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					Nutrition: A Problem-Based
Learning Project
                                     Julie Scott - 4th Grade Teacher
                                     Pederson Elementary School
                                     Altoona, WI
                                     jscott@altoona.k12.wi.us




      Funded by Cluster A TLCF project - 2001-2002
       Nutrition: A Problem-Based
                  Project
Problem: How can a school lunch program serve
nutritious
meals that most students will eat?

Need to do:
•Divide into five groups and brainstorm jobs
•Get a copy of the lunch menus from August through May
•Create a checklist for each food item
•Interview Food Service Director
•Interview each grade level and compare data K-4
•Create a chart/graph representing the data
•Create a Power Point presentation about what the data shows
•Research different foods/nutritious topics
•How many calories are in certain foods?
•Write a persuasive essay about why the lunch program needs to
make changes
•Show the top five choices and the bottom five choices/replace with
different items
                          Assessment
Teacher Evaluation:
   •Group presentations will be evaluated using a rubric.
   •Individual persuasive essays will be evaluated using a rubric
   •Ongoing subjective evaluation throughout the project using a check list
Self-Evaluation:
   •Students will complete a cooperative group work rubric




NOTE: Rubrics for this project can be located on my web page.
       http://www.cesa10.k12.wi.us/clustera/ZETA/Julie/index.htm
                        Real-World Connections

This problem-based project regarding our school lunch program was especially
challenging and rewarding for my students. They were excited about tackling
this project and were eager and hopeful that their efforts would results in
change.
The audience for this project was the Food Service Director, our building
Principal, the School District Liaison, and the School Board. Of course, the
entire elementary staff and students were a major audience as well.
My students did an exceptional job of problem-solving throughout this project.
In the real world, the way we bring about “change” is to recognize there is a
problem that needs change, bring many heads together and brainstorm a
course of action, represent findings using hard data to convince the audience
and change needs to take place! I am extremely proud of how well my students
were able to do understand and demonstrate this process!


NOTE: This project took 9 weeks to complete.
                     Group
                     Names
   Strawberry           Kiwi            Orange
•Kate-Writer     •Tyler T.A.-     •Tyler H.-
                 Organizer        Overseer
•Samantha-
Organizer        •Miranda-        •Jonathan-
                 Speaker          Organizer
•Nick-Overseer   •Cody B.-        •Shelby-Speaker
•Oscar-Speaker   Overseer
                                  •Lindy-Writer
•Brandon-Timer   •Cassandra-
                 Writer           •Connor-Timer
 Lemon-Lime                            Banana
                 •Cody S.-Timer
•Katie-Writer                     •Justin-
•Desiree-                         Organizer
Speaker                           •Brittney-
•Teegan-                          Overseer
Overseer                          •Ben-Speaker
•Curtis-                          •Ashley-Writer
Organizer
•Money-Timer                      •Toua-Timer
                Interview Questions

•How do you decide what the lunch menu will be?
•Is it possible for students to have more choices? If so,
explain.
•What are some of the most nutritious foods that are served
for lunch? How do
 you know?
•Why do we need to put three items on our tray at lunchtime?
•Why are foods served that most students aren’t interested in?
•Where does the food we eat come from?
•Are there added ingredients that you know of in the foods we
eat?
•How do you provide food for people who need special diets?
•How do you know what to serve for kids with diabetes?
              Interview Answers
Q: How do you decide what the lunch menu will
be?

A: The foods that are served must meet Government
approval. The
   food service director looks at:
      •Nutritional analysis on fat content
      •Match the food groups
      •Use a computer to figure out what students
      need
Q: Is it possible for students to have other
choices?
A: Yes, students should let her know what additional
choices            they would like to have,but keep
     Interview Answers Continued:
Q: What are some of the most nutritious foods that are
served for lunch? How do you know?
A: Raw vegetables and fruit are the most nutritious!
Broccoli, cauliflower and other foods low in fat like turkey.

Q: Why do we need to put three items on our tray at
lunchtime?
A: It is the law! We are a part of the National School Lunch
Program and our district would lose money for those who do
not take three items on their tray. The school district could
also be fined if students who do not take three items on
their tray are recorded.
     Interview Answers Continued:
Q: Why are foods served that most students aren’t
interested in?
A: Some of the foods like tuna and chicken are considered
commodities which means that they can be purchased at a
reduced rate. Chicken Chow Mein is a very popular item
according to Mrs. Streif. The pizza served at the elementary
school is NOT Pizza Hut pizza. However, the middle and
high school students pay more for their hot lunches to offset
the cost of the Pizza Hut pizza.
    Interview Answers Continued:
Q: Where does the food we eat come from?
A: The food that is served in our district is ordered through
Eau Claire and are considered Government commodities.
The distributers involved are:
   •Indian Head Foods
   •Baraboo Sysco
   •Reinhart
The ice cream comes from R.L. Cedar Crest
The bread comes from Village Hearth
The milk comes from Marygold Kemp
 Interview Answers Continued:
Q: Are there added ingredients that you know of
in the foods we eat?


