Services to be offered
4) how to attract the participation of private sector in the continued
   development of the e-Governance




                     UNeGov.net Leadership School – Planning Module – Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 75                         UNeGov.net Leadership School – Planning Module – Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 76
                                                                                                                Strategic Planning Summary
                                                                                                                1) a clear vision understood by all stakeholders is the first step
                                                                                                                2) the strategic planning process should involve all major stakeholders
                                                                                                                3) readiness assessment is one of the most crucial aspects of strategic planning as
                                                                                                                   it establishes the current state of the organization
                                                                                                                4) readiness assessment must implicitly determine the strength, weakness,
                                                                                                                   opportunities and threat of the organization
                                   Summary                                                                      5) strategies are determined based on readiness assessment results as well as the
                                                                                                                   strategic goals
                                                                                                                6) stakeholders involvement throughout the whole process is critical
                                                                                                                7) a business plan is essential for the sustainability of e-Governance




                                                                                                                                   UNeGov.net Leadership School – Planning Module – Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 78




Strategic Planning Process                                                                                      Major Sources of Information
Nine activity areas were shown:
• e-readiness assessment may be carried out in parallel with vision and goal                                     UNPAN      Virtual library of e-Governance and Public Sector Reports
   elaboration                                                                                                              E-Readiness Questionnaires for Central, Agency and Civil Society
• required interventions are the strategies derived through the e-readiness                                      UNDESA     Global e-Government Readiness Reports
   results and available goals
                                                                                                                            Plan of Action for e-Government Development
• setting priorities helps the formulation of effective and viable objectives
• providing a business plan and determining control mechanisms                                                   OECD       E-Government Imperative
• strategic plan must be communicated to all stakeholders.                                                       InfoDev    E-Government Handbook for Developing Countries


                                                                                                                E-Government Strategy Documents for:

                                                                                                                • United States, New Zealand, Singapore, Denmark, Pakistan, Western Australian
                                                                                                                  Public Sector

                  UNeGov.net Leadership School – Planning Module – Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 79                      UNeGov.net Leadership School – Planning Module – Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22 – 23 May 2008 - 80
Structures and Processes for                                                                                                     Course License
Electronic Governance                                                                                                            1) This course was created as part of the e-Macao Project and the
                                                                                                                                    UNeGov.net Initiative, jointly funded by the Government of Macao
                                                                                                                                    SAR and the UNU-IIST Center for Electronic Governance.

                                                                                                                                 2) The course is made available under the Creative Commons
Adegboyega Ojo, Elsa Estevez, Bernd Friedrich, Tomasz Janowski                                                                      Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic License.

                                                                                                                                 3) Please see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/ for
Center for Electronic Governance                                                                                                    more information on the license.

                                post              P.O. Box 3058, Macau
                                email              {ao,elsa,bernd,tj}@iist.unu.edu
                                tel                +853 28712930
                                fax                +853 28712940
                                url                www.egov.iist.unu.edu
                                                                                                                                                                   UNeGov.net Leadership School - Organization Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22-23 May 2008 - 2




Outline                                                                                                                         Good Governance
1   Introduction                          government transformation                                                             Good governance consists of a public service that is efficient, a judicial
                                                                                                                                system that is reliable, and an administration that is accountable to the
2   Change Management                     steps in government transformation
                                                                                                                                public [World Bank].
3   Strategic Management                  Balanced Scorecard system
4   Performance Management                management by objectives
                                                                                                                                Elements of good governance according to the World Bank:
5   Business Process Reengineering        transformation towards value creation
6   Strategy Implementation               strategies through programmes                                                         1) Public sector management emphasizing the need for effective financial
                                                                                                                                   and human resource management
7   Structural Change                     structural changes and ICT support
                                                                                                                                2) Accountability in public service, including effective accounting, auditing
8   Summary                               summary of concepts                                                                      and decentralization
                                                                                                                                3) Predictable legal framework with rules known in advance and an
                                                                                                                                   independent judiciary
                                                                                                                                4) Availability of information and transparency to enhance policy analysis,
                                                                                                                                   promote public debate and reduce risks of corruption

                                 UNeGov.net Leadership School - Organization Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22-23 May 2008 - 3                                      UNeGov.net Leadership School - Organization Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22-23 May 2008 - 4
New Public Management (NPM)                                                                                                     NPM Elements
New Public Management is a broad term used to describe the wave of                                                              Major elements of NPM comprise structural, organizational and managerial
public sector reforms throughout the world since the 1980s.                                                                     changes, such as:

New Public Management:
                                                                                                                                1) Cutting cost and increasing labor discipline
                                                                                                                                2) Business management practices to increase flexibility in decision making
1) Seeks to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the public sector
   and the control that government has over it                                                                                  3) Explicit standards and performance measures with challenging targets
2) Introduces a management culture that emphasizes the centrality of the                                                        4) Competition in the public sector through contracts and tendering
   citizen who are seen as clients and shareholders (instead of petitioner)                                                     5) Decentralization to make units more manageable and to increase
                                                                                                                                   competition among them
                                                                                                                                6) Orientation shift from inputs to outputs to stress results rather than
                                                                                                                                   procedure, e.g. Output Oriented Budgeting System




                                 UNeGov.net Leadership School - Organization Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22-23 May 2008 - 5                                    UNeGov.net Leadership School - Organization Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22-23 May 2008 - 6




ICT and Government Reforms                                                                                                      e-Governance and Reforms
ICT can assist in achieving government/public sector reforms or desired                                                         Reforms towards e-Governance involves ICT based outcomes and
transformation.                                                                                                                 subsequent ICT support for internal operations as well as government
                                                                                                                                interactions with its stakeholders.

