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					                               USSOUTHCOM HEADLINE NEWS
                                                 Monday, September 11, 2006
                   USSOUTHCOM Headline News publications are daily (duty day) compilations of published articles and commentary
       concerning significant defense and defense-related national security issues as pertains to the AOR. These publications aim to represent
       how the public, Congress and the press see military and defense programs and issues. They are internal management tools intended to
       serve the informational needs of senior SOUTHCOM officials in the continuing assessment of defense policies, programs and actions.
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       the US Southern Command Public Affairs Office. The use of these articles does not reflect official endorsement. Story numbers indicate
       order of appearance only.


1. U.S. Senators Visit Guantanamo Bay
Publication: Associated Press                                                                   09/11/2006
By Andrew Selsky
SAN JUAN, Puerto Rico (AP) - Flying home after visiting the Guantanamo Bay detention center, Senate
Majority Leader Bill Frist said Sunday he expects bipartisan support for putting top captured al-Qaida
figures on trial before military commissions and for guidelines on how they should be treated.
Frist, a Republican from Tennessee, visited the detention center in eastern Cuba, which holds some 460
detainees, including 14 top alleged al-Qaida figures recently transferred from CIA custody. Among them
is Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the alleged mastermind of the Sept. 11, 2001 attacks.
Frist said his visit with fellow Republicans Sen. Mitch McConnell of Kentucky and Sen. Arlen Specter of
Pennsylvania, the Senate Judiciary Committee chairman, was especially poignant coming one day short of
the fifth anniversary of the attacks that killed nearly 3,000 people.
"Being there today with the recognition that 14 individuals were there who in all likelihood contributed to
the 9/11 events ... led me to think how critical it is that we do define the appropriate criteria to make sure
we get information to prevent such a tragedy from ever occurring again," Frist said in a telephone
interview with The Associated Press.
The senators didn't see the 14 new detainees and instead visited Guantanamo to learn of interrogation
techniques, Frist said.
"In my mind, the detainees are being treated in a safe and humane way," he said.
On Wednesday, President Bush said he was asking Congress to pass administration-drafted legislation to
authorize military commissions to try terror suspects. In June, the Supreme Court halted the military
commissions, saying they lacked authority from Congress.
The administration-drafted legislation would define standards of prisoner treatment and omit some rights
common in military and civil courts, such as a defendant's right to see all the evidence against him. It
would also permit the use of coerced testimony at the judge's discretion.
Frist has placed the White House proposal on the Senate calendar but indicated there would be much
discussion on whatever legislation the Senate ultimately votes on.
"By midweek we'll decide how to bring it before the U.S. Senate," he told the AP from aboard a plane
carrying him from Guantanamo.
"There will be 20 to 25 criteria that will be put forward in the legislation to define what humane treatment
is," Frist added. "We need to get very clear and specific definitions in our legislation."
He said a new Army manual that bans beating prisoners, sexually humiliating them, threatening them with
dogs, and using "water boarding" - which simulates drowning - would be at least one basis the Senate will
likely use.

Frist said he expects bipartisan support as Congress sets guidelines on how to handle and try captured
suspected terrorists.
"I believe that both Democrats and Republicans realize that we need to equip our government, our law
enforcement and intelligence with the tools necessary to bring the terrorists to justice," he said.
However, even some Republicans support alternative legislation, and several of the military's top lawyers
worry that Bush's plan could violate treaty obligations and deprive U.S. troops of rights if they are
Ten Guantanamo detainees have been charged with crimes so far. None of the 14 top figures transferred to
Guantanamo from CIA custody has been charged yet.

2. Two Kuwaitis To Leave Guantanamo Soon: Group
Publication: Washington Post                                                                 09/11/2006
KUWAIT (Reuters) - Two Kuwaiti men held at a U.S. military base at Guantanamo Bay will be released
after more than four years in captivity and may return home by the end of next week, the head of a non-
governmental lobby group said on Sunday.
Khaled al-Odah told Reuters that Washington had informed Kuwaiti officials of the imminent release of
the two prisoners, identified as Omar Rajab Amin and Abdullah Kamel al-Kandari.
The cabinet said after its weekly meeting that two Kuwaitis would be released from Guantanamo
following mediation by the Gulf Arab country's emir, who visited Washington earlier this month.
It did not name the two but said all Kuwaiti prisoners stand a fair trial under Kuwaiti law after returning
from Guantanamo.
Amin and Kandari will be interrogated by state security once they arrive, Odah said. Amin is a 39-year-old
father of five and Kandari is 33 and has four children.
"There are preparations to send an aircraft to Cuba to bring them. If we are lucky we will get them by the
end of next week," Odah told Reuters.
The men's expected release will bring the number of Kuwaiti detainees at Guantanamo to four, including
Odah's son Fawzi.
A total of 12 Kuwaitis were among some 500 men held at the U.S. Naval facility since the 2001 U.S.-led
war that ousted Afghanistan's Taliban rulers following the September 11 attacks on the United States.
Odah said Kuwait and the United States were discussing the fate of the other Kuwaiti detainees. Kuwait's
Emir Sheikh Sabah al-Ahmad al-Sabah met President Bush at the White House Sept 6.
"The negotiations are going on and they are trying to expedite it as much as they could and there is no
expectation yet," Odah said. "We are waiting for the Emir and the foreign minister to come back so we
could discuss this with them."
In May, a Kuwaiti court cleared five Kuwaitis of charges of belonging to al Qaeda and ordered the former
Guantanamo inmates freed immediately, but the prosecution plans to appeal.
Kuwait, a staunch U.S. ally, is a main transit route for American forces going to Iraq. It was the launch
pad for the 2003 war on Iraq and up to 25,000 troops are based there.

3. Why Guantánamo?
Publication: Miami Herald                                                                      09/10/2006
By Eugene Robinson
If the secret prisons where U.S. agents interrogated ''high-value'' terrorism suspects with ''alternative''
techniques are so legitimate and legal, if they're so fully consistent with American values and traditions,
then why are they overseas?

That's one thing the Decider didn't tell us Wednesday in his forceful yet obfuscatory speech confirming
the existence of the CIA prisons and announcing the transfer of 14 detainees to Guantánamo Bay,
including boldface-name miscreants such as Khalid Sheik Mohammed, Ramzi Binalshibh and Abu
Since President Bush didn't address this question, I'll try. The only reason that makes any sense to me is
that the Decider wanted to put his secret prisons beyond the reach of U.S. courts. I think Bush and his
lawyers knew from the beginning that detaining suspects indefinitely and wringing information out of
them with methods that international agreements define as torture -- ''an alternative set of procedures'' was
the president's delicate euphemism -- wouldn't amuse even the most law-and-order federal judge.
But even with the little we know so far, I remain convinced that history will view these acts of arbitrary
detention, extraordinary rendition and coercive interrogation with strong censure and deep shame. The
president's claim that ''the United States does not torture'' comes with an asterisk, since his definition of
torture is as tortured as Bill Clinton's definition of ``is.''
No, an American ''detained'' by al Qaeda wouldn't enjoy a guarantee of due process. But we're not al
Qaeda. I thought that was the whole point.
Oh, one more thing Bush didn't mention: Those 14 most-wanted terrorists who were kept in the secret
prisons? As far as we know, not a single one was captured in Iraq.

4. Guard: Secrecy The Key To Staying Alive
A guard monitoring 'enemy combatants' says no one, not even other soldiers, knows his name.
Publication: Miami Herald                                                                    09/09/2006
By Noah Bierman
GUANTANAMO BAY NAVAL BASE, Cuba -- A 33-year-old guard in America's war on terror says he
has no name while he trolls this island base. Call him ''MA1,'' he insists.
No one may know or use his name, he says. Not journalists, not the 450 captives he guards in the
detention facility here, not fellow soldiers, friends -- even his roommate.
''Being personal can get you killed,'' said MA1, which stands for master-at-arms, petty officer first class,
his position in the Navy.
MA1 says he has seen a detainee bite a piece of another detainee's thumb off in a fight. He has had a
''cocktail'' of feces and urine thrown at him -- ``a life-changing experience.''
Assignments like this -- guarding captives in a new kind of detention facility -- are a sign of the U.S.
military's changing role as the Bush administration's war on terror marks its fifth year.
The military penchant for secrecy is strong, and supervisors here say guards are under intense pressure.
MA1 was briefed by a security consultant before two journalists were granted permission to interview him
with a public information officer present as part of a tour of the detention camp late last month. Because
access to soldiers on the base is controlled, MA1's unusual claim to absolute anonymity could not be
verified through interviews with other members of his troop.
The military has always guarded prisoners of war, but in this war detainees captured in Afghanistan and in
other countries were not ''prisoners of war'' fighting for a conventional enemy government. Instead, the
U.S. government classifies them as ''enemy combatants'' and imposes rules that are evolving -- amid a
successful U.S. Supreme Court challenge and international scrutiny -- since the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001.
Meanwhile, Guantánamo guards must be prepared to continue business as usual, even as others off the
base define captives' legal status.
MA1 and other soldiers attend three-week training courses in Washington State where they simulate
dealing with ''cocktails'' and the like. They learn to keep their composure. And in MA1's interpretation,
that means quite literally suppressing his identity.

Though MA1's lack of a name may be the logical conclusion to military secrecy, it is not a requirement of
his job. Military men and women must cover or remove their name tags when they enter the detention
area, but they use names freely when off-duty.
''We share our names with each other around here, absolutely,'' said Lt. Col. Lora Tucker, a spokeswoman
for the military Joint Task Force Command that runs the detention center. MA1's claim is ``a first for me.
I have not heard that here, ever.''
Tucker said MA1's commanding officers certainly know his name.
'Guards are threatened on a daily basis: `We're going to find your family and kill them,' or ''We're going to
slit your throat when we get out,'' said Specialist Jonathan Mullis, a member of the public information
staff for the military's Joint Task Force that runs the detention camp.
Attorneys for the captives say such claims are exaggerated and point to previously documented examples
where, for instance, a captive was covered in simulated menstrual blood by interrogators. Reports of a
2002 interrogation log showed that at least one captive was left in his own excrement, chained to the floor
and subjected to loud music in an attempt to gain intelligence.
MA1, an 11-year Navy veteran from New York, speaks in assertively neutral tones about his work. He
says he has ''no emotions'' -- neither affection nor dislike for the detainees -- and forgets about his work
when his shift ends.
''The Wire's the Wire, and home is home,'' he said, using military slang for the Camp Delta detention
facilities here. ``You can't mix the two. Otherwise, you never have down time.''
MA1 said he wants to avoid accidentally saying someone's name while on duty, in front of detainees who
may threaten families. And he keeps his name private to avoid letting someone else make that mistake.
''It's just [human] nature to want to say your name . . . now you're very popular. It's going to spread like
wildfire. . . . I just don't want to be the guy and say your name and, God forbid, something happens,'' said
MA1, who has been at the base since November 2005.
If friends want to learn his name, they can do so on the plane ride out of Guantánamo, he said. In the
meantime, he will use his military moniker.
Information is guarded in Guantánamo Bay in many ways. Journalists walk the base and Camp Delta with
military escorts and have their cameras inspected and scrubbed of sensitive pictures before leaving.
Soldiers cannot photograph Camp Delta.
Detainees' names and nationalities were secret until May, following a lawsuit by The Associated Press.
Most of the intelligence, techniques and identity of interrogators is off limits as well.
Members of the media have not been permitted to interview detainees, but there have been allegations of
mistreatment by interrogators.
''Guards beat one of our clients unconscious,'' said Josh Colangelo-Bryan, a defense lawyer in New York
who represents three detained clients and three who have been released.
Colangelo-Bryan said the misconduct of detainees has been exaggerated.
Guantánamo officials insist that they provide humane care and custody for detainees. Three captives
committed suicide in June.
Army Lt. Col. Mike Nicolucci, second in command for the detention compound, said last month that
detainees seek to use ''any little sharp object,'' including a faucet spring, as a weapon against guards. He
said detainees fashioned weapons out of fans and shards from lights during a May 18 uprising.
''This is just a new battlefield,'' MA1 said. ``It's more mental than physical.''

5. Senator: Tribunal Bill Flawed
GOP Sen. Lindsey Graham said President Bush's proposal for terrorism tribunals will not pass if

suspects are not allowed access to classified evidence.
Publication: Miami Herald                                                                     09/09/2006
By James Rosen
SENECA, S.C. - Sen. Lindsey Graham said Friday that he is confident the Senate will reject President
Bush's plan to try suspected terrorists without letting them see classified evidence against them.
Graham, a military lawyer who is also a colonel in the Air Force Reserve, read the White House bill late
Thursday on a plane from Washington to Greenville, S.C. He pored through the 86-page document until,
on page 34, he reached a clause that would prohibit defense lawyers from sharing classified information
with defendants they represent. He marked it with a red pen.
''That's the killer,'' the South Carolina Republican said. ``I fell over when I read it.''
Graham said he supports 90 percent of the bill, which Bush sent to Congress on Wednesday. But, he said,
'I don't feel good about telling someone -- no matter who they are -- `We're going to execute you next
week, but I'm sorry, we can't tell you why.' ''
''It's a bridge too far, and it's not necessary,'' Graham said.
Graham, 51, said every general and admiral at the top of the country's military justice system agrees that
classified information can be shared with accused terrorists without jeopardizing national security.
Maj. Gen. Scott Black, the judge advocate general of the Army, told the House Armed Services
Committee on Thursday: ``I believe the accused should see that evidence.''
Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist, R-Tenn., has given the Armed Services Committee until Tuesday to
produce a bill, Graham said. The panel's chairman, Sen. John Warner of Virginia, and Sen. John McCain
share Graham's view on the handling of classified evidence, setting up a possible clash in the Senate next
Graham said Frist has vowed to bring Bush's bill directly to the Senate floor on Tuesday. Graham said he
agrees with Frist that Congress must act soon so terrorist trials can begin at the U.S. military prison in
Guantánamo Bay, Cuba.
Bush called on lawmakers to pass his tribunals measure quickly so detainees can be tried. The president
increased the political pressure by disclosing that 14 senior al Qaeda members, including the alleged
mastermind of the 9/11 attacks, were being sent to Guantánamo Bay from secret CIA prisons overseas.
The Supreme Court ruled in June that the Bush administration had exceeded its authority in establishing
military tribunals without congressional action, prompting the need for legislation.
Senior lawyers at the White House, the Justice Department and the Pentagon argue that allowing terrorists
to see classified evidence could expose how the United States has pursued al Qaeda and would put
informants within the terror network in danger. But Graham said he is certain the Supreme Court would
reject a law that denies accused terrorists access to classified evidence against them.
Graham said that if his differences with the White House cannot be bridged, he is prepared to push an
amendment giving terror suspects access to classified evidence against them.
The House is set to take up tribunals legislation the week of Sept. 18.

6. Looking For Agreement On Tribunals For Detainees
Publication: New York Times                                                                   09/09/2006
By Kate Zernike
WASHINGTON, Sept. 8 — The main Senate Republican in talks with the White House over bills to
establish tribunals for terror suspects said Friday that a small set of problems divided the two sides and
that they would negotiate through the weekend in an effort to reach a compromise.

The senator, John W. Warner of Virginia, chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, said “90
percent” of the proposal that the White House submitted this week reflected a proposal that he and other
Republican senators who have taken the lead on the question had drafted over the summer.
The senators, Mr. Warner, Lindsey Graham of South Carolina and John McCain of Arizona, maintain that
they can work with the administration to resolve the differences, but they showed few signs of yielding on
the disputed questions. “The determination simply has to be made on what flexibility the administration
wants to show,” Mr. Warner said.
The disputed issues are the same ones that the Supreme Court cited in striking down a system of tribunals
that the administration established after the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. They include whether suspects can
be excluded from their trials and what types of evidence would be admissible.
“I feel strongly about this,” Mr. Warner said. “I want to be supportive of the president.”
But as a lawyer and former Navy secretary, he said, “I feel this bill has got to pass what I call the federal
court muster, so this thing doesn’t get tangled up in the courts again and go all the way to the Supreme
Court, and then down she goes again.”
Mr. Warner said that his committee would have its legislation ready for a vote next week, whether or not
the White House agrees to all its provisions. He predicted that the Senate would quickly pass it.
“We don’t need a lot of time,’’ he said. “We all know what the issues are. I don’t see a prolonged debate.”
There is no certainty that the committee bill will reach the Senate floor if there is no deal with the White
House. The Senate majority leader, Bill Frist of Tennessee, has said he will decide next week whether to
bring the committee bill to the floor or bring up the version that President Bush proposed on Wednesday.
House Republican leaders have said they intend to pass the White House version.
The Supreme Court ruled in June that the tribunals the White House established violated the Constitution
and international law by denying terror suspects basic human and legal rights.
Chiefly, the court objected to excluding suspects from trials and allowing hearsay and evidence obtained
under coercion. It faulted the administration system to have a military lawyer oversee the proceedings, as
opposed to a judge, as in military courts-martial. The court added that the jury size was too small.
Mr. Bush’s new proposal allows for a military judge and expands the jury from a minimum of three
people to five, the minimum the court said was required under courts-martial, with 12 for cases involving
the death penalty.
The administration proposal would allow hearsay and evidence obtained by coercion, if the judge rules it
was probative and reliable.
The plan would also deny the accused the right to see and therefore respond to classified evidence that the
jury could use to convict him, although the defendant could be allowed a summary of it.
That provision, Mr. Graham said this week, would be struck down by a court “in 30 seconds.”
Mr. Graham in particular, a former military lawyer and a military reserve judge, has been inclined to
follow the advice of the military lawyers on the shape of the tribunals.
Mr. McCain, who was a prisoner of war in Vietnam, has argued that any system would set a precedent for
how other countries try American troops and that passing a system that excluded the defendant opened up
Americans to being tried in kangaroo courts elsewhere.
A spokesman for the International Committee of the Red Cross in Washington said Friday that it would
visit the 14 new detainees being held at the naval base in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, as soon as it received
permission from the Defense Department.
An official with the Red Cross in Washington, Simon Schorno, said: “We do not have a date yet. But as
soon as we get confirmation, we will undertake a visit as soon as possible.”
Mr. Schorno said his organization had a team of about 10 people on standby. The team, which includes
officials in the Washington office, will draw Red Cross employees from elsewhere to work as translators.