A: In the cheeseburger for example, which is a
government commodity, soybean has been added to
the meat to cut down on the fat content. In addition,
our school cannot have salt and pepper on the tables
ever. Sometimes, Mrs. Dash salt can be used in
VERY small quantities to add flavor to foods. This is
done by the cooks only.
    Interview Answers Continued:
Q: How do you provide food for people who need
special diets?
A: First of all, the parent/guardian needs a slip from the
Doctor indicating that their child needs a special diet due to
food allergies. The school lunch menus are then sent to a
dietician who passes the information on to the family. The
parents must indicate which food items their child cannot
have. An alternative item is then put out for that child.
Some of the most common food allergies seen in schools
are:
    •Peanuts-- substituted with a low-fat cookie
    •Strawberries
    •Chocolate
    •Milk-- substituted with orange juice
  Interview Answers Continued:
Q: How do you know what to serve for kids with
diabetes?

A: The food service director works closely with a dietician
for students who
have diabetes. Again, a doctor’s note indicating that this is
the case must be
given to the school district. Usually the older students
know what they can
and cannot have. However, the younger students usually
have a tray already
prepared for them as they go through the lunch line. Often
times, the child’s
teacher is also made aware for the younger students so
they too can assist
that child with their lunch as they go through the line.
                                                What Kids Like To Eat

   90
   80                                                                                                    Kindergerten
   70                                                                                                    First
                                                                                                         Second
   60
                                                                                                         Third
   50                                                                                                    Fourth
   40
   30
   20
   10
    0
        Cheeseburger/bun Turkey Sub Chicken Nuggets Chbgr. Cass.   Cheese Pizza Ck Salad/Bun   Ravioli


This data shows 7 choices from the lunch menu and how many kids like
each one. So, this chart shows Chicken Nuggets is a very popular choice.
This chart shows that Turkey Sub sandwich, Chicken Salad on a Pita and
Macaroni Casserole aren’t very popular food choices.
This graph was completed by Kate, Brandon, Nick, Samantha and Oscar- Members of
                              the Strawberry Group
                                      What Kids Like To Eat
                                                                                          Kindergarten
  80
                                                                                          1st Grade
  70                                                                                      2nd Grade
                                                                                          3rd Grade
  60
                                                                                          4th Grade
  50

  40

  30

  20

  10

   0
       BBQ Pork/Bun   Chicken/Gravy     Omelet     Burrito w/   Sloppy Joe   Ham/Cheese
                                      w/Pancakes     Salsa


Here are six choices of the thirty-four foods served at our school at lunchtime. You can see that
the cheese omelet with pancakes is a very popular choice. And you can see that the burrito with
salsa is not so popular as all the other choices. The first grade students seem to be the only
group of students who really like BBQ on a bun.
This particular project is made by Ben, Justin, Ashley, Toua, and Brittney; members of the
                                       Banana Group.
                                                      What Kids Like To Eat


         80                                                                                                           Kindergarten
         70                                                                                                           First
         60                                                                                                           Second
         50                                                                                                           Third
         40                                                                                                           Fourth
         30
         20
         10
          0
                Breade d    Chicken Chow Mini Corn DogsEgg, Saus age & Peanutbutter Italian Dunkers Grilled Chicken
              Chicken Patty    Mien                    Cheese/Muffin Sandwich &                          Breas t
                                                                       String Cheese




This is a bar graph showing what kids like to eat. Some of the choices that kids like the
most are: Mini Corn Dogs and Egg, Sausage, and Cheese/Muffin. One of the choices
that isn’t very popular in fourth grade is: Grilled Chicken Breast. The choice that the first
and second graders like the same amount is Italian Dunkers.
  By the Kiwi group members: Cassandra, Cody S, Cody B, Miranda and Tyler T.
                     Likes and Dislikes of The Lunch Menu
           90
           80
           70                                                                                                  Kindergarten
           60                                                                                                  First
           50                                                                                                  Second
           40                                                                                                  Third
           30                                                                                                  Fourth
           20
           10
            0
                Corn Dog   Italian Sub   Hot Dog    Grilled Chicken Beef & Cheese Bologna & Cheese Spaghetti
                                                   Nuggets w/ Pretzel Nachos



This chart shows 7 lunch choices that the grade levels like and dislike. It shows that Corn Dog and
Beef & Cheese nachos and the hot dog are very popular choices. It also shows that bologna &
cheese sandwich, Grilled Chicken Nuggets w/ Pretzel and also Italian Sub Sandwich are not very
popular choices.


