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JOB SATISFACTION: A STUDY ON SELECTED BANK EMPLOYEES; AN APPLICATION OF HERZBERG’S MOTIVATION-HYGIENE THEORY Dr.N.THIRUPALU Prof., Chaitanya Institute of Business Management, Hyderabad, email@example.com S.MD. AZASH Asst. Prof., Annamacharya Institute of Technology and Sciences, AP firstname.lastname@example.org RAMESH SAFARE Asst. Prof., Annamacharya P.G.College of Management Studies, AP email@example.com Abstract In this paper an investigation is made to study the job satisfaction of selected bank employees in Andhra Pradesh and to test the Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory. The main objectives of this research paper are to find association between socio-demographic characteristics, motivation, hygiene factors and job satisfaction. To carry out this research stratified random sampling technique were used and both descriptive and inferential statistics are also employed for the data analysis. The results, reveals that there is an association between socio- demographic characteristics, motivation, hygiene factors and job satisfaction.Finally,this investigation supported that job satisfaction was caused by both motivation and hygiene factors Keywords: Job Satisfaction, the Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory, Motivation, Socio-Demographic Introduction conditions, health, temperament, desires, expectations etc. Therefore, it is possible to predict Job satisfaction is closely related to the gratification the effect of an individual’s personal and social of needs. It is composed of effective cognitive and adjustment on the job satisfaction behavioural elements. These elements vary in their intensity and consistency from one individual to Literature review another. Thus, job satisfaction is the satisfaction derived from any pursuit directed by the process of Glisson and Durick (1988) reported that worker fulfillment of needs. It is the favourableness or characteristics predict commitment but play no role unfavourableness with which employees view their in predicting satisfaction and emphasized on job work. It results from specific attitudes of employees characteristics as determinants of job satisfaction. in three areas viz., specific job factors, and individual (charles glisson, 1988) Nathan et.al, (1991) revealed adjustment on the job and group relationship. Job that significant interaction, interpersonal relations, satisfaction may refer to either to a person or a group. opportunity to participate and career discussion It results from the best fit among job requirements, affected subordinate satisfaction with the wants and expectations of employees. It is used to organisation (Barry R Nathan, 1991). A U shaped express the extent of match between the employees’ curvilinear association between age and job expectations of the job and the rewards that job satisfaction which characterize the form of provides. Job satisfaction is the result of various relationship of the job satisfaction measures attitudes the person hold towards his job and towards (k.michele kacmar and geraald r.ferris, life in general. Considering job satisfaction as the 1989).Mediated and interactive associations among overall attitude of wellbeing with regards to job and prior absenteeism, supervisory style, attitudinal its environment, it is difficult to know how an variables, personal characteristics and subsequent employee feels about his job. The feeling about the absenteeism. They revealed that job satisfaction and job is directly affected by the factors like salary, kind absenteeism was negatively related (Stephen J of work performed, supervision, working conditions, Zaccaro, 1991). Role over load, role conflict and opportunity for advancement etc. However, the non-profitability are negatively and significantly factors affecting job satisfaction are not restricted to related to job satisfaction (Dhillon, 1991). the on-the-job-environment alone. Some factors pertaining to ‘life away from work’ are housing Work identification will be affected by several related to various needs as perceived by different personal-personality, job and organizational variables levels of managers does not correspondent to the (Dolke A.M., 1991). Level of job satisfaction need hierarchy suggested by Maslow. Autonomy, (dissatisfaction) as a function of the experience of responsibility, promotion and growth opportunities person within the organisation (baldev r sharma, are assigned higher priorities by Indian mangers 1991). Promotion gap as a significant potential (Lahiri D. , 1973). High pay (money factor) was source for job dissatisfaction (sease, 1992). Age given high preference along with esteem, autonomy, correlated significantly with promotion, experience and self-actualization by all the three–levels of and job satisfaction (Pandey, 1992). Promotion managers. Security need was, however, given low correlated positively but