He said the first order of business would be to interview the detainees “and give them the means to
contact their families through Red Cross messages.”
The Red Cross, Mr. Schorno added, will assess the detention conditions in the undisclosed locations
where the inmates had been held and now at Guantánamo.
By agreement with the United States government, the Red Cross will, in exchange for access, not make
public its views on the conditions of confinement and treatment.
Mr. Schorno said his organization might announce the fact of the visit when it occurred because of the
wide public interest in it.
Neil A. Lewis contributed reporting.

7. Judgment At Guantanamo
Publication: Wall Street Journal                                                                 09/090/2006
By David B. Rivkin Jr. and Lee A. Casey
As it enacts new rules for military commissions, Congress -- as well as the public -- should keep two
overriding principles in mind. One: While the jihadists detained at Guantanamo Bay must have due
process of law before they can be criminally punished, they are not -- despite a billowing cloud of
confused reasoning, misleading testimony and downright propaganda -- entitled, under the U.S.
Constitution or relevant international law, to the same level of procedural protections enjoyed by the
lawful soldiers of sovereign states. Two: The methods of warfare employed by unlawful combatants in the
war on terror fully justify extraordinary trial rules.
Let's take the first issue. In Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, the Supreme Court invalidated the Pentagon's original
military commission rules, holding that they must be the same as in American courts martial. But it
reached this conclusion only because of language -- requiring military commission and courts-martial
procedures to be "uniform insofar as practicable" -- in the Uniform Code of Military Justice. Congress can
and should change this language.
As to international law: Under the Geneva Conventions, captured enemy soldiers accused of criminal
violations are entitled to courts-martial procedures only if they qualify as "lawful" or "privileged"
combatants. At a minimum, this requires their association with a group that has a regular command
structure, wears uniforms, carries its arms openly, and obeys the laws of war -- including the injunction
against deliberate attacks on civilians. Al Qaeda and its allies do not qualify.
Thus the Guantanamo detainees are not entitled to be tried by courts martial unless Congress specifically
says so. Congress should now join the president and declare explicitly that they are not so entitled. While
unlawful combatants have always been considered a scourge to humanity, today they pose the greatest
single threat to organized society, and every opportunity must be taken to de-legitimize them. Permitting
them the same rights as honorable soldiers undercuts this goal.
With regard to the second issue -- fair trials -- it is precisely because jihadists deliberately target civilians
for attack that there is a greater premium on the development and protection of intelligence sources and
methods than in conventional warfare: Terrorist attacks must be prevented, not merely defeated.
Consequently, the cost of exposing classified information during a public trial is far greater. Military
commissions must, when necessary, permit portions of the proceedings to be closed to the public, with
less restrictive evidentiary rules.
The Supreme Court approved this procedure in the leading case of Ex parte Quirin (1942), where eight
German agents, including an American citizen, were tried by military commission. Here the Court
accepted the trial of "unlawful" enemy combatants conducted in secret with substantially relaxed rules of
evidence, and without a jury. After the war, similar rules were utilized for military commissions by all of
the common law countries, including Great Britain, Canada and Australia.

These procedures are also consistent with current international norms. Both the United Nations
International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda have routinely closed portions of
trials (Slobodan Milosevic's trial proceedings were on many occasions closed to the public), and their
rules permit the admission of "any relevant evidence . . . deem[ed] to have probative value," including
hearsay. The International Criminal Court also permits closed proceedings -- to protect, among other
things, "confidential or sensitive information" -- and follows highly discretionary evidentiary rules.
But can a defendant himself properly be excluded from any part of his trial, effectively keeping the
identity of at least some witnesses secret? This implicates a core right of confrontation, and makes it more
difficult to ensure a fair trial. However, there are a number of possible measures that can protect the
defendant's interests. For example, a particular witness's identity may be hidden from the defendant, but
not his lawyers. The judges may be required to discount, but not disregard, evidence that the defendant has
not himself seen.
Congress should realize that, while the key test in any trial is whether the defendant has had a full and fair
hearing and a meaningful opportunity to defend himself, the military and civilian justice systems can meet
these goals in different ways. Also -- and despite the occasionally hysterical critics of the administration --
there is no established international law bar to keeping some evidence from the defendant in exceptional
circumstances. Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions does not address the issue. It simply
requires that defendants be afforded "all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by
civilized peoples."
What these indispensable guarantees include are not settled in international law. In practice, U.N. criminal
tribunals have permitted numerous ex parte contacts between prosecutors and judges, as well as
significant limits on the defendant's right of confrontation. In the Yugoslav Tribunal, witness statements
rather than live testimony have been allowed, as have depositions from other trials which the defendant's
lawyers have not had the opportunity to contest.
Moreover, the Yugoslav Tribunal has also made clear, in The Prosecutor v. Tadic, that the testimony of
anonymous witnesses would be permitted in exceptional circumstances. The Bush administration proposal
would also permit the use of "anonymous" evidence only in exceptional circumstances. In any case, the
relevant tribunal rules have changed many times over the years -- further evidencing the very unsettled
state of international law in this area.
Overall, Congress should give unlawful enemy combatants their legally entitled rights -- but no more. The
real choices in crafting procedures for the trial of detainees in military commissions are a matter of policy.
In this regard, the president's military commissions bill carefully balances the key relevant policy
imperatives -- ensuring a fair trial without undermining national security -- and yet gives unlawful enemy
combatants more due process than they've ever received in history. It should be promptly enacted.
Messrs. Rivkin and Casey, lawyers in Washington, served in the Department of Justice under Presidents
Reagan and George H.W. Bush.

8. A Solution For Trials
Publication: Washington Post                                                                09/09/2006
IN SENDING legislation to Congress to authorize military trials at Guantanamo Bay, President Bush
appears to be hoping that, with an election just around the corner, Congress will not have the stomach to
deny him the latitude he demands both on the trials themselves and on larger questions of the treatment of
detainees. But quietly, over the past few weeks, a trio of Republican senators -- Armed Services
Committee Chairman John W. Warner (Va.), Lindsey O. Graham (S.C.) and John McCain (Ariz.) -- has
put together a remarkably good alternative bill on the subject. The draft balances profound and difficult

interests thoughtfully and with considerable respect both for the uniqueness of the current conflict and for
the American tradition of fair trials and due process. It is, in almost all respects, superior to the president's
The Senate draft would require that military commissions function much like regular courts martial.
Commissions would not be permitted to convict on the basis of classified material the accused cannot see,
and evidence obtained by torture or abuses just short of it would not be admissible. At the same time, the
bill would give the administration needed flexibility on the use of hearsay evidence and on authenticating
evidence collected in the rough and tumble of warfare. Finally, it would also make clear that commissions
can try alleged conspiracies -- a point about which several justices had raised questions when the Supreme
Court decided the case of Hamdan v. Rumsfeld this summer.
The draft, which is still in flux, is not perfect. The jurisdiction of the commissions it would create would
be too broad and could sweep in people who should not face military trials. The bill also would prohibit
those convicted from challenging their convictions in federal court except under a constrained appeals
process. Several other provisions -- such as one giving defendants the right to represent themselves --
should be reconsidered. But these problems can be fixed. The administration's bill has more fundamental
flaws -- starting with the fact that the trials themselves would deviate from the usual rules of courts
martial more than necessary. In particular, while the bill bans evidence obtained by torture, it would
permit the admission of evidence obtained by coercion just short of it in certain situations. It would still
permit a conviction based in part on evidence the defendant has had no chance to see or rebut -- something
the military's top uniformed lawyers insist is not necessary.
More troubling still, it would amend the law to limit the application in the current conflict of Common
Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions -- which prohibits cruel and degrading treatment of detainees. The
administration's bill would define Common Article 3, which the Supreme Court has applied to the conflict
with al-Qaeda, as requiring only what U.S. law -- the same law the administration has twisted to allow for
abusive interrogations -- already requires. To top it off, the bill would strip the federal courts of
jurisdiction over all pending cases involving detainees at Guantanamo, and thus any future review of trials
or detentions.
President Bush is pushing aggressively for quick action on his bill. But the Senate needs to work from its
own, far better, draft -- which, with relatively few changes, could provide a sound legislative basis for fair
and orderly trials.

9. Jury Can Hear Terror Suspect's FBI Statement
Publication: Associated Press                                                                09/09/2006
MIAMI, Florida -- A federal judge rejected an attempt by terror suspect Jose Padilla to keep a jury from
hearing statements he made to the FBI shortly before his 2002 arrest.
U.S. Magistrate Judge Stephen Brown also denied an effort to suppress evidence based on allegations that
one U.S. informant may have been tortured.
The rulings against the man accused of being an al Qaeda operative marked a victory for federal
prosecutors, who last month suffered a setback when another judge threw out one of the main terror
charges against Padilla and his co-defendants.
Brown found that Padilla, 35, had not been placed immediately under arrest by the FBI when he arrived at
Chicago's O'Hare International Airport in May 2002.
Since he was not in official custody, Brown said the agents were not required to read him his Miranda
constitutional rights before interrogating him on issues including his travels in the Middle East, $10,000
he was carrying and his conversion to Islam.

"Defendant was not restrained at any time, by handcuffs or otherwise. Every effort was made for
defendant to be made comfortable, in a non-threatening setting," Brown said in his ruling, released Friday.
"He was never told that he was not free to go."
Brown also denied Padilla's motion to suppress evidence including the cash, a cell phone and an address
book seized at the airport, rejecting arguments that the material witness warrant eventually used to arrest
him was based on statements from one source who claims he was tortured and another who was heavily
Padilla's attorneys identified one of the sources as Abu Zubayda, a top al Qaeda leader recently transferred
from a secret CIA prison overseas to the U.S. detention center at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.
The other source was named as Binyam Ahmed Muhammad, who is also at Guantanamo and claims he
was tortured after his arrest in Pakistan in April 2002.
Brown ruled that there was insufficient proof that those two were the actual informants in the Padilla case
and even if they were, information used to arrest Padilla was corroborated by other sources. There was
also no evidence that the FBI acted "recklessly" in writing a factual statement used to obtain the Padilla
arrest warrant from a judge.
Both of Brown's rulings are subject to review by U.S. District Judge Marcia Cooke, who is overseeing the
case. Trial is scheduled to begin in January.
Federal officials initially accused Padilla, a U.S. citizen, of plotting to detonate a radioactive "dirty bomb"
in a major U.S. city.
President Bush designated him an enemy combatant a month after his airport arrest, and Padilla was held
without charge by the military for 3-1/2 years until he was added as a defendant late last year in an
existing terror-support case.

10. Military Tribunals For Terrorists
Will Congress go along?
Publication: Las Vega Review-Journal                                                           09/08/2006
President Bush confirmed for the first time Wednesday that the United States has held some suspected
terrorists captured overseas -- including alleged Sept. 11 mastermind Khalid Sheikh Mohammed -- at
covert jails run by the CIA. But the 14 such prisoners still in custody have now been transferred to the
military detention center at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, he said.
The president's remarks came in a speech from the East Room of the White House in which he requested
legislation to nail down the procedures by which such detainees can be tried before military tribunals. The
need for such specific congressional authorization was reaffirmed when the Supreme Court ruled June 29
that Congress has never authorized the president to set up such trials.
The justices also ruled the tribunals as proposed at that time would have violated the Uniform Code of
Military Justice, which affords such protections as the right to be present at trial, and the Geneva
Conventions, which the court said may give detainees the same rights as U.S. citizens facing military trial.
The Supreme Court's ruling has "put in question the future of the CIA program," Mr. Bush said. He said
he wants that program to continue "within the letter of the law" and will ask Congress to authorize it,
arguing interrogations at the secret prisons have "given us information that has saved innocent lives by
helping us stop new attacks -- here in the United States and across the world."
The devil is in the details, and a substantial debate can now be expected in Congress about aspects of the
president's plan.
In his Wednesday address, for instance, the president sought authorization to use at these trials
information that was obtained under coercion. But three Republican members of the Senate Armed

Services Committee -- Chairman John Warner of Virginia, John McCain of Arizona and Lindsey Graham
of South Carolina -- have already introduced their own legislation to authorize the tribunals, and that
legislation would ban the use of evidence obtained by coercion.
The procedures used by the CIA "were tough, and they were safe and lawful and necessary," Mr. Bush
said, denying they constituted torture.
But the ban proposed by Sens. Warner, McCain and Graham is intended to prevent the use of information
that may have been obtained by torture in foreign countries.
Another area of disagreement is likely to arise from Mr. Bush's proposal to bar defendants from court
hearings where classified evidence is discussed. During Senate Armed Services Committee hearings in
July, administration witnesses advocated such a step, but committee members voiced opposition.
New York Sen. Charles Schumer said Wednesday that Democrats are likely to support the more restrictive
Warner-McCain-Graham proposal.
"Democrats welcome the Bush administration's long-overdue decision to try some of the alleged
masterminds of the Sept. 11 attacks and other hideous terrorist acts," responded Senate Minority Leader
Harry Reid, D-Nev. "The last thing we need is a repeat of the arrogant, go-it-alone behavior that has
jeopardized and delayed efforts to bring these terrorists to justice for five years."
If the senator is advancing the old John Kerry chestnut that the administration should have sat on its hands
while awaiting an unlikely endorsement of forceful action from some amorphous "consultation" with a
gaggle of compromised, collaborationist, hand-wringing European "allies" ... well, go sell it in New
But if Sen. Reid means the administration is to be congratulated for acknowledging the authority of the
Supreme Court and the Constitution, agreeing to consult with Congress in the light of day, seeking its
authorization and hammering out policies that are in our great humane traditions and are thoroughly
understood and approved by the representatives of a majority of the electorate, then Sen. Reid is right.
Yes, the terrorists by their nature, in their weakness and depravity, abjure, sidestep and ridicule the
military conventions of the civilized world -- as when they quite literally fire from hospitals or from
behind women and children, hoping for an opportunity to condemn their opponents' "barbarity" if this
results in the very collateral casualties they seek.
It may be worth noting that in many cases we now debate the proper treatment of men who -- according to
the conventions of civilized war -- could have been lined up against a wall and shot on the spot as out-of-
uniform saboteurs the moment they were apprehended.
But the time has indeed come to put these characters on trial or send them home. Precisely how to do that
should prove a useful and enlightening and politically healthy debate.
The president has now launched that process, and is to be applauded for doing so.

11. Tribunals For Terror Suspects
The rush to err again
Publication: Philadelphia Inquirer                                                              09/08/2006
In making his extraordinary revelations about secret CIA-run prisons overseas this week, President Bush
sought to create a sense of urgency to bring suspected terror kingpins to justice.
But it's a false urgency.
Why the rush to set rules for bringing these 14 suspected terrorists to trial? After all, they've been held
incommunicado for years in these prisons, whose existence the administration denied while upbraiding
journalists who reported on them.

This seems yet another bid to play upon Americans' fears for political purposes, exploiting the fifth
anniversary of the Sept. 11 attacks.
Over and over, the president insists the fight against terrorism is a war. Well, in a war, the captured
combatants can be held until the conflict is over.
Bush's sudden pressure to swiftly set rules for trial has to do with the legal - and political - problems he
faces over his handling of terror suspects.
The 14 terror suspects, as with others held at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, can't be tried until Congress and the
White House replace the justice-lite system of tribunals created by Bush after 9/11.
Over the summer, the Supreme Court ruled the tribunals unconstitutional - as military-law and other legal
experts had warned repeatedly.
Now the president wants Congress to act quickly to restore military panels that would operate much as he
first wanted. Yet that would amount to putting the congressional stamp on trials that might run roughshod
over the usual rules about hearsay and coerced evidence. That should be regarded as unacceptable by
Americans who cherish their nation's commitment to justice.
This view has nothing to do with coddling violent fanatics or feeling sympathy for them. It is about having
the guts to uphold this nation's core values even when the going gets tough.
Terror suspects' tribunals should correspond to federal-court trials or military courts-martial as closely as
possible, while acknowledging the need for secrecy in some cases.
Bush is right that the Cuba detainees should be brought to trial if there are charges to be proved, or
released once it is clear they pose no danger. The timetable, though, should not be tailored to fit the
congressional election, no matter how jittery incumbents might get.
Emptying the CIA prisons - note, they have not been closed - is a positive step. Despite the ugly reputation
the Guantanamo prison has gained, it now offers better conditions than the CIA jails and is subject to
international monitoring.
This week saw one important victory for American principles in this area. The Pentagon unveiled a
revised Army field manual that reestablishes the American military's honorable values by repudiating
harsh interrogation tactics and requiring humane treatment of all U.S. detainees. A top Army intelligence
officer warned that "no good intelligence is going to come from abusive practices."
Now, after Bush's latest announcement, Congress must take time to fully air opposing views before
devising smarter, more principled rules for bringing terror suspects to justice.