Observations about ICT applications in the government/public sector:
                                                                                                                                Therefore we note that:
1) Cost reduction and operational efficiency were the major drivers for ICT
   applications in the government/public sector                                                                                 1) Reform is intrinsically part of any well conceived e-governance agenda
2) ICT applications, if simply added to existing government structures and                                                      2) e-Governance by definition differs from traditional ICT application to
   processes, have yielded very modest outcomes                                                                                    government - automation or computerization
3) Reform activities must precede effective ICT deployment in government                                                        3) e-Governance is a tool for achieving the desired governance
4) Reform outcomes are largely ICT based solutions                                                                                 transformation




                                 UNeGov.net Leadership School - Organization Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22-23 May 2008 - 7                                    UNeGov.net Leadership School - Organization Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22-23 May 2008 - 8
Outline                                                                                                                          Change Management

1    Introduction                            government transformation
                                                                                                                                 Change management aims to implement different structures, systems and
                                                                                                                                 skills in an operating organization.
2    Change Management                       steps in government transformation
3    Strategic Management                    Balanced Scorecard system
                                                                                                                                 Change management:
4    Performance Management                  management by objectives
5    Business Process Reengineering          transformation towards value creation                                               1) Is necessary to ensure the effectiveness of the desired changes
6    Strategy Implementation                 strategies through programmes                                                       2) Ensures that no undesired side effects of the changes are introduced
                                                                                                                                    into the organization
7    Structural Change                       structural changes and ICT support
                                                                                                                                 3) Provides strategies to manage the resistance to change
8    Summary                                 summary of concepts

                                                                                                                                 Change is the only constant in our life.



                                  UNeGov.net Leadership School - Organization Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22-23 May 2008 - 9                                       UNeGov.net Leadership School - Organization Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22-23 May 2008 - 10




Resistance to Change                                                                                                             Why Change Efforts Fail
The rate of change in public organizations is generally slow due to                                                              Allowing too much complacency          “if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it” attitude
resistance from different stakeholders.                                                                                          No guiding coalition                   individuals alone never have the power to
                                                                                                                                                                        carry out large changes

Reasons for resisting change are generally fears:                                                                                No vision                              transformation dissolves into confusing,
                                                                                                                                                                        incompatible, time-consuming projects
1) of failing in a changed environment due to uncertainty about it                                                               Undercommunicating the vision          decisions are not in line with the vision
                                                                                                                                 Permitting obstacles to block the      such as structures or compensation systems
2) of more control on performance                                                                                                new vision
                                                                                                                                 Failing to create short-term wins      people give up and join the resistance
3) of being controlled by technology
                                                                                                                                 Declaring victory too soon             resistors spot the chance to have change
                                                                                                                                                                        agents send home
                                                                                                                                 Neglecting to anchor changes firmly changes won’t stick until they become “the
                                                                                                                                 into the culture                    way we do things here”

                                 UNeGov.net Leadership School - Organization Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22-23 May 2008 - 11                                       UNeGov.net Leadership School - Organization Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22-23 May 2008 - 12
The 8-Steps Change Process                                                                                                            1 - Establishing Sense of Urgency
 1   Establishing a sense of urgency                                                                                                  Sources of complacency:




                                                                                                                     unfreeze
 2   Creating the guiding coalition                             defrosts the hardened
 3   Developing a vision and strategy                           status quo                                                            1)   Absense of major or visible crisis
                                                                                                                                      2)   Too many visible resources
 4   Communicating the change vision
                                                                                                                                      3)   Low overall performance standards
 5   Empowering employees for action
                                                                                                                                      4)   Focusing employees on narrow functional goals




                                                                                                                     move
 6   Creating short-term wins                                   introduces new practices                                              5)   Wrong performance indexes
 7   Consolidating gains, produce more change                                                                                         6)   Lack of sufficient feedback from external sources
 8   Anchoring new approaches in the culture                    grounds the changes into                                              7)   Culture of low-candor, low confrontation




                                                                                                                     freeze
                                                                organizational culture to                                             8)   Too much happy talk from senior management.
                                                                make them stick




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Pushing up Urgency Levels                                                                                                             2 - Creating the Guiding Coalition
Transformation often starts when a new person is placed in a key role who                                                             If there is not enough trust within the guiding coalition or between the
does not have to defend his past actions.                                                                                             coalition and the employees, change efforts are doomed to fail.


