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FOR MA AGRI

VIEWS: 1 PAGES: 142

									TRAINING FOR THE CORRECT USE OF FARM MACHINERY

                                                           FOR.MA.AGRI

                                                   EUROPEAN REPORT




             IDRHa
             I nst i t ut o d e De se nv o l vi m e nt o
             Rur al e H i d rá ul i ca
             M inist ério da Agricult ura,
             do Desenvolviment o Rural e das Pescas




Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                     05/2006
TRAINING FOR THE CORRECT USE OF FARM MACHINERY

                                          FOR.MA.AGRI

                                      EUROPEAN REPORT

                                                                                                 Pag.
PARTNERSHIP                                                                                       3
  - Federación Agroalimentaria de CCOO. Spain                                                     4
  - Uzpi. Czech Rep.                                                                              5
  - Ministerio de Agricultura. Estación Mecánica Agrícola. Spain                                  6
  - Instituto Navarro de Salud Laboral. Spain                                                     7
  - Estudios europeos Declerq. Spain                                                              8
  - Cemagref. France                                                                              9
  - Enama. Italy                                                                                  10
  - Idrha. Portugal                                                                               11
  - Ibmer. Poland                                                                                 12

INTRODUCTION                                                                                      13

I/ WORK PACKAGE 1 TRAINING NEEDS STUDY. –                                                         15
- I.1 / Aims and process                                                                          15
- I.2 / Training Needs Detection Guide- Cuestionnary                                              17

II / RESUME AND CONCLUSIONS OF THE NATIONAL STUDIES                                               27

III/ TABLE OF RECOMMENDATIONS FOR WORK PACKAGE 2                                                  50



                                              ANNEXES

Annexe 1 NATIONAL TRAINING NEEDS REPORTS
- Training needs report in Spain
- Training needs report in Czech republik
- Training needs report in France
- Training needs report in Italy
- Training needs report in Portugal
- Training needs report in Poland

Annexe 2 : DATAS OF THE NATIONAL ENCUESTS
- Spain
- Czech republik
- France
- Italy
- Portugal
- Poland

 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
                                          PARTNERSHIP




Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                     05/2006
Federación Agroalimentaria de Comisiones Obreras. España




La Federación Agroalimentaria de Comisiones Obreras, es una organización sindical con
una importante presencia en las empresas del sector agroalimentario ( delegados sindicales en el
35% de las empresas).
Desde su creación, ha compatibilizado:
   la acción sindical y las actividades encaminadas a conseguir una mejora en las condiciones
   laborales de los trabajadores de los sectores encuadrados en sus ámbitos de actuación
   (agricultura, pesca, ganadería, industrias relacionadas con la producción de alimentos),
   la realización de planes de formación profesional continua, de los trabajadores y trabajadoras
   del sector agroalimentario.. Ha realizado numerosos estudios sectoriales para la detección de
   necesidades formativas en actividades sectoriales, agricultura, Centrales hortofruticolas,
   industrias cárnicas, granjas avícolas ,etc. Ha elaborado diferentes herramientas para la
   impartición de la formación profesional, catalogo de materiales audiovisuales para la formación
   en el sector agrario, pecuario y forestal. Materiales formativos para la mejora de la calidad en
   centrales hortofruticolas (videos, CD_ROM, manuales para alumnos y guía del profesor). En
   cuanto a proyectos Leonardo ha participado en el referencial de competencias profesionales de
   la actividad vitivinícola, solicitado por la entidad paritaria francesa para la formación continua
   en el sector agrario FAFSEA.

Activities in the Project
Su papel como contratante en este proyecto será la dirección y coordinación del trabajo tanto
desde el punto de vista técnico como de todo lo referido como la gestión económica (viajes,
traducciones, costes TIC..; asimismo velará por el cumplimiento, por parte de los socios, de las
tareas comprometidas en este proyecto.
Además será la encargada de mantener el contacto directo con los destinatarios directos del
proyecto tanto para las fases de difusión como de experiencia piloto.


For futher information:
http://www.ccooagroalimentaria.org/




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
Institute of Agriculture and Food Information. UZPI. CZ




The ÚZPI is a specialised organisation of countrywide scope of activities, funded partly from the
national budget and established by the Ministry of Agriculture, CR. We are the institution of a
mission quite unique in the country and neighbouring states – we are fully engaged in the
comprehensive transfer of industrial knowledge and information of various sectors including
agriculture, food production, nutrition, consumer protection, forestry and environment.
Even though the history of the Institute dates back to 1926, but for its present form the day of 1st
January 1993 is important as it is the date of an essential step – the merger of the then Institute
of Scientific and Technical Information for Agriculture and the Research Institute of Food Industry.
The reason was the need to create a modern centre of information. The Institute comprise also
the third largest sector-related library in the world containing about 1.2 million volumes in its
deposits - only the libraries of Beltsville (USA) and Moscow (Russia) are larger.

Activities in the Project
Participa más activamente en las fases de estudio de necesidades y de experimentación piloto.


For futher information:
http://www.uzpi.cz/uzpi2.htm




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
Ministerio de Agricultura. Estación de Mecánica Agrícola- España




El Ministerio de Agricultura representa a la Administración pública quien es, hoy en día, una de las
principales impulsoras del desarrollo de la Formación On Line. Esto se debe a la importante
apuesta que está realizando por la divulgación del conocimiento y las Nuevas Tecnologías, como
respuesta a las demandas de la actual Sociedad del Conocimiento.
La Estación de Mecánica Agrícola (EMA) es un laboratorio oficial que tiene bajo su responsabilidad
el ensayo y verificación de los tractores y máquinas agrícolas, en sus aspectos de funcionamiento y
seguridad.

La Estación de Mecánica Agrícola está reconocida desde el año 1964 en que se empiezan a aplicar
los Códigos de la Organización de Cooperación y Desarrollo Económico (OCDE), como el
único laboratorio oficial español para la realización de los ensayos OCDE en los tractores agrícolas
y forestales, y en sus estructuras de protección. En el grupo de tractores de la OCDE, además de
los 15 países de la Unión Europea están los siguientes: Canadá, China, Corea, Federación Rusa,
India, Islandia, Japón, Noruega, Polonia, República Checa, Suiza, Turquía y Estados Unidos.

La Estación de Mecánica Agrícola también está acreditada por como laboratorio oficial (con el
número LO 107) por el Ministerio de ciencia y Tecnología y por la Unión Europea para la
realización de las Directivas parciales contenidas en la Directiva marco 74/150/CEE de
homologación de tipo de los tractores Agrícolas y Forestales.

Desde el año 2001 la Estación de Mecánica Agrícolas es miembro de pleno derecho de la Red
Europea para el Ensayo de las Máquinas Agrícolas (ENTAM). ENTAM es una red de centros
oficiales de ensayo pertenecientes a países Europeos que han firmado un acuerdo con el objetivo
último de establecer y reconocer ensayos voluntarios de las máquinas agrícolas y sus aspectos de
funcionamiento seguridad y protección del medio ambiente. Los ensayos se realizan en Centros
cualificados con normas nacionales o internacionales, y se publican en boletines con el logotipo
ENTAM, que aportan a los agricultores una herramienta efectiva para una óptima elección y
utilización de sus máquinas.

Activities in the Project
Participación más presente en las fases de evaluación, de experimentación y de difusión.
Igualmente pone a disposición sus medios para las fases de análisis y de desarrollo de los
módulos formativos.

For futher information
http://www.mapa.es/app/Tractores/HTML/RMA_ES.htm




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
Instituto Navarro de Salud Laboral – España




El Instituto Navarro de Salud Laboral es un organismo autónomo, adscrito al
Departamento de Salud, cuyo objeto es el desarrollo de las acciones de asesoramiento técnico
que competen a la Administración Pública Navarra, en el campo de la seguridad y salud en el
trabajo. Sus actuaciones principales son:
a) Actuaciones de promoción de la prevención de riesgos laborales y de asesoramiento
técnico
    • Asistencia y cooperación técnica.
    • Formación, información y divulgación.
    • Investigación de riesgos laborales.
    • Seguimiento de las actuaciones preventivas que se realicen en los centros de trabajo.
b) Actuaciones relacionadas con la salud de la población trabajadora
Investigación de daños laborales.
    • Formación del personal sanitario.
    • Información y divulgación de estudios, investigaciones y estadísticas en relación con la
        salud de los trabajadores.
    • Evaluación de las actuaciones de salud laboral que realicen las empresas y las
        Administraciones Públicas.

Activities in the Project
Participación más presente en las fases de evaluación y de difusión.


For futher Information
www.cfnavarra.es/insl/




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
Estudios Europeos DECLERQ S.L. España




Estudios Europeos DECLERQ (1998) es una entidad Asesoría experta en la gestión, coordinación y
desarrollo de proyectos de ámbitos internacionales y nacionales así como en la elaboración de
materiales y estudios en temas diversos relacionados con las pyme.
Tiene una experiencia demostrada en los campos de la formación, la prevención de Riesgos
Laborales tal y como lo demuestra una importante lista de proyectos gestionados y desarrollados
dentro de proyectos cofinanciados por entidades nacionales como la Fundación para la Prevención
de Riesgos Laborales O europeos como European Agency for Safety and Health at Work.

Estudios Europeos DECLERQ es Miembro fundador de ASEDAP (Asociación Española para la
Defensa y el Asesoramiento de las Pymes).

Papel en el proyecto:
Participa como entidad gestora del partenariado y de apoyo para la coordinación y gestión del
proyecto. Será la principal encargada del desarrollo de los materiales formativos así como de poner
en común las resultados de las fases de estudio y experimentaciones pilotos.

Activities in the Project
http://www.asesoriadeclerq.com




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
CEMAGREF - Francia




CEMAGREF is a public research institute whose work focuses on sustainable development in
non-urban areas. It contributes to the conservation and acceptable management of land and water
systems, the prevention of associated risks and the development of sustainable economic activity.

Cemagref is a research institute on the human scale. It has 1000 employees, 465 of whom are
professional engineers and scientists. Although centred on engineering science, their qualifications
cover the environnemental and life sciences, the physical sciences, and the human and social
sciences, providing a diversity of backgrounds which can be combined in many ways. About one
hundred fifty PhD students and five hundred long-term trainees are present at the institute at any
time.

The results of Cemagref research and other activity appear as articles, congress papers, special
reports and advisory services to public bodies, testing and analysis, patents and computer
software, training and further education, and drafts for national and European standardisation
proposals. Cemagref has started implementing a quality insurance methodology for its research
and its testing activities.
Research in agricultural and food engineering seeks to understand the technical processes used in
farming and food processing and to find appropriate methods and tools to improve these
processes. Using the findings of this research, Cemagref designs technical innovations and
decision-making aids, conducts tests, and contributes to the drafting of new standards.

Activities in the Project
Cemagref participará en todas las tareas y actividades del proyecto.


For further information www.cemagref.fr/




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
ENAMA - Ente Nazionale per la Meccanizzazione Agrícola. Italia




Enama is the Italian support structure for the agricultural mechanical sector; launched in 1999, it
takes over the brief of CONAMA, while widening its activities.
ENAMA is an association promoted by the Ministry for Agricultural and Forestry Policies, whose
founder members include:
        Cia Italian Farmers Confederation Confederazione Italiana Agricoltori
        Coldiretti National Farmers Confederation Confederazione Nazionale Coltivatori Diretti
        Confagricoltura General Farming confederation Confederazione Generale Agricoltura
        UNACMA National Union of Agricultural Machinery Resellers Unione Nazionale Commercianti
   Macchine Agricole
        Unacoma National Union of Agricultural Machinery Manufacturers Unione Nazionale
   Costruttori Macchine Agricole
        Unima National Union of Agricultural Mechanisation Companies Unione Nazionale Imprese
   Meccanizzazione Agricola
The MiPAF Ministry for Agricultural and Forestry Policies, the Regions and ISMA Experimental
Institute for Agricultural Mechanisation are also part of ENAMA.
The association's aims are reached through the following initiatives:
        experimentation and stimulation for the creation of new, high-technology, innovative
   machinery, aimed at the further reduction of manual labour numbers, the improvement of
   qualitative and quantitative production yields, and the greater comfort and safety of operators
   and others
        contribution to the formulation of rules and technical standards, as well as certification that
   the functional characteristics of farm machinery meets these rules and standards
        promotion and development of research, experimentation, surveys and studies in technical
   and economic sectors, also in collaboration with other bodies, both national, foreign, supra-
   national, public and private
        co-ordination, promotion and distribution of know-how about mechanical machinery and
   how it should be used.

Activities in the Project
Enama participará en todas las tareas y actividades del proyecto.


For Further information: www.enama.it




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
Associazione lavoratori produttori agroalimentari- Italia




L’ALPA () è un’Associazione promossa dalla FLAI-CGIL (la categoria dei lavoratori agricoli e
dell'agroindustria) che si rivolge ad una tipologia particolare di produttori agricoli: quella costituita
da lavoratori dipendenti e soprattutto pensionati, che svolgono una attività agricola in propri
piccoli appezzamenti di terreno e commercializzano i prodotti che ne derivano.

L’ALPA, convenzionata con l’AIMA e l’INPS, potrà garantire, anche tramite le strutture di servizio
della CGIL, diverse attività di assistenza e tutela tra cui:
        •      inizio attività (iscrizione Camera di Commercio, richiesta di partita IVA);
        •      rapporto con il sistema fiscale (dichiarazione redditi, IRAP, tenuta contabilità
        aziendale);
        •      agevolazioni fiscali (compilazioni libretti U.M.A. per il gasolio agricolo);
        •      aiuti comunitari per il sostegno alle produzioni agricole (contributi per grano, olio,
        reimpianto vigneti, agricoltura biologica, ecc…);
Nelle Marche, l’ALPA sta inizialmente avviando la propria attività nelle provincie di Ancona ed
Ascoli Piceno, con l’obiettivo di estenderla successivamente in tutta la regione.

Activities in the Project
Participación sobre todo en las actividades de evaluación y difusión

For further information: http://www.alpainfo.it/




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
IDRHa: Instituto de Desenvolvimento Rural e Hidráulica- Divisão de
Mecanização Agrária. Portugal




Instituto de Desenvolvimento Rural e Hidráulica foi criado através do Decreto-Lei n.º
246/2002, de 8 de Novembro de 2002 que aprova a orgânica do Ministério da Agricultura,
Desenvolvimento Rural e Pescas, introduzindo alterações ao Decreto-Lei n.º 74/96, de 18 de
Junho de 1996.
IDRHa recebe dos organismos agora fundidos uma herança rica, complexa e diversificada de
atribuições, de saberes e de instrumentos nas áreas de promoção do desenvolvimento da
agricultura e das zonas rurais e de planeamento e apoio à construção e utilização de
aproveitamentos hidro-agrícolas e do regadio

Actividades :
- Estudos, ensaios e experimentação, de laboratório e de campo, de máquinas agrícolas e
florestais;
- Estudos do âmbito da economia e da organização do trabalho de máquinas agrícolas;
- Inspecções técnicas para homologação de tractores e certificação de máquinas agrícolas e
florestais;
- Organismo de normalização sectorial e secretariado da comissão técnica de normalização de
tractores e máquinas agrícolas e florestais;
- Representação nacional em reuniões nacionais, comunitárias e internacionais nos domínios da
normalização, da regulamentação e dos ensaios de tractores ede máquinas agrícolas e florestais;
- Colaboração com entidades públicas e privadas e com os serviços centrais e regionais do MADRP,
nomeadamente em acções de demonstração, de formação, de divulgação e de apoio às
organizações de utilização em comum de máquinas;
- Manutenção de bases de dados actualizadas dos equipamentos comercializados em Portugal, dos
fabricantes e importadores e de elementos técnico-económicos de mecanização agrícola e
florestal;
Presidência e secretariado da Comissão Consultiva de Mecanização Agrária,

Activities in the Project
IDRHa participará en todas las tareas y actividades del proyecto.


For futher information http://www.idrha.min-agricultura.pt/




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
IBMER - Institute for Buildings Mechanization And Electrification of
Agriculture. - Polonia




Institute for Building, Mechanization and Electrification of Agriculture is a scientific center for
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. It employs 260 highly specialized research workers.
Institute has rights to confer university degrees of agriculture science in the field of agriculture
engineering, examination and certification of agriculture machines and devices within compulsory
safety certification, accreditation for examination of tractors and cabins according to OECD codes,
preparation of Polish Standards regarding electrical agricultural equipment. The main task of other
IBMER activities is the feedback between science and agricultural practice.

Activities in the Project
Ibmer participará más activamente en las fases de estudio de necesidades y de experimentación
piloto.

For futher information: http://www.ibmer.waw.pl




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
INTRODUCTION

TRAINING FOR THE CORRECT USE OF FARM MACHINERY

The prime aim of the project is to put together innovative training materials tailored to the needs
of the specific target audience which is made up of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)
and self-employed workers in the agricultural sector from the standpoint of its productive structure
and, given its employment structure, young people. Within this category, special emphasis is
placed on young apprentices (stagiaires) and immigrants who represent an alternative for
employment levels to be maintained in agriculture and for the sector itself.
The training materials are devised to foster the correct use of tractors and other farm machinery in
order to achieve several aims:
     -       improve safety and, therefore, reduce the excessively high number of accidents that
        occur in the workplace in this sector;
     -       ensure proper maintenance of farm machinery in the European Union and maximise its
        performance as a result.
The basis of the project is the persistent ignorance that exists amongst all the workers in the
sector in the European Union about the right way to use the machinery involved in agricultural
production (tractors, seeders, harvesters, Rotovators®, power saws, etc.). This ignorance causes
accidents at work which happen over and over again every year. The accidents are sometimes
linked to inadequate maintenance of the machinery which also means that the performance
obtained from it is poor. One problem is that the technology used by this machinery is constantly
changing, making it difficult for users to keep abreast of changes and to always have up-to-date
knowledge of how it works.
This ignorance is very real and has been noted by the different partner entities in the project
because of its far-reaching impact in the sector and it has also been corroborated by a number of
different studies carried out by European institutions.
These reports highlight that the only source of information − the foundations on which training is
built − available today for many machinery users in the agricultural sector are the manufacturers’
own brochures which tend to be not very (or not at all) instructive and hard for farmers, especially
younger people, to understand and use. In other cases, the operating manuals that are available
are often obsolete and written in languages they are not familiar with and are generally unsuitable
for the workers (apprentices, young people and immigrants) who have to use them.
Moreover, another problem to be highlighted is that the farm machinery quite often has become
obsolete itself (for instance, around 30% of farm tractors in Spain are more than 20 years old).
Similarly, there is no information available on how to use and operate that large number of
machines.
These deficits are compounded in the case of SMEs which have traditionally been against training
because of those old, well-known reasons of lack of resources and lack of time. This is the
background against which the FOR.MA.AGRI project sets out to develop a training programme
focusing on the correct use of farm machinery as regards safety and proper handling in line with
its function in order to maintain competitiveness and jobs in a sector which is currently in stark
recession all over Europe.
The first step will be to analyse and compile together all of the shortcomings existing in this area
in the different European Union member countries (Spain, Italy, France, Portugal) and other
countries that are due to join the EU in the near future (Poland and Czech Republic).
Subsequently, specific teaching materials will be developed and tailored to the peculiarities of the
agricultural sector which has suffered continuous job losses over recent decades and at the same

 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
time a partial replacement of workers by immigrants (north-south/east-west migration effect) who,
as a rule, are young people with an even greater lack of training.
Essentially, the project put forward by FORMA AGRI will work towards outputs satisfying a two-fold
objective.
1/ Develop new, comprehensive and innovative training modules in several languages to which the
target audience users (SMEs, young immigrants) will have access.
2/ Facilitate access to vocational training for social groups who cannot usually get that access and
use information and communication technologies (ICT) and media to do so.




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
I/ WORK PACKAGE 1 TRAINING NEEDS STUDY. -

I.1 AIMS AND PROCESS:
   -   Identify and analyse in the six participating countries what are the actual, current and
       specific needs of the different groups of farmers regarding the proper use of agricultural
       machinery.

   -   Integrate the information gathered, selected and analysed by each one of the partners
       in the project. That information will be sent to P1 who, with the help of P5, will then
       homogenise it in order to put together a needs report which will form the basis of the
       training programme contents to be developed.

   -   Evaluate the information gathered and suggest possible actions to be taken by experts
       from public and private organisations.

   -   Inform all the partners of these interim findings (final needs report, validated and
       evaluated internally and externally). The report will be translated into English, French,
       Italian and Portuguese for this purpose.

Methods and techniques:

   −   Bearing in mind the different initial situation in each one of the participating countries, it
       has been decided that the most effective way of achieving the stated aims is to basically
       use two techniques to study training needs using a homogenous and easy-to integrate
       format:

           o    Desk research, entailing the search for, compilation and analysis of
                secondary/documentary information sources. Essentially, it would be a study of the
                existing training courses on offer in each country for the Project’s target audience
                (young farmers, immigrants, SMEs) using instruments defined beforehand at the
                first meeting held in Madrid. In principle, all of the information available on the
                following aspects should be collected:

                        Training source: public/private sector. Characteristics of the training
                        promoter (e.g. TU organisations, professional association, etc.)
                        Structure: regulated/non-regulated; formal/informal
                        Generic programmes that include training in agricultural machinery.
                        Contents.
                        Specific training actions.
                        Delivery method and use of ICT.

               Tasks:
               - Documentary research approach
               - Compile and consult secondary training sources
               - Analyse and select relevant information

           o    Interviews with the interviewees following a qualitative semi-structured
                format. (The intention is not to carry out a survey for statistical purposes). An
                agreed interview guide will be used after the approval of an initial draft script at the

Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                     05/2006
                meeting in Madrid together with the interviewee profile. These interviews will be a
                way of finding out about the training actually demanded by the people targeted by
                the project in order to eventually extract the training needs from the combined
                analysis of supply (using the study of secondary sources) and demand (on the
                basis of interviews) for training.
                One of the aspects to be covered in the interview questions will be what are the
                most appropriate ways of getting the training to the people targeted by the project
                and, especially, how useful/relevant are ICT.

Tasks:

    -    Primary research approach
    -    Prepare initial design of the interview guide and protocol to be followed.
    -    Validate the information-gathering instruments and define the interviewee profile.
    -    Conduct the interviews.
    -    Analyse the information and prepare partial (per country) reports and the overall report.
    -    Compare with the desk research findings and draft the final training needs report.


Expected outputs
Report in printed and electronic format in 4 languages (French, English, Italian and Spanish)
containing the following information:

    -    Current status of training programmes, contents and actions covering the use of
         agricultural machinery in the participating countries.

    -    Actual training needs each country has in the areas covered. This diagnosis will be carried
         out through the combined analysis of supply and demand for training on agricultural
         machinery. It should facilitate relevant action to be taken in phase two of the project.




