Miranda v. Arizona (1966) – Extension of Bill of Rights to protect against state action.
Miranda Rights. Right to remain silent, use of statement as evidence, right to an
Brown v. Board of Education (1954) – Doctrine of “separate but equal” is inherently
unequal. Overturned decision in Plessy v. Ferguson.
Baker v. Carr (1962) – One man, one vote
Roe v. Wade (1973 – Unconstitutionality of state prohibitions on abortion. No
reasonable grounds to interfere with privacy of reproduction. Decision on
abortion during the first two trimesters by the pregnant woman.
Barron v. Baltimore (1833) – Bill of Rights could not be enforced on state and local level
Slaugterhouse Cases (1873) – Failure to protect civil liberties of former slaves from state
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co. v. Chicago (1897) – Compensation to
business for taking of property
Gitlow v. New York (1925) – Defines civil liberties in the Bill of Rights. Begins to
extend protection to state level. (Incorporation Doctrine)
Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969) – Need proof that expression of ideas is likely to lead
directly to violence or other crimes.
United States v. Eichman (1990) – “If there is a bedrock principle underlying the 1st
Amendment, it is that the Government may not prohibit the expression of an idea
simply because society finds the idea itself offensive or disagreeable.”
Near v. Minnesota (1931) – Prior restraint may only be used in the most extreme
New York Times Co. v. United States (Pentagon Papers) (1971) – There was not
sufficient cause for prior restraint to be used.
Miller v. California (1973) – “Which taken as a whole, appeal to the prurient interest in
sex, which portray sexual conduct in a patently offensive way and which, taken as
a whole, do not have serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.” =
Jenkins v. Georgia (1974) – National standards used to determine, scientific, literary, or
New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) – Criticism of official conduct a protected right
central to the 1st Amendment.
Cantwell v. Connecticutt (1940) – Extension of noninterference in religious choice
extended to the states.
Torcaso v. Watkins (1961) – No requirement in Maryland for people to declare belief in
Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972) – Exemption of Amish children from compulsory high school
education law on religious grounds.
Everson v. Board of Education (1947) – No establishment of an official religion in any
state. No use of tax money to support paroachial schools or teach religion in
McCollum v. Board of Education (1948) – Violation of separation of church and state if
holding religious classes in public schools.
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) – “Lemon Test”: no religious purpose to activity, neither
prohibit nor inhibit religion, no excessive government entaglement.
Reynolds v. United States (1878) – Distinction between belief and action: protection of
beliefs, government regulation of action.
West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette (1943) – No requirement to salute the
flag on religious grounds for Jehovah Witnesses.
Engel v. Vitale (1962) – No required prayer in New York schools.
Wallace v. Jaffree (1985) – Denial of permission for a moment of silence in Alabama
Edwards v. Aguilard (1987) – No requirement to teach the biblical theory of creation in
Louisiana schools just because teaching evolution
Lee v. Weisman (1992) – No religious ceremonies at graduation.
Katz v. United States (1967) – Requirement of search warrants for telephone taps or
Washington v. Chrisman (1982) – Allowance of all evidence in a trial with an approved
United States v. Ross (1982) – Ability to search cars stopped for traffic violations, ability
to use evidence.
California v. Ciraolo (1986) – Permission to look through holes in fences or from above
the ground. Prohibition on climbing the fence to look.
Weeks v. United States (1914) – Halt of “fishing expeditions” in federal court cases.
Mapp v. Ohio (1961) – Halt of “fishing expeditions” in state court cases.
United States v. Leon (1984) – Where there is “good faith”, no intent to violate rights,
evidence is allowed without warrant.
Nix v. Williams (1988) – “Inevitable discovery” doctrine.
Murray v. United States (1988) – granting of ex-post facto search warrant based on
“independent” evidence after the initial search.
Escobedo v. Illinois (1964) – Reasons for inadmissibility of confession: Denial of access
to lawyer, denial of right against self-incrimination.
New York v. Quarles (1984) – Permissible to question without warning if imminent
Powell v. Alabama (1932) – Right to be represented by a lawyer, duty of state to provide
lawyer if defendants unable.
Gideon v. Wainright (1963) – Right to lawyer in all cases where jail time is a possibility.
Furman v. Georgia (1972) – Discriminatory infliction of the death penalty is cruel and
Gregg v. Georgia (1976) – Constitutionality of the death penalty with administration
under appropriate guidelines.
Woodson v. North Carolina (1976) – Necessary two stage process for the death penalty.
Thompson v. Oklahoma (1988) – Unconstitutionality of the death penalty for juveniles
under the age of sixteen.
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) – Married people’s right to privacy
Eisenstadt v. Baird (1972) – Single people’s right to privacy
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989) – Allowance for government restrictions
on abortion services with acceptance of government funding.
Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey (1992) – Requirement of a
twenty-four hour delay in abortion cases. Requirement of consent of one parent or
judge for a minor to have an abortion.