This page was created by the Lemon-Lime group. The members are: Katie, Teegan, Curtis, Desiree,
                                         and Money.
                                         What Kids Like and Don't Like

            90
            80
            70                                                                              Kindergarten
            60                                                                              First
            50                                                                              Second
            40                                                                              Third
            30                                                                              Fourth
            20
            10
             0
                                     Fish
                 Tuna Salad Oven Baked Nuggets CinnamonFruit Yogurt Soft shell Shaved
                  on a Bun Chicken w/ tarte r Glazed                  taco    Turckey and
                                        sauce Fre nch Toast                     Cheese

This chart shows that students at Pedersen really like the fruit yogurt, soft shell taco, and cinnamon
glazed french toast as lunch menus. It also shows that tuna salad on a pita is not a favorite choice.
Second grade is the only grade that really likes shaved turkey and cheese.
    This chart was created by the Orange group. The members are: Tyler, Jonathan, Lindy,
                                     Connor, and Shelby.
                            What We Learned

1. We learned how to solve problems.
2. We learned how many food items are served throughout the year.
3. We learned where our food comes from. Example: Our bread comes from
    Village Hearth, our milk and ice cream comes from Mary Gold Kemp, and
    our other food items comes from places like Indian Head Foods.
4. We learned about the five food groups and how important it is to receive
    certain a amount of servings a day.
5. We learned how to make change happen.
6. We learned how to write a persuasive letter.
7. We learned how to interview people and collect data for our project.
8. We learned what kids like and don’t like to eat at our school.
                   What We Learned Continued…
9. We learned what the food service does for kids who are allergic to
    certain foods.
10. We learned that if the school has to be evacuated during lunch, the
    food must be thrown away.
11. We learned that we are required to take three items on our tray
     because the school district would loose money.
12. We learned how to create a Power-Point slide with a graph that shows
    our data.
13. We learned how to work together as a group.
14. We learned about nutrition and how our food service director uses the
    food pyramid to help decide the menus.
15. We learned that the food service director must have our lunch menu
    approved and we cannot have too much fat, sugar, or salt in our diets.
                                Percentages of Food
79% Italian Dunkers                  Choices      43% Italian Sub Sandwich
74% Fruit Yogurt w/String Cheese                        41% Fish Nuggets/Tarter Sauce
73% Breaded Chicken Nuggets                             41% Breaded Chicken Patty
71% Beef & Cheese Nachos                                40% Burrito /Salsa
69% Corn Dog TIE                                        40% Oven Baked Chicken
69% Hot Dog TIE                                         38% Chicken & Gravy
68% Cheese Pizza                                        38% Hot Ham & Cheese
67% Soft Shell Taco w/Fixings                           37% Grilled Chicken Breast
64% Egg Sausage Cheese on Muffin                        34% Bologna & Cheese Sandwich
64% Peanut Butter Uncrustable Sandwich                  33% Shaved Turkey & Cheese on a
w/String Cheese                                         Multigrain Bun
61% Cinnamon Glazed French Toast                        33% Ravioli w/Meatballs
57% Mini Corn Dogs                                      30% BBQ Pork on Bun
57% Cheese Omelet w/Pancakes                            29% Chicken Salad on a Bun
55% Sloppy Joe on Bun                                   27% Chicken Chow Mein
51% Grilled Chicken Nuggets/Pretzel                     22% Tuna Salad on a Pita
49% Spaghetti w/Meat Sauce                              19% Turkey Sub Sandwich
48% Cheeseburger on Bun                                 15% Cheeseburger Macaroni
                      Science Standards

WI Content Standard C: Students in Wisconsin will investigate
questions using scientific methods and tools, revise their personal
understanding to accommodate knowledge, and communicate these
understands to others.
WI Content Standard H: Students in Wisconsin will use scientific
information and skills to make decisions about themselves, Wisconsin,
and the world in which they live.