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
I.2 TRAINING NEEDS DETECTION GUIDE- CUESTIONNARY

      1. BASIC INFORMATION

1.1       Country:
CZ
ES
FR
IT
PL
PT

1.2 Interview date: _______________________

1.3 Name of interviewee: _______________________________________

          (Contact: tel. no./e-mail)__________________

1.4 Interviewee profile:

      -   Agricultural trade union organisation

      -   (Small) farmers’ association

      -   Cooperative

      -   Freelance (association)

      -   Agricultural business organisation

      -   Association of agricultural SMEs

      -   Young farmers’ association

      -   Immigrants’ association

      -   Public body_____________________________________________
          (Please specify, e.g. Ministry of Agriculture)

      -   Public training body (please specify)_______________________

      -   Private training organisation (please specify)_______________________

      -   Constructors _______________________




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
2.      GENERIC CHANGES IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

2.1 How have the following aspects of agricultural or farm work changed over the last five years in
your opinion? Have they increased or decreased?

-     Team working
___________________________________________________________________
-     Individual responsibility at work
___________________________________________________________________
-     Complexity of tasks performed
___________________________________________________________________
-     Complexity of the machinery used
___________________________________________________________________
-     The farmer’s own control over quality in all of its facets
___________________________________________________________________
-     Functional versatility
___________________________________________________________________
-     Workload
___________________________________________________________________
-     Functional independence (no reporting to or reliance on others)
___________________________________________________________________


2.2 Generally speaking, do you think that the technological innovations that have arisen over
recent years have affected or are affecting farm work? If so, what aspects of farm work have they
affected and to what extent (a lot, quite a lot, a little or not at all)?




2.3 What changes have had the biggest impact on work performed in the countryside over recent
years in your opinion? (For example: growing techniques, changes in the rural population/people
moving away from the countryside, mechanisation, the Common Agricultural Policy, or any
others).




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
3. SKILLS-TRAINING


3.1 Generally speaking, how would you rate the level of professional skills of workers in the
agricultural sector?




3.2 More specifically, what do you think about training on how to handle agricultural machinery
efficiently and safely?

    -   In general


________________________________________________________________________________

    - And more specifically.........Young people

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

    -   Immigrants

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

    -   SMEs

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
3.3 What courses do you think are most needed for the people who work in small and medium-
sized enterprises in the agricultural sector?
(READ SECTIONS)

A) Regarding course content:

  Farm management/administration
  Production/crop techniques
  Technology
  Energy saving
  Commercial
  IT
  Quality
  Occupational health and safety /Occupational risk prevention
  Environment
  Maintenance of machinery and installations
  Others
(Please specify)_____________________________________________________

B) Regarding course delivery method:

   Classroom learning
   Distance learning
   On-line (Internet)

C) Regarding course venue:

  Workplace
  Training centre
  Any other venue
(Please specify)______________________________________________________

D) Regarding course length
(Write down ideal no. of hours) _______________________


3.4 In connection with the last question above, would you make any specific comment for young
farmers? What courses do they need most?




        What about immigrants?



3.5 What are the reasons why training in the agricultural sector is problematic in your view?
(SUGGEST)
   - The standard of courses is too low

    -   The standard of courses is too high

 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
    -   There are no courses given in the workplace

    -   The courses are not useful for work

    -   The quality of the courses is not good enough

    -   Working hours prevent attendance

    -   The courses do not cover the subjects needed

    -   It is difficult to organise a course for a group of farmers and get them all in agreement

    -   It is difficult to find skilled trainers in the sector

    -   Other problems (please specify) ______________________________

3.6 Which three aspects do you think are the most important ones in a course devised for young
farmers and immigrants in this sector and for small farming enterprises in general?
(CHOOSE A MAXIMUM OF THREE ANSWERS AND NUMBER THEM FROM 1 TO 3)
       The course design and aims

        The course content and the subjects covered

        The material used

        The timetable and venue

        The participant’s attention

        The experience and skill of the teachers

        The applicability of the course to their work

        The length of the course which should be short

        Other aspects
        (Please specify)_________________________________________________




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
4. TRAINING IN AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY

4.1 Let’s focus on agricultural machinery now. What subjects do you think are the most important
ones for training in everything to do with agricultural or farm machinery for young people,
immigrants and SMEs in the sector?




4.2 Out of the list of points relating to agricultural machinery given below, could you tell me which
ones are the most important ones for it to be used properly and safely?




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
                                                         DEGREE OF IMPORTANCE

                                           None        Very low        Low          High      Very high



 Φ General risks of agricultural
 machinery


 Φ Specific risks of farm tractors


 Φ Specific risks of agricultural
 transport

 Φ Specific risks of motorised
 machinery: Rotovator®,
 motorised hoe etc.
 Φ Specific risks of
 agricultural equipment and
 farming implements


                                                        DEGREE OF IMPORTANCE
                                           None        Very low        Low          High      Very high


 Φ Specific risks of other
 mounted and pull-type or trailed
 implements (1)

 Φ Specific risks of crop
 protection machinery:
 application of plant health
 products

 Φ Specific risks of self-
 driven machinery: cereal,
 vegetable and forage crop
 or combine harvesters,
 grape harvesters, picking or
 harvesting platforms, and
 so on

  Φ Specific risks of crop picking
 or harvesting machinery: tuber
 crops, olives, etc.



Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                     05/2006
  Φ Specific risks of agricultural
  store machinery and other
  ancillary operation equipment:
  grain augers, mills, etc.

  Φ Specific risks in the repair
  and tool workshop



  Φ First aid/emergencies


  Φ Efficient use of agricultural
  machinery

  Φ Energy saving in the use of
  agricultural machinery


  Φ



  Φ



(1) Mounted and pull-type or trailed implements can be classified as:
     • Fertilisers: fertiliser spreaders or broadcasters, slurry tanks, etc.
     • Crop protection: sprayers, mist blowers, crop dusters, irrigation pumps, etc.
     • Sewing and planting: grain drills, pneumatic drills, hole diggers, planters, etc.
     • Harvesting:
          1. Forage, straw and woody crops: balers, winnowers, rakes, mowers, conditioners,
              forage crop combine harvesters, crushing and splitting machinery, etc.
          2. Seeds and fruits: mowers, reaper-binders, threshing machines, shakers, selectors,
          almond huller/shellers, etc.
          3. Root and tuber crops: decoring equipment, thresher-pickers.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
   COMMENTS

 2. GENERIC CHANGES IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR




   3. SKILLS-TRAINING




   4. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY




 - ANY OTHER RELEVANT COMMENTS




       POINTS TO NOTE




Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                     05/2006
II. RESUME AND CONLUSIONS OF THE NATIONAL STUDIES

I. INTRODUCTION

In the needs report submitted by the countries participating in the project, each country
performed interviews using a questionnaire with a similar format. There are, however, certain
peculiarities that differentiate one country from another. Below, we note the various aspects that
characterize the different reports.

 The first is that interviewees should be grouped, along with their individual discourses, based on
the criteria of their relative situation within the project concept axis (safe and efficient use of
agricultural machinery) Thus, four different groups are identified, that fit the twelve sections
included in the interviewee profile guide (point 1.4, in “Basic Information”: Agricultural union
organization, Association of small scale farmers, Cooperative, Self-Employed, Agricultural business
association, Agricultural SME Association, Young Farmer´s Association, Immigrant’s Association,
Public Body, Public Training Body, Private training body, Manufacturer), that make it easier to
interpret results. The list of interviews performed by Comisiones Obreras Federación
Agroalimentaria, although with other interviewees, do belong to the same groups as those
interviewed by the other project member, due to which the results of both were jointly added to
the corresponding groups that will be described below:

G1: farmers, farm workers, owners of small and medium size farms and immigrants working in
sector

G2: Representatives of public bodies and institutions

G3: Representatives of public and private training entities.

G4: Manufacturers, importers and/or exporters of farm machinery.

All reports from member countries use the same scheme suggested in the first partners meeting in
Madrid, to permit the qualitative comparison, addition and contrasting of results. This also enables
us to determine the results on a given point of the study performed in different countries. The
following scheme is built around four sections, that range from general to specific, and from
abstract to concrete, as regards the purpose of the study:

                       1. General changes in the agricultural sector

                       2. Qualifications-training in sector

                       3. Agricultural machinery training

                       4. Specific proposals for For.Ma.Agri project.




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
      SUMMARIZED TABLE OF INTERVIEWS PERFORMED BY PARTNERS OVERALL


                                                P1/                        P6-   P7-
                                      Group CC.O         P2 -       P5 - Cemagr Enam P9 P10 -
                                       ( )   O           UZPI      Declerq  ef    a  Idrha Ibmer

  Agricultural trade Union
        organisation                    G1                  1          5                    2        3       5

(Small) farmers’ association            G1        2         1                               6        2       3


          Cooperative                   G1        1         6          1                    3        4       4


  Freelance (association)               G1        4                                         4        3

    Agricultural business
        organisation                    G1        4         5          4         14         2        3       5
 Association of agricultural
           SMEs                         G1                                        1                  3       4

Young farmers’ association              G1                  1                               2        2       3

  Immigrants’ association               G1        1                                         1

          Public body                   G2        1         4          4          6         1        4       4


    Public training body                G3        2         5          6          5         2        4       5

Private training organisation           G3        3         1                     7         2        3

         Constructors                   G4        1                    3          1         4        5




Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                     05/2006
Some singular data

Spanish report
The interviews were divided among the Federación Agroalimentaria de Comisiones Obreras (19
interviews) and Asesoria Declerq S.L. (25 interviews).

Portugal Report
There is no record of existence of any immigrant organization. The few references there are, are
irrelevant, and indicate an unskilled labor force.

Czech Republic Report
The Institute for Agriculture and Food Information of the Czech Republic performed its study by
contacting experts in agricultural training, workplace health and safety, agricultural companies and
their professional associations.

Report from Poland
In this study performed by partner P10, the same occurs as in the case of partner P9, from
Portugal. The profiles could be classified within the groups contained in the general report
structure, but results of the interviews cannot be classified by groups (G1, G2, G3, G4).

Report from Italy
In the P7 partner study of training needs, the conclusions do not specify which opinions belong to
which group. The opinions of the 36 interviewees are evaluated by their general current, but not
by membership in the established groups G1, G2, G3, G4.

Report from France
Like the other reports, in the P6 partner study of training needs, the conclusions do not specify
which opinions or conclusion belong to which group. The opinions of the 25 interviewees are
evaluated by their general current, but not by membership in the established group.




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
 II. GENERAL CHANGES IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

 * SITUATION IN SPAIN

                                          G1:
    farmers, farm workers and owners of small and medium size farms and immigrants
                                  working in sector

  It clearly feels that the most important changes in the Spanish farming sector in recent years have
   been the CAP and the major increase in the use of machinery for crop production, leading to the
                            introduction of increasingly sophisticated machinery



 There are two factors that explain the differences, sometimes major, described by the group G1
 interviewees (group is defined in previous section). These are: crop type and operation size.

 The discrepancies between these two “extremes”, that could be defined as “traditional” versus
 “modern” depending on the production techniques used, were manifested on specific issues such
 as the tendency for agricultural work to become more individualized, but were particularly obvious
 when mention was made of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), one of the central points
 of discourse of all those interviewed

 There were also discrepancies on another highly charged issue, with a great many ideological
 undertones: immigration. Here discourse ranged from immigrant as object, not worth the
 trouble to train, and immigrant as subject, who, after getting his/her work papers should
 receive the training required, and be integrated in the normal ranks of farm workers.
 The latter is the position most vehemently defended by union representatives.

There were also frequent mentions of ´loss of farming lifestyle, farmland abandonment´, and
 the fact that there is no next generation willing to take over farms. Respondents generally agree
 that in recent years, farmers have had to assume much greater individual responsibility due to
 the complexity of the work and the machinery used, quality control and the widening range
 of jobs one person must be capable of doing. Opinions on workload focused on two areas: the
 demands for physical labor are lower, while intellectual, or ´thinking´ demands are higher.


                                                       G2:
                         Representatives of public bodies and institutions

 Opinion from the G2 group can be summarized in similar terms, but the discourse is more
 nuanced, less “ideological” and more “technocrat”. This group used the terms competitiveness,
 added value, genetic engineering, and ´ferti-irrigation´, the use of fertilizers in irrigation water.

 The introduction of advanced technology machinery is seen as equally essential, but is
 expressed in terms of electronic systems and function controls. In remaining areas, G2 supplied
 global and striking facts: the Common Agricultural Policy accounts for 24% of farmer income
 (some said 30%); agriculture is in decline, and each year 80,000 small farms are abandoned in
 Spain

                                                        G3:

  Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                       05/2006
                          Representatives of public and private training entities
For G3 interviews, machinery and related mechanization and automation are the core
changes affecting the sector. Mention was also made of improved seeds, irrigation and
fertilization techniques, but the main emphasis was on the development of new specific and much
more precise machinery for each job.

Another difference seen in G3 is the mention made of improved safety measures, and
ergonomics in farm work, particularly in jobs involving farm machinery. Unlike previous groups
cited, this group felt it was a relevant issue

                                                       G4:
                     Manufacturers, importers and/or exporters of farm machinery.

As expected, the G4 interviewees assign greater importance to machinery and its impact in recent
years. Their contributions, aside from details given on the latest innovations (precision farming
using GPS/laser techniques, for example), center around eliminating administrative restrictions:
the technical-bureaucratic requirements (from G2 and from the EU), that raise costs and impede
technical progress ("a well-oiled machine" oppressed by bureaucracy is the graphic image).

This group also mentions change factors, such as the use of cell phones, the influence of large
food store chains (Carrefour, etc.).

One unanimous opinion is that CAP, to a greater or lesser extent, has been decisive in the changes
that have occurred in farming

* SITUATION IN PORTUGAL

The main cause of agricultural development over the past five years is the increasing
complexity and level of technology used in farm machinery. Other contributing factors are:
   - greater involvement of farmers in the quality of work done,
   - Increased complexity and versatility of farm work.

Training needs are proportional to the increased complexity of farm work and farm machinery.

The general opinion of those interviewed is that technology affects farm work to a
fairly great or very great extent.

Training needs have increased with the advent of more efficient and modern machinery. The
complexity and specialization of work, innovation and purchase cost have been either individual or
joint contributing factors, leading farmers to rent machinery.

Farm machinery has developed rapidly, and thus better training is required. Correct use should
focus on lower usage costs.

The changes that have occurred in agriculture are not significant, and economic funding is not the
consequence of those changes.

Another aspect seen as having a great effect on farming is the C.A.P. and emigration from country
to cities, which has contributed to “farmland abandonment”.

                               * SITUATION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
For the institution performing the interviews, clearly the opinion that predominated was that of G1,
associations of farm workers. There are not enough positive changes in the sector. The number of
farm workers is constantly dropping as they migrate to cities, but due to good organization of farm
work and technical aids, the demand for workers has not risen.

However, in the past five years there have been changes in the machinery. Newer, more
efficient machinery does not compensate for the drop in the number of farm workers. Thus,
workers are overburdened, and are forced to put in too much overtime. This situation is very
frequent.

                                         * SITUATION IN POLAND

Several aspects were evaluated to gain a better idea of which aspects of the agricultural sector
have improved, which have gotten worse, or, which have undergone no change at all over the
past five years.

- Individual responsibility for work, functional versatility and the complexity of farm work
are the aspects that have increased or improved most. The opinion is unanimous that farmers are
doing better quality control in farm work.

- However, it appears that functional independence and teamwork are aspects that have
worsened. Aspects like teamwork and workload appear to have registered the greatest differences
of opinion, and there was a larger group of people who even thought that no changes had
occurred.

- There was unanimous agreement (100% of opinions) that new technologies have been a
determining factor affecting farm work.
On the job safety conditions, environmental protection, mechanization and efficiency are the
points seen as most affected by the new technologies. Mechanization is the aspect most impacted
by improved technologies, and includes all areas of same, including production quality.
All changes mentioned have meant a greater need for farmer training, and for qualified
professionals to provide that training.

                                          * SITUATION IN ITALY

There were several aspects where the response of majority of those interviewed coincided.
According to most respondents, over the past five years farmer’s individual quality control has
risen in all areas.
A majority of respondents also feel that this is due to
    - The complexity of farm machinery.
    - The need to perform a wide variety of jobs,
    - Individual responsibility in the workplace and
    - The complexity of the jobs performed. Although, a minority felt that the situation was
       worse regarding this last point.

There   was a greater division of opinion regarding other aspects. The aspects are:
   -     Autonomy in functions performed,
   -     Teamwork and
   -     Workload.

These are the aspects on which there was no majority opinion as to whether they had improved or
worsened. Workload is the only point where the tendency was to say the situation was worse.
 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
* SITUATION IN FRANCE

For the majority of the group G6 respondents, the aspects of farm work mentioned have
generally increased over the past five years. The aspects are:
   - Individual responsibility in the workplace,
   - Complexity of jobs performed,
   - Farmer quality control and
   - The need to perform a wide variety of jobs. The majority feel these have increased, while a
       minority says they have decreased. As for workload, response was that it has also
       increased, but this opinion was not as general as in other concepts.

There are only two aspects where opinions are very different: teamwork and functional
independence, i.e. that farmers are less dependent on others to get the work done.

There is also a general opinion that technological innovations have had a great effect on farm
work. As in Spain, these aspects were the C.A.P., also technological innovation in materials used,
production processes, safety regulations and automation, and machinery complexity and
maintenance.

In other aspects mentioned, the feeling was that they had increased quite a lot. There were no
responses saying that the aspects mentioned had increased very little or not at all.

It should be noted that it is precisely the aspects relating to high-tech modern machinery where
respondents say the greatest increases have occurred. The logical deduction is therefore, that the
main technological innovations are those of agricultural machinery and mechanization,
i.e. all these changes revolve around mechanization.

As for the change having the greatest effect on farm work, mechanization is once again mentioned
more than other concepts, but not as overwhelmingly. Next cited are the C.A.P. and cultivation
techniques. Emigration of farm workers to cities is said to have had the least effect on farm work.
Other aspects mentioned, although to a lesser extent, were health and safety regulations and
standardization and integration of production systems.

The opinion was that C.A.P., which obligated farmers to improve their methods, is responsible for
the country to city exodus. Production has to be focused around C.A.P. provisions. There is a need
to compensate for production aids and for better quality production systems, environmental
conservation, control of financial aid and evaluation of impact on health.




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
III. QUALIFICATIONS-TRAINING IN SECTOR

                                           * RESULTS IN SPAIN

                G1 farmers, farm workers and owners of small and medium size farms
                and immigrants working in sector.

Generally, G1 interview subjects feel that farmers lack sufficient professional qualifications,
with differences depending on the type of crop, ownership, farm size and age, that take us back to
the traditional (continental agriculture) -modern model noted in the previous chapter.

Thus, we could say there is an age barrier among farm owners. Those beyond 35-40 years
of age are seen as having insufficient professional skills and qualifications, and what is
even more grave, for purposes of this study, is that there is no motivation to remediate
these deficiencies through training.

Conversely, the under 35 group is the best trained and specialized, and is also more willing
(and accustomed) to take part in training to update and polish their skills (although some said this
group takes too many risks when using farm machinery) The younger group is better prepared,
but the problem is that fewer and fewer young farmers opt to stay and take over management of
their parents´ farms.

The professional skills of farm workers (non-owners) are even lower; the big cutoff here
comes when mention is made of immigrant workers. Their educational levels are generally
very low (higher for immigrants from Eastern Europe), and almost none have had any training in
farm work. They learn through repetition and routine, so learning takes time they generally
don’t have, due to lack of job stability.

If to the above situation we add the tremendous barriers posed by language and cultural
differences (particularly for workers from Africa), clearly there are no easy solutions. In several of
the interviews a high degree of skepticism and sometimes even defeatism was noticeable. Young
(skilled) people are not interested in farming, and immigrants (“unskilled”) don’t last long enough
on the job.


There is one more aspect: farm size, a subject on which professional organizations and trade
unions differ greatly. For the organizations, size poses no significant difference for job related risk
prevention, but trade unions feel size is a crucial factor, and that only large farms are up to date
on risk prevention. In SMEs there is virtually no risk prevention information, awareness
or training. (“The only concern on farms smaller than 50 hectares is that the tractor doesn’t
break down, they don’t care if they get killed”).



                G2. Representatives of public bodies and institutions

The discourse of G2 members follows the same lines, but with more pessimistic views on skills
qualifications and the level of training within the sector.

                G3: Representatives of public and private training entities

Some new contributions were made by G3.
 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
- For example, it was suggested that in recent years CAP was responsible for awareness of
the need to improve training in the farming sector, and before that, there was no
awareness of this need (farming practices were strictly based on inertia, doing what had always
been done).

- A second and more interesting contribution for the objectives of the study is that SMEs,
through farm owners or operators, are the best entry route for training, particularly
regarding safety and machinery, since they are the ones who are obligated by law to meet
risk prevention standards. Furthermore, small companies have the biggest training needs.

Skill level ratings ranked higher to lower
Large Agro Company                                            Small Farm
-   Risk prevention technician                        - Self-employed farmer
-   Supervisor                                                - Supervisor company employed
-   Worker - Machinery                                - Worker - Machinery
-   Harvest hands                                             - Harvest hands
,

                                         On-site or distance training?

All interviewed unanimously agreed on how training should be done: except in two cases that
will be cited, all felt that training should be on-site, and that no distance learning, "on-
line" learning or combination of on-site / distance learning should be allowed.
One frequent comment was that, in addition to being on-site, training should be done “with the
machine right there”.

Training should be offered near the workplace, in the same town or at least in the same county
Scheduling preferences were for short courses, a maximum of 30 hours long, preferably
structured in independent, cumulative modules, given daily in 3 hour sessions and
scheduled after the work day is over.

Regarding the specific needs of immigrants, priority was assigned to knowledge of the
language, the biggest barrier – alongside getting working papers – to integration. Second would
be general knowledge or very elementary health and safety courses (basic measures in
passive safety, for example) or machine handling.

                                         Difficulties in training access

The main obstacles to training in this sector are:
   - Lack of motivation due to courses being of little use to farmers.
   - Scheduling conflicts with work hours.
   - The problems involved in convoking and reaching an agreement with a group of
     farmers for training purposes.

As evidenced, these obstacles would seem to call for distance learning, with ITC support, but
according to the comments cited above, this would only be a viable possibility for the 35 and
under group.
Fully in keeping with the obstacles described, the most important aspects to be taken into account
for training in this sector were, aside from the design of the actions and content, the schedule
(must be compatible with a long work day), location (near home), duration (should be short)
and, with special emphasis: must be applicable in their work.

    Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                         05/2006
The remaining groups interviewed (G2, G3 and G4) supplied no further nuances in this regard.
                                  Risk prevention in use of machinery

Interviewees with one profile on paper frequently revealed another underlying profile. For
example, it was not all unusual for a union organizer to also respond as a farmer, or for a
university professor to show either higher or lower sensitivity to the role and opinion of
manufacturers or farmers


                                        * RESULTS IN PORTUGAL

Almost everyone recognizes that skill levels are low or very low, and that it is young people
who are best prepared to take the courses, and who are more aware of the need to improve risk
prevention training in the handling of farm machinery.
The opinion on SMEs is that their skills and qualifications are above average.

