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					Network, Internet & E-mail Training Manual



Table of Contents
1.0 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................... 3
  1.1 COMPUTER NETWORK? .................................................................................... 3
  1.2 BENEFITS OF COMPUTER NETWORKING .................................................... 4
2.0 INTERNET .................................................................................................................. 6
  2.1 WHAT IS THE INTERNET? ................................................................................. 6
  2.2 ORIGINS OF THE INTERNET ............................................................................ 6
  2.3 THE HISTORY OF THE INTERNET IN ETHIOPIA ........................................ 7
  2.4 HOW INTERNET WORKS? ................................................................................. 8
  2.5 SERVERS AND CLIENTS ..................................................................................... 9
  2.6 SERVICES OF THE INTERNET ......................................................................... 10
  2.7 INTERNET CONNECTIONS ............................................................................. 10
3.0 BROWSING THE WORLD WIDE WEB ............................................................... 18
  3.1 WHAT IS WWW? ................................................................................................ 18
  3.2 WEB BROWSERS & WEB SERVERS ................................................................. 18
  3.3 WORLD WIDE WEB TERMINOLOGY ............................................................ 19
  3.4 GETTING ON THE WEB .................................................................................... 21
  3.5 VISITING A WEB SITE ....................................................................................... 22
  3.6 USING NAVIGATION TOOLS ......................................................................... 23
  3.7 SEARCHING FROM A WEB PAGE ................................................................. 25
  3.8 SEARCHING OPTIONS & FRAMING A SEARCH. ...................................... 26
  3.9 USING HYPERLINKS ......................................................................................... 27
  3.10 PRINTING A WEB PAGE................................................................................. 27
  3.11 CREATING A FAVORITES LIST .................................................................... 28
  3.12 REVISITING A FAVORITE PAGE .................................................................. 28
  3.13 CHOOSING YOUR OWN HOME PAGE ...................................................... 29
  3.14 BROWSING WITHOUT INTERNET EXPLORER ........................................ 29
  3.15 ADDING INTERNET LINKS TO THE DESKTOP........................................ 30
  3.16 DOWNLOADING FROM THE WEB ............................................................. 31
  3.17 DOWNLOADING WHEN NO LINK EXISTS ............................................... 32
  3.18 SAVING A WEB PAGE .................................................................................... 33
  3.19 COPYING OFF THE WEB ................................................................................ 33
  3.20 PICTURES, SOUNDS, AND MOVIES ............................................................ 34
4.0 INTERNET AND E-MAIL ...................................................................................... 36
  4.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 36
  4.2 E-MAIL ADDRESSES .......................................................................................... 36
  4.2 ANATOMY OF E-MAIL MESSAGE ................................................................. 36
  4.3 CREATING E-MAIL ACCOUNT .................................................................... 38
  4.4. SENDING AN E-MAIL MESSAGE .................................................................. 42
  4.5. CHECKING/READING AN E_MAIL MESSAGE ........................................ 43
  4.6 REPLYING TO E-MAIL MESSAGE .................................................................. 44

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  4.7. ATTACHING A FILE TO E-MAIL MESSAGE ............................................... 44
  4.8. RECEIVING AN ATTACHED FILE TO E-MAIL MESSAGE ...................... 45
  4.9 FOREWARDING AN E-MAIL MESSAGE TO A FRIEND ............................ 46
  4.10 REGISTERING FOR A FREE HOTMAIL E-MAIL ACCOUNT .................. 46
5.0 INTERNET SECURITY ........................................................................................... 53
  5.1 INTERNET SECURITY METHODS. ................................................................. 53
  5.2 VIRUSES ................................................................................................................ 54




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1.0 INTRODUCTION

 1.1 COMPUTER NETWORK?
      A computer network is a group of computers and associated peripheral
      devices connected by a communication channel capable of sharing files
      and other resource among several users. A network can rang from a small
      network connecting a small no. of users in an office or department to wide
      area Network (WAN) connecting users on several networks spread over a
      wide geographic area.




                                   Fig.1 Standalone computer



      If the computer shown in figure 1. was to be connected to other
      computers, then it could share data with the other computers or send
      documents to a printer. Connecting of computers and other devices
      together is called a Netword and the concept of connected computers
      sharing resource is called networking.(see figure 2)




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                                 Fig 2 A simple computer networking

 1.2 BENEFITS OF COMPUTER NETWORKING
      Linking computers into networks provides benefits in the following area:
            Information(Data)
                Data sharing enables different users to work on a certain file
                concurrently. By making information available for sharing,
                networks can reduce the need for paper communication,
                increase efficiency and make nearly any type of data available
                simultaneously to every user who needs it.
            Resource sharing
                Computer networks enable us to share resource among several
                computers. For example, if there are four people in a family,
                each having their own computer, they will require
                four modems (for the Internet connection) and four printers, if
                they want to use the resources at the same time. A computer
                network, on the other hand, provides a cheaper alternative by
                the provision of resource sharing. In this way, all the four
                computers can be interconnected; using a network, and just one
                modem and printer can efficiently provide the services to all
                four members.
            Increased Storage Capacity:
                As there is more than one computer on a network which can
                easily share files, the issue of storage capacity gets resolved to a
                great extent. A standalone computer might fall short of storage
                memory, but when many computers are on a network, memory

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                of different computers can be used in such case. One can also
                design a storage server on the network in order to have a huge
                storage capacity.
            Increased Cost Efficiency:
                There are many software’s available in the market which are
                costly and take time for installation. Computer networks resolve
                this issue as the software can be stored or installed on a system
                or a server and can be used by the different workstations
            Centralized Administration and Support
                Network computers can simplify support tasks as well. It is far
                more efficient for technical personnel to support one version of
                one operating system or application and to setup all computers
                in the same manner than to support many individual and
                unique systems .Even if your computer is physically connected
                to a network, you can not typically use network resources until
                you log into the network. When you login, you formally identify
                yourself to the network by providing your ID and Password.

      Networks increase efficiency and reduce costs. Computer networks
      achieve these goals in three primary ways:




                                    Fig.3 information sharing b/n two computers
      More specifically, computers that are part of a network can share:
            Documents (memos, spreadsheets, invoices, and so on).
            Internet Access and E-mail messages,
            Illustrations, photographs, videos, and audio files.
            Live audio and video broadcasts.
            Printers, Fax machines.
            Modems, CD-ROM drives and other removable drives.
            Hard drives and so on.
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2.0 INTERNET

 2.1 WHAT IS THE INTERNET?
      The Internet is a computer network made up of millions of networks
      worldwide. No one knows exactly how many computers are connected to
      the Internet. It is certain, however, that these number is in billions and are
      increasing at a rapid rate.
      No one is in charge of the Internet. There are organizations, which
      develop technical aspects of this network and set standards for creating
      applications on it, but no governing body is in control. The Internet
      backbone, through which Internet traffic flows, is owned by private
      companies.
      All computers on the Internet communicate with one another using the
      Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol suite, abbreviated to
      TCP/IP. Computers on the Internet use client/server architecture. This
      means that the remote server machine provides files and services to the
      user's local client machine. Software can be installed on a client computer
      to take advantage of the latest access technology.
      An Internet user has access to a wide variety of services: electronic mail,
      file transfer, vast information resources, interest group membership,
      interactive collaboration, multimedia displays, real-time broadcasting,
      shopping opportunities, breaking news, and much more.
      The Internet consists primarily of a variety of access protocols. Many of
      these protocols feature programs that allow users to search for and
      retrieve material made available by the protocol.
      In simple terms, the Internet is many computers linked together. When we
      use the Internet we pass data from computer to computer across a vast
      network of wires, fiber optic cables (cables which contain thin glass wires
      that transmit data using light pulses) and satellite links

      The Internet's best-known feature, the World Wide Web, links together
      millions of documents called Web Pages. You view Web pages using a
      Web browser (a software program that allows you to find, view and send
      information over the Internet), such as Microsoft Internet Explorer,
      Firefox, Google chrome and so on.