1) Allowing errors to blow up instead of last-minute fixes                                                                            Characteristics of guiding coalitions:

2) Eliminating obvious examples of excess
                                                                                                                                      Position power    With enough key players on board and those who are left out
3) Setting targets so high that they cannot be reached through business-
                                                                                                                                                        cannot block progress
   as-usual
                                                                                                                                      Expertise         Various points of view – discipline, experience, nationality etc. –
4) Sending more (negative) information regarding clients and
                                                                                                                                                        relevant to the task in hand are adequately represented leading
   performance to more employees
                                                                                                                                                        to informed and intelligent decisions
5) Insisting that managers and employees talk to unsatisfied clients and
                                                                                                                                      Credibility       With enough people with good reputations so that its
   unhappy suppliers regularly
                                                                                                                                                        pronouncements will be taken seriously by the employees
6) Using external consultants to force more relevant data and honest
   discussion into management meetings                                                                                                Leadership        Leadership and management working in tandem:
                                                                                                                                                        leadership drives change, management controls process
7) Bombarding people with information regarding future opportunities
                                      UNeGov.net Leadership School - Organization Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22-23 May 2008 - 15                                            UNeGov.net Leadership School - Organization Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22-23 May 2008 - 16
Creating the Coalition - How ?                                                                                                         3 - Developing Vision and Strategy
Guiding coalitions that make things happen:                                                                                            Vision refers to a picture of the future with some implicit or explicit
                                                                                                                                       commentary on why people should strive to create that future.
Finding the right    • strong position power, broad expertise, high credibility
people               • leadership and management skills
                     • change group must share diagnosis of organizational                                                             Characteristics of a good vision:
                       problems, otherwise they’ll not agree on the cure
Creating trust       • lots of talk and joint activities with the employees, such as                                                   Imaginable         Conveys a picture of what the future will look like
                       off-site events                                                                                                 Desirable          Appeals to the long term interests of employees, clients, and
                     • trust must be raised to have people looking beyond their                                                                           other stakeholders
                       small world and creating a common goal
                                                                                                                                       Feasible           Comprises realistic, attainable goals
Developing a         • sensible to the head
common goal          • appealing to the heart                                                                                          Focused            Clear enough to provide guidance in decision making
                                                                                                                                       Flexible           General enough to allow individual initiative and alternative
                                                                                                                                                          responses in light of changing conditions
                                                                                                                                       Communicable       Can be successfully explained within 5 minutes

                                       UNeGov.net Leadership School - Organization Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22-23 May 2008 - 17                                        UNeGov.net Leadership School - Organization Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22-23 May 2008 - 18




Vision, Strategies, Plans, Budgets                                                                                                     Creating an Effective Vision
Leaders             responsible for doing the right things - effectiveness                                                             1) First draft           Vision process oftens starts with an initial statement of a
                    Vision - sensible and appealing picture of the future                                                                                       single individual, reflecting his dreams and real needs
Leadership
creates             Strategies - logic on how the vision can be achieved                                                               2) Role of the guiding   The first draft is modeled over time by the guiding coalition
                                                                                                                                          coalition             or even a larger group of people
                    Programs and projects - for implementing the strategy
                                                                                                                                       3) Importance of         The group process of developing the vision only functions
                                                                                                                                          teamwork              with good teamwork
Managers            responsible for doing things right - efficiency                                                                    4) Role of the head      Both analytical thinking and some dreaming are essential
                                                                                                                                          and heart             throughout the activity
Management          Plans - steps and timetables to implement the strategies
creates                                                                                                                                5) Messiness of the      Vision creation is usually a process of two steps forward
                    budgets - plans converted into financial projections
                                                                                                                                          process               and one step back, moving from left to right
                                                                                                                                       6) Time frame            Vision is never created in a single meeting
                                                                                                                                       7) End product           The process results in a direction for the future that is
                                                                                                                                                                desireable, feasible, flexible, conveyable in 5 minutes max.

                                       UNeGov.net Leadership School - Organization Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22-23 May 2008 - 19                                        UNeGov.net Leadership School - Organization Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22-23 May 2008 - 20
4 - Communicating the Vision                                                                                                       5 - Empowering Employees
Simplicity               All jargon and technobabble must be eliminated                                                            Barriers to empowerment (4S):
Metaphor and analogy     A verbal picture is worth a thousand words
                                                                                                                                   Structures     Client-focused visions often fail because of client-unfocussed
Multiple forums          Same message should come from many different                                                                             organizational structures
                         locations – large group meetings, memos, posters - and
                         stand a better chance of being heard and remembered                                                       Skills         1) People are expected to change habits build up over years or
                                                                                                                                                     decades with a few days of training
Repetition               Ideas sink in deeply only after they have been heard                                                                     2) People are given a course before they start their new jobs, but
                         many times                                                                                                                  are not provided with mentoring while on the job
Leadership by example    Behaviour from important people that is inconsistent with                                                 Systems        1) Promotion and compensation systems must be geared towards
                         the vision overwhelms other forms of communication                                                                          objectives and create useful change
Explanation of seeming   Unaddressed inconsistencies undermine the credibility                                                                    2) Hire and fire systems must be in line with the new vision
inconsistencies          of all communication                                                                                      Supervisors    If one behavioural aspect of a supervisor is changed, great pressure
Give-and-take            Two-way communication is always more powerful than                                                                       is put to switch this aspect back to the way it was
                         one-way communication, if people do not accept the
                         vision, the next two steps in the process will fail
                                   UNeGov.net Leadership School - Organization Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22-23 May 2008 - 21                                         UNeGov.net Leadership School - Organization Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22-23 May 2008 - 22