The courses preferred by SME workers are:

    -   Agro company management and administration
    -   Workplace Health and Safety
    -   Prevention of on the job risk.
    -   Machinery and installations maintenance
    -   Environment

Other courses mentioned were:

    -   Production techniques
    -   IT

The preferred method for teaching the courses is class attendance. On-line methodologies
were not popular, because IT have not reached all farms. It could only be used for technical
workers.
Preferred site for courses is at the workplace. The advantage is location (all workers will be able to
attend, regardless of where they live) and the possibility of learning on-site where the knowledge
will be applied.

Providing training courses in rural areas has never been easy, precisely due to the difficulty of
gathering a group of workers who cannot agree on the place or time of the course, or because
there are no courses offered in the work place or to the poor quality of the courses themselves.
Low formal educational levels and age difference among workers are also an influence.

                                 * RESULTS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

Agriculture is one of the sectors registering the highest work related accidents, double that of
other sectors. Accident prevention will only be possible when operators are made aware of safety
regulations and their supervisors and managers not only require but also monitor compliance.

According to this member of the G1 group, representatives of agricultural associations, training
levels are good. Management ranks include people with university or high school educational
levels. As for production, machinery is handled by qualified personnel.


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According to the group interviewed, considering what is needed for average farm operations,
workers have sufficient training. Inexperienced young farmers should take agro production
courses.

According to the G2 group representative, the training provided by the agricultural Chamber of
Commerce has been generally good, but is progressively going downhill. Essential that new
specialized training centers be created.

Members of the G3 group, university representatives, feel that changes are needed in the issuing
of degrees for agricultural activities. They feel that activities should be regulated not only based on
machinery, but also from environmental and waste disposal perspectives.

In response to the question of what they value most about a training course, most respondents
said first content and themes, followed by how it is taught and its objectives.


                                          * RESULTS IN POLAND

Generally detected a lack of training and low aptitude levels. The majority see the need for
more training on the efficient and safe use of farm machinery. A few respondents felt there was
little interest in this type of training.
Young people show more interest, but training is needed to compensate for lower next-generation
takeover of farmland.

The feeling is that SMEs are responsible for their worker’s health and safety, and that they should
be made aware of this in no uncertain terms. The general opinion is that they should provide on-
going training.

No opinion was available from immigrants, because to date, it has not posed a significant problem
in Poland.

The general opinion of farmers was that free training during the winter months would be welcome.

The training most requested, in descending order of preference was:

        -   Prevention of on the job risk/on the job health & safety
        -   Production techniques
        -   Machinery and installations maintenance
        -   Technology
        -   Environment
        -   Quality

The younger group is inclined to prefer practical training courses in the new technologies,
in addition to risk prevention and health and safety courses.
Preferred methodologies for courses were: class attendance, followed by distance learning.
Only a few showed interest in on-line training courses.

One interesting fact is that, unlike other reports, more workers prefer to receive
training at training centers, rather than at their place of employment. Almost twice as
many expressed this view.
Reasons for difficulties in providing agricultural training are similar to those cited in other partner
reports. Training is not provided at the place of employment, difficulty in getting a group of
 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
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farmers to agree on it, and scheduling incompatibility, are the main reasons cited. Similar
secondary reasons were also cited, such as courses being of poor quality, not useful, i.e. not
meeting expectations.

                                            * RESULTS IN ITALY

Respondents in the Italian partner’s interviews cited two problems affecting agricultural sector
training levels.
    - Lack of courses provided at workplace, and because of this,
    - Difficult to organize, achieve agreement among a large enough number of workers
        regarding time, place, etc.
Another smaller group felt that long working days and lack of time to attend courses were the
main problems posed for training.
One third of the respondents said the main problem is low quality courses.
A minority blames lack of training on the fact that courses do not address important specific
issues, are not useful, and also on the difficulty in finding competent teachers prepared to provide
high quality courses.

Subjects the respondents said were important, in descending order of preference:

        -   Job Health and Safety /risk prevention
        -   Machinery and installations maintenance
        -   Quality
        -   Production / cultivation techniques
        -   Environment
        -   IT.
        -   Technology
        -   Farm Administration / Management
        -   Energy savings
        -   Business
        -   others

Unanimous opinion on preferred training format: 33 out of 26 respondents preferred
traditional on-site attendance. Only 3 people preferred on-line training.
No mention was made of distance learning.
After determining preferred training methodology, respondents were asked about preferred
location for training. Most preferred a training center, then on-site workplace training. Only 2
people preferred training locations not mentioned above.

The 3 main aspects respondents felt should be included in courses for young farmers, immigrants
and SME workers, by order of preference were:

        - Experienced skilled teachers
        - Course content
        - Practical application to their work


* RESULTS IN FRANCE

Most interviewed felt that professional qualification levels are average, although some say it
is high and others that it is low. For farmers per se, qualification levels are medium/high, for
salaried workers medium/low.
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Opinion is that training focuses too much on how tools work, and too little on their proper
use and standards for same. The general opinion is that training is poor.

Young people not from rural environments are perceived as being poorly trained. Too many on the
job accidents due to their youth.
The best learning method is to work under the guidance of experienced people, who teach young
people to avoid practices that could involve major risks, and emphasize the proper use of
individual protection equipment as taught by construction companies. Personal safety should be
emphasized in training courses.
General opinion is that they are aware of risks, but avoiding them is not assigned priority. Greater
awareness needed in improved knowledge of proper use, not only in rural areas.

Immigrant training: Very limited. The agricultural school has very little contact with immigrant
workers, plus there is a language barrier. This coincides with a high number of job related
accidents. Perhaps more training is offered in areas relating to tree crops, viticulture and forestry.
They are usually assigned to repetitive machinery based tasks. They need training, because
machines are increasingly complex, and allow no margin of error.

SME agricultural workers are from rural areas and their progress is slow. The survey shows that
they are interested in all areas affecting on the job safety. Continuous training is required. It
exists, but they are not aware of it.
They need to know how to optimize use of machinery without putting themselves, the people they
work with, or the environment, at risk.

One way of achieving this is to make a summary of the main uses of the machinery,
based on machinery instruction handbooks.

Young people in SMEs adapt better, and more quickly, than their older counterparts.

Subjects the respondents said were important, in descending order of preference:
   • Job Health and Safety /job risk prevention
   • Machinery and installations maintenance
   • Production / harvest techniques
   • Environment

Other   subjects mentioned:
   •     Languages
   •     New technologies
   •     Understanding/use of regulatory requirements
   •     Job organization
   •     Practical training

Training methods should emphasize safe machine usage (symbols, risks, etc.) and initial
theoretical training should be provided.
Most prefer to attend training in classes compared with those who prefer distance
and/or internet training. On-line methods do not allow hands on machinery contact.
 There is a division of opinions as to the preferred location of courses. Only half of respondents
prefer a training center. Perhaps a combination of the two would be advisable.




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As for length of courses, most feel it should vary, depending on objectives, levels and also on
the season of year. Opinions range from 45 min. per week to 20 hours per week. But there are
also opinions calling for 3, 4, 7 and 15 hours of class per week.

For immigrants, the first concern is language and safety classes, plus literacy classes,
although a needs diagnosis is required prior to determining which course is most urgently needed.
Those who speak out on needs, mention a need for training in risk prevention, machine
maintenance, production and harvest techniques, and general practical and theoretical courses,
with an emphasis on the practical.
Language is a major obstacle. Proposal for training adapted to each job, depending on
language use needed for each.

 There are other problems, such as courses being seen as not very useful, low quality (too much
theory, too little practice) and the difficulty of finding qualified teachers.




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
IV. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY TRAINING


                                         * TRAINING FOR SPAIN

The following is a schematic representation of the themes and contents considered most
important, and therefore highest priority, for training relating to agricultural machinery..

General Themes
First, the following general themes are proposed (free response), in descending order of
importance:

            -                . Safety of machinery / Improved culture of prevention

            -             . General, specific and preventive maintenance

            -          . Machine handling. Each culture involves one specific type of machine, due
                 to which specific, highly practical courses would have to be given on each

            -        . General (basic principles) and specific operation of each machine

            -      . Efficiency / Energy savings / Performance.

Specific content:
As for the specific content considered top priority, with suggested response to the question: “What
aspects of agricultural machinery are most important for their safe and proper use?, the following
list in descending order of importance indicates, based on the opinions received, the steps that
could be established:

The following list in descending order of importance indicates, based on the opinions received, the
steps that could be established: (5 main areas selected)

1)      Specific risks of farm tractors.

2)      General risks of farm machinery.

3)      Efficient use of farm machinery.

4)      Specific risks of crop protection machinery: Applying phytosanitary products

5)      Specific risks of motorized equipment: Rotary tillers, motorized hoes



* TRAINING FOR PORTUGAL

The agricultural machinery issues seen as most important for young farmers, immigrants and
SMEs, were:

            -               efficient machinery use and maintenance.
            -              Rational use also mentioned,
            -            new technologies and
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             -        handling of tractors that use electronic technology.

As for risk, depending on the type of machinery or equipment, those interviewed described risk as
being either high or very high. Risk was rated as low by only a few respondents.

High or very high risk:
           - Tractors
           - Self-propelled machinery (roto tiller, hoeing machines, etc.)
           - Fertilizer machinery (phytosanitary products)
           - Harvesters
           - Warehouse/Storage equipment

High risk:
             -   Transport machinery
             -   Trailing/dragged (implements)
             -   Harvest/picking implements (tubers, olives, etc.)

Courses and teaching
Today, all courses are recognized and certified by the National Certification Body for the sector
(the IDRHA is the body working in the field of mechanization) as meeting all requirements to
enable students to satisfactorily complete their studies and attain the level of competitive job skills
they need.

The range of courses on mechanized farm implements is very limited, and is acceptable only
through three private organizations (CAP, AJAP and CAN), with only the following courses:

                               * TRAINING FOR THE CZECH REPUBLIC

G1: Training is essential.
Training for people handling farm machinery is essential and necessary, especially considering the
expense of buying new machinery, that can only be amortized if it is handled by professionals and
used to achieve high production levels.
The biggest problem of machine and equipment operation, is guaranteeing that they operate
economically. The opinion is that machines should be run at maximum capacity. Therefore, this
must be taken into account for the training.

G2:
The opinion of this group, represented by Agricultural Chambers of Commerce is that specialized
educational centers should be used to offer hands on practical training. The theory can be taught
in seminars and talks.

G3:
Greater demand for training in companies selling farm machinery is noted. These companies
should train farmers in risk prevention, in the handling and mainly the functions of the new
machines.




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
                                        * TRAINING FOR POLAND

Indicate a need to modernize machinery and significantly improve its quality. Credits and financing
systems make it easier to buy more modern equipment.

The most important issues regarding farm machinery, by descending order of importance are:

               -            Safety in machine use and maintenance.
               -           New technologies
               -         Farm administration / management

The following list in descending order of priority indicates, based on the opinions received, the
content that should be offered:


1) Specific risks of crop protection machinery
2) First aid
3) Specific risk of other suspended or dragged implements and equipment
4) General risks of farm machinery
5) Specific risks of tractors.
Etc.



                                          * TRAINING FOR ITALY

The following is a schematic representation of the themes and contents considered most
important, and therefore highest priority for training relating to agricultural machinery:

               -              Specific risks of storage and auxiliary operations machinery: mills, spiral
               distributors, etc.
               -          Energy saving in use of farm machinery.
               -        First aid/Emergencies
               -       Specific risks of crop protection machinery: Applying phytosanitary products
               -      Specific risks in tool and repair shop.
               - Efficient use of farm machinery.
etc.

All those interviewed emphasized serious machinery related problems and feel that preventive
actions are necessary. They feel that machines should guarantee the safety of their operators,
however proper use of the machinery depends not only on individual machine safety, but also on
the skill of the operator and responsible maintenance and cleaning.
This is gained through training courses, which are the best way for operators to increase and
specialize their skills.




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
                                        * TRAINING FOR FRANCE

The following is a schematic representation of the themes and contents considered most
important, and therefore highest priority for training relating to agricultural machinery:

            -                Specific risks of crop protection machinery.
            -              Specific risks of motorized equipment: Rotary tillers, motorized hoes.
            -           Efficient use of farm machinery.
            -         First aid.
            -       Specific risks in tool and repair shop.
Etc.

Suspended and trailing (dragged) implements should be classified in the following way:

    •   Seeding equipment: if precision or spray seeders, pneumatic or gravity, etc.
    •   Crop protection: Sprayers, misters, etc. Irrigation pumps.
    •   Fertilization. Gravity or centrifugal spreaders Mineral or organic fertilization, etc.


Within these subjects, special interest was shown in aspects like good practices for safe handling,
maintenance and safe teamwork, knowledge of risks taken and of existing regulations. Accident
risk is even higher when there are salaried workers on the farm.
Each theme to be taught should include information on specific risks.

In addition to risk prevention, workers should also be trained in first aid.

Energy and the environment are also considered important.




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
V. NATIONAL PROPOSALS FOR THE FOR.MA.AGRI PROJECT


                                           * PROPOSALS FOR SPAIN

Materials recommended by interviewees

First, it should be noted that the search for “good practices” applicable to the second stage of
For.Ma.Agri. was not very successful. The results from semi-structured interviews were limited,
repetitive and at times disappointing, and did not meet expectations

The following materials were cited in the interviews:

               a. Courses for agricultural training in individual autonomous communities, particularly
                  by the Andalusian regional government.

               b. Courses organized by machinery manufacturers (ex: John Deere) for farmers.

               c. General courses in the metal industry (IFI).

               d. Some bibliography references, such as “Farm Tractors and Engines” by Pedro Amal
                  (MAPA).

               e. Master’s Degree IDE-CESEM.

               f.   Technical notes and guides from the National Institute for Health and Safety in the
                    Workplace.

               g. Training videos by Arvalis and CEMAGREF (France).

               h. Elementary job safety training video for immigrants (Foundation for the Prevention
                  of on the Job Risk).

               Training materials from INSL, the Navarre Labor Health Institute, available over
                   internet.

An overview of these proposals confirms that some simply will not work for this project, because
they do not meet the needs and or fit the target training group. In other cases they do not
address the demands in question


Specific Proposals

-      A/ Focus and design training for young farmers, under 35 yrs of age
-      B/ For farmers beyond 35, only short courses will be successful (no longer than 30
       hours). Sessions should be no longer than three hours daily and should be held near
       their homes after the work day is over.
-      C/ Offer a 2 – 3 hour training session 1 day per month to gradually teach handling of the
       new machine
-      D/ In the case of agricultural SMEs, on the job risk prevention training must be given
       directly to owners

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-      E/ Immigrants: in addition to teaching basic materials and language                             skills, select
       immigrants with experience in the sector to be trained as trainers
-      F/ One of the training priorities detected is tractor handling


General themes, of varying importance, for inclusion in training actions

o              Safety of machinery / Improved culture of prevention.
o              General, specific and preventive maintenance.
o              Machine handling. Each crop involves one specific type of machine, due to which well
targeted,     highly practical courses would have to be given on each.
o              Efficiency / Energy savings / Performance

For specific content.

o                   Specific risks of farm tractor.
o                   General risks of farm machinery.
o                   Efficient use of farm machinery.
o                   Specific risks of crop protection machinery: Applying phytosanitary products.
o                   Specific risks of motorized equipment: Rotary tillers, motorized hoes…



                                        * PROPOSALS FOR PORTUGAL

In a combination of two projects, FORMAT and the Delfim Project (a subproject on farm
mechanization) support materials for teachers is being developed. It is nearly finished, and will
be available in print and on CD, with interactive content.
There are currently no on-line or distance learning courses available.

The amount of teaching material is considered insufficient. In most cases the teachers provide it
themselves, and it consists of slides and, more recently, Power Point presentations.

The Divisao para a Qualificaçao Profissional of IDRHa and the CAP have manuals on farm
mechanization to contribute to courses such as “Basic farm mechanization course”, “Farm
machinery operators”. In both cases, the printed manuals are being put on CDs. This
process is almost concluded. The CAP CDs also include interactive content.

The Ministry of Labor, through the Instituto para a Segurança e Higiene no Trabalho (Inst. for
Workplace Health and Safety), also has manuals on the safe handling of tractor and farm
machinery, pesticides and on manual heavy load lifting.

There are two short manuals on tractor mechanics and traffic rules, written by agricultural
mechanics professors.




    Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                         05/2006
                              * PROPOSALS FOR THE CZECH REPUBLIC

Future materials recommended by interviewees

            -    Farm administration and management
            -    Production / harvest techniques
            -    Technology
            -    Energy savings
            -    Commercial aspects
            -    etc.

Respondents also specified other courses to complement the themes cited above. All interviewed
suggested two or more options.

                -Economic efficiency
                -Foreign languages
                -Working conditions
                etc.


                                             Specific Proposals

-Research Institute for Workplace Health and Safety: Is preparing specialized courses for operators
on workplace health and safety. Materials will be in English and other languages. According to the
Institute, it would be advisable to place small pamphlets or announcements at visible
workplace locations frequented by employees.

The locations proposed for the courses were either the company or workplace itself, or at training
centers, provided these were located no further than 30 km from place of residence.

- Representatives of universities and institutes: Farmers with no specific agricultural training
should be given training in agriculture up to at least the equivalent of second year Vocational
Training levels. Training should be on-going to keep them constantly up to date on changes in
agriculture, for example on legislative changes affecting agriculture, protection of nature and the
environment.

The following proposals were made as to the duration (total hours) of courses:

Representatives of the Young Farmer’s Union: 16 hours, depending on subject.

Representative of secondary education: More than one response. From 80 to 20 hours, 100 to 150
h in winter, 20 hours.

Representatives of universities and institutes: One week

Representatives of workplace health and safety organizations: Several different responses. From 2
to 3 hours. Courses of 6 to 8 hours.

Representatives of Farmers Association. Also several different responses.
 16 h, 6-8 h, 16 h.

* PROPOSALS FOR ITALY
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                                               Specific Themes

o   Specific risks of storage and auxiliary operations machinery: mills, spiral distributors, etc.

o Energy saving use of farm machinery.

o First aid/Emergencies


                                       * PROPOSALS FOR POLAND

Specific Proposals.
General themes, descending order of importance, for inclusion in training actions:

    •   Prevention of on the job risk/on the job health & safety
           - Production techniques
           - Machinery and installations maintenance
    •   Technology
    •   Environment
    •   IT
    •   Quality

Specific content of training actions, by descending order of priority:


            1) Specific risks of crop protection machinery
            2) First aid
            3) Specific risk of other suspended or dragged implements and equipment
            4) General risks of farm machinery
            5) Specific risks of tractors.

For younger groups, include courses on practical training in new technologies.
Preferred methodologies for courses were: class attendance, followed by distance learning.
Duration recommended, preferred between 24-30 hours.




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
                                       * PROPOSALS FOR FRANCE


Future materials recommended by interviewees:

The following materials, listed by descending order of importance, were cited in the interviews:

    •   Workplace Health and Safety /risk prevention
    •   Machinery and installations maintenance
    •   Production / harvest techniques
    •   Environment
    •   Technology Quality
    •   etc.

Respondents also specified other courses to complement the themes cited above:

    •   Languages
    •   New technologies
    •   Understanding/use of regulatory requirements
    •   Job organization
    •   Practical training
    •   etc.




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
                       III TABLE OF RECOMMENDATIONS

                      TRAINING
COUNTRY                                           THEMES PROPOSED                   COURSE DESIGN
                    PRIORITY/IES
                                                -Training materials from
                                                                                     -under 35 group:
                                                  Navarre Institute for
                                                                                     formation on-line
                    Machine safety             Workplace H&S (internet).
                                                                                      -Over 35 group:
                -General, specific and           -Elementary job safety
                                                                                        Short courses
               preventive maintenance.              training video for
 SPAIN                                                                            No more than 3/h daily
                  -Machine handling            immigrants(Foundation for
                                                                                     & near workplace,
                 -Efficiency / Energy           Prevention of Workplace
                                                                                       after work day.
                savings / Performance                      Risk)
                                                                                   Practical courses with
                                                                                      machine on-site.

         - Workplace Health and
                                                                                    -Class attendance
         Safety Prevention of on
                                                                                    - On-line method
                the job risk
                                                                                  only for tech. people.
             -Machinery and
                                               -“Tractors, crop protection               - Classes
PORTUGA installations maintenance
                                                 equipment and driven            on-site at workplace. –
   L         - Agro company
                                               walking behind machines”.             training centres
            management and
                                                                                    Duration variable.
               administration
                                                                                 Up to 40 hours (variable
              --Environment
                                                                                  according contents).

                                                        Text books:
                    -Technologies              -Risk prevention in handling
 CZECH
                 -Farm Admin/Mgmt.                  transport vehicles.
REPUBLI
                -Production/harvesting              -Employee training
   C
                      techniques               legislation & regulations on
                                                workplace risk prevention

               -Prevention of on the job
                                                                                       - Mainly class
                risk/on the job health &
                                                                                   attendance at training
                          safety
                                                                                           centers.
POLAND          - Production techniques
                                                                                     -24-30 hr. courses
                     - Machinery and
                                                                                     -On-line courses in
               installations maintenance
                                                                                            future.
                       -Technology
                 -Workplace Health and
                 Safety /risk prevention
                     - Machinery and
               installations maintenance                                           - Class attendance at
  ITALY
                         -Quality                                                     training centers.
               -Training on specific risks
                  of storage machinery
                      -Saving Energy



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                                                     05/2006
                 -Workplace Health and
                Safety /risk prevention,
                espec. for young people
                     -Machinery and                                               - Class attendance and
               installations maintenance                                          also at training centers.
                  -Production / harvest                                              -Variable duration:
                        techniques                                                3, 4, 7 & 15 class hours
FRANCE
                 Languages courses for                                                    per week.
                        immigrants                                                   For young farmers,
                -Training on risk of crop                                                15-25 hrs.
                  protection machinery,
                  motorized machinery.
                  -Efficient use of farm
                        machinery.




Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                     05/2006
                                               ANNEXES

                  NATIONAL TRAINING NEEDS REPORTS


   -   Training needs report in Spain

   -   Training needs report in Czech republik

   -   Training needs report in France

   -   Training needs report in Italy

   -   Training needs report in Portugal

   -   Training needs report in Poland




Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                     05/2006
                                             II.1. SPAIN




Federación Agroalimentaria de CC.OO.
 Pza. de Cristino Martos, 4-3ª. 28015
                Madrid
 Tfnos.: 91 540 92 66 - 91 540 92 18
   jvillar@agroalimentaria.ccoo.es




Asesoria Declerq Estudios Europeos,
      Plaza de España 6, 1ºB
    Las Rozas de Madrid 28230
      Tel.:+34.91.637.40.64
      Fax:+34.91.637.40.64
              e-mail:
  proyectos@asesoriadeclerq.com




Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                     05/2006
                                       FOR.MA.AGRI PHASE 1:

                            STUDY OF TRAINING NEEDS IN SPAIN

     Preliminary Information and Report Proposal (based on 44 interviews)




Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                     05/2006
                                                 CONTENTS




I. INTRODUCTION


II. GENERAL CHANGES IN AGRICULTURAL SECTOR


III. QUALIFICATIONS-TRAINING IN SECTOR

       III.1 Results by group interviewed

       III.2 Qualification profiles and levels of training required in risk prevention and efficient use
       of farm machinery.