 2.2 ORIGINS OF THE INTERNET
      The beginning of internet technology can be traced back to 1969,when the
      Advanced Research Projects Agency, funded by the U.S Department of


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      Defense, conducted research on Networking. Their goal was to design a
      network that allowed computers on different types of networks to
      communicate with each other.
      During the 1960s and 1970s, many computer networking technologies
      were created, each based on a particular hardware design. Some of these
      networks, called Local Area networks (LANs), connect computers over
      short distances, using cables and hardware installed on each computer.
      Other larger networks called, Wide Area Networks (WANs), connect
      many computers over large distances, using transmission lines similar to
      those used in telephone systems.
      Although LANs and WANs made it much easier to share information
      within organizations, the information stopped at the boundaries of each
      network. Each networking technology moved information around in a
      different way, often based on the design of its hardware. A particular
      LAN technology could only work with specific computers, and most LAN
      and WAN technologies were incompatible with each other.
      The internet was designed to interconnect the different types of networks
      and allow information to move freely among users, regardless of the
      machines or networks they used.

 2.3 THE HISTORY OF THE INTERNET IN ETHIOPIA
      The Internet connection becomes Functional Starting from January 1,
      1997(1989). The EthioTelecom is connected to the Global Internet at
      Washington DC through a SPRINT link connection with 256 Kbps
      bandwidth. The Gateway and the domestic routers at the various
      locations are connected to the 7500-gateway router in turn.
      The EthioTelecom provided the following Internet Services to its
      customers.
            Email
            World Wide Web (WWW)
            File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
            Telnet to any Internet Host
            USE NET
            GPRS
      By setting Up Eight Servers throughout the Country and it's planning to
      provide Various Domain names and related Services to its Customers in
      the near future.


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      EthioTelecom Possess more than check current information and there is a
      plan to double the number of customers and the Server Capacity in the
      Future.
 2.4 HOW INTERNET WORKS?
      One of the greatest things about the Internet is that nobody really owns it.
      It is a global collection of networks, both big and small. These networks
      connect together in many different ways to form the single entity that we
      know as the Internet. In fact, the very name comes from this idea of
      interconnected networks.
      Since its beginning in 1969, the Internet has grown from four host
      computer systems to tens of millions. However, just because nobody owns
      the Internet, it doesn't mean it is not monitored and maintained in
      different ways. The Internet Society, a non-profit group established in
      1992, oversees the formation of the policies and protocols that define how
      we use and interact with the Internet.
   2.4.1 A Hierarchy of Networks
      Every computer that is connected to the Internet is part of a network, even
      the one in your home. For example, you may use a modem and dial a local
      number to connect to an Internet Service Provider (ISP). At work, you
      may be part of a Local Area Network (LAN), but you most likely still
      connect to the Internet using an ISP that your company has contracted
      with. When you connect to your ISP, you become part of their network.
      The ISP may then connect to a larger network and become part of their
      network. The Internet is simply a network of networks.
      Most large communications companies have their own dedicated
      backbones connecting various regions. In each region, the company has a
      Point of Presence (POP). The POP is a place for local users to access the
      company's network, often through a local phone number or dedicated
      line. The amazing thing here is that there is no overall controlling
      network. Instead, there are several high-level networks connecting to each
      other through Network Access Points or NAPs.




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                   Fig. 1 Internet connection.


      Note: When you connect to the Internet, your computer becomes part of a
      Network.

 2.5 SERVERS AND CLIENTS
      Every computer program that communicates on the internet is either a
      server or a client.
      A Server is a computer that provides service to other computers on a
      network.
          Example: i. File Server……it give service of storage and retrieval of
      files.
      A Client is a computer that requests service from a Server.




                    Fig. 2:Server providing service for Client..




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 2.6 SERVICES OF THE INTERNET
      Some of the popular services on the internet are the following:
            FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
         It is an internet service that transfers files from one computer to
         another.
            E-mail (Electronic Mail)
          It is the postal system of the internet.
            Bulletin Boards (News Groups)
         It is like an e-mail, but instead of writing messages to individuals users
         participants in a news groups post their messages to news server.
            World Wide Web (WWW)
         It is the most popular and fastest growing internet service. It uses
         hypertext links called hyperlinks to locate and retrieve pages from
         World Wide Web Servers.


 2.7 INTERNET CONNECTIONS
   2.7.1 Types of Internet Connections
      There are a wide ranges of internet connections. Some are easily available
      while others are difficult to come by. Your choice of internet connection
      depends on your location and budget. However, the faster the internet
      connection you are using, the better for your work. The most common
      forms of internet connections are the DSL, Analogue (dial-up), Satellite
      and Cable. Other types of internet connectivity exists, from the very slow
      to the high-speed internet connections.
      Analogue (56kbs)
      The Analogue connection, also known as dial-up access, is a very slow
      and inexpensive type of internet connection. A dialup connection uses a
      modem, phone line and ISP. With an analogue connection, a subscriber
      connects to the internet by dialing up a phone number gotten from an ISP.
      The modem converts Incoming data from analogue to digital and the
      reverse. The dial up access provides poor internet quality.
      Cable (512Kbs to 20 Mbps)
      A Cable modem is a type of internet connection that allows connection via
      cable TV lines. The Cable internet connection uses TV channels for data



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      transmission. Cable internet provides fast internet access. Cable TV uses
      coaxial cable, which support higher bandwidth than telephone lines do.
      It is important to make it clear that broadband is a general name for cable,
      satellite and DSL types of internet connections. Broadband internet
      connections are highly reliable and fast. Like other types of internet
      connections, they require modems to connect to the internet.


      Internet over Satellite (average 500Kbps)
      Satellite connection provides uninterrupted internet connectivity. Internet
      over Satellite uses a communication satellite that is on a stationary
      position in orbit. Due to the huge distance the data has to be transmitted,
      the speed of satellite is a bit lower than Broadband types of internet
      connections.
      Digital subscriber line (DSL)
      It uses regular copper phone lines to transfer digital data to and from the
      phone company’s central office

      GPRS
      It stands for General Packet Race Service. It uses mobile network to
      transfer text, audio and video messages and to use internet.
      This service can be used using either GPRS mobile phone or CDMA
      modem.
         CDMA USB modem fits into a standard USB interface and can
         function as a wireless network card, a modem, and a mobile phone.
         This modem allows you to connect to the Internet send and receive
         SMS messages, and make phone calls, without the need of a network
         cable or phone line. There are two types CDMA modem used today.
                          CDMA1x
                           It has a connection speed of up to 253kb.
                          CDMA EV-DO
                           It is a broadband high speed internet connection.
   2.7.2 Dialup internet configuration
      To establish a conventional dial-up connection to the Internet, you will
      need the following:
          An account with an Internet Access Provider (in Ethiopia, at present,
           ethio-telecom (etc) is the only Internet Access Provider).