moderately with experience preference by these managers (Shah, 1976). and positively and significantly with job satisfaction (Cheri Ostroff, 1992). Satisfaction is positively Top level managers ranked recognisation for work, related to productivity and more productive people job contents, higher status and authority ,good salary are more satisfied as a consequence rather than that ,informal relationship with the higher and clearly satisfaction cause productivity (Jeffrey Feffer, 1993). defined responsibility in that order. In this study a very low correlation (0.027) between the ranking Job perception of employees will stream from actual expectations by top-level and lower-level managers condition of work (Johan E.Mathieu, 1993). Simple, suggested inconsistency in the need hierarchy. Thus, routine and unchallenging jobs often lead to high lower level managers attach more importance to employees’ dissatisfaction (Davis, 1957). Job good salary and higher status and authority which enlargement leads to job satisfaction (Biganne, command low rank from top level (Prasad, 1964). Employees with the stronger need for growth 1977).Found that only 33 per cent of managers chose react more positively to enrich their job than those their jobs for the remuneration. On the other hand, who had weak needs (Sims, 1974). Identify factors of advancement, stability, opportunity to use skills, and job satisfaction of workers (Bose, 1951). Test the the image of the organization were predominant in applicability of Herzberg’s two-factor theory (Lahiri, the choice of managerial career (Monappa, 1977). 1967) . A more comprehensive study by (Singh P., 1977) Maintenance factors such as job security, company disclosed that freedom from supervision and sub- working conditions etc., were satisfiers and ordinate, adventures, experiences and challenges, use motivation to middle level managers (Sawalapurkar, of special ability and talent, to be creative and 1968). Job context and job content factors were not original, social status and prestige, opportunities to independent of each other as a source of employees work with people, exercise of leadership, control satisfaction and dissatisfaction (Chowadary, 1966). over others, chance to earn a good deal of money and Motivation-hygiene theory is applicable to Indian stable and secure future were ranked in that order. context (S.Saiyaddin, 1970). Motivators contributed Managers rank various job factors in the order of significantly more towards satisfaction than hygiene scope for autonomy at work,responsibility,challenges factors in public enterprises, whereas in the case of and varieties at work, career advancement, self- private sector enterprises motivators contributed actualisation,inter-personal relations, appreciation significantly more towards the feeling of and recognisation of work, chance to get prestige in dissatisfaction than hygiene factors (G., 1972). the organization, consistent and sound company’s policy, salary and pre-requisites, good leadership by In a comprehensive study of 1213 Managers from 47 superior, good physical working public sector enterprises found that the following conditions,satabilityand security in job.Further,there factors as important and ranked accomplishment, is no significant difference in motivation profile of recognisation for good work done, decision-making public and private sector managers (Singh P., 1977) . authority, opportunity for promotion ,opportunity for personal growth and development ,prestige of Manager and supervisor ranked various job factors as organization outside the company, pay, allowances job security, opportunites for advancement ,pay and other benefits, and the job security (Narain, according to merits, working conditions, task, 1971). Higher preference was give for intrinsic job welfare, housing, supervisors, work, group, bonus factors as compared to extrinsic factors (Sharma, and name of the company in that order (Swatantra 1971). Kumar, 1982). The study of motivational factors among middle class white-collar employees found that white collar Research Methodology and Design workers ranked adequate salary as the most important factors followed by job security and Objectives of the study suitable type of work as the next important factors. The same ranking was given by blue collar workers 1. To measure the job satisfaction of selected bank also (Kulkarani, 1971). Importance of job factors employees in Andhra Pradesh 2. To describe socio-demographic factors among questionnaires were .72 and .66 point of reliability, selected bank employees in Andhra Pradesh respectively 3. To assess motivation and hygiene factor among selected bank employees in Andhra Pradesh Data analysis - In this research both descriptive and 4. To identify relationship between socio- inferential statistics were used among the socio- demographic factors and job satisfaction among demographic factors as personal characteristic of