12. Ex-Justice Minister Was Dictatorship Spy, Says Daily
Publication: EFE                                                                             09/10/2006
Buenos Aires, Sep 10 (EFE).- Argentine former Justice Minister Juan Jose Alvarez was a spy for the
SIDE state intelligence secretariat during the last years of the 1976-83 military dictatorship, the daily
Pagina/12 reported Sunday.
Alvarez, who is currently a lawmaker for the governing Justicialist Party, or PJ, became a SIDE agent in
1981 on the recommendation of then-Interior Minister Albano Harguindeguy, who is now on trial for his
participation in "Plan Condor," the government's repressive and bloody campaign against real and
imagined leftist enemies during the 1970s and '80s.
Pagina/12 reported that Alvarez - who used the nickname Javier Alzaga in the SIDE - wrote a letter in
February 1981 asking to "enter the secretariat" with the aim of "serving the country." "The contract
between the Intelligence Secretariat and Alvarez was signed on July 1 of that year. One year later, he went
onto the basic staff, where he remained until he presented his resignation on July 17, 1984," said the daily.

The article also said that in May 1981, Harguindeguy sent a note to Gen. Carlos Alberto Martinez,
"secretary of intelligence for the state," in which he said he had met "the candidate more than 5 years ago
... (and he is) an excellent character who will not betray the confidence placed in him." Alvarez, who was
justice minister during the 2002-2003 government of Eduardo Duhalde, resigned from the SIDE in 1984
for "personal reasons," and later that year he became an advisor to a bloc of PJ legislators.


13. From 'Household Worker' To Justice Minister
Publication: Miami Herald                                                                      09/10/2006
By Annie Murphy
LA PAZ - When Evo Morales wore a striped sweater to visit foreign heads of state, some critics said
Bolivia's first indigenous president didn't have the necessary finesse for the position.
Similar criticisms have been directed at Morales' justice minister, Casimira Rodríguez, a former head of a
household workers' group who is still studying for a university degree.
''We don't believe she is the correct person, the most qualified and capable to generate serious policies,''
said Jaime Hurtado, vice president of the School of Bolivian Lawyers, which urged Rodríguez's
resignation when she was appointed earlier this year.
Even Rodríguez admits that she and her ministry have a lot of catching up to do. ''It's difficult to know
every law, its application, its foundations,'' she said.
But she argues that her appointment to the Justice Ministry was a profound step forward for Bolivia's
indigenous majority, long kept out of the nation's halls of power.
''Now that indigenous people are in government, we must ask how do we construct a truly just system,
rather than doing to the elite what they did to us?'' Rodríguez said in an interview.
At age 13, Rodríguez began working as a maid in the central Bolivia city of Cochabamba. She says she
was mistreated, forced to work long hours and held without pay for two years. She eventually became
head of the Federation of Household Workers of Latin America and the Caribbean.
Now 40, she's studying for a master's degree in anthropology. She always wears indigenous Quechua's
pleated skirts and cardigans, even to work and state events, and is known to carry her laptop in an aguayo,
the shoulder blanket generally used to carry food or young children.
''My strength is the practical side of things,'' Rodríguez said during the interview at the La Paz office of
Bolivia's Federation of Household Workers, amid file cabinets and educational pamphlets.
In a back bedroom, a baby woke from its nap. The mother, Emeteria Maita, now occupies Rodríguez's
former office as head of the federation. Rodríguez says the term ''household worker'' is important, in spite
of its bulk and what Americans might see as mere political correctness.
''We've been depreciated as maids. But we're workers; we work in the home so that other women can have
other jobs. We call ourselves household workers,'' she said.
Beginning in 1992, Rodríguez lobbied for a law to protect the rights of household workers. The law was
passed in 2003, and over the 11-year process, Rodríguez learned firsthand about legislation and
bureaucracy -- and collaborated with Morales, then a controversial senator.
The law sets procedures for workers to force employers to pay. Both Rodríguez and Maita spoke of
employers who refused to pay them for years.
Another woman at the union offices said she wasn't paid in nine years, receiving nothing more than food
and some used clothing. The federation recently helped her leave the job and is supporting her until she
recovers some back wages.
Such a personal approach is Rodríguez's trademark. After she became a leader of the household workers'

group in Cochabamba in 1986, she often lodged women in her own quarters after they left abusive
And now she has brought that open-door approach to the Justice Ministry. Before she took over the
ministry, it accepted complaints and requests from the public four times per month. Now they're heard five
days a week.
''Many people travel days to speak to us,'' she said. ``They have jobs, families, farms to tend. We had to
extend hours.''
The ministry receives all sorts of petitions, including those seeking titles to their land and citizens
reporting kidnappings, torture and even killings under the dictatorships of the 1970s and '80s.
The Justice Ministry also has been encouraging indigenous communities to settle some small property
disputes and theft cases through their elders and moral leaders known as the malku and t'alla.
This traditional system of community-based justice is respected as much if not more as national laws.
Morales' government has created a Community Justice department within the ministry.
''We've had this practice since before the Incas,'' Rodríguez said. ``It works. People respect these decisions
because here nothing is worse than disrespecting one's community. ``Dignity means everything.''

14. Bolivia Regions Call Truce With Gov't Awaiting Results Of Talks
Publication: EFE                                                                               09/10/2006
La Paz, Sep 9 (EFE).- Civic organizations of the four Bolivian provinces that staged a general strike have
given the government of President Evo Morales a truce in hopes of a fruitful outcome to ruling party talks
with the opposition.
Civic committee officials in Santa Cruz and Tarija, regions that together with Beni and Pando went on
strike Friday, told EFE Saturday that they will meet again next Thursday to evaluate the progress of talks
in the Constitutional Assembly.
Those regions protested against the decision of the ruling party Movement Toward Socialism, or MAS, to
impose a simple majority (128 votes) instead of the previously stipulated two-thirds majority (170 votes)
to approve articles of the new constitution.
The opposition also rejects the proposal that this forum, in which the MAS has 137 Assembly members,
be endowed with plenipotentiary powers.
The conservative Democratic and Social Power (Podemos) has also decried the ruling party's position not
only because it is contrary to the constitution and the law that was passed to convene the Assembly, but
also because it conceals the intention of imposing an autocratic government and closing Congress.
The spokesman for the Pro Santa Cruz Committee, Daniel Castro, told EFE Saturday that "we are giving
the government enough time to redirect its position in the Assembly," which has been meeting for more
than a month in Sucre, the nation's capital.
"Let's hope it moderates its criticisms and its positions and, instead of looking for enemies, it sees its way
clear to respect the regulations of the law convening the Assembly," Castro said.
The president of the Pro Santa Cruz Committee, German Antelo, told the press that if the administration
continues "wanting to divide the country, wanting to impose the will of a single political party on all
Bolivia," then these regions will have to continue fighting back.
His counterpart in the southern region of Tarija, Francisco Navajas, told EFE Saturday that these days of
truce will allow us "to see if the government is changing course and returning to legality to apply the two-
thirds majority." "The important thing is to preserve the nation's unity and we hope for a genuine
reconciliation and the application of existing statutes that is fundamental in any state that respects the rule
of law," Navajas said, adding that the next meeting of the civic committees could take place in Tarija,
although that has not yet been confirmed. Talks between the ruling party and the opposition in the

Assembly have made no progress since last Thursday, and on Friday night Assembly members met for
only 10 minutes since no agreements could be reached.
The Assembly postponed until next Tuesday the renewal of its deliberations while its members are
spending the interim seeking consensus in their regions and their parties.
Bolivian Vice President Alvaro Garcia Linera said Saturday arriving at the presidential palace that he
regards with "moderate optimism" the possibility of an agreement with the opposition, while at the same
time repeating his accusation that they are using the demand for a two-thirds majority as a pretext "to
boycott the Constitutional Assembly." "These are hours and days of dialogue and of seeking a consensus
on an internal regulation (of the Assembly), and the MAS maintains a position that is open, flexible and
with a commitment to the law convening the Assembly that is without restrictions," Linera said.
According to the government, approval of the articles of the new constitution by a simple majority does
not contradict that law which, it believes, only requires a two-thirds majority to approve the final text.

15. Two Top Bolivian Gov't Officials Resign
Publication: EFE                                                                              09/09/2006
La Paz, Sep 9 (EFE).- The Bolivian government officials responsible for regulating the hydrocarbons
industry and overseeing agrarian reform, two main pillars of President Evo Morales' domestic policy, have
stepped down from their posts, officials said.
Lawyer Santiago Berrios, who had recently been named hydrocarbons superintendent; and retired Col.
Fernando Salazar, director of the National Agrarian Reform Institute (INRA), announced their
resignations Friday in a letter to the president, citing lack of support from Morales' Socialist
administration for their work.
Berrios said in a press conference that his resignation, which comes just 10 days after he assumed the post,
was due to the fact the president undermined his authority by overruling his decision to dismiss of a
lower-ranking official, The first hydrocarbons superintendent named by Morales, Victor Hugo Sainz, was
dismissed in late August after accusing the state-run YPFB energy firm of signing a contract with an
intermediary to export crude to Brazil in violation of Morales May 1 nationalization decree.
Also removed from his post along with Sainz was YPFB President Jorge Alvarado, who still must answer
for his alleged role in the signing of that illegal agreement.
Morales' May 1 decree proclaimed the state's "absolute control" over Bolivia's huge reserves of natural gas
and smaller ones of oil.
Under the terms of the measure, foreign energy firms operating in Bolivia had to deliver all their
production to YPFB for distribution and processing.
The foreign companies were given six months to adapt their existing operating contracts to the new
conditions or leave Bolivia, which has an estimated 48 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, giving it the
second-largest reserves in South America after Venezuela.
But YPFB has failed to obtain the 50 percent plus one share of the stock of the various renationalized joint
venture companies, including the Bolivian units of Spain's Repsol YPF and Petrobras, despite the
provisions of the May 1 decree.
The negotiations with these and other foreign energy companies have gone nowhere even though more
than four months have elapsed since the nationalization was announced.
For his part, Salazar, who assumed his post at the beginning of March, said "lack of coordination" with
Morales' government was to blame for his resignation from the INRA, which is charged with distributing
"idle land" to those who currently don't possess any.
The official, a military engineer, sent a letter to Morales saying that he was stepping down "for personal
and professional reasons and because of lack of coordination with government offices" in matters related

to landholdings.
The government's decision to "recover" from private hands lands that were presumably illegally allocated
is one of the reasons for the general strike staged Friday by the eastern lowland provinces of Santa Cruz,
Beni, Pando and Tarija, all of which are governed by opposition parties.
The official program calls for the immediate distribution of between 2-4.5 million hectares (5-11 million
acres) of state-owned lands above all to Indian communities and peasant unions, as well as the reversion
to the state of "unproductive" large farms, especially in the wealthier provinces of eastern Bolivia.

16. Opponents Of Bolivian President Strike
Publication: Associated Press                                                                 09/09/2006
By Dan Keane
Opponents of President Evo Morales stayed home from work and blocked key streets in four cities Friday
to protest the governing party's handling of an assembly that is rewriting the Bolivian constitution.
Scattered street clashes between strikers and unions aligned with Morales' Movement Toward Socialism
party took place in Santa Cruz, Bolivia's largest city and the center of opposition to the socialist leader, as
well as in the southern city of Tarija.
The president convened the Constituent Assembly last month to draw up a new constitution to undo the
centuries-old dominance of the European-descended minority and to create more opportunity for the poor,
indigenous majority.
Opponents argue Morales' party is trying to expand the president's power without recognizing the four
eastern states' demands for greater autonomy.
Ruben Costas, governor of Santa Cruz state, called the protest "a new hope in the east."
"We are fighting for democracy, for rule of law, for the unity of the country and Santa Cruz has taken a
central role in this country to save those principles," he told strikers.
Government officials said members of the radical Crucena Youth Union hurled two homemade firebombs
at government television station offices in Santa Cruz. The bombs crashed against a concrete wall and the
building's front gate, doing only minor damage, the officials said.
The strike encompassed four of Bolivia's nine states - Santa Cruz, Beni, Pando and Tarija - which together
cover an area the size of Texas and contain a third of Bolivia's roughly 9 million people.
In footage broadcast on Bolivian television, each of the states' capital cities appeared largely empty of
traffic. In Santa Cruz, groups waving the state's green-and-white flag chanted anti-Morales slogans and
stopped the few cars out on the street.
Government Minister Alicia Munoz called the strike an "resounding failure." The Morales administration
released a statement saying the confrontations were the result of "regionalist oligarchies" forcing a strike
"that a large part of the states involved reject."
Movement Toward Socialism supporters took to the streets in Cochabamba, a central city long a bastion
of support for Morales, to support the president.
Morales dismissed the strike as "not important" late Thursday, calling it a political ploy by the
conservative opposition party, Podemos.

17. 4 Cities Frozen By Strikes
Publication: Miami Herald                                                                     09/09/2006
LA PAZ, Bolivia - Opponents of President Evo Morales stayed home from work and blocked key streets
in four cities Friday to protest the governing party's handling of an assembly that is rewriting the Bolivian
Scattered street clashes between strikers and unions aligned with Morales' Movement Toward Socialism

party took place in Santa Cruz, Bolivia's largest city and the center of opposition to the socialist leader, as
well as in the southern city of Tarija.
The president convened the Constituent Assembly to draw up a new constitution to undo the centuries-old
dominance of the European-descended minority and to create more opportunities for the indigenous
TV Station Firebombed
Opponents argue Morales' party is trying to expand the president's power without recognizing the four
eastern states' demands for greater autonomy.
Government officials said members of the radical Crucena Youth Union hurled two homemade firebombs
at government television station offices in Santa Cruz. The bombs crashed against a concrete wall and the
building's front gate, doing only minor damage, the officials said.
The strike encompassed four of Bolivia's nine states -- Santa Cruz, Beni, Pando and Tarija -- which
together contain a third of Bolivia's roughly 9 million people.
Empty Streets
In footage broadcast on Bolivian television, each of the states' capital cities appeared largely empty of
traffic. In Santa Cruz, groups waving the state's flag chanted anti-Morales slogans and stopped the few
cars out on the street.
German Antelo, director of the Santa Cruz Community Council, said the strike was proceeding with an
``atmosphere of respect for the constitution.''
Government Minister Alicia Munoz disputed that, saying ''hordes'' of armed right-wing youths had
intimidated people to take part in the strike.

18. Presidential Foes Cripple 4 Provinces
Publication: Washington Times                                                                09/09/2006
LA PAZ, Bolivia - Opponents of leftist President Evo Morales paralyzed four wealthy Bolivian provinces
yesterday in protests that turned violent and challenged the fledgling government of the country's first
indigenous president.
In a 24-hour strike, protesters and barricades blocked roads and bridges in roughly half the country's
terrain, from Pando province in the north to the southern province of Tarija, including the two largest
provinces, Benin and Santa Cruz, in the east.
The strikes protested Mr. Morales' bid to rewrite the constitution to redress inequalities endured by the
majority native population.
The strike, affecting four of the country's nine provinces, was organized by civic and business
organizations, conservative political parties and even provincial governors.
Protesters blocked border crossings to Brazil and Argentina, and police in the cities of Santa Cruz, Tarija
and Cobija, the capital of Pando, used tear gas to quell violent clashes between Morales opponents and
A group of extreme-right youths attacked stores and a residence that houses Cuban doctors in the city of
Santa Cruz, the wealthiest city in the country, Interior Minister Alicia Munoz said.
Unidentified assailants fire-bombed the office of the state-owned television network, she added.
The government called the strike "partial, armed and violent" and said it had been imposed by force by
"fascist hordes, hit men" ordered into the streets and highways of the four provinces.
It said the mobilization is being financed by landlords, estate owners and multinational oil companies,
whose interests were affected by Mr. Morales' order to nationalize energy resources in May.
The opposition aims to thwart the efforts by the ruling Movement Toward Socialism (MAS) to reform the

constitution to redress socioeconomic inequalities that swept Mr. Morales into office in December.
The MAS, through alliances with other political organizations, won nearly 60 percent of the assembly's
seats in national elections, less than the two-thirds majority needed to push through Mr. Morales' agenda.
The 255-member special elected assembly opened last month, and is to complete a new constitution by
August 2007 so it can be put to a referendum.
The special assembly convened for the project recently scrapped the requirement of a two-thirds majority
A member of the assembly, Jorge Lazarte, said yesterday that preliminary agreements had been reached
between government supporters and the opposition that would allow the assembly to begin its work in
earnest next week.