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          A telephone connection or a CDMA Sim card.
          A modem or CDMA Flash.
          A communication (or terminal emulation) software. SLIP/PPP
           (TCP/IP) account holders will require browser software (Internet
           Mail, Netscape Messenger, Google chrome, etc.)
      Dialup configuration using a computer modem


      Using the New Connection Wizard
      The New Connection Wizard, which comes with Windows XP, is a handy
      program for setting up your Internet account. The wizard poses questions
      for you to answer and gives you blanks to fill in.
       To start the New Connection Wizard, follow these steps:
                Click Start buttonAll
                 Programs Accessories
                 Communications
                 New        Connection
                 Wizard.
                From the first wizard
                 screen, click the Next
                 button.




                Choose Connect to the
                 Internet from the second
                 wizard screen and then
                 click the Next button.




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                The third wizard screen
                 asks how you want to
                 set up your account.
                 Choose to Set up my
                 connection      manually
                 and then click next.




                Choose Connect using a
                 dial-up modem and
                 click next.




                On the next screen you
                 will be asked to provide
                 the ISP Name , fill etc
                 and click next .




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                  On the next screen you
                   will be asked to provide
                   the Phone Number , fill
                   900 and click next .




                  The next wizard screen
                   asks for your user name
                   and password. Type
                   exactly as provided by
                   your ISP (ETC).


                  The last wizard screen
                   tells you that you’ve
                   completed      all   the
                   necessary steps. To make
                   it easy to get to the
                   connection’s icon, you
                   may want to select the
                   Add a shortcut check
                   box .Then click the
                   Finish button.




      Note: It’s important to pay attention to the following warning.
            User names and passwords are usually case-sensitive.




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             Any time the New Connection Wizard asks you to type a user name or
             password, make sure you type it using the exact upper/lowercase letters
             provided by your ISP.
Making the connection



          Double click              icon on the desktop.
          If you filled out all the questions correctly in the New Connection
           Wizard, all the information you need to log on will already be filled
           in. Otherwise, you’ll need to fill in the user name, password, and
           local access number provided by your ISP. Then click the Dial button
           to make your connection.




      Dialup configuration using a CDMA modem
       The configuration has two parts the first part is the installation of modem
      software and driver and the second part is to create Dial-up account
      through the modem.
      Installation of modem


             1. Plug the CDMA modem in to
                one of USB ports of your
                computer and double click the
                CDMA Modem from list of
                drives in my computer , it will
                automatically pop-up interface
                as in the following Figure(if
                you are using HUAWET EC
                1261), Click “Install” to begin




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             the installation of the Wireless
             Broadband Client.

           2. Ready to install

            Note:This process will last
          about several minutes according to
          your    computer       configuration,
          please wait patiently.


           3.Choose installation language
             and click “OK” to continue.




           4.Choose “I already read an
             agreement, and accept all
             above all agreement clauses”,
             and Click Next, to continue the
             installation.




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            5.Complete the installation

              After installation of some
          network card drivers, you need
          to restart the computer to ensure
          normal      operation    of   the
          software. We recommend that
          you choose “yes, restart the
          computer now”. And then click
          Finish.




      Configuration
      This step is the same as configuration using a computer modem , the only
      different is
         1. User name will be etc
         2. Password will be etc
         3. Dial phone number will be #777.




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3.0 BROWSING THE WORLD WIDE WEB

 3.1 WHAT IS WWW?
      World Wide Web is an application that utilizes the internet to transport
      hypertext/Multimedia documents. Synonyms are WWW, W3 and W3 .
      In 1980 at CERN (European Laboratory for Particle Physics) Tim Berners-
      Lee envisioned the development of a worldwide computer
      interconnection that would provide access to all sorts of information and
      files for physics community. In 1989, after years of toying around with his
      vision of a more interactive world, he submitted a proposal that was to be
      the beginning of the World Wide Web.
      Soon people realized that the application of this “interconnected
      community” could reach far beyond those involved with physics. After
      the phrase “World Wide Web” was born, organizations began excitedly to
      assemble the hardware and know-how to develop this expansive network.
      These first World Wide Web computers were created at CERN. The visible
      success and ease of creating and employing these types of computers
      facilitated the resulting explosion of the World Wide Web and its
      utilization.
       The Web provides an easy point-and-click interface to a vast amount of
      information, free software, News, Sports, technical support, and just
      plain fun.

 3.2 WEB BROWSERS & WEB SERVERS
      Since the World Wide Web is an internet service, it is based on Clients
      and Servers. A World Wide Web Client is called Web Browser or simply
      browser, and World Wide Web server is called Web Server or simply
      Server. Both Web Browser & Web Server use a set of communication rules
      called http (hyper text transfer protocol).
      Examples of Web Browsers are:-
            Netscape Navigator
            Internet Explorer
            Mozilla Firefox
      Note: Web Browser requests a Page from a server based on its Internet
      Address. It retrieves the document from the server & displays the
      contents.



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 3.3 WORLD WIDE WEB TERMINOLOGY
      Web Page: A single Web document. Everything you can see in your
      browser window at one time (including what you can see by scrolling)
      makes up one Web page.
      Browser, Web Browser: The piece of software that runs on your computer
      and allows you to view Web pages. The most common browsers are
      Netscape and Internet Explorer.
      Web Site: A set of Web pages that are logically connected. They usually
      have a consistent look and feel, and are all related to the same theme.
      Home Page: The starting, introductory or welcome page for a Web site. A
      person's own home page is a Web page that describes all about them.
      Link, Hot Link, Hyper Link: A part of a Web page that can be clicked to
      get somewhere else. Links usually turn up a different color and/or
      underlined in your Web browser.
      Broken Link: A link that references to a page that is no longer exists. If
      you click on a broken link you will get some kind of "Page not found -
      Error 404" message.
      Hypertext: Text that can contain links.
      HTML: Stands for Hypertexts Markup Language. This is the language
      that all Web pages are written in.
      URL: Stands for Uniform Resource Locator. This is the address of a Web
      page - for example http://www.aictda.gov.et/.
      Web Server: A Web server is a computer which holds a number of Web
      pages, and 'serves' them out to computers that request them. There is
      nothing very special about the actual computer - it's just an ordinary
      computer (though usually a fairly powerful one) running special software.
      Surf: "Surfing the Web" means casually using the Web - not really having any
      direction, just clicking the links that look interesting to find yourself in weird and
      interesting places.
      Cyber: Virtual - not real but existing only in the context of the Internet.
      Cyberspace: A conceptual place that doesn't actually physically exist - but you
      can roam around in it, visit places, meet other people there, chat to them, go
      shopping ... Cyberspace is a real world metaphor for the Internet.
      Newbie: A person who is new to the Internet, or new to a particular aspect of the
      Internet such as a service (IRC, Usenet) or a particular group (a specific mailing
      list or newsgroup).