       III.3 Risk prevention in use of machinery

IV. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY TRAINING


V. PROPOSALS FOR THE FOR.MA.AGRI. PROJECT

       V.1 Materials recommended by interviewees

       V.2 Specific proposals

       V.3 Other proposals




Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                     05/2006
INTRODUCTION

Based on an initial analysis of 44 loosely structured one-on-one interviews performed by the
Federación Agroalimentaria de Comisiones Obreras and Asesoría Declerq S.L. the following
suggestions are made for the final report on the first stage of For.Ma.Agri.

I.1 The interviewees should be grouped by area of activity along the project concept axis: the
safe and efficient use of farm machinery.

Thus, four different groups are identified, that fit the twelve sections included in the
interviewee profile guide 1:
    - Agrarian Trade Union Org.
    - Small-scale farmers association
    - Cooperative
    - Self employed
    - Agrarian business organization
    - Association of agricultural SMEs
    - Young farmers association
    - Immigrant association
    - Public Institution
    - Public Training Org.
    - Private Training Org.
    - Manufacturer

Classification by groups

☼         Group 1 (G1) 2. Includes farmers, farm workers and owners of small and medium
          size farms and immigrants working in the sector. This Group’s views are nearly
          always filtered through their respective professional organizations and associations or trade
          unions. They are the people in direct contact with the land (group position structure)
          although their interests, opinions and expectations can differ greatly. They are the
          For.Ma.Agri. target group.

☼         Group 2 (G2) 3. Representatives of public bodies and institutions. Also a
          heterogeneous group, but less so than Group 1, this Group is comprised of people who are
          to promote the means for achieving project goals. They take a more distanced stance
          (“don’t get their hands dirty") and their discourse, which is frequently stereotypical, varies
          noticeably depending on the territorial scope of competencies.

☼         Group 3 (G3) 4. Representatives of public and private training entities. They are the
          “interface”, the suppliers situated between those who make decisions (G2) and the target
          group (G1). Generally speaking their discourse is less heterogeneous, marked by the
          common axis of formal training (formal system) / continuous training (informal).

☼         Group 4 (G4) 5. Manufacturers, importers and/or exporters of farm machinery.
          Their relationship with the end users (G1) centers around the pre-sale>sale>post-sale cycle
          (for purposes of this study, particularly the last stage) of the machinery, that must receive

1
  See attached document Annex 1: “Training needs detection Guide”. Point 1.4: Interviewee profile.
2
  Federación Agroalimentaria Comisiones Obreras, 11 interviews - Asesoría Declerq, 12 interviews.
3
  Federación Agroalimentaria Comisiones Obreras, 1 interview- Asesoría Declerq, 5 interviews.
4
  Federación Agroalimentaria Comisiones Obreras, 5 interviews - Asesoría Declerq, 6 interviews.
5
  Federación Agroalimentaria Comisiones Obreras, 1 interview - Asesoría Declerq, 2 interviews.
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          the “go-ahead” of G2 (in terms of authorization, type approval, certification, etc.). This
          relative position situates them, at least in theory, on a plane of discourse quite different
          from the rest.


I.2 Secondly, we verify the pertinence of the analysis scheme suggested in the first For.Ma.Agri.
partners meeting (Madrid) 6, that will be used in each of the national reports to permit the
qualitative comparison, addition and contrasting of results.

The scheme is built around four sections, which range from general to specific, and from abstract
to concrete, as regards the purpose of the study:

                   1. General changes in the agricultural sector

                   5. Qualifications-training in sector

                   6. Agricultural machinery training

                   7. Specific proposals for For.Ma.Agri project.

I.3 Lastly, we note that the search for secondary sources 7 of information based on interviews
was less fruitful than expected.

We had hoped to complete the results of the first part of the study (internet, bibliography,
documentary sources, etc.) with the contributions of persons with an in depth knowledge of the
sector from different standpoints, particularly those regarding good practices that could be of use
in the project. The information obtained was scant and repetitive. A description is included further
on in this document.




6
    See attached document Annex 2: “Minutes of Partner´s Meeting November 15-16, 2004”
7
    See attached document Annex 3: “Bibliography and Secondary Sources”.

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II. GENERAL CHANGES IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

G1: farmers, farm workers and owners of small and medium size farms and immigrants working in
sector

There are two factors that explain the differences, sometimes major, described by the group G1
interviewees (group is defined in previous section). These are: crop type and operation size.

The two extremes of the range of discourse were those expressed by the large scale grain
cultivation, on the one hand, and those of small or medium size operations using automatic
irrigation systems, on the other. Next would be the position of the union representatives, who
are more critical of nearly every aspect discussed.

The discrepancies between these two “extremes”, that could be defined as “traditional” versus
“modern” depending on the production techniques used, were manifested on specific issues such
as the tendency for agricultural work to become more individualized, but were particularly obvious
when mention was made of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), one of the central points
of discourse of all those interviewed.

The discourse on this issue differed so markedly, that at times, for example when discussing CAP
reform, it almost seemed as if they were discussing different subjects. All G1 interviewees point
out that CAP has been and will be a determining factor for the agricultural sector, but while some
use the term “compensation” others talk about “subsidies”. For the first group, it is only about
what they are to plant, but for the second group, it has been a “disaster” because they were
forced to give up traditional and/or low production crops. All agree that CAP involves a great deal
of bureaucracy and administrative controls, which are a source of frustration and headaches to all,
as is the time wasted on “paper chasing and paperwork”.

There were also discrepancies on another highly charged issue, with a great many ideological
undertones: immigration. Here discourse ranged from immigrant as object, not worth the
trouble to train, and immigrant as subject, who, after getting his/her work papers should
receive the training required, and be integrated in the normal ranks of farm workers.
The latter is the position most vehemently defended by union representatives.

There were also frequent mentions of ´loss of farming lifestyle, farmland abandonment´,
and the fact that there is no next generation willing to take over farms. Respondents generally
agree that in recent years, farmers have had to assume much greater individual responsibility due
to the complexity of the work and the machinery used, quality control and the widening
range of jobs one person must be capable of doing. Opinions on workload focused on two areas:
the demands for physical labor are lower, while intellectual, or ´thinking´ demands are higher.




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 Given the information cited, G1 clearly feels that the most important changes
 in the Spanish farming sector in recent years have been the CAP and the major
 increase in the use of machinery for crop production, leading to the
 introduction of increasingly sophisticated machinery.




G2: Representatives of public bodies and institutions

Opinion from the G2 group can be summarized in similar terms, but the discourse is more
nuanced, less “ideological” and more “technocrat”. This group used the terms competitiveness,
added value, genetic engineering, and ´ferti-irrigation´, the use of fertilizers in irrigation water.

The introduction of advanced technology machinery is seen as equally essential, but is
expressed in terms of electronic systems and function controls. In remaining areas, G2 supplied
global and striking facts: the Common Agricultural Policy accounts for 24% of farmer income
(some said 30%); agriculture is in decline, and each year 80,000 small farms are abandoned in
Spain.

G3: Representatives of public and private training entities.

For G3 interviews, machinery and related mechanization and automation are the core
changes affecting the sector. Mention was also made of improved seeds, irrigation and
fertilization techniques, but the main emphasis was on the development of new specific and much
more precise machinery for each job.

Another difference seen in G3 is the mention made of improved safety measures, and
ergonomics in farmwork, particularly in jobs involving farm machinery. Unlike previous groups
cited, this group felt it was a relevant issue.

At other times, responses held a kind of pessimism, almost bitterness, which reflected the
disappointment felt by people who have spent years training young farmers:
“50% fewer young people choose farming than four years ago. Those who stayed in are not the
smartest of the group”.

The pessimism expressed by the respondent is subjective, but the situation described is not.

G4: Manufacturers, importers and/or exporters of farm machinery.

As expected, the G4 interviewees assign greater importance to machinery and its impact in recent
years. Their contributions, aside from details given on the latest innovations (precision farming
using GPS/laser techniques, for example), center around eliminating administrative restrictions:
the technical-bureaucratic requirements (from G2 and from the EU), that raise costs and impede
technical progress ("a well-oiled machine" oppressed by bureaucracy is the graphic image).

This group also mentions change factors, such as the use of cell phones, the influence of large
food store chains (Carrefour, etc.).

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G4 has a much more radical discourse against CAP, but coincides with other groups that cite ´life
before and after CAP´.

One unanimous opinion is that CAP, to a greater or lesser extent, has been decisive in the changes
that have occurred in farming.




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III QUALIFICATIONS-TRAINING IN SECTOR

III.1 Results by group interviewed

G1: farmers, farm workers and owners of small and medium size farms and immigrants working in
sector

Generally, G1 interview subjects feel that farmers lack sufficient professional qualifications,
with differences depending on the type of crop, ownership, farm size and age, that take us back to
the traditional (continental agriculture) -modern model noted in the previous chapter.

Thus, we could say there is an age barrier among farm owners. Those beyond 35-40 years
of age are seen as having insufficient professional skills and qualifications, and what is
even more grave, for purposes of this study, is that there is no motivation to remediate
these deficiencies through training.

Conversely, the under 35 group is the best trained and specialized, and is also more willing
(and accustomed) to take part in training to update and polish their skills (although some said this
group takes too many risks when using farm machinery) The younger group is better prepared,
but the problem is that fewer and fewer young farmers opt to stay and take over management of
their parents´ farms.

The professional skills of farm workers (non-owners) are even lower; the big cutoff here
comes when mention is made of immigrant workers. Their educational levels are generally
very low (higher for immigrants from Eastern Europe), and almost none have had any training in
farmwork. They learn through repetition and routine, so learning takes time they generally
don’t have, due to lack of job stability.

If to the above situation we add the tremendous barriers posed by language and cultural
differences (particularly for workers from Africa), clearly there are no easy solutions. In several of
the interviews a high degree of skepticism and sometimes even defeatism was noticeable. Young
(skilled) people are not interested in farming, and immigrants (“unskilled”) don’t last long enough
on the job.

Frequently respondents said that immigrants only perform manual labor, and do not
use machinery (either because they are not allowed to, or because they do not stay on the job
long enough).

The solution, or at least the first part of a solution, needs to be two-pronged: achieve greater job
stability for immigrants who truly want to work in agriculture and do not see it as a temporary job,
providing them with proper training for their specific characteristics. For example, one initial
measure that could be feasible within this project would be trainer-training: teach immigrant
workers with experience in farmwork who are capable of transmitting language,
culture and professional skills, to train new immigrant workers who want to stay in the sector.

There is one more aspect: farm size, a subject on which professional organizations and trade
unions differ greatly. For the organizations, size poses no significant difference for job related risk
prevention, but trade unions feel size is a crucial factor, and that only large farms are up to date
on risk prevention. In SMEs there is virtually no risk prevention information, awareness
or training. (“The only concern on farms smaller than 50 hectares is that the tractor doesn’t
break down, they don’t care if they get killed”).
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The priority assigned to safety is directly proportional to the size of the companies, while the
priority assigned to management, technology and techniques is inversely proportional to farm size.
In other words: large companies assign special attention to safety, while small ones
assign it to agricultural techniques, new technologies and management. The need for
multi-functional training on small farms is striking, and is something that keeps small farmers from
gaining specialized knowledge and becoming more professional. This broad range of training
needs is indicative of the problems faced by small farms in terms of adaptation and
competitiveness.

The G1 group feels that the priority for farmer training should be “Workplace Health and
Safety”, “Farm Management and Administration” and “Crop and Planting Techniques”.
A second block of training content, by order of priority, would be “Commercial Aspects”, “IT” and
“Machine and Facilities Maintenance”.


G2: Representatives of public bodies and institutions

The discourse of G2 members follows the same lines, but with more pessimistic views on skills
qualifications and the level of training within the sector.

G3: Representatives of public and private training entities.

Some new contributions were made by G3.
- For example, it was suggested that in recent years CAP was responsible for awareness of
the need to improve training in the farming sector, and before that, there was no
awareness of this need (farming practices were strictly based on inertia, doing what had always
been done).

- A second and more interesting contribution for the objectives of the study is that SMEs,
through farm owners or operators, are the best entry route for training, particularly
regarding safety and machinery, since they are the ones who are obligated by law to meet
risk prevention standards. Furthermore, small companies have the biggest training needs.




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III.2 Qualification profiles and levels of training required in risk prevention and
efficient use of farm machinery.

Skill level ratings ranked higher to lower

Large Agro Company                                            Small Farm
-   Risk prevention technician                        - Self-employed farmer
-   Supervisor                                                - Supervisor company employed
-   Worker - Machinery                                - Worker - Machinery
-   Harvest hands                                             - Harvest hands

                                         On-site or distance training?

All interviewed unanimously agreed on how training should be done: except in two cases that
will be cited, all felt that training should be on-site, and that no distance learning, "on-
line" learning or combination of on-site / distance learning should be allowed.
One frequent comment was that, in addition to being on-site, training should be done “with the
machine right there”.

The two cases mentioned introduced the following nuance: “on-line” training could be tried
with some hope of success only if offered to the under 35 group, and if the participants
were second generation farmers-SME, all the better, to provide greater initial motivation for
the training.

Training should be offered near the workplace, in the same town or at least in the same county.

Scheduling preferences were for short courses, a maximum of 30 hours long, preferably
structured in independent, cumulative modules, given daily in 3 hour sessions and
scheduled after the work day is over.

Regarding the specific needs of immigrants, priority was assigned to knowledge of the
language, the biggest barrier – alongside getting working papers – to integration. Second would
be general knowledge or very elementary health and safety courses (basic measures in
passive safety, for example) or machine handling.

                                         Difficulties in training access

The main obstacles to training in this sector are:
   - Lack of motivation due to courses being of little use to farmers.
   - Scheduling conflicts with work hours.
   - The problems involved in convoking and reaching an agreement with a group of
     farmers for training purposes.

As evidenced, these obstacles would seem to call for distance learning, with ITC support, but
according to the comments cited above, this would only be a viable possibility for the 35 and
under group.
Fully in keeping with the obstacles described, the most important aspects to be taken into account
for training in this sector were, aside from the design of the actions and content, the schedule
(must be compatible with a long work day), location (near home), duration (should be short)
and, with special emphasis: must be applicable in their work.

The remaining groups interviewed (G2, G3 and G4) supplied no further nuances in this regard.
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                                  III.3 Risk prevention in use of machinery

One interesting thing was the opinion of the people interviewed by the Federación Agroalimentaria
de Comisiones Obreras as to the importance assigned by each group to risk prevention in machine
handling, and how each group organizes that kind of training.

Interviewees with one profile on paper frequently revealed another underlying profile. For
example, it was not all unusual for a union organizer to also respond as a farmer, or for a
university professor to show either higher or lower sensitivity to the role and opinion of
manufacturers or farmers.

In several cases, we felt that those interviewed responded from two different roles. The decision
on the role assigned was made based on bias in the responses and opinions given during the
interview.

For each of these roles very different responses were defined that are considered relevant to the
purpose of the study content. There was one standard role-actor defined, but not interviewed,
that, given the interview responses, is considered fundamental: the employees and owners of
agricultural services companies. This profile-role was built on ideal models of the responses-
opinions given.

G1: farmers, farm workers and owners of small and medium size farms and immigrants working in
sector

Although as stated in the previous section, there is no special motivation for training, this
group does appear to assign importance to risk prevention and efficiency, although some
merely go through the motions of risk prevention due to obligation or because it is fashionable.

The leaders of agricultural organizations believe that prevention depends on the farmers
themselves, and are aware of the need to reach them, something that is not always achieved.

As to how they organize training, within this group there are different strategies that distinguish
the large agro companies from the small farmers or SMEs, for example.

The first have their own training and prevention systems, while the second do not provide
training for employees on the job, rather their employees attend courses organized by COAG and
similar organizations. One thing they do is have supervisors teach and accompany
employees to “teach them how the machinery works”. They never attend courses
organized by the machine manufacturers.




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G2: Representatives of public bodies and institutions

A great deal of importance is assigned to it, but they feel that prevention and machine
operation training are the responsibility of organizations, manufacturers and,
ultimately, of companies. As can be seen, this group passes the responsibility on to agricultural
organizations. They limit their efforts to designing materials and offering training actions, although
the immense majority of these are really designed or given by the organizations.

G3: Representatives of public and private training entities.

As to be expected, this group also assigns a great deal of importance to prevention.

They feel that the organizations, and above all the farmers and farm workers who use
the machinery, hold direct responsibility. They are aware of their role as the trainers of a
new generation of agricultural managers and technicians. They use materials from training
schools-organizations. They believe that practical experience with the machinery is more important
than training materials.

G4: Manufacturers, importers and/or exporters of farm machinery.

They believe that they are not responsible for prevention, but that the workers and the companies
are.

They offer almost no training and do not design specific training materials. The ones who do
design these materials do not appear to be in demand, possibly because they prefer to give their
manuals a more commercial focus.




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       IV. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY TRAINING

The following is a schematic representation of the themes and contents considered most
important, and therefore highest priority, for training relating to agricultural machinery.

General Themes

First, the following general themes are proposed (free response), in descending order of
importance:

Safety of machinery / Improved culture of prevention.

General, specific and preventive maintenance.

Machine handling. Each culture involves one specific type of machine, due to which
specific, highly practical courses would have to be given on each.

General (basic principles) and specific operation of each machine.

Efficiency / Energy savings / Performance.

Specific Contents

As for the specific content considered top priority, with suggested response to the
question: “What aspects of agricultural machinery are most important for their safe and
proper use? 8, the following list in descending order of importance indicates, based on the
opinions received, the steps that could be established:

6)               Specific risks of farm tractors.

7)               General risks of farm machinery.

8)               Efficient use of farm machinery.

9)            Specific risks of crop protection machinery: Applying phytosanitary
       products

10)              Specific risks of motorized equipment: Rotary tillers, motorized hoes …

11)              First aid/Emergencies

12)        Specific risks of agricultural transport.

13)              Specific risk of other suspended and dragged equipment.

14)              Specific risk of farm implements and other equipment.

8
    See attached document in Annex 1: “Training needs detection Guide”. Point 4.2.
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15)            Energy saving use of farm machinery.

16)             Specific risks of self-propelled machinery: harvesters and combines for grain,
      feed, fruit and vegetables, cotton, grapes, picker platforms…

17)            Specific risks in tool and repair shop.

18)             Specific risks of storage and auxiliary operations machinery:                       mills, spiral
      distributors, etc.

19)            Specific risks of crop harvesting machinery for: tuber crops, olives, etc.

20)            On the job risk prevention management.

21)            Ergonomics




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V. PROPOSALS FOR THE FOR.MA.AGRI. PROJECT


V.1 Materials recommended by interviewees

First, it should be noted that the search for “good practices” applicable to the second
stage of For.Ma.Agri. was not very successful. The results from semi-structured interviews
were limited, repetitive and at times disappointing, and did not meet expectations.

The following materials were cited in the interviews:

            i. Courses for agricultural training in individual autonomous communities,
               particularly by the Andalusian regional government.

            j. Courses organized by machinery manufacturers (ex: John Deere) for
               farmers.

            k. General courses in the metal industry (IFI).

            l. Some bibliography references, such as “Farm Tractors and Engines” by
               Pedro Amal (MAPA).

            m. Master’s Degree IDE-CESEM.

            n. Technical notes and guides from the National Institute for Health and Safety
               in the Workplace.

            o. Training videos by Arvalis and CEMAGREF (France).

            p. Elementary job safety training video for immigrants (Foundation for the
               Prevention of on the Job Risk).

            q. Training materials from INSL, the Navarre Labor Health Institute, available
               over internet.

An overview of these proposals confirms that some simply will not work for this project,
because they do not meet the needs and or fit the target training group. In other cases
they do not address the demands in question.

However, the last of the materials mentioned could be useful, particularly that of the INSL,
which received high marks from different sources taking part in the study (university,
agricultural training center, agricultural associations) for its training content and focus on
agricultural health and safety.




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V.II Specific Proposals

Based on the main conclusions presented in previous chapters, the following proposals can
be made:

      A/ Focus and design training for young farmers, under 35 yrs of age.



Only they have the motivation and learning habits required for an innovative training
program in the agricultural sector, using ITC, to meet its objectives. This is the most
motivated, but also the smallest group: the young people who will be taking over small
and medium size family farms.


    B/ For farmers beyond 35, only short courses will be successful (no
  longer than 30 hours). Sessions should be no longer than three hours
   daily and should be held near their homes after the work day is over.


The traditional obstacles of access to training (scheduling, travel) still have to be
overcome, as does the challenge of insuring that the training is practical and
immediately applicable to their work (if it is on machinery, it should be given “with
the machine right there”)


  C/ Offer a 2 – 3 hour training session 1 day per month to gradually teach
                          handling of the new machine


This involves learning how to get RENOVE plan aid for the purchase of new farm
machinery.


    D/ In the case of agricultural SMEs, on the job risk prevention training
                       must be given directly to owners


The people receiving the training must take responsibility for this.




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    E/ Immigrants: in addition to teaching basic materials and language skills,
        select immigrants with experience in the sector to be trained as
                                      trainers.

These individuals can transmit language, culture and professional knowledge to train new
immigrant workers who plan on staying in agriculture.


    F/ One of the training priorities detected is the handling of the tractor.



This goes hand in hand with their demonstrating efficiency and safety in practice. Tractor
maintenance and machinery purchase criteria are also important aspects.

The future of training in this area involves the creation of consortia that bring together
machinery manufacturing associations and production associations to offer the combined
advantages of these.


General themes, of varying importance, for inclusion in training actions:

o           Safety of machinery / Improved culture of prevention.

o           General, specific and preventive maintenance.

o        Machine handling. Each crop involves one specific type of machine, due to
which well targeted, highly practical courses would have to be given on each.

o           Efficiency / Energy savings / Performance.


For specific content, use order of priorities listed in point V.

o                Specific risks of farm tractor.

o                General risks of farm machinery.

o                Efficient use of farm machinery.

o                Specific risks of crop protection machinery: Applying phytosanitary products.

o                Specific risks of motorized equipment: Rotary tillers, motorized hoes…

o                First aid/Emergency

o                Specific risks of agricultural transport.

o                Specific risk of other suspended and dragged equipment.
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o               Specific risk of farm implements and other equipment.

o               Energy saving use of farm machinery.

o             Specific risks of self-propelled machinery: harvesters and combines for grain,
           feed, fruit and vegetables, cotton, grapes, picker platforms…

o               Specific risks in tool and repair shop.

o              Specific risks of storage and auxiliary operations machinery: mills, spiral
           distributors, etc.

o               Specific risks of crop harvesting machinery for: tuber crops, olives, etc.

o               On the job risk prevention management.

o               Ergonomics




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V.III Other proposals

                                               Saving Energy

Interview results indicate that this is not a priority for farmers, regardless of age or
educational/training level.