19. Bolivia's Wealthier Eastern Provinces Stage General Strike
Publication: EFE                                                                               09/09/2006
La Paz, Sep 8 (EFE).- Bolivia's four wealthiest provinces staged a general strike Friday to protest what
they see as the ruling party's heavy-handed management of the Constituent Assembly convened by
President Evo Morales to "re-found" this Andean nation on behalf of its Indian majority.
Predictably, the opposing sides offered starkly different appraisals of the protest's extent and impact.
"This strike, even in the political sphere, is a resounding failure," Interior Minister Alicia Muñoz said
around midday.
That remark, though, was a far cry from a comment earlier by German Antelo, chairman of the Civic
Committee of Santa Cruz province, the heartland of anti-Morales sentiment, who said "support for the
strike is tremendous, massive." But, according to Muñoz, the strike was only effective in areas where it
was "supported by groups of young people in a state of drunkenness, armed with sticks, chains and sharp
weapons." In areas where the traffic was stalled, she said that was the result of blockades by truck drivers,
"with the total absence of the civilian population." By contrast, governors and other political leaders in
Santa Cruz, Tarija, Pando and Beni said the strike was heeded nearly throughout those four provinces and
that clashes that took place in the morning were due to provocations by pro-government groups.
Bolivian television showed images of empty streets in all the main cities of these eastern lowland
provinces, as well as scuffles between supporters of the strike and backers of the Morales government that
left people on both sides wounded.
Santa Cruz Gov. Ruben Costas, who presides over Bolivia's most prosperous region, accused Morales of
"dragging the country into a spiral of violence" and of imposing a "totalitarian" regime.
"We're the ones hurt by the strike, but we're doing it in defense of democracy" and in defiance of the
"arrogance and haughtiness" with which the governing Movement Toward Socialism wants to impose its
majority in the Constituent Assembly, Costa said.
"We only want for respect for the law to be reestablished. We want respect for the constitution and the
laws," said civic committee chief Antelo.
Meanwhile, Morales - a Socialist and Aymara Indian - denounced the strike as a racist action against
Bolivia's first indigenous government.
"I feel that it is hate and scorn for the indigenous and native movement" that motivates the protest,"
Morales said Thursday night.
Previously he had called his opponents murders, traitors, sellouts and garbage, among other epithets.
The strike was being staged over two-thirds of Bolivian territory and affects one-third of the country's
population. The protest was taking place in regions that are governed by opposition parties and that for
years have demanded more autonomy from La Paz.
These four provinces account for 42 percent of Bolivia's gross domestic product and are home to 85

percent of the Andean nation's estimated 48 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, the second-largest reserves in
Latin America after Venezuela.
Apart from the clashes between pro-Morales and pro-opposition elements that left an undetermined
number of people wounded, the most serious incident was the throwing of two Molotov cocktails at the
headquarters of state television in Santa Cruz city, the provincial capital.
The director of the station, Sandro Jaramillo, told EFE that the devices were hurled by unknown assailants
at 3 a.m. (0700 GMT) and that they crashed into walls without causing any damage.
Muñoz, for her part, said that there are "conspiratorial and separatist desires" behind the strike and called
on Defense Minister Walker San Miguel to investigate those presumed plans.
The minister, however, denied that the armed forces had been placed on alert, saying only that they would
issue reports on the situation.
The governor of Beni, Ernesto Suarez, told reporters that the entire province had come to a standstill and
that there was no public transport or other activities, but that the situation was calm.
The strike was convened after Morales' MAS used its majority in the Constituent Assembly to change the
rules and procedures of the body from those originally agreed upon.
MAS assembly members last week decided that the body could approve individual articles of the new
charter by simple majority instead of by two-thirds vote as established in the current constitution and the
law for convening the Assembly.
They also declared that the Assembly has plenipotentiary power - or is an "originator" in Bolivian political
jargon - which the opposition sees as an attempt by Morales to seize autocratic power. The assembly is
supposed to produce a new constitution for Bolivia.
"The government has to understand that we've been forced into this by the arrogant attitude of the MAS
assembly members," said Francisco Navajas, of the Tarija civic committee.
While Bolivia has traditionally been perceived as an "Andean" nation because the mountains were the
source of the mineral wealth extracted by the Spaniards, nearly two-thirds of the national territory lies
within the flatlands of the Amazon basin.
The provinces making up what is known as the "half-moon" of tropical eastern Bolivia: Beni and Pando in
the north along with Tarija in the south and Santa Cruz in the east, are pushing for autonomy and - more
concretely - local control of natural gas.
Some in the half-moon have taken to referring to the four eastern provinces collectively as the "Camba
Nation," and some supporters of this notion argue that their region has a distinct identity from the rest of
While pro-autonomy campaigners seek to play down any racial overtones, Santa Cruz's elite is
overwhelmingly white, including people whose families arrived in the country in recent decades from
Lebanon and the Balkans.
Bolivia as a whole is more than 60 percent Indian.


20. Brazil Sets Pace For Alternative Fuel Use
Publication: Miami Herald                                                                    09/10/2006
By Steven Dudley
BOGOTA - When you look at this hemisphere's addiction to oil, the two largest oil consumer countries,
the United States and Brazil, stand out for their markedly different approaches to dealing with the issue.
While Brazil is seeking to up its production, use and exports of alternative fuels such as sugar-based
ethanol, the United States is debating whether to open its natural reserves in Alaska for more oil

And while Brazil is seeking alternatives to its dependence on Bolivia's unpredictable natural gas market,
the United States is inhibiting ethanol imports from Brazil with high import taxes to protect U.S. ethanol
There are many reasons for these differences, not the least of which is the size of the consumer markets
involved -- Brazil's consumption is a tenth that of the United States'. However, with energy markets as
tight as ever, political leaders are starting to take note of Brazil's ingenuity and resourcefulness.
''In terms of oil import countries, the most successful example in Latin America is Brazil,'' said Roger
Tissot, a consultant with PFC Energy in Canada.
The oil market is suffering from a small margin of oversupply and burgeoning demand from countries
such as China and India. Any blip in the market is felt at the pumps and in economies across the globe.
In the latest example, oil prices hit record highs in August after BP announced it was repairing a pipeline
and would shut down 400,000 barrels a day of production in Alaska, a fraction of the 85 million barrels a
day of worldwide production.
The global nature of the trade makes it an issue for both importers and exporters. Importers depend on
volatile producers. Exporters depend on stable buyers.
''Independence is not the real issue,'' Luis Guisti, a former executive in the Venezuelan state oil company
PDVSA and now a senior advisor for the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington,
told the Senate's Committee on Foreign Relations recently. ``Not only because it is not feasible, but
because the business of oil is global. The high prices of recent times result not from the large imports of
oil into the U.S.A., but from the fundamentals and perceptions of the global oil market.''
The market volatility has pushed politicians and pundits to look for ways to break the addiction to oil. One
example has been Brazil.
Nearly all Brazilian cars have flex-fuel engines running on both gasoline and ethanol, and the country has
cut its gasoline consumption by nearly half in the last four years. But even Brazil's alternatives don't
provide definitive answers for large economies such as the United States.
''Half of Brazil's motor fuel may be ethanol, as is often pointed out, but those volumes are equivalent to
less than 3 percent of U.S. gasoline consumption,'' Daniel Yergin, chairman of Cambridge Energy
Research Associates, told Congress recently. ``Whatever the longer-term impact of biology on our energy
supplies, there is no obvious quick fix to the energy security questions we see today.''
Without any quick fixes, analysts say the region is likely to experience volatility in the years to come. And
they add that political relationships in the region will play a key role.
One security question for the United States in Latin America, for instance, is its increasingly unsteady
relationship with one of its principal suppliers, Venezuela, which provides between 1.2 million and 1.4
million barrels a day to the U.S. market. President Hugo Chávez, a leftist populist, has threatened to cut
off the United States and has promised to send more oil to China over the medium term.
The issues go beyond supply. Venezuela is using oil to buy influence from the Caribbean to Tierra del
Fuego. Chávez has pushed to create an alternative trade bloc that operates outside of the United States'
sphere of influence. He has also begun to reassert state control over the private oil sector in Venezuela.
Other countries have begun to follow Venezuela's lead. Bolivia, a large holder of natural gas reserves, has
moved to nationalize its natural gas sector. And Ecuador has sought to regain control of private oil fields.
Chávez has also sought to influence presidential elections in many countries with an abundance of natural
So far, analysts say, Chávez has not had too much success. In both the Peruvian and Mexican elections,
his candidates lost.
''Oil politics in the region is becoming quite interesting,'' said Eric Farnsworth, vice president of the

Council of the Americas, a New York-based think tank. ``[But] it's a lot of rhetoric. . . . A lot of smoke.
Not a lot of fire.''
Alberto Ramos, a senior Latin America analyst for Goldman Sachs, says that countries such as Venezuela
and Ecuador should follow the example of Norway, which has a progressive oil policy that shifts its
windfalls into a tightly controlled fund that serves as a buffer when prices dive.
''For these countries, the question is what we do during the good times,'' Ramos said. ``Do we follow
Norway and save, or do we follow Venezuela and spend every cent?''


21. Protesters Hurl Fire Bomb At Chilean Presidential Palace
Publication: EFE                                                                           09/10/2006
Santiago, Sep 10 (EFE).- Masked protesters hurled a fire bomb and several paint bombs Sunday at the
Chilean presidential palace during demonstrations to mark the 33rd anniversary of the military coup that
ousted President Salvador Allende.
The fire bomb, which hit a window and was quickly extinguished, caused damage to the palace, police
The attack on the building occurred as thousands of protesters marched down Morande street, where
demonstrators traditionally pause to honor Allende in front of the door that he usually used to enter and
leave the palace during his 1970-1973 administration.
Allende was overthrown in a coup on Sept. 11, 1973, and he took his own life as troops stormed the
presidential palace, ushering in 17 years of dictatorship under Gen. Augusto Pinochet.
Protest organizers said the people behind the fire-bomb attack were members of an anarchist group that
also attacked a bank, a fast-food restaurant and a bus stop.
The anarchists, who belong to a group known as the CRA, clashed with riot police, who used tear gas and
water cannons to disperse the protesters.

22. Former Dictator Pinochet Loses Immunity
Publication: Associated Press                                                               09/09/2006
By Eduardo Gallardo
Chile's Supreme Court on Friday stripped former dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet of immunity from
prosecution for alleged abuses at one of his regime's most notorious detention centers - where the current
president and her mother were tortured - a court official said.
The case, which involves 59 cases of torture and kidnapping at Villa Grimaldi, is the first time torture has
been specifically mentioned in one of the numerous legal cases brought against the 90-year-old former
Villa Grimaldi, a sprawling house in southeast Santiago, has been turned into a memorial park to honor
the victims.
A court official speaking on condition of anonymity because he was not authorized to speak to the media,
told the Associated Press that an announcement will not be made until Monday or Tuesday but a vote took
place and the immunity was lifted.
The decision, which cannot be appealed, paves the way for the judge handling the case, Alejandro Madrid,
to indict Pinochet in the Villa Grimaldi case. Villa Grimaldi was used by Pinochet's secret police for
torture and even executions, according to court documents.
Pinochet already is under indictment for human rights violations and tax evasion. Previous attempts to try
him have failed after the courts dropped the cases based on Pinochet's poor health. He has been diagnosed

with mild dementia, diabetes and arthritis, and he has a pacemaker. The latest tests by court-appointed
doctors show Pinochet is fit to stand trial.
Current president Michelle Bachelet, then a 22-year-old medical student, and her mother Angela Jeria
were arrested months after the 1973 coup led by Pinochet and taken to Villa Grimaldi. Both have
acknowledged they were tortured, though they are not among those named in the case.
Bachelet's mother once told a Santiago newspaper that Villa Grimaldi was "one of the worst houses of
torture," where "I was kept for a week in a box, blindfolded, tied up, without food."


23. Army Major, Captain Investigated For Terrorist Attacks
Publication: EFE                                                                                09/10/2006
Bogotá, Sep 10 (EFE).- A Colombian army major and a captain, members of an elite intelligence unit, are
being investigated for their alleged participation in terrorist acts, according to the country's largest local
El Tiempo, which has the largest circulation in Colombia, said that Maj. Javier Efren Hermida and Capt.
Luis Eduardo Barrero, who belong to the RIME regional army intelligence unit, were videotaped "wearing
their uniforms and insignias" together with FARC guerrilla Lidia Alape Manrique, who goes by the alias
"Jessica." The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC, insurgent had demobilized but was
still working for the guerrilla group while she was also working for the two officers, she admitted on
Saturday to the attorney general's office. The daily reported that "she has been working with Hermida for
three years." Jessica was taken into custody and is being held and questioned at a women's prison in
The paper also said that RIME is a unit with special authorization to conduct "secret operations, intercept
telephone (calls) and pay millions in rewards." El Tiempo, in a Sunday editorial entitled "Se reboso la
copa" (The glass overflowed) discussing the new scandal within the Colombian armed forces, asked if
"they are bad apples or is it the pressure for positive results" that creates them.
The suspects "are not young soldiers who took advantage of an opportunity, like those (who found and
divided) the FARC (money cache), but rather - like in the Jamundi massacre of police - hardened
officers." And the paper adds that it was even worse "to ally themselves with an ex-member of the FARC
to place bombs," since that "is a deep betrayal of their raison d'etre as defenders of the security of
Colombians." The paper, which published its first article on the matter on Friday, said that evidence
gathered so far pointed to "a type of alliance with the FARC to buy explosives," which arrived in the
provinces of Meta and Tolima, both near Bogotá, to (be used) in fake attacks last July and August.
One of the fake attacks went awry, however, and the bomb exploded, killing one civilian and wounding
21 soldiers.
Army commander Gen. Mario Montoya admitted on Thursday, after receiving notice that the paper would
print a story on the matter on Friday in its print edition, that the activities attributed to FARC terrorists "do
not correspond to reality" and that two army officers, whose names were not made public until Sunday,
were involved.
"There (have been) conversations in which the officers speak about the attacks with at least two of their
contacts" in which they confirmed that "we need another little job (done), but this time don't let it
explode." The two officers, said the source, appeared at the sites where allegedly five terrorist attacks
were thwarted.
"Videos, tape recordings and documents like a check show that the soldiers participated. The question is:
Was Jessica playing for two teams? Or did the implicated soldiers have a macabre alliance with the

FARC?" the paper wrote.
The attorney general's office is conducting other investigations into recent deadly attacks in which soldiers
were involved, one of them during a supposed rescue of hostages in the Caribbean coastal city of
Barranquilla in which six civilians were killed and another into the deaths of 10 police officers in the
southwestern municipality of Jamundi.
So far, the AG's office has made no decision about the soldiers and President Alvaro Uribe is expected
Sunday evening to deliver a speech in which he will refer to the alleged participation of the soldiers in
terrorist acts on the eve of his Aug. 7 inauguration to a second term.
The president, in statements Saturday to the press in the northwestern city of Medellin, where he was
holding a town-hall conference, said that he would return to Bogotá that same day to take part in a
meeting of his security council, which met for nine hours Friday to analyze the allegations.
"I still haven't talked to the country because I still haven't had the clarity that allows me to be able to ...
provide clarity in the search for the truth," Uribe said.
Army commander Gen. Mario Montoya acknowledged Friday - after the Bogotá daily El Tiempo broke
the story late Thursday in its online edition - that officers in that armed forces branch staged various
"The recent attack with a car bomb in which several soldiers were wounded and a civilian died, which at
the time was attributed to groups outside the law, as well as the purported seizures of explosives over the
last two months, apparently do not correspond to reality," Montoya told reporters he had called to his
But Attorney General Mario Iguaran said Saturday that no arrest warrants had been issued against army
officers for presumably staging the attacks.
"You heard the Attorney General's Office (Friday night), in which the attorney general said that he still did
not have evidence to charge the officers," Uribe told reporters.
Uribe said he hoped the investigations being carried out by the Attorney General's Office and the army
"shed light (on what happened) so we don't make a mistake." "You know that the government has no other
considerations than making sure the law is upheld; I've been accused of being the president who has
discharged the most generals, but under these circumstances, when there's no clarity, one has to proceed
with caution," the conservative president said.
Uribe said that on Sunday, after a new meeting of his security council, he will have "some clarity, albeit
not total" to be able to "tell my countrymen what advances have been made in this process." In the
government's first official statement, Defense Minister Juan Manuel Santos said Friday that there would
be "zero tolerance" for members of security forces who commit crimes, since they betray military honor
and "deceive the citizenry." He said the army officers who staged several "terrorist" incidents prior to
Uribe's Aug. 7 inauguration for a second term, including a car-bombing that left one man dead, were after
the cash reward offered for tips leading to the capture of the perpetrators.
The officers could be charged with "fraud, in the sense that they sought to collect rewards, to earn
themselves some money," Santos said at a press conference.
Security forces said that Colombia's largest insurgency, the FARC, was intent on sabotaging the launch of
Uribe's second four-year term, just as it had used makeshift artillery to shell central Bogotá the day the
conservative head of state first took office in 2002.
But citing "videotapes, telephone intercepts and witnesses," El Tiempo said that as many as four army
officers, including a colonel, conspired to stage attacks and discoveries of explosives with the aim of
impressing their superiors.
At least five incidents originally attributed to the FARC were actually the work of the errant officers,
according to Martha Soto, the head of the newspaper's investigative unit.

24. Uribe To Talk About Army Officers Accused Of Staging Attacks
Publication: EFE                                                                                 09/10/2006
Bogota, Sep 9 (EFE).- Colombian President Alvaro Uribe said Saturday that he would make his views
known later this weekend about the supposed staging of "terrorist" attacks by army officers prior to his
inauguration for a second term once he has more clarity about what transpired.
The president, in statements to the press in the northwestern city of Medellin, where he was holding a
town-hall conference, said that he will return to Bogotá Saturday to take part in a meeting of his security
council, which met for nine hours Friday to analyze the allegations.
"I still haven't talked to the country because I still haven't had the clarity that allows me to be able to ...
provide clarity in the search for the truth," Uribe said.
Army commander Gen. Mario Montoya acknowledged Friday - after the Bogotá daily El Tiempo broke
the story late Thursday in its online edition - that officers in that armed forces branch staged various
"The recent attack with a car bomb in which several soldiers were wounded and a civilian died, which at
the time was attributed to groups outside the law, as well as the purported seizures of explosives over the
last two months, apparently do not correspond to reality," Montoya told reporters he had called to his
Two unnamed army officers are among the "unscrupulous persons" who "perpetrated these deceptions,"
the statement said.
But Attorney General Mario Iguaran said that no arrest warrants have been issued against army officers
for presumably staging the attacks just before President Alvaro Uribe was sworn in for his second term in
office, and said they were carried out by the FARC.
"You heard the Attorney General's Office (Friday night), in which the attorney general said that he still did
not have evidence to charge the officers," Uribe told reporters.
Uribe said he hoped the investigations being carried out by the Attorney General's Office and the army
"shed light (on what happened) so we don't make a mistake." The rank and identities of the officers
allegedly implicated in the crimes have not been revealed and the government has refrained from taking
any measures until all the facts are available.
"You know that the government has no other considerations than making sure the law is upheld; I've been
accused of being the president who has discharged the most generals, but under these circumstances, when
there's no clarity, one has to proceed with caution," the conservative president said.
Uribe said that on Sunday, after a new meeting of his security council, he will have "some clarity, albeit
not total" to be able to "tell my countrymen what advances have been made in this process." In the
government's first official statement, Defense Minister Juan Manuel Santos said Friday that there would
be "zero tolerance" for members of security forces that commit crimes, since they betray military honor
and "deceive the citizenry." He said the army officers who staged several "terrorist" incidents prior to
Uribe's Aug. 7 inauguration for a second term, including a car-bombing that left one man dead, were after
the cash reward offered for tips leading to the capture of the perpetrators.
The officers could be charged with "fraud, in the sense that they sought to collect rewards, to earn
themselves some money," Santos said at a press conference.
On July 31, a week before Uribe's second inaugural, a car bomb detonated near the military academy in
northwest Bogotá. Killed in the blast was a scrap collector, while more than a dozen other people were
In the days before and after the car-bombing, authorities reported the discovery of explosives in a truck
and the disarming of a taxi bomb at a shopping center in the capital.