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      Post: When you send a message to a discussion forum, you're posting.
      This word can be used as a verb ("I posted a message") or a noun ("that
      was a nice post").
      FAQ: Stands for Frequently Asked Questions. They originate from online
      discussion forums where more experienced users got sick of answering
      the same "newbie" questions over and over again. So they started writing
      lists of frequently asked questions and their answers so newbie could refer
      to those. The concept has grown, and now a FAQ is more general -
      designed as an introduction to a certain topic.
      http://www.faqs.org/faqs/faqs/about-faqs
      Snail Mail: Traditional mail using paper, pen, envelope and stamp.
      Remote: Not on your own computer or on a computer directly connected
      with yours, but far away out in the Internet somewhere.
      Local: On your own computer, or on a computer connected closely with
      yours (a local network).
      Download: Download a file means transferring that file from a remote
      computer to your own computer. Technically, you are downloading a
      Web page (and all the elements, such as pictures contained on it) every
      time you view it, but the word is usually persevered to describe saving a
      file permanently on your own computer.
      Shareware: Software that you can use for free on a trial basis. It can often
      be downloaded from the Web.
      ISP: Stands for Internet Service Provider. They are companies who
      provide you with Internet access (for example Ehio-Net or ETC). Usually
      you use your telephone connected to a modem to dial up and connect
      your computer to your ISP.
      Interactive: Refers to any program which lets the user make decisions that
      affect the way the program operates in some way. It could be as simple as
      clicking a hypertext link, or more complicated like answering a quiz
      question and getting feedback.
      Bandwidth: It has a technical definition, but it is mostly used to describe
      how much data you can fit through a single connection at a time, and is
      related to how fast your Internet connection is.
      E-Anything: You can prefix the letter E to any activity to make it mean
      doing that activity over the Internet. "E-learning" and "E-commerce","E-
      government" are common examples of this. This practice has evolved
      from the word "Email" (in which the E stands for Electronic). "E" seems to
      have taken over from "Cyber" as the prefix-du-jour.


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 3.4 GETTING ON THE WEB
      Getting on to the World Wide Web is easy. The exact way you go about it,
      however, depends on your Internet connection and your Internet service
      provider (ISP). If you work for a company that provides a permanent
      connection to the Internet, for example, you may have to log on to your
      company’s network and then start your Web browser.
      As a general rule, however, you probably can get right on to the World
      Wide Web by opening Microsoft Internet Explorer. You can do this in
      three different ways.
            Open the Internet Explorer icon on your desktop.
            Click the Launch Internet Explorer Browser icon in the Quick
             Launch toolbar.
            Choose Start Internet Explorer.
      If an Internet Connection Wizard dialog box appears, read it carefully and
      follow its instructions to set up your Internet connection. Most browsers,
      including Internet Explorer, automatically prompt you to connect to the
      Internet if you’re not connected already. This means you can start your
      browser without bothering to connect first. If you are prompted to
      connect, just click the Connect button that appears. Your Web browser
      will start and connect to its default home page. That page will fill the large
      document area within Internet Explorer, as in the example shown in
      Figure 1.




                      Figure 9: Internet Explorer, showing the home page



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 3.5 VISITING A WEB SITE
      Every Web site has its own unique address, or Uniform Resource Locator
      (URL). Most start with http://www (for Hypertext Transfer Protocol,
      World Wide Web). Most also end with a three-letter extension that tells
      you a bit about who owns the site.
      For example,
             Commercial sites end in .com,
             Educational institutions end in .edu,
             Government sites end in .gov
             Non-profit organizations end in .org.
      To visit a Web site, point your Web browser to that site by entering the
      site’s URL into the Address text box of your Web browser. Here are the
      steps:
             Click the URL currently in the Address bar (http://www.msn.com
              in this example).
      The current URL will be selected (highlighted).
      Note: If you don’t see the Address bar
      Choose View  Toolbars Address Bar from the Internet Explorer menu bar. If
      no text box appears next to the Address bar toolbar, double-click the vertical bar
      to the left of the word Address and the text box will appear.
             Replace the address currently shown with the address to which you
              want to go.
             You can type over the highlighted address or use standard text-
              editing techniques to change the current URL to the URL you want.
             Press Enter.
             Wait for the page to appear.
      Note:
      While you’re waiting, the icon near the upper-right corner will spin to let you
      know the browser is working.
      The status bar at the bottom of the screen will present messages to inform you of
      the browser’s progress. When the Done message appears in the left side of the
      status bar, the entire page has been downloaded to your PC.




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                      Figure 10: Downloaded Website

 3.6 USING NAVIGATION TOOLS
      The Standard Buttons toolbar across the top of the Internet Explorer
      window provides some additional, simple navigation buttons. You also
      can navigate by using shortcut keys or menu options, if you prefer.
      If the Standard Buttons toolbar isn’t visible, choose View  Toolbars
      Standard Buttons from the Internet Explorer menu bar.
      If you don’t see text descriptions on each button and you want to, choose
      View  Toolbars Customize and select Show text labels in the Text
      options list box to turn them on. Click Close to close the Customize
      Toolbar dialog box.
  Back      Forward     Stop        Refresh           Home




Favorites




                                  Fig 11:Yahoo Web Site
                                                                 Mail



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      Note: The following are navigation buttons, shortcuts, and menu options:
            Back:
             Returns to the previous page you visited during this browsing
             session, if any (same as pressing Alt+left arrow, backspace, or
             choosing View  Go To  Back from the menu bar).
            Forward:
              Goes to the page from which you just backed up during this
              browsing session, if any (same as pressing Alt+right arrow or
              choosing View  Go To Forward from the menu bar).
            Stop:
              Ends the download (useful if you find that a download is taking
              too long). This frees the browser, enabling you to visit elsewhere
              (same as pressing Esc or choosing View → Stop from the menu
              bar).
            Refresh:
               Ensures you are viewing the absolute latest version of the current
               page (same as pressing F5 or choosing View Refresh from the
               menu bar).
            Home:
               Returns to your default home page (same as choosing View  Go
               To  Home Page from the menu bar).
            Media Bar:
               Displays the Media bar in the left pane of the screen (same as
               choosing View  Explorer Bar  Media). This frame includes a
               pane you can use to search the Web for multimedia (that is, music
               and videos) and includes controls for playing media files.
            Search:
               Displays a Search Explorer bar in the left frame of the screen
               (same as choosing View Explorer Bar Search or pressing
               Ctrl+E).
            Favorites:
               Displays the Favorites Explorer bar in the left frame of the screen
               (same as choosing View  Explorer Bar  Favorites from the
               menu bar or pressing Ctrl+H).




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             History: Displays the History Explorer bar in the left frame of the
              screen. (same as choosing View  Explorer Bar  History from the
              menu bar or pressing Ctrl+H).
      Note:
      Choosing View  Go To from the menu bar also displays a brief list of recently
      visited Web pages. Click any page listed on the menu to revisit. The small
      arrows attached to the Back and Forward buttons in the Standard toolbar also
      provide lists of recently visited pages.
             Mail:
                Takes you to Internet e-mail, as discussed previously.
             Print:
                As mentioned, prints the Web page you’re viewing (same as
                choosing File  Print from the menu bar or pressing Ctrl+P).
             Tip of the Day:
                Choosing View  Explorer Bar  Tip of the Day
               displays a daily “tip” in a bar along the bottom of the window.
 3.7 SEARCHING FROM A WEB PAGE
      You can search the Internet from the Web site for a specific search engine
      if you want. For example, you can go straight to the Yahoo! Web site by
      entering www.yahoo.com into the Address box. Or, visit the Lycos search
      engine at www.lycos.com. Other popular search engines can be found at
      www.excite.com (Excite) and www.infoseek.com (Infoseek).
   3.7.1 What’s a Search Engine?
      A search engine is a special type of Web site that helps you find resources
      on the Internet, including Web pages, newsgroups, and more. When you
      start a search, the engine looks through an existing database of Web
      pages, not the Internet itself. This is good, because it would take an
      extremely long time to actually visit all the millions of pages on the World
      Wide Web.
      Note:
      Web sites come and go, so some of the links that appear might lead to Web sites
      that no longer exist leaving you with “Page not found error”. If that happens,
      just click the Back button to try another page on the list.
      Some of the common search engines available on the internet are listed in
      the following table.