Empowering People                                                                                                                  6 - Creating Short-Term Wins

Communicating a sensible         If employees have a shared sense of purpose,                                                      Short-term wins must be planned, organized accordingly, and implemented.
vision to employees              it will be easier to initiate actions to achieve that
                                 purpose
Making structures compatible     Unaligned structures block needed action                                                          Characteristics of short-term wins:
with the vision
Providing the training           Without the right skills and attitude, people feel                                                Visibility        1) Large number of people can see by themselves that the
employees need                   disempowered and anxious                                                                                               result is real
                                                                                                                                                     2) Visible results build the credibility needed to sustain efforts
Aligning information and         Otherwise they block needed action                                                                                     over longer periods of time
promotion systems to vision
                                                                                                                                   Un-ambiguity      1) There is little argument over the win
Confronting supervisors who      Nothing disempowers people the way a bad                                                                            2) Wins are clearly related to the change effort
undercut needed change           boss can




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Role of Short-Term Wins                                                                                                           7 - Consolidating Gains

Providing evidence that    Wins greatly help justify the short-term costs involved                                                Do not declare victory after the first performance improvement.
sacrifices are worth it
Rewarding change agents    After much hard work, positive feedback builds                                                         1) The celebration of short-term wins can be lethal if the urgency is lost
                           morale and motivation                                                                                     afterwards
Helping fine-tune vision   Short-term wins give the guiding coalition concrete
and strategies             data on the viability of their ideas
                                                                                                                                  2) Until changed practices attain a new equilibrium and have been driven
Undermining critics        Clear improvements in performance make it difficult                                                       into the culture, they can be very fragile
                           for people to block needed change
Keeping bosses on board    Providing those higher in the hierarchy with evidence                                                  3) Because all functions of an organisation are inter-dependendent,
                           that the transformation is on track                                                                       change now needs to be comprehensively carried through
Building momentum          Turns neutrals into supporters, reluctant supporters
                           into active helpers



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8 - Anchoring New Approaches 1                                                                                                    8 - Anchoring New Approaches 2
Culture refers to norms, behavior and shared values among a group of                                                              Anchoring new approaches in the culture comes last, not first, because:
people (the way we do things out here).
                                                                                                                                  Depends on results New approaches only sink into the culture after it is absolutely
                                                                                                                                                     clear that they work and are superior to old methods
New approaches must be anchored to the culture.
                                                                                                                                  Requires a lot of   Without verbal instructions and support, people are often
Culture is powerful and difficult to grab and change because:                                                                     communication       reluctant to admit the validity of new practices

                                                                                                                                  Changes promotion If promotion processes are not changed to be compatible with
1) Expresses itself through actions of allmost everyone in the organization
                                                                                                                                  processes         the new practices, the old culture will reassert itself
2) Happens without conscious intent and is difficult to challenge or discuss
                                                                                                                                  May involve staff   Sometimes the only way to change culture is to change key
Culture changes only after:                                                                                                       replacement         people

1) Peoples actions were successfully altered
2) New behaviour produces some group benefit for a period of time
3) People see the connection between the new actions and the
   performance improvement
                                  UNeGov.net Leadership School - Organization Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22-23 May 2008 - 27                                       UNeGov.net Leadership School - Organization Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22-23 May 2008 - 28
Managing Cultural Change                                                                                                          Outline
A top down approach:
                                                                                                                                  1    Introduction                            government transformation
                                                                                                                                  2    Change Management                       steps in government transformation
            strategic          Transformation process
                                                                                                                                  3    Strategic Management                    Balanced Scorecard system
                                                                                                                                  4    Performance Management                  management by objectives

                    tactical           Transformation process                                                                     5    Business Process Reengineering          transformation towards value creation
                                                                                                                                  6    Strategy Implementation                 strategies through programmes
                                                                                                                                  7    Structural Change                       structural changes and ICT support
                         operational                  Transformation process
                                                                                                                                  8    Summary                                 summary of concepts




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Strategic Planning                                                                                                                Balanced Scorecard
                                                                                                                                  Balanced Scorecard is a method and a tool which includes:
Strategic planning involves determining the required actions to achieve a
desired vision considering the present state of an organization.
                                                                                                                                  1) A strategy map where strategic objectives are placed over four
                                                                                                                                     perspectives in order to clarify the strategy and the cause and effect
A strategic plan:                                                                                                                    relationships that exists among them

1) Is a road map to lead an organization from its present state to its                                                            2) Strategic objectives which are smaller parts of the strategy interlinked
   desired medium or long term future state                                                                                          by cause and effect relationships in the strategy map

2) Specifies the mission, vision, goals, strategies and objectives                                                                3) Measures directly reflecting strategy

                                                                                                                                  4) Strategic initiatives that constitute the actual change as described by
                                                                                                                                     strategic objectives


                                                                                                                                  The scorecard drives implementation of strategy using perspectives.