Security forces said that Colombia's largest insurgency, the FARC, was intent on sabotaging the launch of
Uribe's second four-year term, just as it had used makeshift artillery to shell central Bogotá the day the
conservative head of state first took office in 2002.
But citing "videotapes, telephone intercepts and witnesses," El Tiempo said that as many as four army
officers, including a colonel, conspired to stage attacks and discoveries of explosives with the aim of
impressing their superiors.
At least five incidents originally attributed to the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia were actually
the work of the errant officers, according to Martha Soto, the head of the newspaper's investigative unit.
Iguaran's declaration late Friday, however, seemed to sidestep those reports.
The Attorney General's Office issued an arrest warrant against Lyda Manrique, alias "Jessica," who has
rejoined the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC, and was supposedly involved in those
Manrique, who was jailed at a women's prison in Bogotá on Saturday, said the accusation against her had
been cooked up by prosecutors and that "everything is false."

25. Colombia Official Says FARC Carried Out Attack, Not Army Suspects
Publication: EFE                                                                               09/09/2006
Bogotá, Sep 9 (EFE).- Colombian Attorney General Mario Iguaran said no arrest warrants have been
issued against army officers for presumably staging terrorist attacks just before President Alvaro Uribe
was sworn in for his second term in office, and said they were carried out by the FARC.
The official's declaration sidestepped reports casting suspicion on at least four officers of that institution
suspected of being involved in terrorist acts committed between June and the first week of August.
According to Iguaran in a statement to reporters Friday night, the Attorney General's Office issued an
arrest warrant against Lyda Manrique, alias "Jessica," who has rejoined the Revolutionary Armed Forces
of Colombia, or FARC, and was supposedly involved in those attacks.
The officials concerned have not been identified but their part in the attacks was admitted Thursday by
army commander Gen. Mario Montoya after the Bogotá daily El Tiempo broke the story late Thursday in
its online edition.
"The recent attack with a car bomb in which several soldiers were wounded and a civilian died, which at
the time was attributed to groups outside the law, as well as the purported seizures of explosives over the
last two months, apparently do not correspond to reality," Montoya told reporters he had called to his
Defense Minister Juan Manuel Santos said Friday that this could be a case of "fraud, in the sense that they
sought to collect rewards, to earn themselves some money." In the case of the car-bombing in question,
the government offered a reward of more than $410,000 for information leading to the capture of those
The defense chief said that investigations are underway and in the hands of the Attorney General's Office
with the total support of the armed forces.
Attorney General Iguaran regretted that word of the investigation had been leaked to the press and insisted
that no arrest warrant has been issued against any officer. Last Thursday it was learned that the officers
were involved in staging terrorist attacks to impress their superiors by "discovering" explosives and a car
bomb. One of the vehicles blew up in a street in the northwestern district of Bogotá on July 31 as a
military truck caravan was passing and killed a 52-year-old scrap collector and wounded 22 people, of
whom 21 were soldiers.
At least five of these terrorist acts were initially attributed to FARC guerrillas and were committed or
detected days before the inauguration of President Uribe's second term last Aug. 7.

26. 3 Drug Suspects Will Be Extradited
Publication: Miami Herald                                                                    09/09/2006
By Steven Dudley
The Colombian government announced Friday that it would extradite Jhonny Cano and two other drug
trafficking suspects wanted in the United States.
Cano, Huber Gómez and Jhon Posada had requested amnesty in Colombia and immunity from extradition
for being members of the right-wing paramilitary organization negotiating a peace settlement with the
The announcement came after heavy criticism from local and international organizations regarding the
peace process, in which suspected drug traffickers such as Cano were suddenly appearing on the list of
paramilitary leaders to benefit from amnesty.
Cano was a longtime lieutenant and hit man for the North Valley Cartel, Colombia's largest drug
trafficking organization. He was arrested in September 2005 in a paramilitary stronghold and has been in a
high-security prison since.
The paramilitary groups fought leftist guerrillas since the early 1980s, killing thousands of rebels and their
suspected supporters. Since the peace process began, they have demobilized nearly 32,000 troops and
most of their leaders are in custody awaiting the outcome of investigations that implicate them in
massacres, kidnapping and drug trafficking, among other crimes.
The amnesty law gives them reduced sentences and shields them from extradition to the United States.

27. Colombia Backs Military After "Rebel" Bomb Scandal
Publication: Reuters                                                                          09/09/2006
By Patrick Markey
BOGOTA, Colombia (Reuters) - Colombia defended its military on Friday as officials investigated two
soldiers suspected of orchestrating a deadly car bombing against fellow troops and staging bomb
discoveries to claim rewards for thwarting guerrilla plots.
The probe of the two army officers is the latest crisis to rattle the armed forces, which have spearheaded
President Alvaro Uribe's campaign against left-wing rebels while fending off criticism over human rights
"Our information is that only two officers were involved and this is a single case, it is a not a general
trend," Defense Minister Juan Manuel Santos told reporters.
Santos said investigators believed the men had set up the mock attacks to get cash given to informants
who provide details on suspected rebel activity.
The car bombing near a Bogotá army barracks killed one man and wounded 15 troops just days before
Uribe was sworn in for a second term last month. Army officials said at the time they had intercepted
several suspected rebel bombs.
Officials initially blamed the car bomb on the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC, the
country's largest rebel group whose 17,000 fighters still control parts of rural Colombia despite the
success of Uribe's crackdown.
Re-elected handily in May after reducing violence and crime, Uribe has received millions of dollars in
U.S. aid to help in his battle against the Marxist rebels whose 4-decade-old insurgency is fueled by the
country's illicit cocaine trade.
But experts said government pressure on army commanders to deliver had contributed to a string of
mishaps this year and that the latest scandal may force Uribe to review his security policies.

"This shows there is a real problem with the formation and control of the armed forces," said Carlos
Jaramillo, a Bogotá-based security analyst.
A U.N. rights report this year said Colombian forces had killed civilians and covered it up by dressing the
bodies as rebels to make it appear like a victory in the security drive.
Eight soldiers were arrested recently on charges of murdering 10 anti-narcotics police after evidence
showed the troops were on the payroll of militia commanders to protect their drug-smuggling operations.

28. Army Scandal: Deadly Fraud
Publication: Miami Herald                                                                     09/09/2006
By Sibylla Brodzinsky
BOGOTA - In the latest of a string of army scandals, two army officers have been accused of ordering a
July car bombing that killed one and wounded 10, officials said Friday.
The motives behind the bombing were unclear, but the newspaper El Tiempo reported that the officers
also had arranged to place -- and find -- several batches of explosives in order to collect the rewards for
the tips.
President Alvaro Uribe called a meeting of his top security advisors to discuss the new scandal.
The July 31 car-bombing of a military convoy as it drove through a Bogotá neighborhood killed one
civilian and wounded 10 soldiers.
That bombing, and several seizures of explosives in recent months, were originally blamed on leftist
rebels from the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC).
But that theory ''does not correspond with reality,'' the defense ministry said in a statement Thursday night.
El Tiempo reported that prosecutors have video and recorded telephone conversations showing that the
two officers paid a former FARC member to carry out the bombing and plant the other explosives in
Bogotá ahead of Uribe's inauguration to a second term Aug 7.
In the case of the planted explosives, the paper said, the former rebel arranged to tip off authorities and
claim a monetary reward, which he was later to share with the two officers.
El Tiempo said a total of four officers, including a colonel, were involved in the scheme. But Defense
Minister Juan Manuel Santos said the attorney general's office was investigating only two ''for now.'' None
of the officers was identified.
Analysts said the two officers may have felt pressure from superiors to show positive results in their
security work, but that the prime motive appeared to be the reward money they received for tipping off
authorities to the planned attacks.
''This is very serious, something we've never seen before,'' said security analyst Alfredo Rangel. ``Army
officers staging a supposed attack and then cash in on preventing it.''
Other security officers in fact have been accused of staging false rebel attacks. The director of the DAS
secret police in northern Atlántico province was sacked last year for fabricating three false attacks against
Uribe, reportedly to win presidential recognition. But it is the army that has been hit hardest by scandals in
the past year that range from brutal hazings of new recruits to killing civilians and dressing them in rebel
Seven soldiers were arrested after six civilians were gunned down in a confused incident in Atlántico
province last month. In another case, an entire platoon faces charges of ambushing a police unit on a drug
raid in May near the western city of Cali.
All 10 members of the raid team were killed.
Santos describes all the cases as ''isolated incidents.'' But Rangel said that given the number of scandals,
one can no longer talk about isolated cases: ``This points to a more structural problem.''

29. Colombian: Soldiers Behind Car-Bombing Were After Cash Reward
Publication: EFE                                                                               09/09/2006
Bogota, Sep 8 (EFE).- The army officers who staged several "terrorist" incidents prior to President Alvaro
Uribe's inauguration for a second term, including a car-bombing that left one man dead, were after the
cash reward offered for tips leading to the capture of the perpetrators, Colombia's defense minister said
The officers could be charged with "fraud, in the sense that they sought to collect rewards, to earn
themselves some money," Juan Manuel Santos said at a press conference.
In the case of the car-bombing in question, the government offered a reward of more than $410,000 for
information leading to the capture of those responsible.
Santos said that the investigations underway in the armed forces lead to the hypothesis that the officers'
motive was financial gain.
The same investigations tend to invalidate the theory that this could be a way of "improving by means of a
hoax the performance of our armed forces and police" under pressure from the administration and the high
command, the minister said.
"We will proceed to take all the necessary measures so that those responsible are punished in such a way
as to set an example," Santos said, adding that this was an "isolated case." The defense chief asked that
neither the "credibility nor the legitimacy of our military institutions be called into question" for any
reason at all. He said that in his sector an in-depth review of all internal steps and procedures for the
induction and training of personnel has been set in motion. Santos said that those implicated "will be
relieved of duty" and put in the hands of the attorney general's office.
Colombia's army chief, Gen. Mario Montoya admitted that officers had staged various incidents after the
Bogotá daily El Tiempo broke the story late Thursday in its online edition.
"The recent attack with a car bomb in which several soldiers were wounded and a civilian died, which at
the time was attributed to groups outside the law, as well as the purported seizures of explosives over the
last two months, apparently do not correspond to reality," Montoya told reporters he had called to his
Two unnamed army officers are among the "unscrupulous persons" who "perpetrated these deceptions,"
the statement said.
On July 31, a week before Uribe's second inaugural, a car bomb detonated near the military academy in
northwest Bogotá. Killed in the blast was a scrap collector, while more than a dozen other people were
In the days before and after the car-bombing, authorities reported the discovery of explosives in a truck
and the disarming of a taxi bomb at a shopping center in the capital.
Security forces said that Colombia's largest insurgency, the FARC, was intent on sabotaging the launch of
Uribe's second four-year term, just as it had used makeshift artillery to shell central Bogotá the day the
conservative head of state first took office in 2002.
Citing "videotapes, telephone intercepts and witnesses," El Tiempo said that as many as four army
officers, including a colonel, conspired to stage attacks and discoveries of explosives with the aim of
impressing their superiors.
At least five incidents originally attributed to the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia were actually
the work of the errant officers, according to Martha Soto, the head of the newspaper's investigative unit.
Montoya said the army and defense ministry will fully cooperate with the attorney general's office as it
investigates the "deplorable" deeds.
"The country must have the certainty that we will be the first to inform the public about (our)
wrongdoing," the army chief said.

Last year, Colombians learned that an ostensible 2003 plot to assassinate Uribe had been cooked up by a
secret police official who hoped to win promotion by "neutralizing" such threats.
The "patsy" in that episode was Alfonso Zambrano Puello, an indigent collector of scrap cardboard and
bottles who spent two years in prison as a result of the machinations of the since-disgraced regional chief
of the DAS secret police in the Caribbean city of Barranquilla, Emilio Vence.
Zambrano was arrested on Aug. 26, 2003 after DAS announced the foiling of a plot to kill the president
during his visit to the coastal city.
He was apparently approached by Vence's subordinates with an offer of roughly $17 to transport in his
wheelbarrow some packages.
Zambrano said the packages - which turned out to be mortar shells, grenades and other explosive devices,
and which he covered with cardboard and empty bottles - had been given to him by the same men who
arrested him just hours later.
Under pressure from the DAS agents, the itinerant recycler said that the explosives belonged to the FARC,
which has mounted several real attempts on Uribe's life going back to his 2002 campaign.


30. Champagne Flows As Cuba And India Toast Petroleum Alliance
Publication: EFE                                                                              09/11/2006
Havana, Sep 10 (EFE).- The state-run petroleum firms of India and Cuba broke out the champagne upon
signing Sunday an oil exploration agreement pertaining to two drilling blocs in Cuba's maritime economic
exploitation zone.
India's Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) and Cuba Petroleo (CUPET) concluded their pact on the
eve of the 14th Non-Aligned Movement Summit in Havana, which will run from Sept. 11-16, and top
officials from the two companies called the agreement "very important." The accord applies to shared
exploration and exploitation of some 4,300 square kilometers (1,653 square miles) in blocs N-34 and N-
35 in Cuba's Exclusive Economic Zone in the Gulf of Mexico, The pact, which was signed in the presence
of Cuban Basic Industry Minister Yadira Garcia and Indian Ambassador to Havana Mitra Vashist, also
gives CUPET an option to acquire 20 percent of the participation in the activities undertaken in the two
blocs, where seismic tests will begin "immediately." "In the hydrocarbons sector, we firmly believe that
Cuba represents a great opportunity for exploration with the possibility of making (energy) finds, and
we're going to explore this potential with fervor," said ONGC director general R.S. Butola upon the
conclusion of the agreement.
CUPET chief Fidel Rivero Prieto said that "we have enormous potential for discovering petroleum and
natural gas, and we're certain that if nature (has given us) those resources, we'll have success with the
technological capacity and efforts of ONGC." ONGC has been working in Cuba's Gulf of Mexico waters
since June on another project in six drilling blocs together with Argentina's Repsol YPF and Norway's
Norks Hydro.
The United States has maintained a unilateral economic, financial and trade embargo on Communist Cuba
for more than 40 years, a key feature of which is the potential for economic sanctions on companies that
undertake commercial operations with the island's regime.
Rivero said, however, that despite this situation, the Cuban government is keeping its invitation open to
U.S. oil firms to invest in Cuba.

31. Doubt Over Castro's Public Return
Publication: BBC                                                                          09/10/2006

Fidel Castro recently underwent intestinal surgery There is confusion in Cuba over whether President
Fidel Castro is to make his first public appearance this week after surgery for intestinal problems.
One official timetable says Mr. Castro will host a dinner for the Non-Aligned Movement next Friday.
But Foreign Minister Felipe Perez Roque said he could not be certain that the 80-year-old leader would
Mr. Castro handed temporary power to his brother in July, prompting speculation that his 47-year rule was
nearly over.
A Cuban statement last week said he was over the worst of his illness.
Details of the ailment have been a state secret, although photographs of Mr. Castro meeting Venezuelan
leader Hugo Chavez in hospital were released last month to quell fears that he had died.
He has met Mr Chavez three times since his surgery and also held a private meeting last week with
Bolivian president Evo Morales.
Fringe meetings
A handwritten statement published in state newspaper Granma last week revealed that Mr. Castro had lost
more than 18kgs (40lbs) during the illness but was now getting better.
"One can say that the most critical moment is behind us. Today, I am recovering at a satisfactory pace," he
An official schedule of the Non-Aligned Movement meeting released on Sunday said that Mr. Castro
would attend a welcoming dinner for visiting leaders at 2030 local time on Friday (0030 GMT).
But the foreign minister said that that was not certain, adding that if Fidel Castro could not attend, his
brother, acting president Raul Castro, would do so instead.
A statement earlier this week suggested that Mr. Castro would hold several small and private fringe
meetings with visiting leaders during the summit, although no details were given in Sunday's schedule.
Most observers believe that if he is healthy enough to appear in public in the next few days, he will.
Cuba is taking over chairmanship of the Non-Aligned Movement from Malaysia.
The grouping brings together leaders and dignitaries from 116 developing nations.
Among those attending the meeting are UN Secretary General Kofi Annan and Presidents Mahmoud
Ahmadinejad of Iran, Pervez Musharraf of Pakistan, and Bashar Assad of Syria, as well as Prime
Ministers Manmohan Singh of India and Thaksin Shinawatra of Thailand.

32. Cuba Says Castro Appearance Uncertain
Publication: Associated Press                                                                09/10/2006
By Anita Snow
HAVANA (AP) - Cuba's foreign minister said Sunday it was not certain that Fidel Castro will host a
dinner for visiting leaders as noted in a schedule, raising doubts over whether the ailing leader would
make his first public appearance since undergoing surgery.
A dinner hosted by Castro for dignitaries attending this week's Nonaligned Movement summit was
mentioned in a schedule sent Sunday by the government to international media.
But Foreign Minister Felipe Perez Roque said he could not confirm the leader's participation in the Friday
event. "Fidel is recovering satisfactorily, the worst has been left behind," Perez Roque said at a news
"I cannot yet confirm his presence at the dinner," Perez Roque said. "I can confirm that the head of the
Cuban delegation at that moment will be offering those dignitaries that dinner."
The 80-year-old leader announced July 31 he had undergone emergency surgery for an undisclosed
intestinal ailment and provisionally handed over power as Cuba's president and Communist Party head to
his younger brother, 75-year-old Defense Minister Raul Castro.