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               Site                          Address
       Yahoo             http://WWW.Yahoo.com/
       Google            http://WWW.Google.com/
       Infoseek          http://WWW.infoseek.com/
       Alta Vista        http://WWW.alatavista.digital.com/
       Magellan          http://WWW.mckinley.com/
       Lycos             http://WWW.lycos.com/
       Open Text         http://WWW.Opentext.com/

       WebCrawler        http://WWW.Webcrawler.com/


 3.8 SEARCHING OPTIONS & FRAMING A SEARCH.
         Every search engine we use follows the same basic steps. These steps
      are:-
            Point to the browser to the search sitefind the field to enterthen,
             click the search button. OR,
            Browse through a directory by Category. We can browse
             directories on topics such as Art, Science, Business, Sports, BBC
             News etc.
       The search terms we use usually determine our success. The words &
       operators we use to help us in our search can greatly improve or reduce
       the effectiveness of our search. Most search engines can make use of of
       Boolean Operators, which are designed to put conditions on a search.
      Some of the common operators and techniques are listed below:-
            “And” or “+”
          These operators are used to produce a hit based on both terms entered
          as search criteria.
               Example:-To search for “Computer Science And Engineering”,
                we can enter Computer + Science + Engineering and click
                Search button.
            “OR”
         This operator accepts a hit from either term entered as search criteria.
               Example:-To search for “Science” and “Technology”, we can
                enter Science or Technology and click Search button.
            “And Not”…………opposite of “And”


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         This operator enables us to exclude a term specifically.
              Example:-If we enter “Science And Not Technology”, as search
               criteria,
                     only documents containing the word “Science” not
                     followed by “Technology” would be produced as hits.
            Case
             Many search engines are case sensitive.
               Example:To search for Qeen Victoria, it is better if we capitalize
               for the initial letters.
            Real Language
          Many search engines now can interpret real language searches. When
          we misspelled a search criterion, the search engines automatically
          correct it and prompt to confirm us.
      Note: Search results produced by search engines are called Hits.
 3.9 USING HYPERLINKS
      One of the best features of the Web is its use of hyperlinks — hot spots on
      the screen — which, when clicked, take you to images, videos, audio
      clips, or other Web pages. Most hyperlinks appear as underlined text; but
      any text, or even part of a picture, can be a hyperlink. When the mouse
      pointer is touching a hyperlink, it changes to the little pointing hand. A
      ToolTip showing a description of the hyperlink or the address to which
      the hyperlink will take you also may appear near the mouse pointer.
      The status bar typically will show the hyperlink’s address. To follow the
      link to its destination, click the left mouse button and wait for the new
      page to appear on your screen.
      While you tour the Web, Internet Explorer may occasionally display
      Security Alert dialog boxes. These alert you to the possible security risks
      of carrying out an action. The message is really more a provision than a
      warning of an actual threat.
 3.10 PRINTING A WEB PAGE
      You can easily print a copy of whatever Web page you’re viewing at the
       moment by clicking the Print button on the Internet Explorer toolbar. To
        print,
            Choose File  Print from the Internet Explorer menu bar, or
            Click the Print button on the toolbar.
      If the page you’re viewing is divided into separate frames,

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             Right-click within the frame you want to print and
          Choose Print from the menu that appears.

 3.11 CREATING A FAVORITES LIST
      As you follow links and explore the Web, you’re sure to find sites you’ll
      want to revisit. You can make the return trip easier by adding the site to
      your Favorites while you’re there. To add a site to your Favorites list,
      follow these steps:
             While viewing the page you want to add, choose Favorites
             Add to Favorites from the Internet Explorer menu bar.
             The Add Favorite dialog box displays, as shown in Figure 12.




                     Figure 12: The Add Favorite dialog box

             Type in a name for this favorite item or accept the suggested name.
             Click the OK button.
      Note:
      As a shortcut, you can go to the page you want to add to Favorites and then press
      Ctrl+D. Internet Explorer adds the page to your Favorites list without displaying
      the Add Favorite dialog box.
 3.12 REVISITING A FAVORITE PAGE
      When you want to revisit this site, you needn’t type its address. Instead,
      follow these steps:
             Click the Favorites menu in the Internet Explorer menu bar.
             If your favorite page is stored in a subcategory (or folder) on the
              Favorites menu, point to or click that folder.
             Click the name of the site you want to revisit.




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 3.13 CHOOSING YOUR OWN HOME PAGE
      You’re not restricted with using the Internet Explorer default home page.
      In fact, you can specify any starting page you want, use the page you’re
      currently viewing, or start with a blank one.
      To do this,
            Choose Tools  Internet Options from the Internet Explorer menu
             bar.
            Click the General tab.
             Next, fill in the Address text box in the Home Page area with the
             address of your favorite starting Web page or
            Click the Use Current button to select the current page you’re
             browsing as your home page.
            Click the Use Default button to revert to Microsoft’s site as the
             home page.
            Alternatively, click the Use Blank button to save a few seconds
             when you fire up Internet Explorer.
             If you do this, Explorer won’t go looking for your home page.
            Finally, click OK to save your changes.
 3.14 BROWSING WITHOUT INTERNET EXPLORER
      Practically everything in Windows XP is capable of connecting you to the
      Internet, whether you’ve fired up Internet Explorer or another browser
      first.
      Example:
            Open Windows Explorer,
            On the Address toolbar on the taskbar,
            Type a URL into the                  Address      text    box.(i.e.   type
             http://www.yahoo.com/)
            Press Enter, just as you do in Internet Explorer.
 Note:
 Instantly the window will have all the basic features of Internet Explorer, and you can
 surf the Net as usual. If you don’t see an Address bar in Windows Explorer,choose
 View  Toolbars  Address Bar from its menu bar.




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                    Figure 13: The Address bar visible in Windows Explorer.

 3.15 ADDING INTERNET LINKS TO THE DESKTOP
      Windows XP offers plenty of ways to integrate the Internet with your
      desktop. To begin, go to the Web page you want to add to your desktop or
      go to a Web page containing a hyperlink you want to add. Now, do any of
      the following steps to add a hyperlink to your desktop:
      To add a link to the current page,
            Choose File  Send Shortcut to Desktop from the Internet
             Explorer menus.
      To drag-and-drop a link to the current page, be sure you can see the
      desktop.
            Then drag the little icon shown next to the URL in the Address box
             to your desktop and release the mouse button (see Figure 6).




                    Figure 6: Desktop Hyperlink
            To drag-and-drop a link that’s somewhere on the current Web page,
             point to the link so that the mouse pointer changes to a pointing
             hand. Then drag the link to your desktop and release the mouse
             button (see Figure 7).




                    Figure 7: Desktop Hyperlink to another Hyperlink .
      A shortcut to the Internet hyperlink will appear on your desktop. Now
      you can open it as you would open any shortcut on your desktop (for

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      example, by double-clicking or clicking it), and the Web page you linked
      to will open in your browser.
      Of course, what goes on the desktop can easily be swept off it. If you no
      longer want the desktop shortcut, just drag it to the Recycle Bin.
 3.16 DOWNLOADING FROM THE WEB
      Downloading means to copy a file from the Internet to your own PC.
      Plenty of things exist on the Web for you to download — mostly in the
      form of free programs, updates to existing programs, and shareware
      programs. Downloading from the Web is remarkably easy, almost
      effortless.
      Typically, you’ll find a link to the program or file you want to download,
      as in the example shown in Figure 16. The links shown are available at
      http://downloads.yahoo.com/internetexplorer




                    Figure 8: Available Links on many web sites..
      To perform the download when a link exists, follow these steps:
          Click the link that offers to download the file.
          If necessary, read any instructions that appear, and keep on clicking links
            as needed.
          Choose Save this file to disk and then click the OK button.
          The Save As dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 18.