However,”saving energy” is a very important subject for farmers, who must realize it
translates into “saving money”.

This is particularly true considering the current price of diesel oil for farm machinery. It is
important that the teaching materials help agro company managers and the farmers
themselves understand this equation.

                                        Size of farm machinery.

Another error, made mostly by farmers, is seen in the disproportionately large tractor a
farm may have compared with the size tractor it really needs to do the work required on
that particular farm. Most farmers rent or buy tractors much larger than they
need, which is a waste of money and energy. This is a deeply rooted error, which
can only be corrected by changing the farmer’s mindset. While it may not be a priority in
the energy savings training, efforts must be made to change this mindset.

Qualified Teachers

The interviews showed that for participants, one of the most important aspects of the
courses, aside from the need for them to be short courses given close to the farmer’s
home base, is that they be given by qualified teachers who clearly state course objectives
on the first day.

Course content and methodology are very important for future students. The courses must
be very practical and hands on. A good portion of the training should be done on site with
the machinery in question. Course materials with an abundance of drawings and pictures
with some interspersed text could lead to success, not only encouraging students to finish
coursework, but also helping them retain knowledge for later implementation in practical
situations. And this is the ultimate goal of the training program.

                                                  Motivation

This will not be possible if SMEs, meaning the people responsible for employee on the job
safety, content themselves with being happy if they get the crops out and don’t feel
motivated to become involved in employee training.

The courses and materials should also be designed to help these organizations see not
only that accidents can be avoided, but also that if they do occur, they can have
irreversible effects on production. The courses must fit the needs and preferences of the
workers. If well designed, in addition to achieving the goals described above, they can be
a key factor for encouraging young farmers to stay in agriculture.
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                                   II.2. CZECH REPUBLIK




  Institute of Agriculture and Food
             Information,

 Prague Slezská 7, 120 56 Praha 2,
 P.O.B. 39 Tel.:+420 227 010 111
      Fax:+420 227 010 114
        e-mail: uzpi@uzpi.cz




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Conclusions of the Survey Focusing on Educational Needs Relating to Work Safety and
Correct Care for Agricultural Machinery and Equipment

After translating all the source materials into Czech we started co-operating with organisations and
experts involved in the area of agricultural education, occupational health and safety, agricultural
establishments and companies and their professional associations. We informed the partners about
the objectives of the For.Ma.Agri programme, discussed the procedures for preparing this project
and handed them the Czech version of a questionnaire, which they sent to their selected co-
workers. The actual survey took place in spring 2005. A list of approached partners is given in
Chapter 1.4. of this Report.

The questionnaire was divided into 4 sections and each section had several sub-sections.



FIRST SECTION = BASIC INFORMATION

1.1.     Country
All the respondents were Czech citizens.

1.2. Date
March to May 2005

1.3. Name of the respondent
All the respondents gave the name of the organisation and an E-mail or telephone contact.

1.4. Profile of the respondent
Each person questioned gave at least one option from the supplied list. Namely:
Union of Young Agrarians                    – 1 respondent
Association of Private Farmers              – 1 respondent
Agrarian Chamber                            – 1 respondent
Education – secondary school                - 3 respondents
         - university/college               - 2 respondents
Occupational health and safety workers      - 5 respondents
Agricultural Association                    - 11 respondents
(Representatives of the Agricultural Association often ticked off other options, either that they are
members of the Agrarian Chamber and/or an agricultural co-operative).

Some respondents returned questionnaires completed only partially or did not follow the structure
of questions or described the given matters verbally according to their experience. Therefore, the
answer total for individual questions does not always give the sum corresponding to the number of
returned questionnaires.




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SECOND SECTION = GENERAL CHANGES IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN
RELATION TO EFFICIENT AND SAFE USE OF MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT

2.1. How have the following aspects of work in agriculture changed in the last five
years?

Team work – chosen 3x: the least given answer
A university representative: - checks in individual spheres of occupational health and safety and
fire prevention have increased, moreover hygiene checks in the food-processing industry have
been stepped up.
A representative of an agricultural co-operative (AC) /simultaneously a member of the Agricultural
Association /: - greater emphasis on this aspect is necessary

Individual responsibility- chosen 10x
University representative: - individual responsibility of workers has increased as a result of
employing efficient and multifunctional machines
A representative of (AC) /simultaneously a member of the Agricultural Association /: - greater
emphasis on this aspect is necessary

Performance of complicated tasks - chosen 4x
A university representative: - for demanding tasks workers are trained not only by managerial
workers, but mainly workers of specialised firms, which distribute machinery and equipment and
also implement service work on them.
A representative of (AC) /simultaneously a member of the Agricultural Association /: - greater
emphasis on this aspect is necessary

Complexity of used machinery and equipment - chosen 11x: the most given answer
A university representative: - with regards to vegetable production, use of multifunctional
machinery and equipment has occurred, which increases labour productivity
             -    to emphasise soil protection technologies

Own quality checks – chosen 4x
The representative of the Association of Private Farmers: - there is a trend of acquiring various
certificates

Functional versatility – chosen 6x
A representative of (AC) /simultaneously a member of the Agricultural Association /: - in the case
of higher specialisation, the possibility of substitution may be problematic

Work load – chosen 6x
A university representative: - using high performance machinery results in greater employment of
machinery. The supportive mobile elements of technological systems of agricultural machinery and
equipment are employed in multi-shift operations.

Functional independency – chosen 5x
A university representative: - individual technological systems have become defined, mainly use of
multi-purpose machinery and equipment. This situation leads to cutting down on the number of
machines, but simultaneously to their greater employment.
A representative of (AC) /simultaneously a member of the Agricultural Association /: - the
necessary requirement is independency with the ability to work in a team.



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The majority of respondents always chose more options and often supplemented the question with
other findings from their own experience. Changes in agriculture in the CZ were influenced for
example also by: amendments of legal regulations, changes in land ownership, subsidies from the
EU, specialisation, requirements for higher outputs, greater responsibility - etc.
A representative of the Research Institute of Occupational Health and Safety: technology exchange
proceeds slower than is necessary.


2.2. Generally speaking, do you think that innovation in the last years has influenced
or is influencing farm work? If yes, how and to which degree (a lot, quite, little, none
at all)?

Respondents gave the following answers:
It influences a lot – 13 x
            quite –       3x /1x-university, 1x-co-operative, 1x-Agricultural Association/
            little -     3x /1x- Research Institute of Occupational Health and Safety, 1x-co-
                 operative, 1x-Agricultural Association/
             none at all - 0
            gave an ambiguous answer – 3x
             did not answer – 2 respondents /1x-Agricultural Association, 1x-secondary
                                school/

Some other supplementing answers:
A university representative – new trends in mechanical engineering (precisation of operations,
GPS) significantly influence work on farms.

The representative of the Association of Private Farmers – it depends on a farmer if he wishes to
be influenced (by various trends, politics, machinery supply).


2.3. Which changes have had the greatest impact on labour efficiency in the last few
years (e.g. sowing technology, changes in countryside population /migration of
residents to towns and cities, machinery and equipment, agrarian policy, others)?

Respondents gave the following answers:
   - machinery and equipment – 13x
   - agrarian policy– 10x
   - sowing technology – 5x
   - changes in countryside population – 3x
   - other impacts – e.g. greater emphasis on labour productivity, implementation of
      transformation after 1989 and disintegration of the former establishments, cutting down on
      the number of jobs, productivity increase, higher demands on quality of the work
      performed.

Some other supplementing answers:
A university representative: – making high performance machinery more available and applying
pressure on lowering inputs in the working process resulted in lowering the labour intensity in
individual work operations, which brought about a significant increase in labour productivity.

A representative of occupational health and safety workers: - soil preparation and sowing
technologies, harvest work, cattle farming technology – everything is being changed in view of
cutting down on the work force and higher demands placed on the quality of the work performed.
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THIRD SECTION = EDUCATION

3.1. Generally speaking, how would you appraise the level of professional knowledge
of workers in the agricultural sector?

Almost all respondents appraised the level of professional knowledge as good up to very good.
Three representatives of bodies involved in occupational health and safety /out of 5 participants/
classified the knowledge as small to minimal.

Example of answers:
The university representatives
– workers in the agricultural sector, whether in establishments having the status of a legal or
physical entity, are pressurised to ensure expertise in agriculture, the main emphasis is placed on
handling machinery for plant protection and nourishment and the subsequent disposal of
packaging from agro-chemicals.

The representatives of the Agricultural Association: - the level of knowledge is problematic, with
new technologies being introduced; there is a lack of young farmers with a level of expertise, who
are willing to work in agriculture.

 - good expert knowledge, however the age of workers with good expert knowledge is increasing
and there is no influx of young people.

- average up to above-average experts

- a good level of knowledge, but it is getting worse

Inspectors of occupational health and safety:
– the level of knowledge is very good; sometimes it is dependant on job position.

- the level of knowledge is high, the market demands it

The representative of the Research Institute of Occupational Health and Safety:
- in small establishments it is low

The representative of the Czech Office of Occupational Health and Safety:
- minimal knowledge!

The representative of the Agrarian Chamber:
– the level of knowledge is very good, with slight /but continuous/ worsening.

A representative of secondary schools:
    - the expert level is good, economic thinking worse
    - workers must have universal knowledge and awareness

(Comments of the questionnaire evaluator: this section shows quite inconsistent answers, it
depends on the point of view assumed by a respondent. The overall view of these issues is more
or less pessimistic. The opinion of representatives of the Inspectorate for Occupational Health and

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Safety – people involved on a daily basis in the terrain of “work injuries” is worth mentioning and
these appraise the level of knowledge as very good).


3.2. Please specify what you think about the need of further education concerning the
issues of how to handle agricultural machinery and equipment in an efficient and safe
way?

. In general

The representative of the Agrarian Chamber said: Further education should be organised in the
form of continuing education. Courses for the current employees of all establishments and
enterprises /applies also for students/ should be organised.

The representatives of secondary schools:
- training is necessary; it concerns complicated and expensive equipment
- from the point of view of the great technological complexity of modern machines, permanent
education is necessary

The representatives of universities/colleges:
   - as a consequence of changing machines, their employment and a higher number of control
       elements and the greater possibility of their utilisation, workers should receive better
       quality and longer lasting educational training courses
   - etc
   - to develop the principle of further education for workers controlling and operating
       agricultural machinery and equipment

The representative of the Research Institute of Occupational Health and Safety:
- it is necessary to perform training repeatedly, in regular intervals. To place the emphasis on the
first initial training session.

The inspectors of occupational health and safety:
   - new technologies demand continuous training
   - continuous training is essential in view of the needs of the group and development

The representative of the Czech Office of Occupational Health and Safety:
- information about correct and safe conduct to be presented before work commencement

The representatives of the Agricultural Association:
   - manufacturers have to supply sufficient manuals about machines
   - expert training of the operating staff - necessary


Please specify for the given group

- Relates to all groups
The representative of the Research Institute of Occupational Health and Safety: - the frequent lack
of sufficient training of seasonal workers and illegal workers relates to all the groups.

- Students/ trainees
The representatives of universities/colleges:

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- from the point of view of machinery, it is necessary for students to obtain experience with new
machines not only in the form of theoretical teaching, but also in practice and demonstrations of
individual machines.

The representative of the Czech Office of Occupational Health and Safety:
- the issues of occupational health and safety must be included in the curriculum.

A representative of the Agricultural Association:
    - expert knowledge needs to be interconnected with operation
    - it is necessary to encourage students even when they are still at school and conclude
       contracts with them on future work during the course of studies.

- Immigrants
The representatives of universities/colleges:
- in agriculture immigrants work more likely in the sector of animal production and come into
contact with modern machinery only very rarely.

The representative of the Czech Office of Occupational Health and Safety: - they carry out only
simple work

- Small and medium-size establishments

The representatives of universities/colleges:
- small farmers do not have such a supply of information as large establishments have. This is
caused by the market targeting of agricultural machinery dealers. Owners of small farms should be
educated in the appropriate subjects or the expert issues should be provided by another person, a
consultation firm – etc., as it is common in western countries, e.g. France.

The representative of the Czech Office of Occupational Health and Safety:
- in relation to the specific workplace
The representatives of the Agricultural Association:
     - it is necessary to permanently work on qualification increase in the form of training
         sessions, courses
     - etc.

3.3. Which courses are the most suitable for people working in small and medium-size
establishments in the agricultural sector?


A/ The   course content
    -    farm management/administration             - 12x
    -    production/ harvesting techniques          -    9x
    -    technologies                               - 13x
    -    energy conservation                           - 10x
    -    commercial                                         -    7x
    -    information technologies - IT              -    9x
    -    quality                                            -    6x
    -    occupational health and safety at the workplace/risk prevention at the workplace - 15x
    -    the environment                                    -    11x
    -    maintenance and working order of machinery -       12x
    -    others (specification)                        -      7x

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With regards to other contents of courses /or more precisely specification of some of the offered
options / the respondents stated for example: economic efficiency, foreign languages, work
conditions, subsidy policy, taxes, wages, strategic management, company planning - etc.
All the respondents gave at least 2 or more answers. Two respondents / 1x – the representative of
the Agrarian Chamber, and 1x – a university representative/ ticked off all the options.

B/ The method of teaching
    - personal participation        - 17x (direct contact and the possibility of feedback in the
       form of questions asked are the main benefits)
    - distant teaching              - 6x
    - e-learning                          - 3x
     - did not answer               - 3x
Some respondents recommended combination of 2 or 3 methods of learning /it would depend on
for whom and regarding which topics the teaching would be organised /.

The representative of the Research Institute of Occupational Health and Safety:
   - the institute is preparing specialised courses for operating staff, workers responsible for
       occupational health and safety in the establishment and management. The materials will be
       in English and other languages. It would be advisable to place short and brief leaflets
       concerning occupational health and safety at places, where workers go very often /offices,
       hardware stores
   - etc./ and moreover these need to be attached to policy covers, which are being concluded

C/ The place of the course venue
    - workplace                                    - 11
    - specialised education centre          - 13
    - other places                              - 8
As other places, the respondents named the workplace of the Agrarian Chamber, the workplace of
the Agrarian Association or a school with the appropriate accreditation.
Furthermore, there was a requirement stating that the place of the course venue should not be
further than 30 km from the place of residence of the course applicant.

D/ Duration of the course /specify the ideal number of hours/
The representative of the Union of Young Agrarians: 16 hours /depending on the topic/

The representatives of secondary schools: 80-120 hours
                         100-150 hours in a winter period
                          20 hours

The representatives of universities/colleges:
   - It is not easy to specify. I think that farmers unless they have specialised education in
       agriculture, should be trained at least on the level of trainees at the secondary vocational
       schools. But the education should be continuous to cope with changes in agriculture, i.e.
       new findings from science and research, and changes in the legislation concerning
       agriculture and protection of nature and landscape.
   - a week

The representatives of organisations involved in occupational health and safety:                2-3 hours
                                                      1 day – 8 hours
                                                      1 day – approx. 6 hours

The representatives of the Agricultural Association :               - 16 hours
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                                          - 6-8 hours
                                           - 16 hours
                                          - 2 – 3x of 4 hours
                                          - 8-16 hours when dealing with the given issues
                                          - repeatedly shorter courses
                                          - 8 hours

3.4. In connection with the previous question what would you recommend to young
farmers and immigrants? What type of courses do they need most?

The representative of the Union of Young Agrarians stated:
- young farmers – management, creation of the company concept
- immigrants – knowledge of the surrounding environment

The representative of the Agrarian Chamber stated:
– it depends on the complexity of the topic.
The representatives of secondary schools:
- for both groups we recommend passing driving and welding tests, and regular familiarising with
new technologies.

The representatives of universities/colleges:
   - that depends on their level of education. But if young farmers are interested in agriculture,
       I would recommend for them self
   - study with the possibility of expert consultations.
   - to organise weekly innovation courses in the winter period

The representatives of organisations involved in occupational health and safety:
   - farmers
   - legal regulations

- immigrants
safety regulations in a language they understand

- new technologies, economics

The representatives of the Agricultural Association:
- courses focusing on technologies and new findings in the production

- when selecting a course it is necessary to proceed from the European Union environment,
specifically the CZ

- repeatedly shorter courses

- the previous agricultural education and advice of experienced workers are sufficient


3.5. Why do you think that education in the agricultural sector is problematic?

    -   the level of courses is low/high                                    -   1x
    -   there are no courses at the workplace                               -   3x
    -   they are not beneficial for work                                    -   0
    -   their quality is not sufficient                                     -   2x
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    -   working hours prevent attending courses                       - 10x
    -   do not cover the necessary topics                             - 2x
    -   it is difficult to organise a course and the mutual agreement of the farmers - 6x
    -   it is difficult to find experienced teachers in the given sector - 4x
    -   other problems /please specify/                                   - 6x

The respondents admittedly entered information also in the box “other problems”, however after a
closer examination it turned out that the answers could be placed under the above supplied
options. For example they pointed out that education in agriculture is problematic because: there
is seasonal work, no time to spare, some seminars are not beneficial at all and that there is a large
extent of demanded knowledge in relevant connections. One of the respondents /a representative
of secondary schools/ said that everything could be solved with legislation.

None of the options were chosen by 2 respondents. One respondent stated /a representative of an
agricultural co-operative / that he did not think education was problematic.


3.6. What in your opinion is the most important in a course for young farmers,
immigrants and small and medium-size establishments in general? Max. 3 answers
and number them in the order of importance 1-3.

    The order of importance                                           1st      2nd    3rd
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   - the form of the course and targets                      5x       1x       1x
   - the content of the course and its topics                8x       4x       5x
   - materials used                                                   0        1x     0
   - attendance of participants                              3x       2x       3x
   - experience and skills of teachers                       2x       5x       6x
   - applicability of course                        2x       5x       2x
   - course duration                                         1x       3x       3x
   - others /please specify/                                 0        0        1x /saying: practical
                                                                               focus of the course by COOHS /
Two representatives of the Agricultural Association ticked off “the form of the course and targets”
and “the content of the course and its topics” without specifying the order of importance.



FOURTH SECTION = EDUCATION IN THE AREA OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY AND
EQUIPMENT

4.1. Which topics are the most important for education in the area of agricultural
machinery and equipment?

The representative of the Union of Young Agrarians stated:
- optimisation of working sets in relation to the production portfolio

The representatives of secondary schools:
- training for new machines
-     optimum employment of machinery and equipment including economy and maintenance
efficiency
- farm management/ administration, production/ harvesting techniques, technologies, information
technologies - IT
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The representatives of universities/colleges:
- utilisation of machinery and its power supply

The representatives of the Agricultural Association:
- for technicians: inclusion of machines into lines, exploitation parameters
- for drivers: operation, adjusting and maintenance of machinery
- familiarising oneself with new technologies
- information about agricultural machinery development
- quality of operation, work safety
- it depends on what type of machinery or equipment the topic focuses on
- means of mechanisation
- operation and utilisation of machinery and equipment, energy conservation, efficiency
- familiarising oneself with rules for operating machinery and equipment and work with machinery
and equipment in economy mode

4.2. Which items below relating to agricultural machinery and equipment in your
opinion should be paid the greatest attention in order to achieve their proper and safe
use?

The representative of the Research Institute of Occupational Health and Safety:
Each farmer has a different view of the level of importance for particular agricultural machinery
and equipment, it depends on his specialisation. Therefore he did not complete the table and
described the areas, which attention should be paid to, in general:
   - maintenance and operation of machines
   - handling materials and loads
   - work at heights
   - preventing entry of unwanted and untrained persons to the workplace

The representative of the Czech Office of Occupational Health and Safety:
   - Documentation at an extent prescribed by law has to be available for each machine /new
       as well as old/. The manufacturer himself has to appraise and list the risks relating to a
       specific machine and it is important that manuals are in the language spoken in the
       territory, where the machine is offered.
   - Irreplaceable role of machinery and equipment dealers.
He also did not fill in the table with levels of importance for individual machine groups.




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General risks associated with agricultural machinery and equipment
Level       of None             Very low        Low            High                          Very high
importance
Number      of 0                0               4              12                            5
times
selected


Specific risks associated with agricultural tractors
Level        of None             Very low          Low                    High               Very high
importance
Number       of 0                1                 6                      10                 3
times
selected


Specific risks associated with agricultural transportation
Level        of None             Very low         Low                     High               Very high
importance
Number       of 0                1                2                       16                 2
times
selected


Specific risks associated with driven machines (rotavators, harrows, cultivators, diggers)
Level        of None              Very low       Low             High             Very high
importance
Number       of 0                 3              3               9                4
times
selected


Specific risks connected with accessories and farm tools
Level        of None            Very low        Low                       High               Very high
importance
Number       of 0               3               5                         10                 1
times
selected


Specific risks associated with carried, semi-trailing or trailing implements (give the specific
example)
Level       of None           Very low        Low              High         Very high
importance
Number      of 0              2               5                9            5
times
selected


Specific risks associated with machines for plant protection and spraying
Level        of None            Very low         Low             High                        Very high

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importance
Number     of 0                      0                 1                  9                  9
times
selected


Specific risks associated with self-propelled machinery (corn, fodder and vegetable harvesters)
Level        of None              Very low       Low              High          Very high
importance
Number       of 0                0               0                15            4
times
selected



Specific risks associated with root-crop harvesters and pickers
Level        of None             Very low        Low            High                         Very high
importance
Number       of 0                0               0              11                           5
times
selected


Specific risks associated with post-harvest operations (mills, grinders, elevators, silos)
Level        of None             Very low        Low               High            Very high
importance
Number       of 0                2               4                 6               7
times
selected


Specific risks associated with repairs and maintenance
Level        of None             Very low        Low                      High               Very high
importance
Number       of 0                1               10                       6                  2
times
selected


First aid/injuries
Level        of None                 Very low          Low                High               Very high
importance
Number       of 0                    0                 3                  10                 8
times
selected


Efficiency in using agricultural machinery and equipment
Level        of None              Very low       Low                      High               Very high
importance
Number       of 0                 3              1                        9                  5
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times
selected


Energy conservation when using agricultural machinery and equipment
Level      of None            Very low        Low            High                            Very high
importance
Number     of 1               2               2              8                               4
times
selected




-------------------------------
Comments

General changes in the agricultural sector

The representatives of the Agricultural Association: - there are never enough good general
changes
                                   - the necessary guarantee of the state for newly starting and
developing farmers and agricultural establishments
                                   - the agricultural sector constantly records falling numbers of
workers. It is caused by migration to towns and cities, but thanks to good organisation of labour
and technical facilities, there is not a greater need for workforce.
                                    - in the last 5 years there have been changes in available
machinery and equipment. Replacement of the existing machinery and equipment by more
efficient machines did not compensate the decline in numbers of agricultural workers. Therefore,
workers are fully stretched, with overtime work being very frequent.