"If Fidel is not there, then Raul will act as host at the dinner," Perez Roque said.
"Logically, the physical absence of Fidel in all of the summit work constitutes a notable loss," Perez
Roque said. "All of us would like him to head the delegation and be there all the time. If that does not
occur, we have made great preparations under his personal direction."
After the news conference, a difference version of the Nonaligned schedule was sent to international
journalists permanently accredited in Cuba, with a note saying it was the "valid" version. Although the
Friday night dinner was still listed, any mention of Castro hosting it had been removed.
Dozens of heads of state and government are expected for the summit starting Monday in Havana, during
which Malaysia will turn over the chairmanship of the movement to Cuba for the next three years.
The nature of Castro's surgery and his specific ailment have been treated as a state secret, although
photographs and statements from him have been released.
Earlier in the week, Castro said in a statement published in state media he would be able to meet with
some visiting dignitaries, but gave the sense that those meetings would be small and private.
Since falling ill in late July, Castro has met privately three times with his good friend and key political ally
Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, and met privately last week with Bolivian President Evo Morales.
Photographs of Castro in his sickbed, then later sitting up in a chair in his pajamas, taken during two of
Chavez's visits were published in state newspapers in an apparent effort to assure Cubans that the man
who has ruled Cuba for 47 years was getting better.
Early Sunday, Cuba's International Press Center sent the meeting schedule by e-mail to international news
organizations based in Havana that are covering the event. The schedule for Friday read: "20:30 hours:
Official welcome dinner offered by his Excellency Mr. Fidel Castro Ruz. ..."
International Press Center officials later said that version of the schedule was sent in error.
It was not immediately clear from the summit schedule if Castro would be involved in any of the work
U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan also is scheduled to attend, along with the leaders of Iran, Pakistan,
Syria, India and Thailand.
Representatives are coming from most of the 116 nonaligned nations in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and
Latin America. The only member that declined was Comoros Islands, which cited financial reasons.


33. Journal Reconsiders Article About Haiti Rights Abuse
Publication: Miami Herald                                                                        09/09/2006
The British medical journal The Lancet is investigating an alleged conflict of interest by an author of a
report that claims 8,000 people were slain under Haiti's interim government.
A critic of the study accused one of the report's authors of being a supporter of former President Jean-
Bertrand Aristide, whose ouster following a violent uprising led to the installation of the U.S.-backed
interim government that ran the country from 2004 to 2006.
Astrid James, a deputy editor of The Lancet, said Thursday that the journal is investigating the allegations
''as quickly as we can'' but still stands by the report, carried in the current issue, which also said up to
35,000 women were sexually abused while the interim government ruled.
''We're obviously concerned by what we've heard and we're conducting our investigation, and we have
asked for more information from the authors,'' James said from the journal's London headquarters.
Author's Defense
The journal began its inquiry after learning that Athena Kolbe, one of two U.S. authors of the report, had

volunteered in 1995 at an orphanage founded by Aristide and has written in various publications in
support of Aristide.
Kolbe, whose full name is Athena Lyn Duff-Kolbe, is a researcher at Wayne State University in Detroit.
She denied any conflict.
''There is no bias whatsoever,'' she said. ``We did absolutely nothing wrong.''
The report blamed half the killings and rapes on criminals, but said Haitian police and anti-Aristide gangs
were also involved and that U.N. troops had threatened civilians. The study indicated that no killings and
few rights abuses were committed by supporters of Aristide's Fanmi Lavalas party -- despite claims to the
contrary by international and local human rights groups.
Kolbe said the report is not suggesting that Lavalas supporters didn't commit killings.
''We know Lavalas supporters and U.N. troops committed killings, but their numbers were not broad
enough to be detected in the study,'' she said.
Survey Method
The report used a random sample method to question 5,720 Haitians in Port-au-Prince about their
experience after Aristide's ouster.
Kolbe said she got to know Aristide when she volunteered 12 years ago at an orphanage and has ''very
warm feelings'' for the former president.
''That does not by any means mean that I'm a Lavalas supporter,'' she said.
The researcher said she didn't disclose her ties to Aristide with The Lancet, saying ``I didn't see it as


34. Peru Attorney General Asks 6 Years Prison For Fujimori Brother
Publication: EFE                                                                            09/10/2006
Lima, Sep 9 (EFE).- A Peruvian prosecutor has requested a six-year prison sentence for Santiago
Fujimori, brother of ex-President Alberto Fujimori (1990-2000), for his supposedly irregular role in the
purchase of the presidential airplane, officials told EFE Saturday.
Anti-corruption prosecutor Mateo Castañeda formalized charges Friday against Fujimori's younger brother
for crimes of usurping functions and criminal conspiracy in the acquisition made during the past decade.
At the same time he sought before the Fifth Anti-Corruption Court that the current legislator belonging to
Fujimori's Alliance for the Future (AF) party pay the state a million nuevos soles (some $307,000) for
civil damages.
According to the Attorney General's Office, Santiago Fujimori intervened in the deal to acquire the $27-
million Boeing aircraft without being a public servant and with no authorization that would allow him to
act on behalf of the Peruvian government in such an undertaking.
Santiago Fujimori, an attorney by profession, was an advisor to his brother from the time the latter became
president until he stepped down in 1996 due to supposed "intrigues" on the part of his top advisor,
Vladimiro Montesinos. After five years of self-imposed exile in Japan, where he fled amid a
mushrooming corruption scandal involving Montesinos, Alberto Fujimori arrived by surprise in Chile on
Nov. 6, 2005.
He was arrested the next day and held in custody while Peruvian authorities prepared a formal extradition
request based on 10 counts of corruption and two of human rights violations.
Since his May 18 release on bail, Fujimori has been living in a rented mansion - which he has seldom left
- in a residential sector of Santiago while awaiting the result of the extradition process.


35. Chavez To Push For "Single Party," Unlimited Reelection
Publication: EFE                                                                                09/10/2006
Caracas, Sep 10 (EFE).- Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez announced on the weekend that he will push
to unite the political forces in the governing coalition into a "single party" starting in 2007, when he
intends to begin a new 6-year term after being reelected this December.
During a four-hour political rally on downtown Bolivar Ave. in this capital on Saturday, Chavez also
insisted that during the "new phase of the revolution" which will begin next year if he is victorious at the
polls, "the Constitution (must be) reformed" to allow for repeated - and even permanent - presidential
At the ceremony, Chavez swore in thousands of his supporters as members of the so-called election
"battalions and squads" that will be deployed to promote his reelection and will help man the polling
places on Dec. 3.
According to all recent voter surveys, Chavez enjoys the support of between 48 and 70 percent of the
electorate, with his most important opposition rival - Zulia state Gov. Manuel Rosales - struggling along
far behind with between 11 and 25 percent.
"In 2007, and as part of the new phase of the revolution, we will build a single party ... which will do
away with the (political) diffusion. Each day more parties are born and that goes against the revolution:
diffusion is the source of divisions in the future.
Unity, unity!" Chavez said.
Some two dozen parties and political groupings support Chavez as a candidate in the upcoming election,
according to the National Election Council, or CNE.
Chavez also repeated that it is time for the 1999 Bolivarian Constitution prevailing in Venezuela to be
subjected to "a review" with an eye toward making "some changes," among them establishing the
possibility of repeated and unlimited presidential reelection.
"I believe the Bolivarian Constitution will have to be reformed in some areas, and that the right of the
people to reelect four, five, six times whoever they want to lead the republic mustn't be taken away. It's the
people who must make that decision," he said.
On Sept. 1, Chavez announced that if he is reelected to serve another term between 2007-2013, he will
call "a referendum in 2010" to ask the people "if they agree for me to continue being president ... (and) to
reelect me again for the next term." "If the majority say no, then I'll go, but if they say yes, the
Constitution would have to be modified to allow permanent reelection. It will be the people who say," he
The 1999 Constitution established the possibility of holding consultative and revocation referendums, and
also Chavez's immediate reelection as well as one additional reelection.
In August 2004, Chavez triumphed in an unprecedented revocation referendum called after a massive
opposition signature drive. Then, his tenure in office was confirmed with almost 60 percent of the ballots
In his lengthy speech on Saturday, Chavez insisted that the opposition presidential hopefuls are "the
candidates of the U.S.
empire," which he said "is the real opponent" to beat in the election.
In swearing in the members of 11,358 batallions and 44,698 squads, Chavez demanded that they work
hard and warned them that they must not fail to turn "what has already been written" into reality, namely
that "the Bolivarian Revolution has arrived to remain forever."

36. Venezuelan VP: Rosales Preparing To Withdraw From Race
Publication: EFE                                                                             09/10/2006
Caracas, Sep 9 (EFE).- Venezuelan Vice President Jose Vicente Rangel said Saturday that the "false"
accusations against the government by opposition presidential candidate Manuel Rosales are part of a plan
to withdraw from the Dec. 3 elections.
Rangel said that in "falsely accusing" Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez - who is running for re-election
for a second time - of plotting "ambushes" against him, Rosales was "laying the groundwork for
withdrawing" from the electoral contest.
"What's occurring is suspicious; I think there's an alternative plan amid the electoral process. (The
opposition is) laying the foundation for eventually withdrawing," Rangel said.
Rangel made his remarks to reporters Saturday in Caracas during one of three rallies of Chavez
supporters, who began converging on the capital's downtown Bolivar avenue from different parts of the
They arrived there to be sworn in by Chavez himself as members of the so-called electoral "squads and
battalions" that will promote his bid for re-election and serve as members and witnesses at voting
Rosales, the main opposition candidate, accused Chavez on Thursday of ordering "ambushes" against him
during campaign stops in poor neighborhoods and warned that if he were killed "the people will take to
the streets and bring down this government." The candidate, the governor of the oil-rich western state of
Zulia, made the allegations after rocks and bottles were thrown - and even gunshots fired - during his
campaign appearances in poor Caracas neighborhoods on Tuesday and Thursday.
Chavez has said that the opposition has several plans to detract from what would appear to be his
comfortable victory in the December balloting, one them to withdraw before election day.
While Chavez's supporters rallied in Caracas, Rosales attended a Mass in the town of Guanare, in the
central-western state of Portuguesa, where he was met by supporters and representatives of the
Archdiocese of Maracaibo, the capital of Zulia, local media said.
On Saturday, Rosales - the lone candidate of a key sector of the opposition composed of 42 parties - is
scheduled to attend a rally in the Andean state of Tachira in far-western Venezuela.
On Dec. 3, some 16 million Venezuelans will go to the polls to elect their president for the 2007-2013
The most recent voter-preference surveys show Chavez - a fiery leftist-populist who first took office in
1999 and is despised by many members of Venezuela's middle and upper classes - with between 48
percent and 70 percent of voter support, well ahead of Rosales, who registers at anywhere from 11 percent
to 25 percent in the various surveys.
One problem is that Rosales does not even have the backing of the entire Venezuelan opposition.
Leaders of Accion Democratica, one of the two big parties that dominated Venezuelan politics for decades
prior to the advent of Chavez, are calling for a boycott of the December election.
Meanwhile, four other anti-Chavez aspirants remain in the race, including entrepreneur Roberto Smith
and raunchy comedian Benjamin Rausseo.

37. Venezuela Blames U.S. For Closing Its Military Acquisitions Office
Publication: People’s Daily News                                                        09/09/2006
Venezuela on Thursday reacted angrily to America's decision to shut down its U.S.-based outpost for
buying military equipment, branding it an example of Washington's "aggressive policy" against Caracas.
The U.S. State Department sent a letter to the Venezuelan Embassy in Washington on Tuesday,
demanding Venezuela shut its military procurement office in Miami by Oct. 1.

In return, Venezuela demanded the United States to honor its military contracts with Venezuela and
supply the military equipment for which Venezuela paid before Aug. 17, or return the money to
"It is by all indications a new act of hostility aimed at implementing a kind of military blockade, which
our country very firmly rejects," the Venezuelan Foreign Ministry said in a statement.
Venezuela "will adopt responsibly, with no hesitation, necessary measures" to safeguard its sovereign
interests, said the ministry.
Washington has been blaming Venezuela for not fully cooperating with U.S. anti-terror efforts,
threatening to stop arms supply to the South American nation.
Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, a constant critic of Washington, said earlier that socialism could
unite Latin America against U.S. influence.
Venezuela signed contracts recently to buy 3 billion U.S. dollars of combat aircraft, helicopters and rifles
from Russia.
Source: Xinhua

38. Venezuelan Candidates Focus Attention On Country's Poorest
Publication: EFE                                                                             09/09/2006
Caracas, Sep 8 (EFE).- Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez and the man who represents the main obstacle
to his bid for re-election in December, Manuel Rosales, both sought Friday to appeal to the poorest sectors
of society.
One day after accusing Chavez of ordering "ambushes" against him in poor neighborhoods and warning
him that if they killed him "the people will take to the streets and bring down this government," Rosales
on Friday toured Caracas' poor far-eastern district of Petare, this time without incident.
On Thursday, during a campaign appearance in the far-western part of the capital, Rosales said he had
been the victim of what he called "an ambush" laid by "an armed government group ... that even
(included) government officials." Interior Minister Jesse Chacon, however, denied Rosales' accusation and
called his remarks "irresponsible." Rosales refused to go into further details Friday about the incident,
saying only that "the government knows what I said and why I said it." The candidate instead reiterated in
Petare that, if elected on Dec. 3, he would distribute one-fifth of the nation's income from oil exports
among the poorest Venezuelans.
That pledge represents Rosales' flagship promise in his attempt to win over the low-income sectors of the
population that are Chavez's main base of support.
Venezuela is the world's fifth-leading oil exporter and a key supplier to the United States. Chavez, a fiery
left-wing populist, has put a significant chunk of the nation's petroleum revenue into high-profile social
"Despite the coup plotters, we've lowered poverty by 50 percent, from 20 to 10 percent" of the nation's
population, Chavez said in a speech broadcast on state television in which he noted that those results have
been achieved since he first became president in 1999.
He also noted that several thousand Venezuelan young people were studying medicine in Cuba and will
replace the 20,000 doctors and 10,000 health technicians that Havana sent to the Andean nation to serve in
the poorest neighborhoods. Venezuela is paying for the Cuban health services with oil shipments under
the terms of a cooperation agreement signed in 2000.
Also on Friday, a poll was released that confirmed that lowest-income Venezuelans have been the sector
that has benefited most economically under Chavez's government.
The Datanalisis market research firm noted, for example, that 60 percent of the money in circulation is
currently in the hands of the lower socioeconomic sectors and that since 1999 the least favored sectors

have been the middle- and upper classes who are solidly behind Rosales.
Separately, the opposition sector that calls for boycotting the vote in December and is led by the
Democratic Action (AD) and Popular Alliance (AP) parties urged Rosales to demand that the CNE
election board provide fair and transparent "electoral conditions." It has been "confirmed that (Rosales)
would be the standard-bearer in the fight for (fair) conditions and now we have a candidate, but we still
don't have electoral conditions," the AD's secretary-general, Henry Ramos Allup, said.
For his part, AP chairman Oswaldo Alvarez said it would be "no less than a farce" to go to the polls
because, in his judgment, the CNE is partial to Chavez.
"The free world is losing Venezuela and we're losing our country, we're losing freedom (and) our basic
rights to educate our children and to (have) freedom of expression and thought," Alvarez said.
Rosales, who in 2004 won a second term as governor of the oil-rich state of Zulia even after Chavez
blasted him as "a traitor" for supporting the short-lived April 2002 coup against the leftist government in
Caracas, has said that he will finish off what he called Chavez's bad government.
The 53-year-old social democrat was proclaimed last month as the presidential candidate of a significant
chunk of Venezuela's battered opposition.
He was endorsed by a dozen of those who were seeking to be the designated opposition standard-bearer in
December's contest, when Chavez, 52, will be seeking a mandate to remain in power through 2013.
The former army paratrooper, who led a failed putsch in 1992, was first elected in late 1998 and then re-
elected in the 2000 general elections that followed the adoption of his "Bolivarian" Constitution.
Chavez has predicted that he will win re-election with the votes of at least 10 million of the nearly 16
million Venezuelans eligible to cast ballots on Dec. 3.
The most recent polls show Chavez with between 48 percent and 70 percent of voter support, well ahead
of Rosales, who registers at anywhere from 11 percent to 25 percent in the various surveys.


39. A Decade Of Discourse On The Hemisphere
Publication: Miami Herald                                                                  09/10/2006
By Jesus Diaz, Miami Herald publisher
This month, we will celebrate a milestone -- the 10th anniversary of The Miami Herald's Americas
Conference. Once again this year, business, government and academic leaders will come together to
discuss the key issues and ideas affecting political and economic relationships among Latin America, the
United States and the Caribbean.
Over the course of a decade, The Americas Conference has become the embodiment of Miami's unique
relationship with the hemisphere: a gateway and meeting place where diverse views are welcome and
discussion is always open -- and often, quite spirited.
This year will be no exception. The Americas Conference will be thoughtful, provocative and
comprehensive -- as you would expect from the region's preeminent gathering of business, government
and academic leaders. Leading the roster of distinguished guests this year are U.S. Secretary of Commerce
Carlos M. Gutierrez, Nicaraguan Minister of Foreign Relations Norman Caldera and Assistant Secretary
of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs Thomas A. Shannon Jr. We are also fortunate to have Manlio
Fabio Beltrones, president of the Mexican Congress; U.S. Army Gen. John Craddock, commander of the
United States Southern Command; former Peruvian Prime Minister Pedro-Pablo Kuczynski and many
other distinguished speakers and guests.
Topics to be discussed this year include economic growth in Argentina, a CEO survey of the business
climate in Latin America and the growing influence of India in the region.