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                    Figure 9: Save As dialog box.

            In the Save As dialog box, choose the disk drive and folder in
             which you want to store the file you’re downloading.
            Give the file name.
            Click the Save button.
      The download will begin and you’ll see a progress meter. You can do
      other work while waiting for the download to complete; but if you
      interact with the Internet a lot, you’ll slow down the download. If you can
      find something to do locally (on your own PC rather than on the Internet),
      you won’t compete with the download. Of course, if the file you’re
      downloading is a large one, going out to lunch isn’t a bad idea!
 3.17 DOWNLOADING WHEN NO LINK EXISTS
      In some cases, you might see a picture in a Web page, or some other item
      that offers no real download option. Chances are, you can download a
      copy of that item right to your own PC by following these steps:
            Right-click the link or the item you want to download to your own
             PC.
            From the pop-up menu that appears, choose Save Target As or
             Save Picture As
            Choose the disk drive and folder in which you want to Save & give
             the file name.
            Click the Save button to begin the download.




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 3.18 SAVING A WEB PAGE
      You can save an entire Web page, which is handy if you want to design a
      page similar to an existing page on the Web.
      To save the page,
            Choose File  Save As from the Internet Explorer menus.
            From the Save as Type drop-down list, choose one of the following
             options:
                 o Web Page, complete (*.htm, *.html):
                           Saves the Web page and any graphics that go along
                           with it. But graphics and text are stored in separate
                           files.
                 o   Web Archive, single file (*.mht):
                            Saves the Web page and its graphic images in a
                           single file with the .mht extension.
                 o   Web Page, HTML only (*.htm,*.html):
                           Saves only the text and HTML (formatting) codes, but
                           no graphics.
                 o   Text File (*.txt):
                            Saves only the text with no graphics or HTML
                           formatting.
            Then enter a name for the page, and click the Save button.
 3.19 COPYING OFF THE WEB
     It isn’t really necessary to download an entire page of the Web if you’re just
    looking to copy some text into a word processing program, or a picture into
    a graphics program. A simple cut-and-paste procedure will do the trick
    there.
      To copy text, for example,
            Open any text editor such as (WordPad, MS Word ) program,
            Click Back in Internet Explorer,
            Select the text you want to copy by dragging the mouse pointer
             through it.



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              Press Ctrl+C or choose Edit  Copy from the Internet Explorer
               menu .
              Position the cursor in MS Word or WordPad document, and
              Press Ctrl+V or choose Edit  Paste from that program’s menu bar.
   Note:
   To copy Pictures; open a graphics program, such as Paint or some other, more
   complete program such as Paint Shop Pro or PhotoShop and do the same as the
   above steps.
 3.20 PICTURES, SOUNDS, AND MOVIES
       If a Web page displays a large photo or picture, the picture will be
      resized to fit within the current Explorer window size. If you rest the
      mouse pointer on the picture for a few seconds, you’ll see a button with
      arrows at all four corners. Clicking that button will switch the picture
      between full size and the smaller size needed to fit within your browser
      window. You’ll also see a small menu bar that enables you to save the
      picture to your own computer, print it, or e-mail it to someone.
      When you click a link to a video or audio file, you’ll be given the option to
      play the file in Internet Explorer. If you choose Yes, the Media Explorer
      bar will open, and you can continue browsing while the file is being
      downloaded. However, you won’t be able to save a copy of the file to your
      own PC. If you choose No, the file will (usually) open in Windows Media
      Player, where you can save a copy to your own computer.
      For more information on using multimedia files in Internet Explorer,
              Choose Help  Contents and Index from the Internet Explorer
               menu bar.
              Click the Search tab, type media options, and then
              Click List Topics. You also can find many settings for customizing
               how multimedia files are played by :
              Choosing Tools  Internet Options from the Internet Explorer
               menu bar.
              On the Advanced tab, scroll down to the Multimedia category to
               view your options.
      Note:

               For more information about an option, click the ? button in the upper-
               right corner of the Internet Options dialog box, and then click the option
               for which you need help.



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      The AutoComplete feature is entirely optional. To turn it on or off,
            Choose Tools Internet Options from the Internet Explorer menu
             bar.
            Click the Advanced tab.
            Under the Browsing category in the list that appears,
            Click the check box next to Use Inline AutoComplete to turn this
             feature on (checked) or off (no check mark).




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4.0 INTERNET AND E-MAIL

 4.1 INTRODUCTION
      Perhaps the diligent feature of the Internet is electronic mail, e-mail for
      short. Unlike regular slowly mail, which takes days to reach its
      destination, e-mail usually takes only a few seconds, no matter how far
      the message has to travel. And unlike phone calls, which require that you
      stop what you’re doing to talk and aren’t easily recorded, you can attend
      to your e-mail messages when convenient. And you can also file them
      away for future reference, so you have a record of your communications.
  4.2 E-MAIL ADDRESSES
      In the e-mail world, every person has a unique address. E-mail address is
      an address that identifies a specific user’s electronic mailbox. Every e-mail
      address has three necessary elements. These are:-
            User ID
              Every person with an e-mail address has a user identification of
             some sort.
            “@”
               The “at” sign connects the user ID with the third element.
            Domain
             The domain name is an “English Version” of an IP address.
             Domain Name Servers translate domain names into IP addresses
             for fast access on the internet. Every e-mail address has one
             Domain.
    Example of e-mail address:-       aictda@yahoo.com


                                     User ID “at”   Domain
 4.2 ANATOMY OF E-MAIL MESSAGE
      Every e-mail message contains two basic parts. These are:
                   4.2.1The Header
                   4.2.2 The Body.




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   4.2.1 The Header
      We write any typical letter on paper, put it in an envelope and mail it to
      someone. The e-mail message header is like digital envelope and the
      body is the same as electronic letter.
      The following are the different message headers we need to be concerned
      about when sending an e-mail .
            To:
             It is a field that contains the e-mail address of the person to whom
             you are sending e-mail. Example: oroict@yahoo.com
            From:
             It is a field that includes your e-mail address.You don’t have to
             worry about this field because most e-mail clients automatically
             fills it for you.
            Subject:
             This field should contain a very short (20-30) characters description
             of what your message is about. Example: Sending Annual Report
             CC:
              CC….Stands for Carbon Copy.
             It is a field that contains the e-mail addresses of additional
             recipients. It is Used to send a copy of the message to different
             recipients.
            BCC:
              BCC….stands for Blind Carbon Copy.
             It is a field that gives you a way of copying an e-mail message to
             another person without the first person you send the message
             knowing about it.
            Attachments:
             Enables us to attach entire documents or a file to e-mail messages.




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4.2.2 The Body
       The body of an e-mail message is simply the text that we want the
       person on other end to see when he or she receives our message.
 4.3 CREATING E-MAIL ACCOUNT
         To register for e-mail account on Yahoo domain, follow the following
         steps:
         1. Double click “Internet Explorer” on the desktop.
         2. Open WWW.Yahoo.Com web site or “mail.yahoo.com” web site.




                    Figure 1: Yahoo Domain to register for e-mail.

         3. Clik on “mail” or “my mail”
         4. If you don’t have Yahoo ID before, click on “Sign Up”
         5.   Fill your personal information             in   the    following   “Yahoo
              Registration” given as an example.