Education

The representative of the Agrarian Chamber: - to set up specialised education centres

The representatives of universities/colleges: - there should be a change in granting licences
for agricultural activities, these activities should be ensured from an expert point of view, not only
from the aspect of machinery and equipment, but also taking into account the environment and
disposal of packaging.

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The representatives of the Agricultural Association: - education is essential
                               - education of people in agriculture is at a good level. In the
managerial sphere there are people with university/college or secondary education. In production,
machines are operated by skilled staff.
                               - from my point of view taking into account activities of a medium-
size establishment, education of the existing workers is fully sufficient. Young people do not
appear and the existing workers have their own experience. I cannot fully judge small
establishments and private farms. I think that newly starting farmers, unless they have agricultural
education, should complete a course focusing on the basics of agricultural production.

Education in the area of agricultural machinery and equipment
 The representative of the Agrarian Chamber: To use the specialised education centres for
practical training. To pass on theoretical knowledge in the form of seminars and expert speeches.

The representatives of universities/colleges: - I recommend placing greater demands on
firms selling agricultural machinery and equipment. These firms should sufficiently train farmers in
work safety, correct operation and mainly functional potentials of new machines.

The representatives of the Agricultural Association: - education is essential
                                - educating people in relation to machinery and equipment is
mainly necessary when purchasing new machines that are expensive and worthwhile only if
handled professionally and used for high outputs.
                                 - concerning operating the agricultural machinery and equipment,
the greatest problem lies in operating it in economy mode. Even with the existing workers, there is
a prevailing opinion that it is best to work with a machine to its full capacity. Therefore, when
taking into account education, I see this problem as task No. 1.

Final comments of the questionnaire evaluator

In some cases the respondents did not grasp the content of the questionnaire and did not
complete it in the appropriate way. Nevertheless their partial opinions have been used and
included in the accompanying comments, which forms an annex of this report /it applies to a
group of sellers, self-employed/.




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                                      II.3 FRANCE




                                           CEMAGREF
                         Parc de Tourvoie - BP 44 - 92163 Antony Cedex
                                       00 33 1 40966154
                                      00 33 1 40966162.
                                  emmanuel.hugo@cemagref.fr




Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
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Interviewee profile.



        1.1.1    Agricultural trade union association.                                      10
        1.1.2    Small farmers’ association.                                                 0
        1.1.3    Cooperative.                                                                0
        1.1.4    Freelance association.                                                      0
        1.1.5    Agricultural business association.                                          0
        1.1.6    Association of agricultural SMEs.                                           0
        1.1.7    Young farmers’ association.                                                 0
        1.1.8    Immigrants’ association.                                                    0
        1.1.9    Public body.                                                                5
        1.1.10 Public training body                                                          5
        1.1.11 Private training organisation                                                 3
        1.1.12 Manufacturers                                                                 1
        1.1.13 Advisory body                                                                 1




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2. Generic changes un the agricultural sector
2.1 How have the following aspects of agricultural or farm work changed over the last five years in
your opinion?
                                                                   Have they             Have they
                                                                  increased ?           decreased ?
Team working                                                          11                    10
Individual responsability at work                                      1                    18
Complexity of tasks performed                                          3                    18
Complexity of the machinery used.                                      1                    20
The farmer’s own control over quality in all of its facets.            2                    20
Functional versatility.                                                2                    19
Workload.                                                              6                    12
Functional independance.                                              10                     9

2.2 Generally speaking, do you think that the technological innovations that have arisen over recent
years have affected or are affecting farm work?
 Yes        23
 No          2

If so,
what aspects of farm work have they affected and to what                    A lot       Quite a      A little    Not at
extent ?                                                                                 lot                      all
Precision and quality of work                                                             ×
Rapidity of interventions                                                                 ×
Harvesting (automatism)                                                                   ×
Simplification due to automatisms of machinery. Guidance                                  ×
aid (GPS)
Method                                                                                      ×
Organisation                                                                                ×
Information processing                                                                      ×
Provisions regulating terms and conditions of employment                                    ×
(employees)
Complexity of machinery: electronic, automatisation.                                        ×
Traceability requirements                                                                   ×
Common agricultural policy (administrative documents)                         ×
workload
Increase of mechanization                                                                   ×
Tasks become less repetitive but need an important capacity
of adaptation
Heavy –duty works outside the depth of the occupation :                                     ×
organisation + specialisation (subcontracting)
Management of greenhouses, crops and irrigation                                             ×
Technologies of machinery are important for their use and                     ×
versatility.
Comfort                                                                       ×
Health, ergonomy                                                                            ×
Automatisms                                                                                 ×
Production processes are improved (spreading, spraying)                       ×
control of the costs and of environmental rules
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                                                      05/2006
Better control of production, observation by satellites (crop                               ×
rotation)
Technology, improvement with regard to new hazards
(forward speed)
Regulation, Provision and use of work equipment                                             ×
regulations. Evolution of basic level.
Organisation of work (35 hours weekly).                                                     ×
Hydraulics and on board electronics .                                                       ×
Safety rules.                                                                 ×
Replacement of manual tasks by machinery.                                     ×
Bigger, more efficient and quicker machinery.                                 ×
Use of first robots (ie. milking robot).                                      ×
On board data processing, mobile phones, radiotelephones                      ×
Maintenance and service.                                                                    ×
Power and efficiency of machinery                                                           ×
Transport and handling of heavy loads (round or high                                        ×
density bales)
On board driving aid system                                                                 ×
Safety, compliance with standards                                                           ×
Complexity                                                                    ×
Increase of performance and speed
Salad planters                                                                              ×
Sprayers with on board electronics                                                          ×
Vegetables harvesters                                                                       ×

2.3 What changes have had the biggest impact on work performed in the countryside over recent
years in your opinion? For example:
Growing techniques
Change in the rural population/
people moving away from the
countryside
Mechanisation
Common agricultural policy

Others
              Standardisation, integration of production systems.
              Regulation, health and safety, sustainable management.
Comments.
             All those elements are linked together
             Development of specialized equipments.
             Choice of the production in connection with common agricultural policy.
             Production systems needing improvement of traceability and quality control.
             Regulatory context
             Decoupling of support to production.
             Management of rural area
             Evolution of CAP has made people moving away from the countryside, so farmers
         have had to modify their practices. Mechanization is one element of the system.
             Current devices in order to help farmers need a bureaucratic work.
             Check financial support and measure impact on health.
 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
           Administrative, workload, management of working conditions.
           Without CAP no more agriculture.
           Mechanization and CAP are the two most influent parameters which have produced
       modifications in cultural techniques.




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                                                     05/2006
3. Skills – training.
3.1 Generally speaking, how would you rate the level of professional skills of workers in the
agricultural sector ?

High 6
Middle                                           14
Low 4

Middle/high for farmers.
Middle/low for employees, and temporary or seasonal workers.
A lot of level V situations.
High level of training for those who want to work as farmers
3.2 More specifically, what do you think about training on how to handle agricultural machinery
efficiently and safely?
In general
              Improve continuing education in order to adapt to technological evolution of
        machinery.
              Shall be continuously updated.
              There is a more and more specialized and targeted offer in education.
              Need to develop a functional analytic approach transferable to various work situations.
              Serious need to improve training for the safe use of agricultural machinery.
              Training allows a safe and efficient use of machinery.
              Generally the wording ‘without risks’ is not correct for me. Risks are rarely inherent to
        machinery but to their use. Machinery have been designed taking into account this
        dimension. If the use of machinery which complies with the rules is not dangerous.
              Give too much importance to the implement itself not to the work performed or to the
        use.
              Employers do not often give enough importance to the necessary training.
              All risks may not be avoided, they have to be reduced.
              High level of demand.
              Inadequate.
              Has to be intensified.
              Concerne for savings. Work capacity/risks on health.
              Comply with enablings when they exist for non wage-earners (farmers).
              New machinery need a training for an optimal use.
              Inadequate, especially in breeding areas.
              The farmers are accustomed to the use of agricultural and construction machinery.
              When the training is made, it integrates safety well.

And more specifically.
Young people ?
           Too weak initial training for the young people not-coming from the agricultural sector.
           It is important to show the young people to be wary of the practices which could be at
      the origin of serious risks.
           Use of personal protective equipment, respect of the warnings provided by the
      manufacturer.
           Not enough responsibilisation by the action. The setting in position of work and not of
      formation causes training (accompanied driving).
           Especially them due to their inexperience and their long professional future.
           A lot of accidents due to their youth.
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                                                      05/2006
              The training improves itself; the behaviour of the individuals is nevertheless linked to
        other parameters.
              To develop the safety of the people aspects in the reference frames of course
              Integrate to the better the aspects of occupational health and safety.
              Optimum training.
              Young people do not come anymore from rural sector. It is necessary therefore to form
        them for the safe use, without risks for them and their environment, but also for an optimum
        performance.
              Conscious of the problems but the resolution of those problems is not always a priority
        for them.
              Population more sensitive to the use of the machinery when not-coming from rural
        sector.
              Too superficial.
              Good technical competences, but the practice is more difficult.

Immigrants ?
           Train themselves “on the job” insufficient initial training.
           Ensure that pictograms giving safety information is well understood.
           Too “with the task” and on specific activities (arboriculture, vine growing, forest).
           Accidents by practice.
           Evaluation of know-how (barrier of the language).
           They are often employed with repetitive tasks on the machines. They should be formed
      because the machines are increasingly powerful and the right to the error does not exist.
           The agricultural high school has not or few contact with the immigrated workers.
           Little or not any training.
           Paid under contract, 6 months, manual duties.

             On-the-job training for the eldest.
             To give the operator manual of the machinery and to make with the users a digest
        corresponding to the principal uses.
             To the strict use of the machinery. Little general approach (economy, production)
        subcontracting = lower cost => less qualification. His activity has no ‘sense’.
             The improvement is slow.
             Come from agricultural sector.
             Continuing education exists that it is necessary to make known.
             Must be able to use a machine with its optimum, without risk for him, its entourage and
        the environment.
             The farm workers are very petitioning specific trainings in particular concerning safety.
        An intern investigation testifies it. Problem of communication.
             Idem for the young people.
             The young people adapt better and more quickly than the old ones.
             Possible training with the FAFSEA but the acquired knowledge is not often
        remunerated.




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                                                      05/2006
3.3 What course do you think are most needed for the people who work in small and medium-sized
enterprises in the agricultural sector?

A) Regarding course content :
Farm management/administration.
Production/crop techniques.
Technology.
Energy saving
Commercial.
IT.
Quality.
Occupational health and
safety/Occupational risk prevention
Environment.
Maintenance of machinery and
installations.

Others.
          Employment shared (work with several adherent farmers of CUMA) => relational
          Agrosystemic basic concepts, good practices
          Languages (at least smattering).
          New technologies.
          Regulated controls
          Labour organization, poeple working near each other.
          Practical training

B) Regarding course delivery method.
Classroom learning.
Distance learning.
On-line (Internet).

          The methods and places of training must be varied.
          In classroom + workshop: description of the safety aspects of the machinery (symbol-risks).
          Distance and on-line : All information related to the regulation, it is not necessary to have
          the machine before one’s eyes, or then use of a “model” machine.
          The training in situation of “work” including in centre.
          Theoretical approach.
          Theoretical initial training.
          Sandwich course.
          Variable according to the contents and the objective.

C) Regarding course venue.
Workplace
Training centre

Any other venue :
      Practical training.
      Different areas or countries.
      No particular recommendation except that the description of certain weak points (safety,
      maintenance) will be more meaningful on the workplace.
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                                                      05/2006
       Including situations in centres.
       Manufacturer supplier.
       The teaching workshop of the training centre.
       Practical aspect, demonstration.
       Practical continuing education.
       “In the field”, situation of work.
       Combination of both
       Variable according to the contents and the objective.




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                                                     05/2006
B) Regarding course length :

Ideal number of hours                              4 3 ¾ ¾- ? ? 4 ? 4 7 6 2 1 ? ? 4                        3     4 1 4 4
                                                         1½               0 5                              ½       0

           According to the season.
           Variable according to objectives and levels.
           Because it is not done enough
           1 or 2 days per year
           Which reference frame?
3.4 In connection with the last question above, would you make any specific comment for young
farmers ? What courses do they need most ?

                For a CACES 9 count 15 to 25 hours.
                Management of the farm.
                All depends on their basic training, if it is considered that the ‘BTS ACSE’ 10 is the
           entrance door for the profession to date, the courses of maintenances are essential because
           they miss to programs
                Multitude of situations of work. It is necessary to give again meaning to apprenticeship
                Management of the work, planning, maintenance.
                Management of new devices to control the farming.
                Techno-economic management.
                To sensitize with the concept of taking risk, to behave as a person in charge for
           company
                Occupational health and safety
                New farmers are intrested in the economic health of their farm, they are less interested
           in their own health.
                Environmental regulations (sustainable management).
                For young farmers : Management, adiministration, regulation, health and safety.
                Control of spraying, welding, safe driving.
                Business.
                Knowledges centered on the occupation (techniques of production, management,
           technologic approach of the machinery, safety and environment).
                Bonne utilisation pratique, conduite en situation.
                Management, business, quality.

What about immigants ?
           Being young or immigrant is not sufficient to define the length …
           Production techniques.
           Risk prevention and maintenance of machinery.
           Training appropriate for the task and basic notions of language.
           Centred on low added-value (essentially manual tasks : harvesting)
           Courses in language and safety.
           Difficult to answer, it is necessary to make a list of the needs.
           Control of basic languages.

9
 CACES : Certificat d’Aptitude à la Conduite En Sécurité : certificate of enabling for driving in
safety
10
  BTS : Brevet de Technicien Supérieur : Diploma of advanced technician - ACSE : Analyse et conduite des systèmes
d’exploitation : Analysis and management of farming system
    Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                         05/2006
             Use of machinery.
             Possibility of objective evaluation.
             Language, regulation, health and safety.
             Business.
             Use of machinery and prevention of occupational and environmental risks
             Correct practical use of machinery, driving in situation.
             Courses divided with short theoretical sequences.
             Literacy, informations on rights and duties.




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                                                     05/2006
3.5 What are the reasons why training in the agricultural sector is problematic in your view?
To be modulated according to the concerned person : contractor, trainers, farmer…
Large offer.
    The standard of courses        Is too low. 6                        Is too high 2

The courses are useful for work.
The quality of the courses is good
enough.
Working hours prevent attendance.
The courses do not cover the subjects
needed.
There are no courses given in the
workplace.
It is difficult to organise a course for a
group of farmers and get them in an
agreement
It is difficult to find skilled trainers in the
sector
Other problems.
• Train and innovate in the small enterprises.
• Perhaps difficult to find skilled trainers for initial training because of the difficulty of
     examinations.
• Decrease of the capacity of the trainer to make its own proposals (catalogue), increase of the
     number of answers to call for tenders
• Heterogeneity of the groups.
• The courses do not come up to the expectations of the trainees. Either they are too much
     theoretical or they are too much practical.
• Financing.
3.6 Which three aspects do you think are the most important ones in a course devised for young
farmers and immigrants in this sector and for small farming enterprises in general ?
(choose a maximum of three answers and number them from 1 to 3)
The course design and aims                      2 × 1 1         1 ×        1 1      1 1 2 1      1   2
The course content and the subjects 1 × 3           2      × 3     ×             3     2     3     3
covered
The material used                           3 ×     3           2     ×             2
The timetable and venue                           ×                                                  3
The participant’s attention                            2      1            2              3
The experience and skill of the                   ×        ×    1 ×     × 3 2 2 3            2   3 2
teachers
The applicability of the course to          2 × 1 ×        × 2          ×      3 1     3 1       2 1 1
their work
The length of the course                               3                                       ×
Other aspects :
Comments.
• Plan short sequences with various pedagogical methods, with elaborated progressions as for
     ‘CQP’ 11 for example.


11
     CQP : Certificat de Qualification Professionnelle : professional pattern certificate
 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
•     For a trainer it is difficult to find the correct equilibrium between the contents (professional
      frame of reference), the formal aspect (didactical and pedagogical), applicability and practical
      aspects (dates and timetable of courses). This has to be modulated according to the person and
      his constraints (the ones she thinks important).
•     The availability to be present to the courses is essential.
•     The attention of trainees depends on the quality of the course.
•     The wording ‘course’ is not appropriate for adult vocational training.
•     It is often difficult to define common aims.
•     No claptrap, facts. For this it is necessary to call on professional’s service (teachers are not
      enough aware of the reality).
•     It is not possible to carry out the same courses, the beneficiaries are different.
•     Initial training is not practical enough. Training is easy to adapt.




    Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                         05/2006
4. Training in agricultural machinery.
4.1 let’s focus on agricultural machinery now. What subjects do you think are the most important
ones for training in every thing to do with agricultural or farm machinery for young people,
immigrants and SMEs in the sector?
    • Technologies employed, safety of use, maintenance of the machinery.
    • Good technical knowledge of the machinery used + safety of use.
    • Driving, driving maintenance, driving maintenance and responsible "workshop equips".
    • Safety, maintenance of first level, driving and optimized use.
    • Control Safety Maintenance Performance.
    • To know to manage the park of agricultural machinery.
    • Occupational safety, training in agricultural machinery (technology and maintenance)
    • Train to safety, prevention. To put in situation, not in situation of demonstration. (OAD
        method = Observe/Apply/Demonstrate).
    • Do and learn, and not learn to do.
    • Tasks and use of machinery.
    • Safety and risks prevention.
    • Service and maintenance.
    • Driving, ajustment, first level maintenance.
    • Automatisms, adjustments, safety, environment, maintenance.
    • Content of the work.
    • Behave.
    • Knowledge of the incurred risks.
    • Correct use.
    • Regulation in force (road regulation, occupational regulation, provision and use of work
        equipment regulations).
    • Safety, on board new technologies.
    • How to use machinery efficiently, safely in order not to damage the soil or the crop.
    • Usual service, health and safety, quality of the work, energy saving.
    • Safety, energy saving, environment protection.
    • Knowledge on equipment or machinery shall deal with:
        Choice according to agronomic, economic… aim
        Adjustment according to agronomic or environmental constraints…
        risks induced for persons or environment.
    • Driving, safety.
    • Safety.
    • Knowledge of machinery and their use.
    • Knowledge of tasks to be carried out.
    • Smatterings on costs.




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
4.2 Out of the list of points relating to agricultural machinery given below, could you tell me which
ones are the most important ones for it to be used properly and safely?

                                                                  None        Very       Low         High       Very
                                                                              low                               high
General risks of agricultural machinery                                                    0          14          9
Specific risks of farm tractors                                                 1          1          10          9
Specific risks of agricultural transport                                        1          0          15          6
Specific risks of motorised machinery : Rotavator ®,                                       2           7         14
motorised hoe, etc.
Specific risks of agricultural equipment and farming                            1          2          12              6
implements
Specific risks of other mounted and pulled-type or                              1          1          11              5
trailed implements
Specific risks of crop protection machinery :                                              1           6          15
application of plant health products
Specific risks of self-driven machinery : cereal,                                          0           9          10
vegetable and forage crop or combine harvesters,
grape harvesters, picking or harvesting platforms, and
so on
Specific risks of crop picking or harvesting                                               2          10              6
machinery : tuber crops, olives, etc.
Specific risks of agricultural store machinery and                                         3          10              7
other ancillary operation equipment : grain augers,
mills, etc.
Specific risks in the repair and tool workshop                                             3          10          10
First aid/emergencies                                                           1          2           9          11
Efficient use of agricultural machinery                                                    1          11          11
Energy saving in the use of agricultural machinery                                         5          12           4
Use of pure vegetable oil                                                                              1

Comments.
• Since always, but even today the aspect energy and environment (good practices) are important.
  Importance depends on the area (Importance variable selon région (plain, mountain, type of
  culture)
• For continuing training work on ‘know’: know, know-how, behaviour.
• For initial training there are not enough means.
• It is necessary to educe on first aid.
• Draw attention on the risks is more important in the farms where there are employees.
• Read instruction manual before use.
• It is essential that all intervening parties in the agricultural sector are globally trained on risks :
  Risk relating to moving parts (crushing…),
  Thermal risks,
  Electrical risks,
  Chemical risks,
  Specific occupational risks (diseases…)
• An evaluation relating to the incurred risks and the protection measures to be taken on each
  material or situation of work must be carried out in precondition to any activity. (Issuing of an
  enabling certificate proper to each type of risk).
 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
•      The efficiency should not endanger the safety and the quality of work.
•      Training throughout the life is essential to remain powerful.
•      Guarding of power take-off shafts rarely efficient (rotavator, etc…)




    Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                         05/2006
                                              II.4 ITALY




                                                ENAMA
                                     Via Lazzaro Spallanzani, 22/A
                                             00161 ROMA
                                           00 39.06.90675225
                                           00.39.06.440.3712
                                      raffaele.talarico@enama.it




Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                     05/2006
                                                 For.Ma.Agri.


Final report on interviews addressed to people, employed in agricultural world



                The plan Leonardo da Vinci called “For.Ma.Agri.” was been designed in answer to all
those questions coming from the agricultural world. Its aim is to support and strengthen safely use
of the agricultural machines, preventing the amount of accidents at work, caused by both old and
illegal machines and human errors.


                This project was foreseen a series of interviews addressed to farmers’ unions and
associations, cooperatives, builders, agricultural business organizations, public organizations and
so on, who take an active interest in agriculture, one of the main sectors of our region, Apulia. In
the province of Bari in particular, the use of agricultural machines together with their technological
development and the problem of safety at work, have had a deeper impact on the company
organization, requiring a constant and specific training to guarantee workers’ safety.


                The absence of a detailed set of rules to follow in managing a company (from
generation to generation), has brought to a miserable culture of prevention at work. But in the last
years this wrong trend was been replaced by a new generation of managers who want to learn
now to prevent and encourage technological innovation.




Evaluation of the need to do vocational training:
                The opinions of 36 persons, subjected to the interview, have been summarized in
the following graphics:


a)         Evaluation “of the generic changes in the agricultural sector”
The chart below shows the changes in agricultural world, recorded in the last five years:




                                                          DECREASED           UNCHANGED           INCREASED
 Team working                                                    16                   1                  19
 Individual responsibility at work                               1                    1                  34
 Complexity of tasks performed                                   6                    1                  29

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                                                      05/2006
 Complexity of the machinery used                                   2                     2              32
 The farmer’s own control over quality in all of
                                                                    1                     1              34
 its facets
 Functional versatility                                             2                     3              31
 Workload                                                           22                    1              13
 Functional independence (no reporting to or
                                                                  14                      3              19
 reliance on others)


b)            Evaluation “Skills – Training”
The graphic number 1 takes into account interviewed people’s idea about the need for a training
course that should be attended by all workers belonging to associations of agricultural SMEs.



