JOB-SATISFACTION

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					JOB SATISFACTION: A STUDY ON SELECTED BANK EMPLOYEES;
  AN APPLICATION OF HERZBERG’S MOTIVATION-HYGIENE
                        THEORY

                                               Dr.N.THIRUPALU
                         Prof., Chaitanya Institute of Business Management, Hyderabad,
                                             ajas_basha@yahoo.com

                                                  S.MD. AZASH
                       Asst. Prof., Annamacharya Institute of Technology and Sciences, AP
                                              ejaz008@gmail.com

                                               RAMESH SAFARE
                       Asst. Prof., Annamacharya P.G.College of Management Studies, AP
                                           rameshsafare@gmail.com

Abstract

In this paper an investigation is made to study the job satisfaction of selected bank employees in Andhra
Pradesh and to test the Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory. The main objectives of this research paper are to
find association between socio-demographic characteristics, motivation, hygiene factors and job satisfaction.
To carry out this research stratified random sampling technique were used and both descriptive and inferential
statistics are also employed for the data analysis. The results, reveals that there is an association between socio-
demographic        characteristics, motivation, hygiene factors and job satisfaction.Finally,this investigation
supported that job satisfaction was caused by both motivation and hygiene factors

Keywords: Job Satisfaction, the Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory, Motivation, Socio-Demographic