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The Balanced Scorecard                                                                                                                   The Four Perspectives
Balance should be found between 4 perspectives to fulfil the mission of
any public organization:
                                                                                                                                         If:
                                                                                                                                         ● we have the right staff (innovation and growth perspective)
Client perspective       • Who are our clients?
                         • How do we create value for our clients?                                                                       ● doing the right things (process perspective)
Process perspective      • At which processes must we excel to satisfy clients
                                                                                                                                         then
                           while meeting budgetary constraints?
Learning, innovation,    • How do we enable ourselves to grow and change,                                                                ● our clients will be delighted (client perspective)
growth perspective         meeting ongoing demands?
Financial perspective    • How did we add value for our clients while                                                                    ● and we fulfilled our mission within our financial constraints
                           controlling costs?                                                                                              (financial perspective).




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Developing a Balanced Scorecard                                                                                                          Developing a Balanced Scorecard
                                             Mission
                                          Why do we exist                                                                                1) define the mission (image) and vision (objective)
                                              Values
                                        What do we believe in                                                                            2) develop the strategic coordination system (strategy map)
                                              Vision
                                       Where do we want to be                                                                            3) develop activities to implement the strategies
                                           Strategy
                               How do we get where we want to be
                                                                                                                                         4) bundle activities into projects
                                     Balanced Scorecard
                                   Focus and implementation
                                                                                                                                         5) carry out projects
                                          Strategic Steps
                                          What we must do
                                                                                                                                         6) develop reporting scorecard
                                           Personal Goals
                                           What must I do
                                                                                                                                         7) organize learning process
                                       Critical Success Factors
  Satisfied             Enthusiastic                                 Effective                      Motivated & competent
shareholders              clients                                   processes                             employees

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Strategy Map                                                                                                   Objectives




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Programs and Projects                                                                                          Outline

                                                                                                               1   Introduction                           government transformation
                                                                                                               2   Change Management                      steps in government transformation
                                                                                                               3   Strategic Management                   Balanced Scorecard system
                                                                                                               4   Performance Management                 management by objectives
                                                                                                               5   Business Process Reengineering         transformation towards value creation
                                                                                                               6   Strategy Implementation                strategies through programmes
                                                                                                               7   Structural Change                      structural changes and ICT support
                                                                                                               8   Summary                                summary of concepts




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Performance Management                                                                                                          Management by Objectives (MBO)

People do not do what you expect but what you inspect.                                                                          MBO is a well-established performance management system for
                                                                                                                                implementing the measures and targets of strategic as well as operational
                                                                                                                                objectives defined through the Balanced Scorecard.
1) Performance measurement is the process of assessing progress
   toward achieving desired results
                                                                                                                                1) Participative approach to integrate the objectives of an organization
                                                                                                                                   with those of all individuals within the organization
2) Performance improvement is any effort targeted at closing the gap
   between between actual results and desired results                                                                           2) System in which objectives cascade down through the organization.
                                                                                                                                   The result is a hierarchy of objectives that links objectives at one level
                                                                                                                                   to those at the next level
3) Performance management is about setting desired results, planning
                                                                                                                                3) For the individual, MBO provides specific personal performance
   activities, carrying out actions towards results, measuring progress,
                                                                                                                                   objectives
   and managing improvement
                                                                                                                                4) Objectives guide managers in operating their area of responsibility
                                                                                                                                   and individuals in their work
Most performance management systems are based on Management by
Objectives (MBO).
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Objectives                                                                                                                      MBO Individual Goal Sheet




                                                                                                                                 Header
                                                                                                                                             Name:                                   Job Title:
1) Two kinds of objectives:
    a) Strategic                                                                                                                             Manager Name:                           Date:
    b) Operational                                                                                                                           Description:

                                                                                                                                             Type (strategic/operational):           Measure:



                                                                                                                                 Objective
2) SMART objectives:
    a) Specific                                                                                                                              Target:                                 Quality criteria:
    b) Measureable
    c) Achieveable                                                                                                                           Means of verification:                  Start:                                End:
    d) Result oriented
                                                                                                                                             Skills Development:
                                                                                                                                 Skills


    e) Timebound


                                                                                                                                             Career Development:
                                                                                                                                 Career




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Outline                                                                                                                          Business Process Reengineering
                                                                                                                                 Business Process Reengineering (BPR) involves the fundamental
 1   Introduction                            government transformation
                                                                                                                                 rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic
 2   Change Management                       steps in government transformation                                                  improvements in critical contemporary measures of performance such as
                                                                                                                                 cost, quality, service and speed. [Hammer and Champy]
 3   Strategic Management                    Balanced Scorecard system
 4   Performance Management                  management by objectives
                                                                                                                                 A reengineered organization is process oriented, where:
 5   Business Process Reengineering          transformation towards value creation
 6   Strategy Implementation                 strategies through programmes                                                       1) Processes are identified and named,