I look forward to seeing you at this year's conference, which will take place Sept. 14-15 at the Biltmore
Hotel. You also will find complete coverage of conference proceedings in the pages of The Miami Herald
and El Nuevo Herald and online at and
As South Florida's leading news and information source, The Miami Herald is proud to present the 10th
annual Americas Conference, and proud of our conference's decadelong tradition as a vibrant forum for
the critical issues that unite us throughout the Americas.

40. U.S. Diplomat For Americas Has Own Style
Publication: Miami Herald                                                                      09/10/2006
By Pablo Bachelet
WASHINGTON - He brings an unassuming, scholarly demeanor to his foreign policy dealings.
Thomas Shannon, a featured speaker at The Miami Herald's Americas Conference, took over as the top
U.S. diplomat for Latin America and the Caribbean last October after serving for three years as senior
director for the Western Hemisphere at the National Security Council. At the NSC, he gained the trust of
his boss, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice.
The assistant secretary of state for the Western Hemisphere offers a contrast to his more outspoken
predecessors, Otto Reich and Roger Noriega, who often ruffled feathers by using blunt terms on issues
that ranged from the ouster of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide in Haiti to Venezuelan President Hugo
Chávez's belligerent stance against Washington.
Shannon, a 22-year diplomat, is no foreign policy dove, State Department insiders say.
What's different is his style.
''He phrases arguments differently,'' one official said, speaking on condition of anonymity because he was
not authorized to speak to the media. ``He's perceived as being less confrontational.''
At his Senate confirmation hearing last year, he vowed to engage in a ''battle of ideas'' with Chávez.
Shannon traveled to La Paz to attend the Jan. 22 swearing-in ceremony of Bolivian President Evo
Morales, who regularly attacked President Bush as an imperialist and befriended Chávez and Cuban
leader Fidel Castro.
The day before, Shannon walked up three flights of stairs to Morales' modest apartment. The two
discussed bilateral relations at the kitchen table for nearly an hour. Shannon made enough of a positive
impression on Morales that the two sides have maintained a dialogue ever since.
With an Oxford University doctorate, Shannon sees things in ''big picture trend'' ways, one State
Department acquaintance says.
In May, he told the annual conference of the Council of the Americas -- a group that promotes U.S.-Latin
American links -- that the region's rising populism was a ''natural phenomenon in a democracy,'' although
it differed from its more ''nationalistic'' variety of earlier times.
''Populism of today,'' he said, ``carries with it a degree of social resentment that is worrisome.''
Before his stint at the NSC, Shannon held a number of top State Department posts, including heading the
department's Andean affairs division and serving in embassies in Caracas and Brasilia. His wife is
Guatemalan. They have two sons.

41. India Turns Eyes To Latin America
Indian investors turn eyes to region
Publication: Miami Herald                                                              09/10/2006
By Nancy San Martin
Copper ventures in Bolivia. Telecommunication partnerships in Brazil. Construction endeavors in
Trinidad and Tobago. Even oil exploration investments off the coast of Cuba.

These are just a few of the financial projects funded with Indian capital as part of a new and expanding
trend across Latin America and the Caribbean. India, it seems, is gaining momentum with trade,
competitiveness and foreign investments in the Americas, creating a name for itself among some experts
as ``the next China.''
''India is a growing power investing in areas in which it can obviously reap returns,'' said Anthony Bryan, a
senior associate of the Americas Program at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, based in
''India is utilizing its overseas constituencies to establish itself in retail and financial areas,'' he said. ``It's a
big player in the region, as much as China intends to be.''
India has long had business ties with Trinidad, for example, where people of African and Indian descent
make up most of the population. But the infusion of Indian capital elsewhere in the Americas began in
earnest within the past five years, experts said.
Exports from India to Latin America stretch from Argentina to Uruguay and include auto parts, drugs,
textiles and machinery.
The trade expansion is the result of India's relaxation of rules for foreign investment, an increasing interest
in raw materials, a lucrative information-technology industry and a vibrant economy. India is now the
world's fourth-largest economy, with an estimated growth rate of about 7.5 percent a year.
''India now boasts highly competitive private companies, a booming stock market and a modern, well-
disciplined financial sector,'' according to a recent analysis published by the Council on Foreign Relations,
a think tank with offices in Washington and New York.
''And since 1991 especially, the Indian state has been gradually moving out of the way -- not graciously,
but kicked and dragged into implementing economic reforms,'' the analysis stated. ``It has lowered trade
barriers and tax rates, broken state monopolies, unshackled industry, encouraged competition and opened
up to the rest of the world. The pace has been slow, but the reforms are starting to add up.''
In Brazil, joint ventures include healthcare, information technology services and auto parts. Plans also are
underway to tap the growing market for alternative fuels. Mexico has joined forces with Indian
pharmaceutical companies. Argentina has signed agricultural agreements. And Venezuela's state oil giant,
PDVSA, reportedly has agreed to deliver crude oil to India as part of a policy to diversify its oil trade.
''India is focusing on the technology of the future,'' said Maria Velez de Berliner, president of Latin Trade
Solutions, an international business development and consulting firm in Alexandria, Va.
Velez said savvy Indian investors used to working around corruption, political instability and bureaucracy
have used their expertise to make inroads in the Americas, where many of the same problems exist.
''Whereas the United States is concerned with instability in Latin America, India and China see the region
as familiar territory,'' Velez said. ``They are dealing with Latin America as is, not trying to change it.''
She points to a new $2.3 billion investment by an Indian firm for a copper smelter in Bolivia as evidence
of the growing trend.
''I believe that the most significant investment by India in Latin America is this $2.3 billion initial
investment at a time when nobody wants to invest in Bolivia,'' Velez said. ``They are going to create close
to 1,000 direct jobs and about 16,000 indirect jobs. It's the largest investment in the Andean region.''
In the Caribbean, India has the most investments in Trinidad.
Projects include steel, construction and retail investments. Last October, in what was dubbed as Trinidad's
largest single foreign investment, Indian conglomerate Essar unveiled plans for a $1.2 billion steel
complex at Point Lisas, on the west coast of central Trinidad.
When fully commissioned, scheduled for 2010, the project is expected to have an annual turnover of $800
million and provide direct employment for 1,400 people and indirect employment for more than 6,000.
Perhaps the riskiest of business ventures involves oil exploration in Cuba.

India has purchased 30 percent interest in the share of blocks held by Spain's Repsol-YPF energy company
for oil exploration off the coast of Cuba.
''We are hopeful we will find oil,'' Rao Inderjit Singh, a former junior foreign minister, told reporters at the
end of a visit to Havana last year.
Cuba has been identified as having potentially oil-rich Gulf of Mexico waters off the island's northwest
coast. The government opened to foreign exploration in the 1990s. During the first deep-water well drilled
in Cuba in 2004, Repsol reported the discovery of noncommercial quantities of good quality oil.
''India saw something in the data that was worth the risk,'' said Jorge Piñon, an oil expert at the University
of Miami. ``Clearly, they saw an economic opportunity.''

42. Caribbean Shifts Toward High-end Tourism
Islands seek quality over quantity
Publication: Miami Herald                                                                     09/10/2006
By Jacqueline Charles
From the pearly white beaches of Anguilla to the backwaters of the Bahamas, a tourism shift is taking
shape in the Caribbean.
The weary can still book mega hotels and big, luxurious, self-contained resorts, but now they can also own
a piece of paradise. An increasing number of Caribbean destinations are offering visitors small,
personalized stays in the form of villas, condos and boutique hotels.
'Visitors are saying, `We've been to the large hotel; we want that intimate, personalized service in a nice,
small, environment,' '' Berthia Parle, former president of the Caribbean Hotel Association, said in a
telephone interview from her 72-room hotel in St. Lucia.
As a result of travelers' needs for something new and different, an increasing number of islands are opting
for quality over quantity, marketing themselves to more discerning visitors.
To lure them -- and distinguish themselves beyond sun and surf -- islands and hoteliers are giving visitors
what they want by offering timeshare units, villas, penthouses and traditional hotel rooms as part of
mixed-used developments.
''This seems to be big, big business,'' Parle said about mixed-used developments. ``A lot of people want to
own their own villa.''
While the trend appears to be sweeping the region, it is especially noticeable in St. Lucia, the U.S. Virgin
Islands and the Turks and Caicos Islands, where the Ritz-Carlton is currently building an exclusive resort
community on West Caicos. Home to a 500-acre natural wildlife sanctuary, the 6,000-acre island is the
largest island in the Turks and Caicos chain and has been uninhabited for 100 years.
Along with its pink flamingoes, it will soon boast the 125-room Molasses Reef resort, along with million-
dollar single-family and custom homes, cottages, marina townhomes and villas -- all being built and
managed by the Ritz-Carlton.
Earlier this summer, the hotel chain successfully converted 48 of its hotel rooms to two-bedroom luxury
timeshare suites in St. Thomas as part of a $40 million rebirth ``to reflect the intimate charm of the resort.''
''Ritz-Carlton's strategy is to develop more boutique hotels in the region, such as Molasses Reef,'' said
Ezzat Coutry, senior vice president of the Ritz-Carlton Hotel Co. in charge of Florida, the Caribbean and
Latin America. Coutry said the West Caicos project is being marketed as ''bare foot elegance,'' with
ecotourism as a hallmark.
Turks and Caicos Premier Michael Misick said the Ritz-Carlton is just one of the brand luxury names
that's investing in the leisure destination, which has become a must-visit for celebrities.
''We have between $3 billion and $4 billion worth of projects coming in,'' he said, noting that a nearby cay
will also feature Tahiti-themed, over-the-water bungalows at a soon-to-be-built resort.

Unlike next-door neighbor the Bahamas, Turks and Caicos is small and cannot handle large volumes of
tourists, Misick said. Then again, it's not really interested in marketing itself as a mass tourist destination,
he said.
''We don't apologize about that,'' Misick said. ``We are not interested in quantity, we are interested in
quality. If you can't afford it, the Turks and Caicos is not for you. That may sound snobbish, but we've
made a strategic decision to pursue up-market tourism.''
It's not to say that there isn't anywhere left for those on a budget to enjoy a Caribbean vacation, even if
they can't afford a timeshare or a million-dollar penthouse. Jamaica, which is credited with being the
trailblazer in the boutique hotel business before moving toward mass tourism, is still building ''mega,
mega resorts,'' said Parle, the former hotel association president.
''We call it the Spanish invasion,'' she quipped, referring to the recent investment by several Spain-based
companies in the Jamaican hotel market.

43. Commodities Boom Spurs Latin American Trade
Commodities boom spurs trade
Publication: Miami Herald                                                                     09/10/2006
By Christina Hoag
These are rosy times for Latin America's commodity-producing powerhouses.
Demand is high for products such as oil, natural gas, gold, iron ore and copper, which is driving up prices
and boosting foreign reserves.
That's translating into expanding trade flows. Commerce between the United States and Latin America
increased 14 percent for the first half of 2006, to $259.5 billion, according to Latin Business Chronicle, a
website (www.latinbusinesschron that recently analyzed U.S. Census data on trade.
Besides increased sales of its own products to its big northern neighbor, Latin America is also buying
more goods from abroad.
Oil giant Venezuela, for instance, bought 35.9 percent more in U.S. products for the first six months of the
year, an increase of $1.1 billion, according to Latin Business Chronicle.
Colombian imports increased 20 percent for the first five months of the year over 2005.
The Andean nation, whose biggest trading partner is the United States, followed by Mexico and China,
bought more vehicles, auto parts and video recording products, according to government statistics.
The same scenario is occurring around the region, fueled by extra income from exports. And that, in turn,
is improving the fortunes of the local trading community. Depending on the markets they serve, some
South Florida importing-exporting firms are feeling the rising tide.
Latin America, for example, increased its imports of U.S. merchandise by 12.7 percent, to $156.8 billion,
for the first half of 2006, while its exports to the United States grew by 16.1 percent, to $102.7 million,
according to Latin Business Chronicle.
''Countries have more foreign currency, which allows them to import more goods,'' said Eric Farnsworth,
vice president of the Council of the Americas in Washington, D.C.
George Gutiérrez, manager of Smith Logistics International, a Miami freight forwarding and custom
brokerage firm, has noticed the uptick. He reports that shipments to Chile and Brazil are up about 10 to 15
percent this year.
''What has driven this is more ocean freight,'' said Gutiérrez, who typically sends industrial machinery and
equipment to Chile and computer routers to Brazil.
Seaboard Marine in Miami has seen steady growth in freight bound for and originating in the Andean
nations over the past year, said Bruce Brecheisen, vice president of the shipping line. ''In general, we've
increased the capacity of our existing sailings,'' he said.

Other companies say they've seen a slide. Miami's Hemisphere Cargo, which relies on Ecuador as its
principal freight forwarding client, has seen a 20 percent drop in trade this year.
''Computer goods are down. People are buying directly from China,'' said Felipe Proaño, the company
president. ``We're thinking of doing more in Panama to compensate.''
But economic observers note that commodity booms inevitably go bust -- and that's the perennial Achilles
heel of Latin America.
''The commodities boom is temporary,'' said Jerry Haar, management and international business professor
at Florida International University. ``When commodity prices come down, you'll have social and civil
With the notable exception of Chile, which has worked hard to diversify its economy away from reliance
on copper with industries such as salmon and fresh produce, many of Latin America's economies still
depend on one export sector.
Proaño, of Hemisphere Cargo, noted that commercial pacts between countries are part of the equation for
stimulating trade.
''Free-trade agreements would definitely increase trade,'' he said. ``Rules would be standardized and the
playing field leveled.''
Key to diversification is stimulating foreign investment in other sectors. But that won't happen until
governments undertake reforms in areas such as labor rules, transparency and the judiciary, Haar said.
Free trade is not enough on its own.
''Companies are looking for more than tariff rates,'' he said. ``Latin America has had two decades to get its
act together and has failed.''
But with the commodity boom now in its fourth consecutive year, it can be hard to turn governments'
attention to reforms that may be unpopular, since economies are growing without them.
The region's gross domestic product is expected to grow by a healthy 5 percent this year, with Venezuela
and Argentina seeing the biggest growth, according to the Economic Commission for Latin America and
the Caribbean.
''The short term looks pretty good. The mood is pretty upbeat, not only in terms of the business
community but in the broader community,'' Farnsworth said. ``The question is one of sustainability for the

44. G-20 Aims To Salvage Trade Talks Despite Impasse
Publication: Miami Herald                                                                     09/10/2006
By Michael Astor
RIO DE JANEIRO - Developing nations on Saturday called on rich countries to restart global trade talks,
saying their suspension not only threatened the Doha Round of talks but also the multilateral trading
system itself.
The Doha Round -- named after the Qatari capital where it was started in 2001 -- is aimed at slashing
trade barriers across the planet.
But the Doha talks stalled in July over the question of rich nations' subsidies for agriculture.
''Not only is the round threatened, but the multilateral trading system itself now faces a serious crisis,'' said
the statement issued by the emerging-market nations of the Group of 20. ``This is an unacceptable
situation for all developing countries.''
At the start of talks in Rio the trade representatives from nearly 30 nations seemed determined to plow
ahead, although neither side seemed prepared to give much ground in the dispute over agricultural
subsidies in wealthy, developed nations.
''The simple fact that we are meeting here demonstrates our engagement with the negotiations,'' Brazil's

Foreign Minister Celso Amorim said in his opening remarks.
The meeting is the first of its kind since World Trade Organization discussions stalled.
Analysts said the presence of U.S. Trade Representative Susan Schwab, EU Trade Commissioner Peter
Mandelson, WTO chief Pascal Lamy and Japanese Agriculture Minister Shoichi Nakagawa, who will
meet with G-20 members today, was a positive sign but that gaps between the two groups would be
difficult to bridge.
''With U.S. congressional elections looming on Nov. 7 and the declining political appeal of free trade, an
immediate resumption is unrealistic,'' said Philippe de Pontet, an analyst with the Eurasia Group
consulting firm.
''More plausible would be a return to the negotiating table in November or early December. With all of the
key trade ministers present at Rio, a declaration to that effect may well emerge, especially since Brazil, the
host, backs the idea,'' he added.
But the G-20 statement made clear developing nations were unlikely to back off their key demands.
''Most of the world's poor make their living out of agriculture. Their livelihood and standards of living are
seriously jeopardized by subsidies and market access barriers prevailing in international agricultural
trade,'' the statement said.
Powerful farm lobbies in the United States, Europe and Japan strongly oppose an end to subsidies, which
they fear will leave them unable to compete with the flood of cheap imports.
Analysts said the Bush administration could roll out a fresh approach after the November elections.