Introduction                                                conditions,     health,     temperament,         desires,
                                                            expectations etc. Therefore, it is possible to predict
 Job satisfaction is closely related to the gratification   the effect of an individual’s personal and social
of needs. It is composed of effective cognitive and         adjustment on the job satisfaction
behavioural elements. These elements vary in their
intensity and consistency from one individual to            Literature review
another. Thus, job satisfaction is the satisfaction
derived from any pursuit directed by the process of         Glisson and Durick (1988) reported that worker
fulfillment of needs. It is the favourableness or           characteristics predict commitment but play no role
unfavourableness with which employees view their            in predicting satisfaction and emphasized on job
work. It results from specific attitudes of employees       characteristics as determinants of job satisfaction.
in three areas viz., specific job factors, and individual   (charles glisson, 1988) Nathan et.al, (1991) revealed
adjustment on the job and group relationship. Job           that significant interaction, interpersonal relations,
satisfaction may refer to either to a person or a group.    opportunity to participate and career discussion
It results from the best fit among job requirements,        affected     subordinate      satisfaction    with     the
wants and expectations of employees. It is used to          organisation (Barry R Nathan, 1991). A U shaped
express the extent of match between the employees’          curvilinear association between age and job
expectations of the job and the rewards that job            satisfaction which characterize the form of
provides. Job satisfaction is the result of various         relationship of the job satisfaction measures
attitudes the person hold towards his job and towards       (k.michele      kacmar       and      geraald     r.ferris,
life in general. Considering job satisfaction as the        1989).Mediated and interactive associations among
overall attitude of wellbeing with regards to job and       prior absenteeism, supervisory style, attitudinal
its environment, it is difficult to know how an             variables, personal characteristics and subsequent
employee feels about his job. The feeling about the         absenteeism. They revealed that job satisfaction and
job is directly affected by the factors like salary, kind   absenteeism was negatively related (Stephen J
of work performed, supervision, working conditions,         Zaccaro, 1991). Role over load, role conflict and
opportunity for advancement etc. However, the               non-profitability are negatively and significantly
factors affecting job satisfaction are not restricted to    related to job satisfaction (Dhillon, 1991).
the on-the-job-environment alone. Some factors
pertaining to ‘life away from work’ are housing
Work identification will be affected by several           related to various needs as perceived by different
personal-personality, job and organizational variables    levels of managers does not correspondent to the
(Dolke A.M., 1991). Level of job satisfaction             need hierarchy suggested by Maslow. Autonomy,
(dissatisfaction) as a function of the experience of      responsibility, promotion and growth opportunities
person within the organisation (baldev r sharma,          are assigned higher priorities by Indian mangers
1991). Promotion gap as a significant potential           (Lahiri D. , 1973). High pay (money factor) was
source for job dissatisfaction (sease, 1992). Age         given high preference along with esteem, autonomy,
correlated significantly with promotion, experience       and self-actualization by all the three–levels of
and job satisfaction (Pandey, 1992). Promotion            managers. Security need was, however, given low
correlated positively but moderately with experience      preference by these managers (Shah, 1976).
and positively and significantly with job satisfaction
(Cheri Ostroff, 1992). Satisfaction is positively         Top level managers ranked recognisation for work,
related to productivity and more productive people        job contents, higher status and authority ,good salary
are more satisfied as a consequence rather than that      ,informal relationship with the higher and clearly
satisfaction cause productivity (Jeffrey Feffer, 1993).   defined responsibility in that order. In this study a
                                                          very low correlation (0.027) between the ranking
Job perception of employees will stream from actual       expectations by top-level and lower-level managers
condition of work (Johan E.Mathieu, 1993). Simple,        suggested inconsistency in the need hierarchy. Thus,
routine and unchallenging jobs often lead to high         lower level managers attach more importance to
employees’ dissatisfaction (Davis, 1957). Job             good salary and higher status and authority which
enlargement leads to job satisfaction (Biganne,           command low rank from top level (Prasad,
1964). Employees with the stronger need for growth        1977).Found that only 33 per cent of managers chose
react more positively to enrich their job than those      their jobs for the remuneration. On the other hand,
who had weak needs (Sims, 1974). Identify factors of      advancement, stability, opportunity to use skills, and
job satisfaction of workers (Bose, 1951). Test the        the image of the organization were predominant in
applicability of Herzberg’s two-factor theory (Lahiri,    the choice of managerial career (Monappa, 1977).
1967) .
                                                          A more comprehensive study by (Singh P., 1977)
Maintenance factors such as job security, company         disclosed that freedom from supervision and sub-
working conditions etc., were satisfiers and              ordinate, adventures, experiences and challenges, use
motivation to middle level managers (Sawalapurkar,        of special ability and talent, to be creative and
1968). Job context and job content factors were not       original, social status and prestige, opportunities to
independent of each other as a source of employees        work with people, exercise of leadership, control
satisfaction and dissatisfaction (Chowadary, 1966).       over others, chance to earn a good deal of money and
Motivation-hygiene theory is applicable to Indian         stable and secure future were ranked in that order.
context (S.Saiyaddin, 1970). Motivators contributed       Managers rank various job factors in the order of
significantly more towards satisfaction than hygiene      scope for autonomy at work,responsibility,challenges
factors in public enterprises, whereas in the case of     and varieties at work, career advancement, self-
private sector enterprises motivators contributed         actualisation,inter-personal relations, appreciation
significantly more towards the feeling of                 and recognisation of work, chance to get prestige in
dissatisfaction than hygiene factors (G., 1972).          the organization, consistent and sound company’s
                                                          policy, salary and pre-requisites, good leadership by
In a comprehensive study of 1213 Managers from 47         superior,         good        physical       working
public sector enterprises found that the following        conditions,satabilityand security in job.Further,there
factors as important and ranked accomplishment,           is no significant difference in motivation profile of
recognisation for good work done, decision-making         public and private sector managers (Singh P., 1977) .
authority, opportunity for promotion ,opportunity for
personal growth and development ,prestige of              Manager and supervisor ranked various job factors as
organization outside the company, pay, allowances         job security, opportunites for advancement ,pay
and other benefits, and the job security (Narain,         according to merits, working conditions, task,
1971). Higher preference was give for intrinsic job       welfare, housing, supervisors, work, group, bonus
factors as compared to extrinsic factors (Sharma,         and name of the company in that order (Swatantra
1971).                                                    Kumar, 1982).
The study of motivational factors among middle
class white-collar employees found that white collar      Research Methodology and Design
workers ranked adequate salary as the most
important factors followed by job security and            Objectives of the study
suitable type of work as the next important factors.
The same ranking was given by blue collar workers         1. To measure the job satisfaction of selected bank
also (Kulkarani, 1971). Importance of job factors            employees in Andhra Pradesh
2. To describe socio-demographic factors among            questionnaires were .72 and .66 point of reliability,
   selected bank employees in Andhra Pradesh              respectively
3. To assess motivation and hygiene factor among
   selected bank employees in Andhra Pradesh              Data analysis - In this research both descriptive and
4. To identify relationship between socio-                inferential statistics were used among the socio-
   demographic factors and job satisfaction among         demographic factors as personal characteristic of
   selected bank employees in Andhra Pradesh              respondent were used for frequency, percentage,
5. To identify relationship between motivation,           mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum.
   hygiene factor and job satisfaction among              Investigation of association between motivation,
   selected bank employees in Andhra Pradesh              hygiene factors and job satisfaction by using chi-
                                                          square test. The statistical significant level set at 0.05
Hypothesis of the study                                   points.