 7   Structural Change                       structural changes and ICT support                                                  2) Everyone is aware of the processes they are involved in,
 8   Summary                                 summary of concepts
                                                                                                                                 3) Process measurement, i.e. monitoring and control, is performed




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Public Administration and BPR                                                                                                    Applying BPR
1) Investments in the computerization or automation of business                                                                  Can BPR be applied to government?
   processes by governments in the past have yielded limited benefits
                                                                                                                                 1) BPR is traditionally undertaken in the private sector
2) The quality of internal and external services provided by a government
   agency largely depends on the quality of its business processes                                                               2) Government and the public sector are (usually) characterized by stability
                                                                                                                                    and risk aversion
3) Governments have difficulties meeting the expectations of stakeholders
                                                                                                                                 3) BPR calls for drastic changes rather than incremental changes in
4) e-Government is about rethinking government processes and                                                                        organizations    e-Government comprises drastic changes
   incorporating beneficiaries within the design and execution of these
   business processes                                                                                                            4) Classical BPR considers cross-functional processes and radical redesign
                                                                                                                                    of such processes    e-Government not only explicitly considers cross-
                                                                                                                                    functional processes but embeds businesses and citizens into processes

                                                                                                                                 BPR is therefore a must when developing and implementing e-Government !

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Recent Trends in Public Sector                                                                                                   Public Sector BPR - Process Steps
BPR is widely used in the public sector.
                                                                                                                                  1)   Set up a steering committee and a project team
                                                                                                                                  2)   Analyze and document current processes including information flows
Re-inventing democracy     Treating citizens as stakeholders and clients and
                           including them in the governance process                                                               3)   Consult stakeholders/beneficiaries to detect problems/opportunities
                                                                                                                                  4)   Identify change opportunities and present them to the steering
Information Technology     Providing dramatically better ways of simplifying                                                           committee - get agreement on where and how to proceed
                           government and involving citizens through ICT
                                                                                                                                  5)   Define new business processes, analyze and document the required
Alternative mechanisms     Increasing the use of quasi-autonomous non-                                                                 organizational changes and impacts
for government (services   governmental organizations (quangos)
                                                                                                                                  6)   Obtain approval from the steering regarding proposed changes
delivery)
                                                                                                                                  7)   Implement
Outcomes and               Defining and measuring desired outcomes and
                                                                                                                                  8)   Monitor outcomes and anticipated benefits
performance                holding governments accountable for them
                                                                                                                                  9)   Adjust and fine tune as required
Partnerships               Creating intergovernmental, public-private and
                           labour-management partnerships


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Critical Success Factors                                                                                                         Example – Reengineered Process
Critical success factors when implementing e-Government programs with                                                            Traditional Process of Goods and Services Procurement:
comprehensive BPR components include:
                                                                                                                                              Draft of                                                                     Probable
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Goods and
1)   Well informed investment decisions                                                                                          Needs        contract and   Supplier       Contract
                                                                                                                                                                                                    services
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           case and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Payment
                                                                                                                                 analysis     documents      selection      draw up                                        liberation with
2)   Effective engagement with stakeholders                                                                                                   for tender
                                                                                                                                                                                                    supply
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           supplier
3)   Knowledge of the supplier marketplace
4)   Knowledge of the delivery chain
5)   Effective risk management                                                                                                   New Process of Goods and Services Procurement:
6)   Knowledge about operations
7)   Active management of intended outcomes and benefits
8)   LEADERSHIP!                                                                                                                                             On Line                                 Goods and
                                                                                                                                 Needs                                                               services                                      Payment
                                                                                                                                 analysis                     Order                                  supply




                                                                                                                                                                                                      [Courtesy – UNPAN , Transforming Government]

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Outline                                                                                                                         Program Management – Definition
                                                                                                                                Program management is the coordinated organization, direction and
1    Introduction                           government transformation                                                           implementation of a portfolio of projects and activities.
2    Change Management                      steps in government transformation
                                                                                                                                Programs and projects implement strategy.
3    Strategic Management                   Balanced Scorecard system
4    Performance Management                 management by objectives
                                                                                                                                When programs are focused on changing the way an organisation works,
5    Business Process Reengineering         transformation towards value creation                                               the program is generally led by:
6    Strategy Implementation                strategies through programmes
7    Structural Change                      structural changes and ICT support                                                  1) a vision of a desired outcome and
                                                                                                                                2) the benefits that outcome will bring
8    Summary                                summary of concepts




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Successful Programs                                                                                                             Program Management
Successful e-Government programs present the following attributes:                                                              1)   Organization and leadership
                                                                                                                                2)   Benefits management
1) Are aligned with strategies                                                                                                  3)   Stakeholder management and communications
2) Have clear and consistent vision of the transformed organisation                                                             4)   Issue and risk management
3) Are focused on benefits and the internal and external threads to their                                                       5)   Planning and control
   achievement                                                                                                                  6)   Business case management
4) Coordinate a number of projects and their interdependencies in pursuit                                                       7)   Quality management
   of outcomes and benefits
5) Include a technical feasibility of the required outputs
6) Involves leadership, influence, management and direction of the
   transition, including handling cultural change




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Programs                                                                                                                        Projects
Programs produce outcomes and benefits.                                                                                         Projects produce outputs.