                               Regarding course content
 36                                                 Farm management/administration
 34
 32                                                 Production/crop techniques
 30
 28                                                 Technology
 26
                                                    Energy saving
 24
 22                                                 Commercial
 20
 18                                                 IT
 16
 14                                                 Quality
 12
                                                    Occupational health and
 10
                                                    safety/Occupational risk prevention
  8                                                 Environment
  6
  4                                                 Maintenance of machinery and
  2                                                 installations
  0                                                 Others
      1   2    3   4   5   6   7   8   9 10 11




The second graphic (below) shows that the interviewed people prefer a traditional learning within a
class, to a modern on-line course.




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
                Regarding course delivery m ethod
  36
  34
  32                                        Classroom learning
  30
  28
  26                                        Distance learning
  24
  22                                        On-line (Internet)
  20
  18
  16
  14
  12
  10
   8
   6
   4
   2
   0
          1           2         3




The third graphic (below) concerns the choice of the place where the course should be organised:
25 persons prefer a training centre, 13 opt for the place where they work and just 2 want to attend
it in another site.



               Regarding course venue
  36
  34                                    Workplace
  32
  30
  28                                    Training centre
  26
  24
  22                                    Any other venue
  20
  18
  16
  14
  12
  10
   8
   6
   4
   2
   0
          1       2         3




The forth one (below) shows the problems relating to the training in the agricultural field: 8
persons think that the standard of courses is too low, just one believe that the standard is too
high, 25 denounce that there are no courses given in the workplace, other 4 persons consider
those courses not useful for work, 12 judge the quality not good enough, 17 believe that working
hours prevent attendance, other 5 persons’ idea is that courses do not cover the specific subjects,
other 25 think that it is difficult to organise a course for a group of farmers and get them all in
agreement, other 2 consider it difficult to find skilled trainers in the sector and other problems are
listed by other 5 interviewed people.




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
                                                  Problem list of the formation in the agricultural sector

     36                                                                                                The standard of courses is too low
     34
     32                                                                                                The standard of courses is too high
     30
     28                                                                                                There are no courses given in the w orkplace
     26
     24                                                                                                The courses are not useful for w ork
     22
     20                                                                                                The quality of the courses is not good enough
     18
     16                                                                                                Working hours prevent attendance
     14
     12                                                                                                The courses do not cover the subjects
     10                                                                                                needed
          8                                                                                            It is difficult to organise a course for a group
          6                                                                                            of farmers and get them all in agreement
          4                                                                                            It is difficult to find skilled trainers in the
          2                                                                                            sector
          0                                                                                            Other problems
                  1           2       3       4         5         6       7       8       9   10




The fifth one (below) underlines the three most important aspects that should be found in a
training course for young farmers, immigrants and small farmers’ companies:
1) very experienced and skilled teachers;
2) specific contents;
3) applicability to the work.



                                                            The three m ost im portant aspects
     36                                                                                        The course design and aims
     34
     32
                                                                                               The course content and the subjects
     30
                                                                                               covered
     28
                                                                                               The material used
     26
                                                              1
     24
     22               2                                                                        The timetable and venue
     20                                                                   3
     18                                                                                        The participant's attention
     16
     14                                                                                        The experience and skill of the teachers
     12
     10                                                                                        The applicability of the course to their
     8                                                                                         w ork
     6                                                                                         The length of the course w hich should
     4
                                                                                               be short
     2
                                                                                               Other aspects
     0
              1           2       3       4         5         6       7       8       9



c)                    Evaluation “of the training in agricultural machinery”
The sixth one (below) shows people’s worry about risks related to the machines.
 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
                        Degree of importance related to the agricultural machinery
      36

      34

      32

      30

      28

      26

      24

      22

      20

      18

      16

      14

      12

      10

       8

       6

       4

       2

       0
            1      2       3      4      5       6      7      8      9      10      11     12    13   14


             General risks of agricultural m achinery
             Specific risks of farm tractors
             Specific risks of agricultural transport
             Specific risks of m otorised m achinery: Rotovator®, m otorised hoe etc.
             Specific risks of agricultural equipm ent and farm ing im plem ents
             Specific risks of other m ounted and poll-type or trailed im plem ents
             Specific risks of crop protection m achinery: application of plant health products
             Specific risks of selfdriven m achinery: cereal, vegetable and forage crop or ….
             Specific risks of crop picking or harvesting m achinery: tuber crops, olives, etc.
             Specific risks of agricultural store m achinery and other ancillary operation ….
             Specific risks in the repair and tool w orkshop
             First aid/em ergencies
             Efficient use of agricultural m achinery
             Energy saving in the use of agricultural m achinery




Results and Conclusion
                All professional workers involved in this interview have underlined serious problems
connected with machinery and judge as necessary an adequate, preventive action. The machines
should guarantee workers’ safety, precautions against accidents should be taken by managers,
risks should be analysed, maintenance, responsibility and cleanliness are important too. A right use
of machine, depends on both “safety” machinery and workers or farmers’ skills.
                A training course is the best way to have specialized and skilled workers. In
particular it’s important to instruct young farmers to guarantee a right use of machines, a greater
safety at work and a right management of the company. The immigrants too should learn how to
 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
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use machine and how to maintain them all, attending specific course and not just reading
incomprehensible instruction manuals. Association of agricultural SMEs should provide workers
with a specific training, centred on the new technologies, the safety at work, the right
maintenance and installation of agricultural machines, avoiding any kinds of risks and trying to cut
company costs down.
                The interview was revealed that fast all companies in Apulia are led by whole
families who are not always interested in instruction. They forget that training is the first aspect to
take into account to teach the success of greater agricultural companies and to compete with
European companies as wale.




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                                                      05/2006
                                           II.5 PORTUGAL




                                    IDRHa
                                    I nst i t ut o d e De se nv o l v i m e nt o
                                    Rur a l e Hi d r ául i ca
                                    M inist ério da Agricult ura,
                                    do Desenvolviment o Rural e das Pescas




                     IDRHa, Divisão de Mecanização Agrária
                               Tapada da Ajuda
                               1349-018 Lisboa

                                    00351213616590
                                    0351213622892

                                 iheramec@esoterica.pt




Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                     05/2006
                               TRAINING NEEDS DETECTION REPORT


Pre-established types of organizations have been inquired:


Sindicato dos Engenheiros da Agricultura, Alimentação e Florestas (SETAA) is the only union
agricultural structure for both techinicians and agricultural workers, farmers associations –
Confederação Nacional de Agricultura (CNA) and Confederação de Agricultores de Portugal (CAP),
who join farmers associations and small and medium size agricultural companies, Confederação
das Cooperativas (Confagri) who join cooperativas associations, individual farmers, agricultural
businesses organizations (services companies and equipment sale), young farmers association
(Associação de Jovens Agricultores – AJAP), public bodies (Divisão de Mecanização Agrária from
Instituto de Desenvolvimento Rural e Hidráulica (IDRHa) and Direcção Regional de Agricultura do
Ribatejo e Oeste from Ministry of Agriculture, Instituto para a Segurança e Higiene no Trabalho
belonging to Ministry of Labour), public training bodies (Divisão para a Qualificação Profissional
from IDRHa, Delegação Regional de Évora belonging to Instituto de Emprego e Formação
Profissional (IEFP), Escola Profssional de Agricultura D. Dinis from Ministry of Education), private
trainers, agricultural machine makers and Associação Portuguesa de Mecanização Agrária (APMA).


There is no knowledge of the existence of any immigrant’s organization. References to immigrant
workers are irrelevant. The few references about them show us a non qualified tasks development,
never showing tractors or agricultural machines use or driving. Throughout this research we have
become aware of the lack of knowledge about these workers in the agricultural field.


We chose to present the research products according to Training Needs Detection Guide.
GENERAL MODIFICATIONS IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR


Increasing complexity of the machinery used was the main contributor to the agricultural work
development over the last 5 years. Other factors have also contributed to these changes:
complexity of tasks performed, the farmer’s own control over quality in all of its facets, functional
versatility and individual responsibility at work. According to the people inquired there has been a
diminished workload, as well as the team working.




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Generally, most of the people inquired opinion is that the technological innovations that have
emerged from the recent past have affected or are still affecting the agricultural work quite lot or a
lot.


The emerging technological innovations have led to a decreased working power. Nevertheless, the
need for qualified working power has been increasing and is proportional to the equipments and
tasks complexity growth.


Another considered item has been the coming out of more efficient agricultural machines, safer
and with more comfort levels, which also demand more qualified and trained operators. The
machines acquisition (aided with financial supports specially for farmers) has also led to some
cases of overloaded mechanization.


The dimension, complexity and specialization of the executed tasks, its needing technology,
innovation and acquisition costs have contributed, each alone or all together, to the outcome of
machinery contractors.


Two of the most pointed out changes about the rural work throughout the last years, have been,
beyond doubt, the PAC and the end of many small farms and moving away from the countryside
namely in the country’s interior regions, contributing to the rural desertification.


QUALIFICATION- TRAINING


It is recognised by almost the totality of the people inquired that the level of professional
qualification of the agricultural workers is, in general, low or very low.


This cannot be left out from the fact that this is a part of the population with a low or very low
school degree and without professional qualification.


About the preparation to handle agricultural machines in an efficient and safe way, the situation
does not change, and the qualification is equally low. Nevertheless, because of the training as
agricultural machines operators, this situation has improved a little.


The preparation of young people is better also because of the attendance of agricultural
businesses training courses. However, there is the awareness that there is much to be done,
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                                                      05/2006
specially in the area of safe handle of agricultural machinery and in prevention of professional
risks.


The presence of immigrant workers in the agricultural field is practically unknown, existing
however the concept that its number is insignificant. It was not possible to find situations in which
immigrant workers use tractors and agricultural machines. The overall opinion is that, if these
situations really occur, the preparation is low and without any professional qualification.


In most cases, speaking of small and medium size companies or farmers is practically the same for
there is no effective difference between them. The most common opinion is that their level of
preparation is above the average, and there are some qualified agricultural machines operators.


The most wished study courses to the people who work in small and medium size agricultural
companies are the ones which contents refer to farm management/administration, occupational
health and safety /occupational risk prevention, maintenance of machinery and installations and
study courses related to the environment.


Quality, production/crop techniques, computers, commercial and energy saving are also study
courses referred to. When referring to “other study courses” the content associativism was also
referred.


Classroom learning is the course delivery method which has the most unanimous agreement. In
some cases, there was reference to on-line learning (Internet) and distance learning. It was only
referred by few because computers and Internet still haven’t reached the majority of agriculture
farms. Distance learning and on-line learning is still unfamiliar to these activity sectors. When the
on-line teaching is referred to, those delivery methods would be destined to the technicians.


Training centres and workplaces are the locals pointed regarding course venue. The advantages of
choosing the workplaces are the localization and the possibility to learn in real conditions and
environment of the every day work.


These courses, according to the people inquired, would have variable duration and should be
adjusted according to its contents and type of learners. They should be short termed, up to a
maximum of 40 hours. In few cases, there is reference to study courses of 100 to 150 hours, or
even 350 hours.
 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
Study courses that appear to be more necessary to young farmers are the ones related to farm
management/administration,          maintenance        of   machinery      and     occupational      health     and
safety/occupational risk prevention and security). Associativism and environment preservation are
also referred to as necessary.


Portuguese Language is the study course considered to be a priority for immigrants. The
agricultural machines operators study course is also considered necessary to those immigrants
who will work with tractors and agricultural machines.


The main reasons why training in agricultural field is problematic concerns the working schedules,
not allowing farmers to take part, the difficulty of gathering a group of farmers without
disagreement about the place and time of the study course, the fact that there are no study
courses taking place at their workplace, and the insufficient quality of these courses. However,
there has been reference to other reasons, such as farmers and other agricultural workers poor
school degree and the fact that learners are too heterogeneous (age and school degree).


The three considered most important aspects in a course devised for young farmers, immigrants in
this sector and for small farming enterprises in general are the applicability of the course to their
work, the experience and skill of the teachers and the course content and the subjects covered.
        .
TRAINING IN AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY


The most important subjects considered to the training of young farmers, immigrants and small
and medium farming enterprises, in everything that relates to agricultural machines and
equipment are maintenance and              efficient and safe and handle. Rational use of agricultural
machines, new technologies and the handle of tractors electronics have also been referred to.


About the importance of risks according to the types of agricultural equipments, the people
inquired considered the levels high or very high. Occasionally, they considered the level low. These
degrees of risk to each type of machine were distributed:
- Very high level risks - General agricultural machinery, farm tractors, motorised machinery
(rotovator, motorised hoe etc), crop protection machinery (application of plant health products),
self-driven machinery (cereal, vegetable and forage crop or combine harvesters, grape harvesters,
picking or harvesting platforms, and so on), agricultural store machinery and other ancillary
 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
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operation equipment (grain augers, mills, etc.) and energy saving in the use of agricultural
machinery


- High level risks - agricultural transport, agricultural equipment and farming implements, other
mounted and pull-type or trailed implements, crop picking or harvesting machinery (tuber crops,
olives, etc.), repair and tool workshop, first aid/emergencies and efficient use of agricultural
machinery


FINAL COMMENTARIES


About the general changes in the agricultural field there is the feeling that they are not significant
and that financial supports do not result in visible and actual changes. Farmers and agricultural
workers qualification is inevitable and the training must be subjected to thought in all its aspects.
Agricultural machines have evolved fast, the knowledge about them must be improved and their
use must be rationalized in order to lower their utilization costs.




PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION


Portugal’s integration in EU and the consequent application of community regulations as well as
the dispensed funds have brought many significant changes in terms of training. Within these
changes there are: the growth of the public granted funds, the training and the access to training
by the private sector. Initial training has been given more weight in the overall training (connected
to support policies to help young people become agricultural business men). Continuous training
became to be specially for farmers with investment projects.


From 1990, when the first Community support framework (QCA) was published, a growing number
of private companies started to promote training, which led to a great number of trainings, but
without having considerate the sector needs.


Professional training has evolved this way, since Portugal joined the EU, also according to the
granted funds and the logo of the consecutive QCA’s.


TRAINING STRUCTURES


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                                                      05/2006
Being part of the Agriculture Ministry, Divisão para a Qualificação Profissional from IDRHa has a
training centre (headed to technicians training) and Divisões de Qualificação Profissional from the
regional services which also have regional training centres.


Being part of the Ministry of Labour, the Instituto do Emprego e Formação Profissional (IEFP),
Centro de Formação Profissional de Évora, has been hosting regularly agricultural mechanization
training.


About the private organizations of this sector, the following can be pointed out:


- Confederação dos Agricultores de Portugal (CAP), which has a professional training department
and three professional training centres.


- Sindicato da Agricultura, Alimentação e Florestas (SETAA) with a human resources permanent
structure and running two training centres.


- Associação de Jovens Agricultores de Portugal (AJAP) and their associates, who annually
promote young farmers training.


- Confederação Nacional de Agricultura (CNA) and their associates, who annually promote young
farmers training.


STUDY COURSES AND TRAINING


Today’s courses are mainly homologated and recognised by a National Certifier Body to the sector
(IDRHA is the National Certifier Body to the agricultural mechanization area) by having all the
quality and conditions needs to help learners to conclude the study course successfully and reach
the working competences needed.


Learners who successfully finish one of these study courses may obtain a certification as long as
they fulfil the school degree items required by legislation.


Nowadays, the range of agricultural mechanization study courses is very limited, being held only
by three private organizations (CAP, AJAP and CNA) including only the following study courses:


 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
    1. For farmers and workers


Farmers and agricultural mechanization workers main training has been Agricultural machinery
operators (OMA) (initially called Agricultural tractor driver, in order to help people to obtain an
agricultural tractors driving license).
Learners must be 16 years old (minimum) and have the minimum required school degree. Each
session must have a number of trainees between 8 and 12, with practice sessions developed by
two simultaneous trainers.


This course purposes are the practical and theoretical knowledge acquisition which allow trainees
to drive, autonomously and effectively, all kinds of tractors and agricultural machines, to operate
agricultural machines and tools, to look after all the preventive maintenance items and to make
small repairs to their machines.


This study course must have a minimum of 270 hours, from which 40% refer to the theoretical
part and 60% to the practice, and should comprehend the following general subjects:


      Agriculture and agricultural mechanization
      Occupational health and safety and risk prevention
      Agricultural tractor and one axle tractor – mechanics and maintenance
      Mounting and regulation of most common agricultural machines
      Soil tillage machinery
      Road code
      Driving
      Fertilizers spreaders
      Crop protection machinery: application of plant health products
      Operational costs


A specific subject may be required on the following machines: precision drillers, harvesting
machines and potatoes planters and harvesters.


Final evaluation will be granted by a jury, with a minimum of three elements and professional
competences will be evaluated by partial, speaking and writing test




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
For certification and eventual agricultural tractors driving licence attribution the study courses
must be previously certified by a certified body.




Recently and regularly the Application of plant health products course has been taught.


This study course only applies to workers and farmers who manipulate and apply plant health
products and its main purpose is to teach participants how to safely apply these products.


Learners must be 16 years old (minimum) and have the minimum required school degree. Number
of trainees must be between 12 and 16.


This study course must be 35 hours long, from which 33% refer to the theoretical part and 67% to
the practice, and should comprehend the following general subjects:


      Plant health products and diseases
      Legislation
      Safe handling of plant health products
      Risk reduction to the consumer and the environment
      Good practices
      Equipment and methods of application (Type and choose machines, application methods,
          products formulations, machines regulations, drifting, and equipment maintenance). 8
          hours (1h refer to the theoretical part and 7 h to the practice)
      Accidents with plant health products




In some occasions, specific courses for certain equipments and technologies will be held, such as
Electronics in mechanization




    2. For technicians


Technicians training had become fundamental in order to create an agricultural mechanization set
of trainers. Trainees to this study course must have a professional as well as academic
qualification.
 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
The training program, held by Divisão para a Qualificação Profissional from                    IDRHA, from the
Ministry of Agriculture, has got, apart from the basic study course called Agricultural Mechanization
Basic Course, 570 hours long, training sessions of knowledge recycling or specializing (new
equipment and new technologies).


No courses had been done recently.


3. Others


IEFP (Ministry of Labour) through the Centro de Formação Profissional de Évora (Regional
department) has been hosting the Agricultural Mechanization study course. It is an initial
qualification degree study course (level 2) with 840 hours.




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
                                            II.6 POLAND




  Instytut Budownictwa, Mechanizacji i Elektryfikacji Rolnictwa (IBMER)
                          32 Rakoviecka. Str.
                        02-532 Warsaw Polonia
                +48(22)6466855 fax +48(22)8491737
                         ostasz@ibmer.waw.pl




Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                     05/2006
                                              For.Ma.Aari.
                               Training Needs Detection Guide

         l. BASIC INFORMATION
    l. l Country:             POLAND PL
    1.2 Interview date: VII-XI 2005
    1.3 Interviewee profile:
             Agricultural trade union organization         5
             (Small) farmers' association                    3
             Cooperative                                        4
         - Agricultural business organization              5
         - Association of agricultural SMEs              4
         - Young farmers' association                       3
-             Immigrants' association –                not exist yet
-             Public body_                                    4
-             Ministry of Agriculture, Agency of the Agriculture Market_
               Public training body _                        5
               Academy of Agriculture, Institute for Building, Mechanization and
               Electrification of Agriculture, __
               Private training organization (please specify), not exist yet


       2. GENERIC CHANGES IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR
    2.1 How have the following aspects of agricultural or farm work changed over the last five
    years in your opinion? Have they increased or decreased?
    Team working                           no change 7, decrease 14,increase 12
    Individual responsibility at work   no change 3, decrease 0, increase 30
    Complexity of tasks performed        no change 3, decrease 2, increase 28
    Complexity of the machinery used        no change 3 decrease 0, increase 30
    The farmer own control over quality
     in all of its aspects                 no change 0, decrease 0, increase 33
    Functional versatility                no change 3, decrease 3, increase 27
    Workload                                no change 9, decrease 9, increase 15
     Functional independence (no reporting to or reliance
    on others)                               no change 6 decrease 27, increase 0

    2.2 Generally speaking, do you think that the technological innovations that have arisen
    over recent years have affected or are affecting farm work? If so, what aspects of farm
    work have they affected and to what extent (a lot, quite a lot, a little or not at all)?
    Yes 33
    News creates the necessity of learning - quite a lot
    Improvement of safety conditions - a lot
    Better environments protection - a lot
    Mechanization of work in all aspects including better product quality - a lot
    Efficiency - quite a lot
     Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
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2.3 What changes have had the biggest impact on work performed in the countryside over
recent years in your opinion? (For example: growing techniques, changes in the rural
population/people moving away from the countryside, mechanization, the Common
Agricultural Policy, or any others).
Market economy                                6
High quality requirements                   6
Improvement in agriculture technique      9
 Mechanization                              20
CAP                                           9
Growing farm aerie                           4
Modernization in production               6
Changes in rural population               3
Additional payments                        3


     3. SKILLS-TRAINING
3.1 Generally speaking, how would you rate the level of professional skills of workers in
the agricultural sector?
       Generally Low 21, satisfactory 9, different depending of age 3

3.2 More specifically, what do you think about training on how to handle
agricultural machinery efficiently and safely?
     In general
     Necessery, 21
     It should be obligatory by insurance, 15
     There is only a few such trainings.9
     Trainings are conducted by machinery dealers but it concern a narrow
     group of users 6
     Farmers show little interest in such trainings 4
And more specifically.
Young people
     Are more interested 10,
     Much more interested 8
     Necessary because of lack of relevant education level 21
Immigrants
     No opinion because, up to now, it is not the significant problem in Poland
SMEs
      It is necessary to make them clear that they are responsible for their
      workers safety 13
      No data 2,
      Growing interest, 5
      Need of permanent training 22


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3.3 What courses do you think are most needed for the people who work in small and
medium-sized enterprises in the agricultural sector? (READ SECTIONS)
A) Regarding course content:
      Farm management/administration 9
       Production/crop techniques             16
      Technology                            14
       Energy saving                         12
       Commercial                           26
      IT                                      12
      Quality                                5
      Occupational health and safety / Occupational risk prevention 27
      Environment                                                        13
      Maintenance of machinery and installations                      16
B) Regarding course delivery method:
       Classroom learning                            22
       Distance learning                             12
       On-line                                         6
      (Internet) in the future                        3
C) Regarding course venue:
      Workplace             12
      Training center       21
D) Regarding course length (Write down ideal no. of hours)
      3-4 hours – 2 answers
      6-8 hours – 3 answers
      24 hours – 15 answers
      30 hours – 13 answers

3.4 In connection with the last question above, would you make any specific comment for
young farmers? What courses do they need most?
       Management 6
       IT 5
       Safety and risk prevention 17
       Training needs are not dependent of the age
       Practical training in new technologies 17
       Production quality 5

        What about immigrants? No data

3.5 What are the reasons why training in the agricultural sector is problematic
in your view? (SUGGEST)
      The standard of courses is too low                                  6
      The standard of courses is too high                                 3
      There are no courses given in the workplace                     15
      The courses are not useful for work                               9
      The quality of the courses is not good enough                    9
      Working hours prevent attendance                                 15
      The courses do not cover the subjects needed                      6

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    It is difficult to organize a course for a group
        of farmers and get them all in agreement             15
   - It is difficult to find skilled trainers in the sector 3
       Training centers doesn’t know the needs
       Poor information,
       Difficulty in coping work and learning

3.6 Which three aspects do you think are the most important ones in a course devised for
young farmers and immigrants in this sector and for small farming enterprises in general?
(CHOOSE A MAXIMUM OF THREE ANSWERS AND NUMBER THEM FROM l TO 3)
     The course design and aims                       poz 1 x 10, poz 2 x 3, poz 3 x 0
     The course content and the subjects covered poz1 x 4, poz 2 x 9, poz 3 x 0
     The material used                                 poz 1 x 0, poz 2 x 0, poz 3 x 0
     The timetable and venue                          poz 1 x 9, poz 2 x 2, poz 3 x 2
     The participant’s attention                     poz 1 x 0, poz 2 x 6, poz 3 x 2
     The experience and skill of the teacher’s     poz 1 x 4, poz 2 x 12, poz 3 x 7
     The applicability of the course to their work poz 1 x 10, poz 2 x 2, poz 3 x 12
     Length of the course, which should be short poz 1 x o, poz 2 x 0, poz 3 x 6


4. TRAINING IN AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY

4. l Lets focus on agricultural machinery. What subjects do you think are the most
important ones for training in everything to do with agricultural or farm machinery for
young people, immigrants and SMEs in the sector?
Safety of machinery maintenance 22
New technologies 6
Farm administration 5




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
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4.2 Out of the list of points relating to agricultural machinery given below,
could you tell me which ones are the most important ones for it to be used
properly and safely?