H1: There is no association between socio-                Analysis and implications - Table1 depicted the
demographic factors and job satisfaction                  socio-demographic characteristics of respondents out
H2: There is no association between motivation,           of 215 respondents for study the majority of them
hygiene factors and job satisfaction                      male 195(90.7%) and rest of female 20 (9.3%). Age
                                                          of the respondents are categories into three groups
Conceptual framework                                      from 20 years–to-50 years. Out of 215 respondents
                                                          20-30 age group are 86(40%), 30-40 years of age are
The conceptual framework for this study is based on       94(43.7%),40-50 years of age are 19 (8.8%) and rest
the Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory. Job             of 16(7.4%) are in above 50 years age. With regard
satisfaction and dissatisfaction were found to stem       to education qualification majority of respondents are
from different sources. Certain factors lead to           graduate 194(90.2) and rest of respondents are post
satisfaction when they are present and dissatisfaction    graduate 21(9.8). Experience of the respondents are
when they are absent. In particular, dissatisfaction      grouped into three categories 0-5 years of experience
was associated with condition surrounding the job         having 102 (47.4), 5-10 are 94(43.7) and rest of
(e.g., working condition, pay, security, quality of       19(8.8%) are having above 10 years of experience.
surrounding the job, relation with others) rather than    With regard to sector of bank majority of
work itself. Satisfaction was associated with the         respondents 169(78.6) are in public sector and rest of
work itself or outcomes directly such as nature of the    in private sector 46(21.4). Distance from home to
jobs, achievement in the work, promotion                  bank is majority of respondents are 142(66%) from
opportunities and chance for personal growth and          2-3 km, 43(20%) respondents are from 1-2 km and
recognisation.                                            rest of respondents’ are 30(14%) from 3-5 km. With
                                                          regard to number of respondents out of 215
Research Design - This research was designed as a         respondents are 195(90.7%) are having 1-2
cross sectional approach on job satisfaction. The         dependents,6 respondents (2.8%) having 2-4
main tool of the research based on self administrated     respondents and rest of 14 respondents (6.5%)
questionnaire. The target population of this research     having above 4 dependents.
was the selected bank employees in Andhra Pradesh
and simple random sampling technique were used.           Table 2 represent perception of motivation factors
The sample size consists of 215 bank officers             with regarding to overall motivation factors. It found
working in both in public and private banks in            that there was 75.3 percent at high level and 12.6
Andhra Pradesh.                                           percent at moderate level. There was at 12.1perecnt
                                                          lower levels. Under the domain of motivation factor
Research instrument reliability and validity - The        such as recognisation was at 87.4 percent,
self administered questionnaire were used in this         achievement was at 82.8 percent, work itself was at
study it is divided into four parts, part-I deals with    89.3percent, responsibility was at 70.2 percent and
socio-demographic factors, part-II consists of            advancement was at 87 percent high levels. With
motivation factors, part-III deals with hygiene factors   regards to perception of hygiene factors results are
and part-IV      measures overall job satisfaction.       presented in table3.it was found that 66.5 are at
Questionnaire were constructed as a Likert Scale          higher level of overall hygiene with respect to
with five choices and the items based on Herzberg’s       various factors of hygiene are Policy and
theory to measure level of job satisfaction among         administration 90.7 percent, supervision was at 49.8
selected bank employees in Andhra Pradesh. The            percent, salary was at 81.9 percent, relationship with
instrument was tested for validity and reliability by     subordinate was at 91.2 percent and working
using Cronbach Alpha Coefficient Test. For this           conditions was at 79.1 percent higher level.
motivation factor these was 74 points of reliability,
while for hygiene factor and job satisfaction             Table 4 shows that level of job satisfaction of the
                                                          sample respondents and facets of job satisfaction. It
is found that out of 215,196(91.2%) are highly               =.000). It has significant association between
satisfied, 11(5.1%) are moderately satisfied and rest        motivation factors such as recognisation (X2
of 8 respondents (3.2%) are lower level of job               =188.238 p-value =.000), achievement (X2 =289.062
satisfaction. With regard to various factor of job           p-value =.000), work itself (X2 =151.504 p-value
satisfaction advancement was at 87 percent, salary           =.000), responsibility (X2 =181.167 p-value =.000)
was at 81.9 percent, working conditions was at 79            and advancement (X2 =224.933 p-value =.000). This
percent, responsibility was at 70.2 percent and              result reveals that job satisfaction is caused by
supervision was at 49 percent of higher level of job         motivation factor supported the Herzberg’s
satisfaction.                                                motivation-hygiene theory.
Table 5 present the association between socio-               Regarding to hygiene factors perceived by the
demographic characteristics and level of job                 selected bank employees, the study results showed
satisfaction. The result reveals that there was no           that there was a significant association between
association between sex and level of job satisfaction        overall hygiene factors ( x2= 185.709 p-value=.000)
(X2 = 2.1388 p-value =.343).It has significant               and job satisfaction. Where considering in each
association between age (X2 = 222.505 p-value                aspect, it was found that statistically significant
=.000), qualification (X2 = 192.539 p-value                  association between policy& administration (X2
=.000),experience (X2 = 215 p-value =.000), sector           =249.540 p-value =.000), supervision(X2 =203.208
of the bank( X2 = 76.571 p-value =.000), distance            p-value =.000),, salary(X2 =210.762 p-value =.000),,
from home to bank (X2 = 2.1388 p-value =.000) and            relationship with subordinates (X2 =381.448 p-value
the number of dependents( X2 = 222.525 p-value               =.000), and working conditions (X2 =242.063 p-
=.000) and the level of job satisfaction.                    value =.000),from this investigation it is found that
Table 6 shows association between motivation                 hygiene factors are also a source of job satisfaction.
factors and level of job satisfaction. It found that by      This findings are not supported the Herzberg’s
using chi-square test at 5% significant level there is a     hypothesis that hygiene factors are not caused the job
significant association between overall motivation           satisfaction
and level of job satisfaction(X2 =151.504 p-value
            Table 1- Percentage of Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Respondents (n=215)
             Characteristics                               Frequency                         Percentage
 Sex
 Male                                                         195                               90.7
 Female                                                        20                                9.3
 Age
 20-30                                                        86                                40.0
 30-40                                                        94                                43.7
 40-50                                                        19                                 8.8
 Above 50 years                                               16                                 7.4
 Qualifications
 Graduate                                                     194                               90.2
 Post graduate                                                 21                                9.8
 Experience
 0-5                                                          102                               47.4
 5-10                                                          94                               43.7
 Above 10 years                                                19                                8.8
 Type of bank
 Public sector                                                169                               78.6
 Private sector                                                46                               21.4
 Distance from home to bank
 1-2 km                                                        43                               20.0
 2-3                                                          142                               66.0
 3-5 km                                                        30                               14.0
 Number of dependents
 1-2                                                          195                               90.7
 2-4                                                            6                                2.8
 Above 4                                                       14                                6.5
                               Table 2- Percentage of Motivation Factors (n=215)
                                                               Level of motivational factors
                 Items                         High                  Moderate                             Low
                                         N            %           N           %              N                  %
          Overall motivation             162          75.3        27         12.6            26                 12.1
           Recognisation                 188          87.4        7           3.3            20                  9.3
            Achievement                  178          82.8        29         13.5            8                   3.7
             Work itself                 192          89.3        14          6.5            9                   4.2
           Responsibility                151          70.2        52         24.2            12                  5.6
            advancement                  187          87.0        16          7.4            12                  5.6
                                  Table 3- Percentage of Hygiene Factors (n=215)
                                                              Level of hygiene factors
                                               High                Moderate                     Low
                  Items                    N         %          N           %                  N                %
             Overall hygiene               143      66.5        56         26.0                16                7.4
        Policy and administration          195      90.7        11          5.1                9                 4.2
               supervision                 107      49.8        88         40.9                20                9.3
                  salary                   176      81.9        28         13.0                11                5.1
      relationship with subordinate        196      91.2        12          5.6                7                 3.3
            working conditions             170      79.1        38         17.7                7                3.36