selected bank employees in Andhra Pradesh respondent were used for frequency, percentage, 5. To identify relationship between motivation, mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum. hygiene factor and job satisfaction among Investigation of association between motivation, selected bank employees in Andhra Pradesh hygiene factors and job satisfaction by using chi- square test. The statistical significant level set at 0.05 Hypothesis of the study points. H1: There is no association between socio- Analysis and implications - Table1 depicted the demographic factors and job satisfaction socio-demographic characteristics of respondents out H2: There is no association between motivation, of 215 respondents for study the majority of them hygiene factors and job satisfaction male 195(90.7%) and rest of female 20 (9.3%). Age of the respondents are categories into three groups Conceptual framework from 20 years–to-50 years. Out of 215 respondents 20-30 age group are 86(40%), 30-40 years of age are The conceptual framework for this study is based on 94(43.7%),40-50 years of age are 19 (8.8%) and rest the Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory. Job of 16(7.4%) are in above 50 years age. With regard satisfaction and dissatisfaction were found to stem to education qualification majority of respondents are from different sources. Certain factors lead to graduate 194(90.2) and rest of respondents are post satisfaction when they are present and dissatisfaction graduate 21(9.8). Experience of the respondents are when they are absent. In particular, dissatisfaction grouped into three categories 0-5 years of experience was associated with condition surrounding the job having 102 (47.4), 5-10 are 94(43.7) and rest of (e.g., working condition, pay, security, quality of 19(8.8%) are having above 10 years of experience. surrounding the job, relation with others) rather than With regard to sector of bank majority of work itself. Satisfaction was associated with the respondents 169(78.6) are in public sector and rest of work itself or outcomes directly such as nature of the in private sector 46(21.4). Distance from home to jobs, achievement in the work, promotion bank is majority of respondents are 142(66%) from opportunities and chance for personal growth and 2-3 km, 43(20%) respondents are from 1-2 km and recognisation. rest of respondents’ are 30(14%) from 3-5 km. With regard to number of respondents out of 215 Research Design - This research was designed as a respondents are 195(90.7%) are having 1-2 cross sectional approach on job satisfaction. The dependents,6 respondents (2.8%) having 2-4 main tool of the research based on self administrated respondents and rest of 14 respondents (6.5%) questionnaire. The target population of this research having above 4 dependents. was the selected bank employees in Andhra Pradesh and simple random sampling technique were used. Table 2 represent perception of motivation factors The sample size consists of 215 bank officers with regarding to overall motivation factors. It found working in both in public and private banks in that there was 75.3 percent at high level and 12.6 Andhra Pradesh. percent at moderate level. There was at 12.1perecnt lower levels. Under the domain of motivation factor Research instrument reliability and validity - The such as recognisation was at 87.4 percent, self administered questionnaire were used in this achievement was at 82.8 percent, work itself was at study it is divided into four parts, part-I deals with 89.3percent, responsibility was at 70.2 percent and socio-demographic factors, part-II consists of advancement was at 87 percent high levels. With motivation factors, part-III deals with hygiene factors regards to perception of hygiene factors results are and part-IV measures overall job satisfaction. presented in table3.it was found that 66.5 are at Questionnaire were constructed as a Likert Scale higher level of overall hygiene with respect to with five choices and the items based on Herzberg’s various factors of hygiene are Policy and theory to measure level of job satisfaction among administration 90.7 percent, supervision was at 49.8 selected bank employees in Andhra Pradesh. The percent, salary was at 81.9 percent, relationship with instrument was tested for validity and reliability by subordinate was at 91.2 percent and working using Cronbach Alpha Coefficient Test. For this conditions was at 79.1 percent higher level. motivation factor these was 74 points of reliability, while for hygiene factor and job satisfaction Table 4 shows that level of job satisfaction of the sample respondents and facets of job satisfaction. It is found that out of 215,196(91.2%) are highly =.000). It has significant association between satisfied, 11(5.1%) are moderately satisfied and rest motivation factors such as recognisation (X2 of 8 respondents (3.2%) are lower level of job =188.238 p-value =.000), achievement (X2 =289.062 satisfaction. With regard to various factor of job p-value =.000), work itself (X2 =151.504 p-value satisfaction advancement was at 87 percent, salary =.000), responsibility (X2 =181.167 p-value =.000) was at 81.9 percent, working conditions was at 79 and advancement (X2 =224.933 p-value =.000). This percent, responsibility was at 70.2 percent and result reveals that job satisfaction is caused by supervision was at 49 percent of higher level of job motivation factor supported the Herzberg’s satisfaction. motivation-hygiene theory. Table 5 present the association between socio- Regarding to hygiene factors perceived by the demographic characteristics and level of job selected bank employees, the study results showed satisfaction. The result reveals that there was no that there was a significant association between association between sex and level of job satisfaction overall hygiene factors ( x2= 185.709 p-value=.000) (X2 = 2.1388 p-value =.343).It has significant and job satisfaction. Where considering in each association between age (X2 = 222.505 p-value aspect, it was found that statistically significant =.000), qualification (X2 = 192.539 p-value association between policy& administration (X2 =.000),experience (X2 = 215 p-value =.000), sector =249.540 p-value =.000), supervision(X2 =203.208 of the bank( X2 = 76.571 p-value =.000), distance p-value =.000),, salary(X2 =210.762 p-value =.000),, from home to bank (X2 = 2.1388 p-value =.000) and relationship with subordinates (X2 =381.448 p-value the number of dependents( X2 = 222.525 p-value =.000), and working conditions (X2 =242.063 p- =.000) and the level of job satisfaction. value =.000),from this investigation it is found that Table 6 shows association between motivation hygiene factors are also a source of job satisfaction. factors and level of job satisfaction. It found that by This findings are not supported the Herzberg’s using chi-square test at 5% significant level there is a hypothesis that hygiene factors are not caused the job significant association between overall motivation satisfaction and level of job satisfaction(X2 =151.504 p-value Table 1- Percentage of Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Respondents (n=215) Characteristics Frequency Percentage Sex Male 195 90.7 Female 20 9.3 Age 20-30 86 40.0 30-40 94 43.7 40-50 19 8.8 Above 50 years 16 7.4 Qualifications Graduate 194 90.2 Post graduate 21 9.8 Experience 0-5 102 47.4 5-10 94 43.7 Above 10 years 19 8.8 Type of bank Public sector 169 78.6 Private sector 46 21.4 Distance from home to bank 1-2 km 43 20.0 2-3 142 66.0 3-5 km 30 14.0 Number of dependents 1-2 195 90.7 2-4 6 2.8 Above 4 14 6.5 Table 2- Percentage of Motivation Factors (n=215) Level of motivational factors Items High Moderate Low N % N % N % Overall motivation 162 75.3 27 12.6 26 12.1 Recognisation 188 87.4 7 3.3 20 9.3 Achievement 178 82.8 29 13.5 8 3.7 Work itself 192 89.3 14 6.5 9 4.2 Responsibility 151 70.2 52 24.2 12 5.6 advancement 187 87.0 16 7.4 12 5.6 Table 3- Percentage of Hygiene Factors (n=215) Level of hygiene factors High Moderate Low Items N % N % N % Overall hygiene 143 66.5 56 26.0 16 7.4 Policy and administration 195 90.7 11 5.1 9 4.2 supervision 107 49.8 88 40.9 20 9.3 salary 176 81.9 28 13.0 11 5.1 relationship with subordinate 196 91.2 12 5.6 7 3.3 working conditions 170 79.1 38 17.7 7 3.36 Table 4- Percentage of Job Satisfaction by Items (n=215) Level of job satisfaction High Moderate Low Items N % N % N % Overall job satisfaction 196 91.2 11 5.1 8 3.7 Responsibility 151 70.2 52 24.2 12 5.6 Advancement 187 87.0 16 7.4 12 5.6 Supervision 107 49.8 88 40.9 20 9.3 Salary 176 81.9 28 13.0 11 5.1 Working conditions 170 79.1 38 17.7 7 3.36 Table 5- Association between Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Job Satisfaction (n=215) Socio-demographic characteristic Level of job satisfaction Chi-square value (x2) df p-value Sex 2.1388 2 .343 Age 222.505 6 .000 Qualifications 192.539 2 .000 experience 215 4 .000 Type of bank 76.571 2 .000 Distance from home to bank 128.525 4 .000 Number of dependents 222.784 4 .000 * P<0.000 Table 6- Association between Motivation Factors and Level of Job Satisfaction (n=215) by using Chi-square test Level of job satisfaction Items Chi-square value (x2) df p-value Overall motivation 151.504 4 .000 Recognisation 188.238 4 .000 Achievement 289.062 4 .000 Work itself 184.816 4 .000 Responsibility 181.167 4 .000 Advancement 224.933 4 .000 * P<0.000 Table 7- Association between Hygiene Factors and Level of Job Satisfaction (n=215) by using Chi-Square Test Items Level of job satisfaction Chi-square value (x2) df p-value Overall hygiene 185.709 4 .000 Policy and administration 249.540 4 .000 Supervision 203.208 4 .000 salary 210.762 4 .000 Relationship with subordinate 381.448 4 .000 Working conditions 242.063 4 .000 * P<0.000 References Baldev R Sharma, S. 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