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Create Your Yahoo! ID

* First name:            Chaltu



* Last name:             Regassa



                         Yahoo! U.S.
                                                         Please select the local Yahoo! site from this list that
* Preferred content:    best meets your content needs. Note: If you change this setting, you may receive a
                        country-specific Yahoo! email address instead of one that ends in @yahoo.com.

* Gender:                Female



* Yahoo! ID:             chaltu_regassa
                                                   @yahoo.com
                        ID may consist of a-z, 0-9, underscores, and a single dot (.)



* Password:
                        Six characters or more; capitalization matters!

* Re-type password:




If You Forget Your Password...

* Security question:     What w as the name of your first school?



* Your answer:           Biftu

                        Four characters or more. Make sure your answer is memorable for you but hard for
                        others to guess!

                         January                      1       1980
                                                   ,       Please provide an accurate birthdate for your
* Birthday:             own protection. We ask your birthdate to verify your account if you ever forget your
                        Yahoo! ID or password. (Yahoo! will never request your password or ID in an
                        unsolicited email or phone call.)

* ZIP/Postal code:       8748




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                            tklu_itana@yahoo.co.uk
                                                                We use your alternate email address to send
  Alternate Email:         information about your account (including new password requests) and important
                           news about your Yahoo! services.




Customizing Yahoo!

Industry:                   Computers/Electronics



Title:                      Database Administrator



Specialization:             Computer: Netw orking



                                                                                                               CU37ieVZFel8i2f


Verify Your Registration

* Enter the code             pAV277
shown:
                           This helps Yahoo! prevent automated registrations.




Terms of Service
                              Please review the following terms and indicate your agreement below. Printable
                              Version

                                1. ACCEPTANCE OF TERMS
                                Yahoo! Inc. ("Yahoo!") w elcomes you. Yahoo!
                                provides its service to you subject to the follow ing
                                Terms of Service ("TOS"), w hich may be updated
                                by us from time to time w ithout notice to you. You
                                can review the most current version of the TOS at


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                      By clicking "I Agree" you agree and consent to (a) the
                      Yahoo! Terms of Service and Privacy Policy, and (b) receive
                      required notices from Yahoo! electronically.




                                  I Agree




                 6.    After completing the registration form,click on “I Agree”
                 7.    If there are errors,correct the errors & click on “Submit” button.
                 8.    If you successfully complete the form,the following form appears.


                              Yahoo! - Help


  Registration Completed: Welcome chaltu_regassa!
        Top of Form




A confirmation message has been sent to the               Your Yahoo! ID:
Email Address you provided. Please read the               chaltu_regassa
email and follow the instructions to fully activate
your account.                                             Your Yahoo! Mail Address:
                                                          chaltu_regassa@yahoo.com
 We also recommend that you print out this page
for future reference.



If you forget your password you will be                     Security Question:          Date of Birth:
asked for the following information.                        What was the name of your   January 01,
                                                            first school?               1980

                                                                                        ZIP/Postal
                                                            Your Answer:
                                                                                        Code:
                                                            Biftu                       4050



                      9. Close “Internet Explorer”

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         10. Open “Internet Explorer” again.
         11. Open WWW.Yahoo.Com web site or “mail.yahoo.com” web site
         12. Clik on “mail” or “my mail”.
         13. Give your “Account ID” & “password”.
         14. Click on “Sign In”, then you will get a message from Yahoo
             domain.
 4.4. SENDING AN E-MAIL MESSAGE
     To send an e-mail message to some one who as an e-mail address,follow
    the following steps:
         1. After you “Sign in”, Click on “Compose” tab.




                   Figure 3: Yahoo Domain to send e-mail.

         2. Type your message.
         3. Write the Address on the address bars
                   To:_______________________(e-mail address of the recipient).
                   CC:_______________________( e-mail address of the 2nd
                   recipient),(Carbon Copy)



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                    BCC:______________________ (e-mail        address of the 3rd
                    recipient), (Blind Carbon Copy)
                    Subject:_______________________ Subject of the Message.
         4. Click on “Send” tab.
 4.5. CHECKING/READING AN E_MAIL MESSAGE
           To check or read an e-mail message sent from any one, follow the
           following steps:
         1. Open “Internet Explorer” on the desktop.
         2.   Open WWW.Yahoo.Com web site or “mail.yahoo.com” web site.




                    Figure 4: Yahoo Domain to Read e-mail.

         3. Give your Yahoo ID: someone
                       Password: xxxxxxxxx
         4.   After you “Sign in”, Click on “InBoX” folder.
         5. Double click on the message you want to read.




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                   Figure 5: e-mail messages on Yahoo Domain to be Read.

          6. The message will be displayed.
 4.6 REPLYING TO E-MAIL MESSAGE
          1. After “Sign in”,Click on “InBox” tab.
          2. Double click on the message you want to read.
          3. After you read the message you can Reply.
          4. Click on Reply button.
          5. Type your message or Reply.
          6. Click Send button.

 4.7. ATTACHING A FILE TO E-MAIL MESSAGE
          1. After “Sign in”,Click on “Compose” tab.
          2. Type your message.
          3. Write the Address on the address bars
                          To:_______________________e-mail address of the
   recipient.




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                    Figure 6: Attaching a file on Yahoo Domain.




         4. Click on “Attach Files” tab.
         5. Click on “Browse” to locate the destination of the “File”
         6. Click on “Attach Files” again.
         7. When the file is attached, click on “Send” tab.
 4.8. RECEIVING AN ATTACHED FILE TO E-MAIL MESSAGE
         1. After “Sign in”, Click on “In Box” tab.
         2. When the messages appear, make sure that there is an attached file.
              Note: an attached file has symbols like “”.
         3. Click on the “attached” file.
         4.   Click on “Down Load” the attached file.
         5.   After the system scan complete, click on “Down load” again.
         6. Click on “Save” option on the dialog box.
         7. Locate the drive or folder you want to save in.




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 4.9 FOREWARDING AN E-MAIL MESSAGE TO A FRIEND
         2. After “Sign in”, Click on “In Box” tab.
         3.     After you read the messages, click on “Foreword” tab if you want
               to send the message to your friend.
         4. Write the Address of your friend on the address bar.
                      To:_______________________e-mail address of the recipient.
         5. Click on “ Send” tab.
 4.10 REGISTERING FOR A FREE HOTMAIL E-MAIL ACCOUNT
             To register for hotmail, follow the following steps.



             Double click,           , the Internet Explorer Icon on the Desktop .
                OR
             Click ‘Start’  ‘Programs’  ‘Internet Explorer’
             Click in the Address Bar or on ‘File’  ‘Open’ and type in
              www.hotmail.com.
             Press the Enter Key to connect to the Hotmail Registration page.
      This is how your screen should look now:




                      Figure 7: MSN Domain.
               Click Sign Up to begin registration for your free Email Account .




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      The following screen appears:




                     Figure 8: Hotmail Regfistration on MSN Domain.


      To register for a FREE account click the ‘Get it Free’ icon
             The following registration form appears:




                     Figure 9: Creating e-mail address on MSN Domain.

      To fill in the form:
      Create your email address:
         • For Country/Region select United Kingdom
         • For Email address type in the name that you would like to select for
            you email address.