                            Table 4- Percentage of Job Satisfaction by Items (n=215)
                                                                      Level of job satisfaction
                                                             High               Moderate                   Low
                       Items                           N            %         N          %        N              %

              Overall job satisfaction                 196          91.2       11        5.1         8           3.7
                  Responsibility                       151          70.2       52       24.2         12          5.6
                  Advancement                          187          87.0       16        7.4         12          5.6
                   Supervision                         107          49.8       88       40.9         20          9.3
                       Salary                          176          81.9       28       13.0         11          5.1
               Working conditions                      170          79.1       38       17.7         7          3.36

        Table 5- Association between Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Job Satisfaction (n=215)

           Socio-demographic characteristic                              Level of job satisfaction
                                                              Chi-square value (x2)          df            p-value
                           Sex                                       2.1388                   2               .343
                           Age                                      222.505                   6              .000
                      Qualifications                                192.539                   2              .000
                       experience                                     215                     4              .000
                      Type of bank                                   76.571                   2              .000
               Distance from home to bank                           128.525                   4              .000
                 Number of dependents                               222.784                   4              .000
*
    P<0.000
       Table 6- Association between Motivation Factors and Level of Job Satisfaction (n=215) by using
                                              Chi-square test
                                                                         Level of job satisfaction
                           Items
                                                              Chi-square value (x2)        df             p-value
                    Overall motivation                              151.504                4               .000
                     Recognisation                                  188.238                4               .000
                      Achievement                                   289.062                4               .000
                       Work itself                                  184.816                4               .000
                     Responsibility                                 181.167                4               .000
                      Advancement                                   224.933                4               .000
*
    P<0.000
Table 7- Association between Hygiene Factors and Level of Job Satisfaction (n=215) by using
                                           Chi-Square Test
                                Items                         Level of job satisfaction
                                                       Chi-square value (x2)     df    p-value
                          Overall hygiene                    185.709              4     .000
                    Policy and administration                249.540              4     .000
                            Supervision                      203.208              4     .000
                               salary                        210.762              4     .000
                   Relationship with subordinate             381.448              4     .000
                        Working conditions                   242.063              4     .000

*
P<0.000
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