                         Math Standard

WI Standard E: Students in Wisconsin will use data collection and
analysis, statistics and probability in problem-solving situation,
employing technology where appropriate.
                     Language Arts Standards


WI Content Standard B: Students in Wisconsin will write clearly and
effectively to share information and knowledge, to influence and persuade,
to create and entertain.



WI Content Standard C: Students in Wisconsin will listen to understand
and will speak clearly and effectively for diverse purposes.


WI Content Standard F: Students in Wisconsin will locate, use, and
communicate information from a variety of print and non-print
Technology and Literacy Standards




These are from the Language Arts Standard - the location of the T & Lit
http://www.dpi.state.wi.us/standards/pdf/infotech.pdf

E.4.1 Use computers to acquire, organize, analyze, and communicate i
E.4.2 Make informed judgments about communications media and prod

E.4.3 Create products appropriate to audience and purpose.
E.4.5 Analyze and edit media work as appropriate to audience and purp
                      Science Standards

WI Content STANDARD C: Students in Wisconsin will investigate
questions using scientific methods and tools, revise their personal
understanding to accommodate knowledge, and communicate these
understands to others.
C.4.2 Use the scientific content being learned to: Ask Questions, plan
investigations, make observations, make predictions, and offer
explanations.
C4.5 Use data they have collected to: Develop explanations and
answer questions generated by investigations
C.4.6 Communicate the results of their investigations in ways their
audiences will understand by: using charts, graphs, drawings, written
descriptions, and various other means, to display their answers
C.4.7 Support their conclusions with logical arguments
       Science Standards Continued…

WI Content Standard H: Students in Wisconsin will use
scientific information and skills to make decisions about
themselves, Wisconsin, and the world in which they live.



        Performance Standard Serves As Benchmark
H.4.3 Show how science has contributed to meeting personal needs,
including hygiene, nutrition, exercise, safety, and health care.
                        Math Standards

WI Standard E: Students in Wisconsin will use data collection and
analysis, statistics and probability in problem-solving situation, employing
technology where appropriate.
E.4.1 Work with data in the context of real-world situations by:
    •Formulating questions that lead to data collection and analysis (1)
    •Determining what data to collect and when and how to collect them
    (2)
    •Collecting, organizing, and displaying data (3)
    •Drawing reasonable conclusions based on data (4)
E.4.3 In problem-solving situations, read, extract, and use information
presented in graphs, tables, or charts
                 Language Arts Standards…
WI Content Standard B: Students in Wisconsin will write clearly and
effectively to share information and knowledge, to influence and
persuade, to create and entertain.

B.4.1 Create or produce writing to communicate with different audiences for
a variety of purposes. *Write nonfiction and technical pieces (summaries,
messages, informational essays, basic directions, instructions, simple
reports) that convey essential details and facts and provide accurate
representations of events and sequences (1)
B.4.2 Plan, revise, edit, and publish clear and effective writing *Use the
steps of the writing process. Produce multiple drafts, including finished
pieces, that demonstrate the capacity to generate, focus, and organize ideas
and to revise the language, organization, and content of successive drafts in
order to fulfill a specific purpose for communicating with a specific audience.
(1)
B.4.3 Understand the function of various forms,structures, and punctuation
marks of standard American English and use then appropriately in
           Language Arts Continued…

WI Content Standard C: Students in Wisconsin will listen to understand
and will speak clearly and effectively for diverse purposes.


C.4.1 Orally communicate information, opinions, and ideas effectively to
different audiences for a variety of purposes.
    •*Identify and discuss criteria for effective oral presentations,
    including such factors as eye contact, projection, tone, volume, rate,
    and articulation (1)
    •*Read aloud effectively from previously-read material (2)
    •*Speaking from notes or a brief outline, Communicate precise
    information and accurate instructions in clearly organized and
    sequenced detail (3)
               Language Arts Continued…

WI Content Standard F: Students in Wisconsin will locate, use, and
communicate information from a variety of print and non-print

F.4.1 Conduct research and inquiry on self-selected or assigned topics, issues,
or problems and use an appropriate form to communicate their findings.
     •Propose research by formulating initial questions, narrowing the focus of a
     topic, identifying prior knowledge and developing a basic plan for gathering
     information (1)
     •Conduct research by identifying, locating, exploring and effectively using
     multiple sources of information appropriate to the inquire, including print (2)
     •Recognize, record, organize, and acknowledge information pertinent to a
     project, accurately blending discoveries into answers (3)
     •Present the results of inquire, reporting and commenting on the substance
     and process of learning, orally and in writing, using appropriate visual aids
     (4)

				
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