Outcomes are the effects of change and form the vision for the program.                                                         Outputs are specific deliverables from projects that are delivered within
                                                                                                                                time, cost and quality constraints.
Achieving the desired outcomes requires active management of the change
process, including transforming behaviour, attitudes, ways of working, etc.                                                     1) Programs and projects are complimentary approaches. During a
                                                                                                                                   program lifecycle, projects are initiated, executed, and closed
                                                                                                                                2) Program management does not replace the need for competent project
                                                                                                                                   management.




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Program Organization 1                                                                                                          Program Organization 2
Roles and responsibilities:
                                                                                                                                Sponsoring Group
                                                                                                                                • makes investment decision
       Sponsoring Group                                                                                                         • decides who holds the budget and pays for what and when

                                                                                                                                Senior Responsible Owner (SRO)
         Program Board                                                                                                          • is responsible for the success of the program
         chaired by SRO
                                                                                                                                Program Board Members
                                                                                                                                • represent stakeholders
                                                                                                                                • support SRO in decision-making

    Program          Business                                                                                                   Business Change Managers
    Manager           Change                                                                                                    • responsible for transition and embedding of change caused by programs
                     Managers
    Program
     Team
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Project Organization                                                                                                            Project Process Groups
Roles:                                                                                                                          1) Initiation
                          Program Management

                                                                                                                                2) Planning
                             Project Board
            Senior User      Executive     Senior Supplier
                                                                                                                                3) Executing
                           Project Assurance

                                                                                                                                4) Monitoring & controlling
                                Project
                               Manager                            Project                                                       5) Closing
                                                                  Support
                                Team
                               Manager



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Project Management Areas                                                                                                        Program Management Office
According to the Project Management Institute, Project Management                                                               Responsibilities of the Program / Project Management Office:
comprises the following knowledge areas:
                                                                                                                                •   Orchestrating the e-Government program
1)   Integration management                                                                                                     •   Assessing project management maturity of government agencies
2)   Scope management                                                                                                           •   Maintaining program/project management methodologies
3)   Time management
                                                                                                                                •   Managing contracts
4)   Cost management
                                                                                                                                •   Establishing project management tools
5)   Quality management
6)   Human resource management                                                                                                  •   Standardizing e-Government technologies
7)   Communications management                                                                                                  •   Training and coaching on program/project management
8)   Risk management                                                                                                            •   Developing business cases
9)   Procurement management                                                                                                     •   Organizing projects and reporting lines
                                                                                                                                •   Planning and controlling including external reviews
                                                                                                                                •   Managing risks, quality, and configuration
                                                                                                                                •   Controlling changes

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Developing the Business Case                                                                                                       Risk Management
The business case provides a description and a justification of the project.
                                                                                                                                   Risk can be defined as uncertainty of outcome.
Two stages for developing the business case:

Investigation   a) Scope investigation                                                                                             Some amount of risk is inevitable if a program should achieve its outcomes.
                   • Outline business objectives, benefits, time scales
                   • Establish required resources, dependencies and risks                                                          Considerations when assessing program/project risks:
                   • Determine fit to strategy, business environment, etc
                b) Investigation report
                                                                                                                                   1) Ratio of business benefit to costs when designing responses to risk
                   • Assess business needs and the viable opportunities
Feasibility     Options investigation                                                                                              2) Client-side experience and skills in business modelling, project
                                                                                                                                      management etc.
                   • Determine stakeholders viewpoints
                   • Analyze current business and IT solutions                                                                     3) Capacity of the client organisation to embrace change
                   • Analyze requirements, business and technical options                                                          4) Degree of technical complexity
                   • Recommend an option (if possible)                                                                             5) Externally imposed time delays, e.g. waiting for data from agencies
                   • Plan and cost business solution                                                                               6) Capacity of suppliers, project management and technical skills
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Benefits Management                                                                                                                Project Assessment

Benefits are used to direct the program and its subordinated projects.                                                             The project can be assessed through:

                                                                                                                                   project profile   1) Comprise a set of high-level criteria against which the SRO or
Benefits management provides alignment and clear links between the                                                                 models               project manager can assess the characteristics and degree of
                                                                                                                                                        difficulty of a project for establishing:
program and the strategic objectives and vision it is serving.
                                                                                                                                                          a) control structure
                                                                                                                                                          b) risk profile and risk strategy
Benefits management ensures that:                                                                                                                         c) design approach
                                                                                                                                   project           1) Is a guide for assessing project management competencies
1) Benefits are comprehensively identified and measurable                                                                          management           and capacities in government agencies
2) Government/Agencies are committed to benefits identified and their                                                              competency        2) Includes roadmap for actions to close the gap between
   realization. This encourages ownership and responsibility for adding                                                            profiles             existing and required management competencies
   value through the realization process