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         • You can only use letters, numbers, periods (.), hyphens (-), or
           underscores (_).
         • You only need to type in the first part of the address (eg: your name)
            as Hotmail already selects the ‘@hotmail.co.uk’ bit for you.
         • Once you have typed this in click ‘Check Availability’. Hotmail will
            tell you if someone has already selected this address and you may
            need to choose another name so try some variations of your name
            to find an address that is available:
         Examples:
            aictda@hotmail.co.uk
            aictda_unv@hotmail.co.uk
            aictda2003@hotmail.co.uk
      Create your password:
         • Once you have selected an address that is available you need to
            select a password.
         • The password must contain at least six characters and is case
           sensitive.
         • You can use a combination of letters, numbers and characters to
            create a password.
         • Hotmail will tell you how secure your password is by grading it as
            weak, medium or strong.
         • For a strong password use a combination of letters, numbers and
            characters (but remember, you need to be able to remember it!)
      Create your password reset questions:
         • You know need to choose a security question that will enable
           Hotmail to reset your password should you forget it.
         • Click on the drop-down arrow in the ‘Question’ field to select the
            question that you would like to have.
         • Type in your secret answer – it must be a minimum of five character
            s and is not case sensitive.
         • Hotmail can send a password prompt email to an alternate email
            address if you have one. If so, type it into the relevant field.
      Enter your account information:
      Now you need to fill in some basic personal details.
         • Enter your first and last name into the relevant boxes.

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         • To select your date of birth click on the drop down arrows and click
            on the date, month and year of your birth to select them.
         • For constituent country click on the drop-down arrown and select
            the relevant area.
         • Type in your postcode.
         • Click on the drop-down arrow and click on the relevant timezone to
            select it.
         • If you own or work with a small business click in the ‘check box’. If
             not, then leave it blank.
      Type the characters you see in the picture:
         • As security precaution you need to type the characters you see in the
            picture into the empty box below.
      Review and accept the agreements:
         • You now need to agree to Microsoft’s ‘terms and conditions’
           regarding Hotmail.
         • Click on the links to Microsoft service agreement and Microsoft
            online privacy statement.
      The agreements will open in a new window.
         • Once you are satisfied with the information close the window with
            the agreement in it (important: do not close the window with your
            account information in it or else you will need to start again from
            scratch!)
         • If you are satisfied with the agreement click the grey button that says
             ‘I Agree’ on it. If you decide not to proceed then click on the grey
             button that says ‘Cancel’.
         • Once you have clicked ‘I Agree’ Hotmail will let you know whether
            there are any areas on the screen that you have missed out or that
            require alternate information. Make the amendments then click ‘I
            Agree’ again.
      A new screen should appear with the following message on it:




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                   Figure 10: Confirmation of Hotmail Registration dialog box.



         • From this screen, click on the blue link to use your own email
            address
         • A new screen will appear asking you whether you want to subscribe
            to any email newsletters used for marketing purposes.
         • If you want to subscribe to any of them click in the boxes next to
            them to select them.
         • Once you have finished, scroll down to the bottom of the page and
            click on the blue ‘Continue’ button.
      Your Hotmail account screen will appear:




                   Figure 11: Hotmail Account screen.


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         Click on ‘My Messages’




                   Figure 12: A Message screen.

         A new window will appear. There should be one message in there
          from ‘Hotmail Staff’ .




                   Figure 13: List of Messages screen.


         • Click on the name of the person who sent the email (in this case
            ‘Hotmail Staff’) to open the email.
         • This email contains valuable information about using your Hotmail
            account. It’s a good idea to save it in you inbox and not to delete it.
         • To sign-out of your account click the             button at the top of
            the screen. For security reasons it is always recommended to sign-
            out of your account once you have finished checking your emails.
         To log-on back onto your account:
         Go to www.hotmail.com




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                    Figure 14: Sign in Dialog box to MSN Domain.


         • Enter your new email address and password into the relevant fields.
         • Decide whether you want your computer to save you email address
            and password. If you are using your own computer at home then it
            can be convenient for your computer to automatically know your
            address and password.
         • If you are using a computer that other people use it is generally not
             advised to select the options for the computer to save your details
             as other people may be able to access your account.
         • Click the grey ‘Sign In’ button to enter into your Hotmail account.
 Congratulations!   You    have     now    created    your     own   Hotmail     Account!




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5.0 INTERNET SECURITY

      Using the internet brings a security risk, because the network is public and
      hence open to everyone and illegal access. A number of methods can be used
      to provide security.
   5.1 INTERNET SECURITY METHODS.
      The following are some of internet security methods:
            Password principles
             For a system to be secure against attack,”strong” passwords are
             required.
            Encryption
             It is an ancient technique for hiding information. A reader cannot
             understand the information unless s/he possesses a “key”. It gives two
             important facilities, Privacy & Authentication (certification).
            Firewalls
             A “Firewall” describes hardware or software used to filter packets as
             they pass through the system. The packets can be filtered based on IP
             addresses, Port number etc.
            Proxy Servers
             Proxy servers provide a single point of access to the internet. This is
             more secure than allowing each user to connect directly and allows
             network “behind” the proxy server to be hidden.
            Virtual Private Networks (VPN).
             It connects the components and resources of one network over another
             network. It uses encryption technology to ensure that the security of a
             private network is available and the secure connection across the
             internet appears to the user as a private network communication.
            Web Browser Security
             Internet Security has a system of zones, for which we can set different
             security levels. We can then able the use of active web connects and
             files downloading on trusted sites.




[Prepared by AICTDA, UNV]                                                   Page 53
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 5.2 VIRUSES
      Computer viruses are program designed to replicate and duplicate amongst
      computers. They produce a wide variety of symptoms on a PC and ,in
      extreme cases, can cause permanent damage or loss of files.
      Types of Viruses
      Computer viruses are generally classified by the different ways they can
      affect the computer. The following are some types of viruses:
            Boot Sector Viruses
                They attack the boot sector information, the partition table &
                sometimes the file system.
            Program Viruses
                They are sequences of codes that insert themselves into another
                executable program. When the application is executed, the virus
                code becomes active.
            Macro Viruses
                Are viruses that affect office documents,and have become very
                common because of       the wide distribution of these documents,
                especially over the internet.
            Worms
                Are memory- resident viruses that replicate over network resources.
      Symptoms of Virus Infections.
      The following are examples of the symptoms that may indicate a virus
      infection.
            The computer fails to boot.
            Hard or Floppy Disks are reformatted .
            The File system becomes corrupt
            The master boot record is corrupted .
            Individual files on Hard Disks or Floppy Disks are Corrupt.
            Strange Messages or Graphics appear on the screen.
      Reducing Risk of Virus Infections.




[Prepared by AICTDA, UNV]                                                  Page 54
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              Downloading files attached to e-mails are the main sources of virus
              infection. The following are some of steps to be taken to reduce risk of
              virus infections.
             Carry out regular backups that allow data to be recovered.
             Prevent staff from downloading files or attachments that do not come
               from a known genuine source.
             Apply Operating systems & application security patches.
             Install & use Antivirus Packages.The Anti-virus packages must be kept
              up to date signatures.
             Select Anti-virus software that scans automatically (on-access).
      Scanning for Viruses.
             The following steps use Symantec Antivirus Client Scan as an example
             of scanning for viruses.
             To scan for viruses:
             Open the “Symantec Antivirus Application”.
             Expand “+ Scan” folder in the console tree.
             Click “Scan Floppy Disk” or “Scan Computer”.
             Select “Local Disk C:\” or “Local Disk D:\” or both.
             Click “Scan” button.
             When the scan complete, the virus names are captured in
              “Quarantine”.
             Select all virus names in quarantine, and Right click.
             From the short cut options, Click “Delete Permanently”.
             Click “Start Delete” button.
             Click Close button when finished.




[Prepared by AICTDA, UNV]                                                        Page 55

				
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