                                                                               DEGREE OF IMPORTANCE
                                      None        „Very         Low         High : Very
                                                  low                              high
0 General risks of agricultural
machinery                                                            3           8           22

0 Specific risks of farm
tractors                                                                        17           16

0 Specific risks of agricultural
transport                                                            6          16           11

0 Specific risks of motorized
machinery: Rotovator®,                                               6          13           14
motorized hoe etc.

0 Specific risks of agricultural
equipment and farming                                   3            3          24            3
implements




                                                  DEGREE OF IMPORTANCE
                                      None        Very Low Low    High                   Very
0 Specific risks of other
mounted and pull-type or                                                        11           22
trailed implements

0 Specific risks of crop                                                                     24
protection machinery:                                                2           7
application of plant health
products

0 Specific risks of self-driven
machinery: cereal, vegetable                                         2          15           16
and forage crop or combine
harvesters, grape harvesters,
picking or harvesting
platforms, and so on



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0 Specific risks of crop                                              2
picking or harvesting                                                            27            4
machinery: tuber crops,
olives, etc.

0 Specific risks of agricultural
store machinery and other                                            11          18            4
ancillary operation
equipment: grain augers,
mills, etc.


0 Specific risks in the repair
and tool workshop                                        6           15          11            1

0 First aid/emergencies
                                                                                 10           23

0 Efficient use of agricultural
machinery                                                5            5          18            5

0 Energy saving in the use of
agricultural machinery                                                9          21            3

(l) Mounted and pull-type or trailed implements can be classified as:
     • Fertilizers: fertilizers spreaders or broadcasters, slurry tanks, etc.
     • Crop protection: sprayers, mist blowers, crop dusters, irrigation pumps, etc.
   • Sewing and planting: grain drills, pneumatic drills, hole diggers, planters, etc.
   • Harvesting:
        1. Forage. Straw and woody crops: balers, winnowers, rakes, mowers,
        conditioners, forage crop combine harvesters, crushing and splitting machinery,
        etc.
        2. Seeds and fruits: mowers, reaper-binders, threshing machines, shakers,
        selectors, almond huller/shellers, etc.
        3. Root and tuber crops: decoring equipment, thresher-pickers.




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
COMMENTS
2. GENERIC CHANGES IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

In good direction 7,
Growing farms aerie enabled proper mechanization 6,
Growing mechanization needs specialist-training 4
Market globalization 8

3. SKILLS-TRAINING
Lack of information.
Need for training in the field,
Free training during winter time are very welcome by farmers

4. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY.
Need of modernization of machinery,
Training in economically efficient use of modern, expensive machinery
Significant improvement in domestic made machinery quality. System of credits
and financing make easier access to modern machineryV/ DATAS OF THE
NATIONAL ENCUESTS

LIST OF PERSONS INTERVIEWED




Federación Agroalimentaria - Comisiones Obreras:


          ENTITY                                 POSITION                        SITE DATE      G
  Ministry of Agriculture                                                      Madrid    4-2-05 G2
      ETSIA Madrid                              Professor                      Madrid    4-2-05 G3
                                           Machine use monitor                Tarragona 4-2-05 G1
                                              C.A. Farmer                     Tarragona 11-2-05 G1
                                              C.P. Farmer                     Tarragona 11-2-05 G1
  Asociación Empresas
                                                                                 Lleida      11-2-05      G4
   Maquinaria FEMAC
 Unión de Cooperativas                           Technician                    Madrid   11-2-05           G1
    Unió de Pagesos                              Technician                   Barcelona 21-2-05           G1
 Fundación Prevención
                                                 Supervisor                                  21-2-05
       Agricultura
  Escuela Universitaria
                                           Machinery instructor               Barcelona 21-2-05           G3
        Agrícolas
                                       Farmer in charge of risk
            COAG                                                                Murcia       28-2-05      G1
                                             prevention
         Operations                        C.A. Supervisor                      Murcia       28-2-05      G1
                                             Immigrant                                       28-2-05      G1
             G,S                      Immigrant Work Crew Boss                  Murcia       28-2-05      G1
             G,S                         Prevention Manager                     Murcia       28-2-05      G1
Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                     05/2006
       Grupo Paloma                        Personnel Director                   Murcia       28-2-05      G1
                                       Director of Risk Prevention
       Grupo Paloma                                                             Murcia       28-2-05      G1
                                                   Area
  Centro de Formación
                                                   Director                    Valencia      14-3-05      G3
        Paiporta
  Centro de Formación
                                           Teacher and Monitor                 Valencia      14-3-05      G3
        Paiporta




Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                     05/2006
Asesoría Declerq – Estudios Europeos S.L.

        ENTITY                      ORGANIZATION TYPE                          DATE          G       SITE
          IDEA                      Public Body – Min. of Industry           09/12/2004 G2           Madrid
 Centro de formación
    Agraria – Junta                       Public Training Org.               18/12/2004     G3       Cáceres
     Extremadura
Unión de Cooperativas
                                              Cooperative                    13/01/2005     G1       Madrid
  Agrarias Madrileñas
         COAG                         Agrarian Trade Union Org.              20/01/2005     G1       Toledo
         ASAJA                      Agrarian Business Organization           24/01/2005     G1       Madrid
 Instituto Tecnológico
   para el desarrollo                      Public Institution                25/01/2005     G2       Madrid
         Agrario
       ANSEMAT                          Manufacturer- Importer               02/02/2005     G4       Madrid
                                                                                            G3/
       ANSEMAT                          Manufacturer- Importer               02/02/2005
                                                                                            G4
                                                                                                     Madrid

   Etsia Universidad
                                          Public Training Org.               04/02/2005     G3       Madrid
   Politécnica Madrid
    INSHT - MTASS                   Public Body – Min. of Industry           07/02/2005     G2       Madrid
Unión de Agricultores y
                                    Agrarian Business Organization           08/02/2005     G1       Navarre
Ganaderos de Navarra
          UAGN                      Agrarian Business Organization           08/02/2005     G1       Navarre
          UAGN                      Agrarian Business Organization           08/02/2005     G1       Navarre
Universidad Pública de
                                          Public Training Org.               09/02/2005     G3       Navarre
         Navarra
 Colegio de Ingenieros
                                          Public Training Org.               09/02/2005     G3       Navarre
   Ténicos Agrícolas
ITG Formación Agraria                     Public Training Org.               09/02/2005     G3       Navarre
 AGRAGEX Asociación
                                         Export manufacturer                 10/02/2005     G4       Vizcaya
         Agraria
  EUITA Universidad
                                          Public Training Org.               14/02/2005     G3       Madrid
 Politécnica de Madrid
        UGT Fed.
                                      Agrarian Trade Union Org.              21/02/2005     G1       Madrid
    Agroalimentaria
       CCOO Fed.
                                      Agrarian Trade Union Org.              23/02/2005     G1      Andalusia
    Agroalimentaria
       CCOO Fed.
                                      Agrarian Trade Union Org.              23/02/2005     G1      Andalusia
    Agroalimentaria
       CCOO Fed.
                                      Agrarian Trade Union Org.              23/02/2005     G1      Andalusia
    Agroalimentaria
  MAPA DG Desarrollo
                                        Mapa Public Institution              24/02/2005     G2       Madrid
          social


Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                     05/2006
UZPI
Jméno                                                  Společnost
Moulis Pavel, president                                Společnost mladých agrárníků,
                                                       smacr@smacr.cz; (Union of Young
                                                       Agrarians)
Šebek Jaroslav                                         Asociace soukromých zemědělců,
                                                       jaroslav.sebek@c-mail.cz; t.: 266710413
                                                       (Association of Private Farmers)
Nekvasilová Jaroslava, Ing.                            Agrární komora ČR, nekvasilova@akcr.cz,
                                                       t.:224215939 (Agrarian Chambers)
Fiedler                                                SŠ Lanškroun, (Secondary school)
Grossl Ladislav, PaedDr.                               SŠ Podbořany, grossl@sou.podborany.cz
                                                       (Secondary school)
Mareček Jan, Prof.Ing.,DrSc.                           MZLU Brno, groda@mendelu.cz
                                                       (University of Agriculture)
Blábolil Roman SOŠVAZ Čes.Budějovice                   blabolil@sosvaz.cz
                                                       (Secondary school)
Rybka Adolf, Doc.Ing.CSc.                              ČZU Praha, t.: 224383121
                                                       (University of Agriculture)
Purkyt Miloš Ing                                       Vzděl,agentura purkyt@4barr.com
                                                       (Private educational agency)
Špaček (t.: 566623583)                                 Zemědělec (Farmer member of Agrarian
                                                       Association)
Říha (t.:566670112)                                    zemědělec (Farmer member of Agrarian
                                                       Association)
Petrlík (t.:566678174),                                 zemědělec (Farmer member of Agrarian
                                                       Association)
Kruliš, Ing                                            ZS Nymburk, t.:325516445,
                                                       oaksvaznymburk@quick.cz) (Agrarian
                                                       Association ,manager)
Kalinová Karla                                         t.: 572551219, ZS Uh. Hradiště(Farmer
                                                       member of Agrarian Association)
Pýcha Martin, Ing.                                     ZS, pycha@zemsvaz.cz (Agrarian
                                                       Association ,manager of education)
Drda Jan                                               t.: 387985609, ZS Č.Buděj. územ.org.
                                                       (Agrarian Association ,manager)
Rosa František Ing.                                    Družstvo z Nového Jičína (ZS-úz.org.)
                                                       (Farmer member of Agrarian Association)
Kostroun František                                     t.: 565332066-7, ZS úz.org. Pelhřimov
                                                       (Agrarian Association ,manager)
Budina Libor                                           t.: 465637385, viva@viva.cz, ZS(Farmer
                                                       member of Agrarian Association)
 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
Vaňous Jaroslav                                         t.: 602327762,
                                                       sloupnice.mech@mybox.cz ZS (družstvo
                                                       Sloupnice) (Farmer, member of Agrarian
                                                       Association)
Hromica Karel                                          t.:607873546, ZS - družstvo(Farmer,
                                                       member of Agrarian Association)

Ronin Vladimír                                         ČUBP Praha, t.: 221924240

                                                       (occupational helth and safety worker)
Toman Vladimír,Ing                                     Inspek.bezp.práce pro JČ a Vysočinu, t.:
                                                       387428764, vladimir.toman@ibp5.cz
                                                       (occupational helth and safety worker)
Janoušek Vladimír, Ing.                                Výzkumný ústav bezp.práce Praha, t.:
                                                       221015840, janousek@vubp-praha.cz
                                                       (occupational hel thand safety worker)
Novák Milan, Ing.                                      Inspektor bezp. práce v Č.Buděj.,
                                                       milan.novak@ibp5.cz (occupational
                                                       health and safety worker
Franc Jaroslav Ing STS Hostivice                       agricultural machinery manufacturers and
info@stshostivice.cz                                   sales
Smitka Josef Ing Agrozet České                         agricultural machinery manufacturers and
Budějovice                                             sales

smitka@agrozetcb.cz
Sopoušek Jiří Ing STROM Praha                          agricultural machinery manufacturers and
sopousek@stromc.cz                                     sales
Bohatý Vladimír Ing Claas                              agricultural machinery manufacturers and
claas@mbox.vol.cz                                      sales
Šusta František Ing STAGRA Studená                     agricultural machinery sales
  frantisek.susta@stagra.cz




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
CEMAGREF

          ENTIDAD                                    TIPO ORGANIZACIÓN                              GRUPO
            AFOCEL
          Agr´equip                             Organización profesional agrícola                      G1
             ANEFA                              Organización profesional agrícola                      G1
              APCA                                     Organismo público                               G2
           APECITA                               Asociación profesional agraria                        G1
         APRODEMA                               Organización profesional agrícola                      G1
             BCMA                                      Organismo público                               G2
 C.F.A Maison Familiale et                      Organismo de formación privado                         G3
             Rurale
 C.F.P.P.A Le chesnoy-Les                       Organismo de formación privado                         G3
             barres
 C.F.P.P.A de bougainville                      Organismo de formación privado                         G3
              CCAF                              Organización profesional agrícola                      G1
   Centre forestier & CFA
           Forestier
           CFTC Agri                            Organización profesional agrícola                      G1
             CNEAP                              Organismo de formación privado                         G3
     Coordination Rurale                        Organización profesional agrícola                      G1
             DGER                               Organismo de formación público                         G3
             DRIAF                                     Organismo público                               G2
              ENFA                              Organismo de enseñanza público                         G3
Entrepreneurs des territories                   Organización profesional agrícola                      G1
            FAFSEA                              Organismo de formación público                         G3
          FGA CFDT                              Organización profesional agrícola                      G1
           FNCUMA                               Organización profesional agrícola                      G1
             FNSEA                              Organización profesional agrícola                      G1
    Groupama Prèvention                         Organización profesional agrícola                      G1
       Inspectection de
                                                         Organismo público                             G2
  l’Enseignement agricole
          John deere                                       Constructor                                 G4
     Lycée d’horticulture                            Organismo de formación                            G3
      Lycée Jean Jaurès                              Organismo de formación                            G3
            CCMSA
          MSA 11-66                                    Organismo público                               G2
            MSA 35                                     Organismo público                               G2
            SECIMA                              Organización profesional agrícola                      G1
            SEDIMA                              Organización profesional agrícola                      G1
          SITMAFRG
            SNCVA                               Organización profesional agrícola                      G1
          TECOMAH                               Organismo de formación privado                         G3
          UNMFREO                               Organismo de formación privado                         G3
Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                     05/2006
              UNREP                             Organismo de formación privado                         G3




Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                     05/2006
 ENAMA

          Person                         Organisation                           PROFILO
Calella Arcangelo                       Il Locorotondo              Cooperative
                                       SOC.COOP.ARC.
Pastore Martino                              C.R.S.A                Public Training Body
Longo Vito                          Longo Tecnologie del            Manufacturer
                                         Trasporto srl
Ricci Maria                                  O.M.L.                 Manufacturer
Sorrenti Maurizio                        OO.PP. Ionica              Small Farmers Association
Spagnuolo Matteo                       Università di Bari           Public Training Body
Ardito Giuseppe                    Sud Levante Soc. Coop.           Cooperative
Dattoma Domenico                               CIA                  Farmers Association
Mallardi Domenico                           Mallardi                Entrepreneur
Valentini Ambrogio                          Valentini               Entrepreneur
Campanella Matteo                           Coldiretti              Farmers Association
Battista Tommaso                           Uimec-Uil                Small Farmers Association
Verdegiglio Marcello                      Verdegiglio               Manufacturer
Palmisano Giuseppe                          UILA-UIL                Trade Union
Cocozza Claudio                      Istituto Agronomico            Public Body
                                  Mediterraneo di Valenzano
Leoci Nicola                            EUAIP – Puglia              Private Training Body.
Mangini Stefano                             Coldiretti              Young Farmers Association
D’alo Domenico                             COAP scrl                Agricultural business
                                                                    organisation
Creanza Giuseppe                           CREANIA                  Young Farmers Association
Denora Francesco                            CIPAAT                  Private Training Body.
Sisto Nicola                               Coldiretti               Farmers Association
Cantatore Nicola                               CIA                  Farmers Association
Pelagio Felice                             FLAI CGIL                Trade Union
Ciccarone Emilio                       CIA (Immigrants)             Immigrant’s Association
Sicolo Gennaro                        Oliveti Terra di Bari         Agricultural business
                                                                    organisation
Colucci Martino                              Colucci                Entrepreneur
Tauro Michele                                Tauro                  Entrepreneur
Ramunno Angelo                    Ortofrutticola Alberobellese      Cooperative
Lippolis Giuseppe                      Officina Ripartak            Manufacturer

Borracci Maria Giuseppina                     Fru.IT                Agricultural business
                                                                    organisation
Smaltino Ilario                              UCI                    Small Farmers Association
Ferrara Giovanni                    Coop Agr. Madonna del           Cooperative
                                           Rosario
Settanni Emiliano                        Garden Fruit               Agricultural business
                                                                    organisation
Romano Angelo                                Agrizoo                Cooperative
  Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                       05/2006
Lamascese Nicola                           Bioagricert              Public Body
Rotolo Giuseppe                     Istituto Tecnico Agrario        Public Training Body




  Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                       05/2006
iDRHA




                                  Grupo             1                    2                     3                 4               5
- Interviewee profile
Agricultural trade Union            G1            SETAA            SETAA                     SETAA
organisation                                  Alfredo Pinto      José Albino             António Basílio
                                               C – 03 May        P – 26 Oct               P – 31 Sept
                                                 Trainer     Mechanization expert           Trainer
(Small) farmers’ association        G1             CNA               CAP
                                               C – 02 May      Telmo Martinho
                                                 Trainer         C – 27 April
                                                                   Trainer
Cooperative                         G1           Calcob            Unicaro                 Compobal            Calcob
                                           Cesário Rodrigues    João Carreira           Angela Romeiro      Luis Ludovico
                                              C – 28 April       C – 19 April             C – 28 April       C – 28 April
                                                 Trainer           Trainer                   Trainer           Trainer
Freelance (association)             G1              -                 -                         -
                                             Julieta Cabral   Anacleto Pinheiro          José Tavares
                                              C – 12 Oct       Email – 06 Oct                Cabral
                                                 Farmer            Farmer                  P – 21 Oct
                                                                                             Farmer
Agricultural business               G1           CAAB               APMA                 Agrocamprest
organisation                                José M. Barroso      Luisa Paula              Luis Aleluia
                                            P – 21 October       P - 05 May               C – 20 May
                                                Manager      Mechanization expert           Manger
Association of agricultural         G1           JUMIL              CAAB                     SAG M
SMEs                                       Orlando Gonçalves   José L Barroso           Arnaldo Madeira
                                               C – 31 Oct        P – 17 April             P - 05 May
                                                Manager           Manager                   Manager

Young farmers’ association          G1           (AJAP)                 (CNJ)
                                              - no answer-          - no answer-

Immigrants’ association             G1
                                                    -                     -                     -


Public body                         G2           DRARO             IDRHa_DMA                   IHST           DRAEDM
                                             Botto Pimentel          Luis Vieira        Filomena Teixeira   André Peixoto
                                              P – 10 March          P – 19 April           P – 29 March      C – 13 Jan
                                               Agicultural      Mechanization expert       Expert - risk     Agicultural
                                               technician                                prevention and      technician
                                                                                              security
Public training body                G3        IDRHa_DQP             EPA D. Dinis           CTFP – Évora      IDRHa_DQP
                                             Fernando Costa       Ramiro Samouco            Branquinho      Joaquim Lebre
                                              P - 21 March          P – 14 March            C – 17 May       C – 22 March
                                                 Director       Teacher -Agricultural         Trainer           Trainer
                                                                       school
Private training organisation       G3      Ferreira & Seixas             -                  ICADR
                                             Armindo Tadeu      Alcino da Conceição      Fausto Briosa
                                               C – 06 May            P – 03 May           P – 05 Octob
                                            Manager /Trainer           Trainer           Mechanization
                                                                                              expert
Constructors                        G4          Joper                 Galucho               Herculano            Met.           Valtra
                                             Mário Pereira       Frazão dos Santos       Miguel Ferreira    Benaventense    João Pimenta
                                             C – 10 Febr            P – 06 May             C – 19 May       Gomes Pereira    C - 02 May
                                           Administrator and     Technical director        Commercial        C – 27 April    Commercial
                                                owner                                        director        Commercial     and technical
                                                                                                               director        director

C=letter P=personnal



SETAA – Sindicato da Agricultura, Alimentação e Florestas
 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
CNA – Confederação Nacional de Agricultura
CAP – Confederação dos Agricultores de Portugal
AJAP – Associação de Jovens Agricultores de Portugal
CNJ - Confederação Nacional dos Jovens Agricultores de Portugal
Unicaro- União de Cooperativas Agrícolas do Ribatejo e Oeste, UCRL
Calcob - Cooperativa Agrícola dos Lavradores do Concelho de Oliveira do Bairro
Compobal - Cooperativa Agrícola do Concelho de Pombal
CAAB – Casa Agrícola Antunes Barroso
SAGM – Sociedade Agrícola Gomes Madeira
DRARO – Direcção Regional de Agricultura do Ribatejo e Oeste
DRAEDM - Direcção Regional de Agricultura do Entre Douro e Minho
IDRHa/DQP – Instituto de Desenvolvimento Rural e Hidráulica – Divisão para a Qualificação Profissional
IDRHa/DMA – Instituto de Desenvolvimento Rural e Hidráulica – Divisão de Mecanização Agrária
APMA - Associação Portuguesa de Mecanização Agrária
ICADR – Inovação, Competitividade Agrícola e Desenvolvimento Rural L.da.
IHST – Instituto para a Segurança e Higiene no Trabalho
EPAD. Dinis – Escola Profissional de Agricultura D. Dinis




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
Ibmer


Agricultural trade union organization                                                5
(Small) farmers' association                                                         3
Cooperative                                                                          4
Agricultural business organization                                                   5
Association of agricultural SMEs                                                     4
Young farmers' association                                                           3
Immigrants' association                                                              0
Public body                                                                          4
Public training body                                                                 5
Private training organization                                                        0




 Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector. FOR.MA.AGRI-
                                                      05/2006
Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector.
                                      FOR.MA.AGRI- 05/2006
Informe europeo de análisis de formación de los jóvenes agricultores, pymes e inmigrantes del sector.
                                      FOR.MA.AGRI- 05/2006

								
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