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Outline                                                                                                                           ICT and Government Structure
                                                                                                                                  ICT impacts in a number of ways on organizational structures:
1    Introduction                             government transformation
2    Change Management                        steps in government transformation                                                  1)   Information availability
3    Strategic Management                     Balanced Scorecard system                                                           2)   Control and coordination
4    Performance Management                   management by objectives                                                            3)   Decentralization
                                                                                                                                  4)   Knowledge bases availability
5    Business Process Reengineering           transformation towards value creation
6    Strategy Implementation                  strategies through programmes
7    Structural Change                        structural changes and ICT support
8    Summary                                  summary of concepts




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Impact - Information Availability                                                                                                 Impact - Control and Coordination
Implication of ICT in the area of information availability:                                                                       Implication of ICT in the area of control and coordination:

1) Information is easy to capture                                                                                                 1) Control and coordination of business activities can be carried out at the
                                                                                                                                     lower tiers of the hierarchy, as there is access to required information
2) Information can be accessed anywhere, anytime, by anyone authorized
                                                                                                                                  2) Information can be processed horizontally - no need to hand information
3) People within the same business area or business process can share                                                                up and down the tiers to transfer information between divisions
   information through databases and networks




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Impact - Decentralization                                                                                                         Impact – Knowledge Base
Implication of ICT in the area of decentralization:                                                                               Implication of ICT in the area of knowledge bases:

1) Decision making can be decentralized - done by persons with                                                                    1) Availability of knowledge bases enables decentralized decision making
   authorized access to information with knowledge of the relevant criteria
                                                                                                                                  2) Knowledge bases will strengthen the capacity of lower tiers in decision
2) Decentralized decision making is facilitated by networked computers                                                               making, since they become more knowledgeable
   and a decision-support systems




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Modern Structure – ICT based                                                                                                      Structural Change Propositions
The consequence of these impacts on the structure of government                                                                   Popular proposition of structural change include:
organization includes:
                                                                                                                                  1) ICT has the potential to reform public administration and their relations
1) Decision making is decentralized, made at the location close to where                                                             with their environment
   the business activity is taking place
                                                                                                                                  2) ICT can change organization structures and is a powerful tool
2) Structures evolve from hierarchical to flat networked

3) All the elements of the society are connected, share information and
   communicate with one another




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Lessons Learned                                                                                                                   Outline
1)   Involve stakeholders – citizens, business, government
                                                                                                                                   1   Introduction                           government transformation
2)   Develop a shared vision
                                                                                                                                   2   Change Management                      steps in government transformation
3)   Use seasoned project and change management professionals
4)   Appoint cross-functional project teams                                                                                        3   Strategic Management                   Balanced Scorecard system
5)   Deliver in stages                                                                                                             4   Performance Management                 management by objectives
6)   Develop Private-Public-Partnerships                                                                                           5   Business Process Reengineering         transformation towards value creation
7)   Establish adequate legal framework
                                                                                                                                   6   Strategy Implementation                strategies through programmes
                                                                                                                                   7   Structural Change                      structural changes and ICT support
                                                                                                                                   8   Summary                                summary of concepts




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 Summary                                                                                                                          Sources and Further Information
1) e-Government or e-governance is aimed to transform government                                                                  1) Change Management
   interaction with its stakeholders and enhance its internal efficiency                                                              • Leading Change, John P. Kotter, ISBN 0-87584-747-1
                                                                                                                                  2) Strategic Management
2) Organizational transformation cannot be achieved solely by ICT                                                                     • The Balanced Scorecard Institute (balancedscorecard.org)
                                                                                                                                      • Balanced scorecard step-by-step for government and not-for-profit
3) Our view of ICT is completely utilitarian, a tool, nevertheless powerful,                                                              agencies, Paul R. Niven, ISBN 0-471-42328-9
   but not sufficient                                                                                                             3) Performance Management
                                                                                                                                      • The Practice of Management, Peter Drucker, ISBN 0-060-87897-5
4) Organization change approaches like BPR is major agent for
   transformation                                                                                                                 4) Portfolio, Program, Project Management
                                                                                                                                      • Project Management Institute (pmi.org)
5) ICT will definitely enable BPR                                                                                                     • Office of Government Commerce (ogc.gov.uk)
                                                                                                                                      • APM Group (apmgroup.co.uk)
6) Therefore, it is very plausible to propose that BPR is one of the most                                                         5) e-Government Coordination/Program Management Office
   critical aspect of e-governance – a necessary condition                                                                            • Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore (ida.gov.sg)
                                                                                                                                      • Government of Hong Kong, (info.gov.hk/digital21)
7) Change management must be carried out along with BPR process
                                  UNeGov.net Leadership School - Organization Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22-23 May 2008 - 79                                   UNeGov.net Leadership School - Organization Module - Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 22-23 May 2008 - 80

				
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