45. G-20 Says It Is United, Ready For Negotiations With Rich Nations
Publication: EFE                                                                             09/10/2006
Rio de Janeiro, Sep 9 (EFE).- The Group of 20, or G-20, composed of 23 developing nations promoting a
new world economic order, said Saturday that it can meet the world's richest countries with the united
front necessary to fight for fair trade.
In the first two days of deliberations in Rio de Janeiro, delegates from the group of countries from three
continents led by Brazil and India agreed to stay united "in defense of our wider interests," Brazilian
Foreign Minister Celso Amorim said at a joint press conference of 17 ministers.
Some ministers repeated their proposal that the so-called Doha Round of the World Trade Organization
(WTO) be called the "Development Round." They did not, however, explain the extent of this concept,
nor in what way the increase in trade between nations can aid the millions of poor people in the Third
World, nor how the timetable of negotiations with the World Trade Organization can be reactivated.
The Doha Round for global free trade was paralyzed indefinitely last July 23 in Geneva when it was found
impossible to reach an agreement of the European Union, the United States and the G-20 on agricultural
subsidies in rich countries, among other obstacles.
Chilean Foreign Minister Alejandro Foxley said his country is concerned about a possible failure to restart
talks since that would weaken every country's confidence in the WTO and in the multilateral system in
general, and would impose "the unilateralism of the most powerful, including in trade." "Failure is not a
hypothesis," Amorim said. "It was our unity that allowed us to get to where we are," he added, referring to
a statement released Saturday at the beginning of the debates confirming the group's willingness to "restart
the negotiations immediately" and work for the renewal of Doha Round talks.
Echoing Foxley's sentiments, Amorim said Saturday that not only trade agreements are at stake, but the
international economic order itself.
He said that while the group has internal differences, it has much in common and that "what is new is that
developing countries are now in the vanguard" of world trade talks.
India's Industry and Commerce Minister Kamal Nath said the G-20 has great credibility because it is made

up of countries with many different interests.
The Rio meeting is being held at a crucial moment, when the suspended negotiations of the Doha Round
have left "a feeling of frustration," he said.
Argentine Foreign Minister Jorge Taiana said that the group has proposed a working agenda to get more
"into the fine print" and that the statement approved Saturday shows "where we are, what are our
differences and where we have to go to be able to make progress." Taiana said the G-20 agreed Saturday
that the "only acceptable result" will be one which is in accord with the initial commitments of the Doha
In his first mission as foreign minister for Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, Nicolas Maduro said that
"such a diverse group made up of countries from three continents - America, Africa, and Asia - is a
mechanism for discussion and consultation for the multipolar world that is emerging." He said that "the G-
20 countries are beginning to grow closer and unite, and to find common answers" within the new
international economic order.
In that sense, he recalled that Chavez is keeping up an intense international agenda and has strengthened
ties with China, Iran, Russia and a number of other countries.
Trade ministers from the developing world met with World Trade Organization chief Pascal Lamy
Saturday afternoon, and were scheduled to meet with U.S. Trade Representative Susan Schwab, Japanese
Agriculture Minister Shoichi Nakagawa and EU Trade Commissioner Peter Mandelson on Sunday.
The G-20 attributes the stagnation of the Doha Round, so called because it was in that city in Qatar where
talks began in 2001, to the lack of flexibility of developed countries which refuse to stop paying subsidies
to its farmers and in that way make exports from the developing world uncompetitive.
For its part the United States and the European Union call on poorer countries to open their markets more
to industrial goods and services, and to provide guarantees of protection for intellectual property.

46. 'War' Against U.S. Finds No Ally In China
Publication: Miami Herald                                                                   09/09/2006
By William Ratliff
Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez's world tour landed him in China recently for the fourth time during
his presidency. One of his main objectives there was to try to draw China into his global ''guerrilla war''
against the United States. The former paratrooper was elected president in 1998 and, buttressed by
petrodollars, has proclaimed himself the anti-American revolutionary successor to his mentor, Cuba's
Fidel Castro.
Chávez, who arrived in China praising the Middle Kingdom as the world's alternative to American
capitalism, has long lauded Mao Zedong as a brilliant guerrilla strategist. Mao theorized about what
Chávez is trying to do: coordinate a series of unconventional attacks on the United States that will chip
away at the seemingly invincible enemy and prove it to be a ``paper tiger.''
Beijing warmly welcomed Chávez, and important oil, mining and telecommunications deals between
Venezuela and China are in the works. But China almost certainly will not leap into the vanguard of any
Chávez-led offensive against the United States. It has far too much to lose economically by seriously
confronting the Americans.
Seeking support
During the last month, Chávez has been roaming the world lining up what are, or he hopes will be, allies
in his guerrilla war against the U.S. He is promoting Venezuela's candidacy for a seat on the U.N. Security
Council -- which Beijing endorsed last week. In Russia, President Vladimir V. Putin sold him advanced
military arms and licensed factories for producing Kalashnikov assault rifles in Venezuela, over strong
U.S. objections. And in Iran, Chávez signed important oil-related accords.

Members of Congress and military commanders in Hawaii are concerned about Venezuela's growing links
with Russia and Iran, and also by Chávez's ties to China. Several months ago, while Chinese President Hu
Jintao was visiting Washington, D.C., the Pacific Command even conducted a war game in which
Venezuela joined Iran and China in a showdown with the United States.
But Chávez's visit to Beijing wasn't likely to be devoted to planning a military attack on the United States.
Instead, the focus was on expanding Chinese investments in Venezuelan oil. The always politically driven
Chávez is determined to undermine the U.S. influence in part by denying it access to his country's rich oil
reserves. But right now, the United States is also Venezuela's main oil market, so Chávez needs to find a
replacement buyer.
Chávez frequently says that in the future Venezuela will provide as much as 20 percent of China's total
oil-import needs. If total Chinese oil imports rise to 7 million barrels a day in a decade, as they might, this
would bring Venezuelan sales to China to 1.4 million barrels, about what Caracas currently sells to the
United States.
Many obstacles remain to Chávez's reaching his oil delivery goal, including insufficient production, a
shortage of tankers, lack of refineries and very long and inconvenient transportation routes.
The Chinese are investing in Venezuela, as many countries are, but Beijing appears to view Chávez as
both an opportunity and a danger. Importing oil from Venezuela will diversify China's foreign suppliers.
China also is concerned about a unipolar world dominated by the United States. To the extent that
Venezuela and its Latin American friends flourish, they will tend to dissipate U.S. power. That's good for
Destabilization risk
But to the degree that Chávez is successful in destabilizing the Americas, it will be more difficult for
China to enforce trade, investment and other agreements and to guarantee the safe and efficient delivery of
oil and other resources from producers in Latin America to China. Also, for China, nothing is more
important than a guaranteed supply of resources necessary for continuing domestic growth. So that would
be bad.
Chávez has tried often to draw China into his disputes with the United States, without much success.
Thus far, most Chinese activities in Venezuela have been largely what one might expect from a large,
rapidly modernizing nation seeking to overcome 150 years of failure and humiliation and planning to take
its place as a major ''stakeholder'' in the modern world.
But despite colorful grandstanding, Chávez's trip probably won't result in making significant headway.
William Ratliff is a fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution.

47. Latin America
Publication: Wall Street Journal                                                              09/09/2006
By José De Córdoba
When delegates from 116 countries gather for next week's Nonaligned Movement summit in Havana, the
question uppermost in their minds will be whether their ailing host, Fidel Castro, is making his final bow
on the world's stage.
For the past month, Mr. Castro, 80 years old, has been on the mend from surgery following intestinal
bleeding, having temporarily handed power to his younger brother Raul, Cuba's 75-year-old defense
minister. But there are precious few details about the health of Cuba's president-for-life, a matter that is
considered a state secret.
Some U.S. officials surmise that Mr. Castro is suffering from a fatal stomach cancer, although they won't
say so publicly. Earlier this week, Havana, which denies Mr. Castro has cancer, released a letter written by
Mr. Castro that said he had lost 41 pounds in 37 days but was now recuperating at a "satisfactory rhythm."

Mr. Castro has said he will receive dignitaries at the conference although there is no word on whether he
will actually attend. Cubans on both sides of the Florida Straits will be watching his appearance closely
for clues of his prognosis.
If the event does amount to Mr. Castro's unofficial farewell from the global stage, Venezuela's fiery
president, Hugo Chávez, stands ready to claim the title of heir apparent to his revolutionary mantle. He
will be a visible presence at the conference.
Analysts expect the fiercely anti-American Mr. Chávez to use the gathering to lobby votes to win a seat
for Venezuela in the 15-member United Nation's Security Council in elections scheduled for October. A
victory for Mr. Chávez, who backs Iran's bid to develop a nuclear program, would be a headache for the
U.S. Iran's leader, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, also plans to attend the conference.
To win a Security Council seat, Mr. Chávez has been traveling the globe and generously spreading oil
money to win allies. In turn, the U.S. has been exerting pressure behind the scenes to win support for its
candidate, Guatemala.
Next week marks the second time that Mr. Castro has played host to the Nonaligned Movement. It was
founded at the height of the Cold War in 1961 by Yugoslavia and other nations that wanted to create a
counterweight of countries not aligned with either the U.S or the Soviet Union. The organization, most of
whose members are developing nations in Asia, Latin America and Africa, has had a difficult time
maintaining relevancy since the Cold War ended, but that hasn't stopped delegates from going to a
conference every three years in some part of the globe.

48. Authorities Stemming The Tide Of Would-be Migrants
Authorities say they are stemming the tide of migrants trying to enter Puerto Rico
Publication: Miami Herald                                                                         09/09/2006
By Frances Robles
OVER THE MONA PASSAGE -- A C-19 plane soared overhead as a 110-foot cutter plodded through the
choppy waters below.
Scanning across the bright-blue waters of the Caribbean -- with a little help from their radar -- the U.S.
government pilots spot their prey: a flimsy 25-foot, singleengine boat loaded with would-be migrants.
Covered with tarp the hue of the sea, the boat was trying to dash its way across the 90-mile Mona Passage
from the Dominican Republic to Puerto Rico without encountering any Coast Guard cutters or fast boats,
helicopters or planes from the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) agency. With a CBP chopper
hovering overhead and the Coast Guard cutter's dinghy fast approaching, the boat -- known by its
Dominican slang ''yola'' -- became the 77th vessel interdicted in waters around Puerto Rico this year.
'If it's 3 a.m. and you see a boat heading a certain direction, it's like, `Let's see, a normal person isn't out at
three in the morning,' '' said Coast Guard Lt. Junior Grade Brian Schmidt. ``If you see something
suspicious, we go in and investigate.''
The yola's 11 occupants were added to a total of nearly 3,000 Puerto Rico-bound migrants turned back at
sea so far this fiscal year. Coast Guard figures show a decline in the number of migrants caught at sea,
even while the Border Patrol shows a slight increase in those caught on land.
The number of people stopped at sea around the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico dropped
dramatically this year, from 4,298 last fiscal year to 2,887 through August this year, with just a month left
in the fiscal year. The Coast Guard handled 96 interdictions in fiscal year 2005 and 76 by Aug. 24 this
As the Bush administration deploys National Guard troops to make rounds along the land border with
Mexico and celebrates a recent decrease in immigration there, the Department of Homeland Security has
stepped up efforts in the other back door to illegal entry to the United States: Puerto Rico.

While entry to the United States via the Mexican border remains the most popular, the U.S. Coast Guard
says it spotted about 10,000 migrants trying to make it to Puerto Rico last year -- and nearly 4,000 made it.
''It does represent a back door to illegal immigration, because once in Puerto Rico, you can fly anywhere
in the United States,'' said Steven Camarota, director of research for the Washington-based Center for
Immigration Studies. ``But it's clearly an area that doesn't get you as far. Once in Puerto Rico, there is a
higher standard of living, but it's not where most illegals want to go.''
Generally, Coast Guard cutters are alerted to migrant vessels by pilots flying CBP Air and Marine
division's aircraft. Once alerted, Coast Guard cutters and Border Protection fast boats intercept the vessel.
On Patrol
The Dominican men caught on the day The Miami Herald tagged along on the CBP patrol were taken
aboard the cutter Key Largo and returned home. Their boat was set ablaze as a danger to navigation, and
Schmidt went back to his task of manning the radar that helps hunt for tiny boats in an enormous sea.
The agents charged with stopping illegal immigration say they don't know whether increased security has
helped stem the tide of mostly Dominican migration, or if economic factors are at work. The Dominican
economy has rebounded this year, while Puerto Rico suffered a fiscal crisis that cost many jobs.
''As the job market improves there, there will be less of them inclined to come to Puerto Rico,'' said Coast
Guard Lt. John Fiorentine.
While the number of people intercepted at sea is down, the Border Patrol, which handles the migrants who
make it to shore, saw a slight increase in the number of undocumented immigrants caught already in
Puerto Rico. From Oct. 1, 2005 to the end of August this year, 1,398 people had been captured, compared
with 1,285 for the same period the year earlier. There was no explanation for the increase.
And while the number of Dominicans caught at sea may be falling, there is no question that the Mona
Passage is becoming a favorite for Cuban migration.
Cubans who first travel to the Dominican Republic by plane pay smugglers up to $4,000 to ferry them
halfway across the passage to Mona Island, a nature reserve. Once on the island, they qualify for U.S.
residency under the ''wet foot, dry foot'' policy.
Customs and Border Protection agent Waldy Vélez says the drop in Dominican interdictions and rise in
Cuban arrivals may be the result of simple economics; Dominicans pay just $1,500 for the trip while
Cubans can afford to pay more.
''A Dominican saves his whole life for $1,500,'' said Vélez, who does night patrols aboard a 39-foot
interceptor boat. ``A Cuban has a relative send him $10,000.''
So far this fiscal year, 701 Cubans have made landfall in Puerto Rico -- mostly on Mona -- compared with
184 in the same period just two years earlier. The 87 Cubans caught at sea this year were turned back to
the Dominican Republic.
''This is like a travel agency,'' said Air and Marine helicopter pilot Armando Martínez. 'The smuggler tells
them: `You get to Mona, and a chopper will come pick you up and take you to shore.' Pretty soon, the
Cubans are going to show up here knowing my name.''
’You're Free ...’
The handful of workers on Mona Island -- a few park rangers and a biologist -- have a collection of
abandoned yolas left on their pristine beaches. Some of them still have bullet holes in their motors,
courtesy of Coast Guard interdictions.
The migrants sometimes spend days without food and water on a desolate part of the 6.7-square-mile
'One guy got on his knees throwing Dominican pesos in the air screaming, `I'm free!' '' said park ranger
Elvin Sánchez. ``I told him, `You're free, but pick that up, because that's garbage, and this is a natural

``It sounds funny, but there were tears coming out of his eyes.''
Once the helicopters fly the migrants off Mona Island, the Cubans join Dominicans caught on the main
island of Puerto Rico at the Immigration and Customs Enforcement detention facility in Aguadilla, a 65-
bed minimum-security jail. The Cubans are set free after an Interpol check, and the Dominicans are
''You risk your life,'' said Francisco Alberto Rodríguez, a Dominican awaiting deportation there. ``You go
hungry and suffer tempests. You go through a lot of calamities on this voyage.''
Indeed: 158 people have died making the trip in the past three years.
Rodríguez paid $800 for a boat ride from Dominica to St. Thomas, where he worked for three years before
turning himself in to authorities because he missed his kids.
''It's not good to leave your nation without papers,'' he said. ``It's better to do it legally.''
Detainees said they've noticed stepped-up enforcement against illegal immigration throughout the U.S.
islands. Immigrants, they said, now stay indoors for days for fear of deportation.
''You come for a good life, but it seems they don't want that,'' said Roberto Blanco, a Dominican caught
working in St. Croix. ``What am I going to do? As soon as I get home on Saturday, I am going back.''

49. U.S. Paid 10 Journalists For Anti-Castro Reports
Publication: New York Times                                                               09/09/2006
By Abby Goodnough
MIAMI, Sept. 8 - The Bush administration's Office of Cuba Broadcasting paid 10 journalists here to
provide commentary on Radio and TV Martí, which transmit to Cuba government broadcasts critical of
Fidel Castro, a spokesman for the office said Friday.
The group included three journalists at El Nuevo Herald, the Spanish-language sister newspaper of The
Miami Herald, which fired them Thursday after learning of the relationship. Pablo Alfonso, who reports
on Cuba for El Nuevo Herald, received the largest payment, almost $175,000 since 2001.
Other journalists have been found to accept money from the Bush administration, including Armstrong
Williams, a commentator and talk-show host who received $240,000 to promote its education initiatives.
But while the Castro regime has long alleged that some Cuban-American reporters in Miami were paid by
the government, the revelation on Friday, reported in The Miami Herald, was the first evidence of that.
In addition to Mr. Alfonso, the journalists who received payment include Wilfredo Cancio Isla, who
writes for El Nuevo Herald and received about $15,000 since 2001; Olga Connor, a freelance reporter for
the newspaper who received about $71,000; and Juan Manuel Cao, a reporter for Channel 41 who got
$11,000 this year from TV Martí, according to The Miami Herald, which learned of the payments through
a Freedom of Information Request.
When Mr. Cao followed Mr. Castro to Argentina this summer and asked him why Cuba was not letting
one of its political dissidents leave, Mr. Castro called him a "mercenary" and asked who was paying him.
Mr. Cao refused to comment Friday except to say on Channel 41 that he believed the Cuban government
knew in advance about the article in The Miami Herald. Most of the other journalists could not be
reached. Ninoska Perez-Castellón, a commentator on the popular Radio Mambí station here, said she had
received a total of $1,550 from the government to do 10 episodes of a documentary-style show on TV
Martí called "Atrévete a Soñar," or "Dare to Dream," and saw nothing wrong with it. Her employer has
always known about the arrangement, she added.
"Being Cuban," Ms. Perez-Castellón said, "there's nothing wrong with working on programs that are on a
mission to inform the people of Cuba. It's no secret we do that. My face has always been on the shows."
But Al Tompkins, who teaches ethics at the Poynter Institute for Media Studies in St. Petersburg, called it
a conflict of interest for journalists to accept payment from any government agency.

"It's all about credibility and independence," Mr. Tompkins said. "If you consider yourself a journalist,
then it seems to me it's an obvious conflict of interest to take government dollars."
Lincoln Diaz-Balart, a Republican congressman and one of Miami's most stridently anti-Castro voices,
said he believed editors at El Nuevo Herald and The Miami Herald had known that the three writers for El
Nuevo had worked for the Office of Cuba Broadcasting. He pointed to articles from both papers in 2002
that describe Mr. Alfonso as a moderator for a program on Radio Martí and Ms. Connor as a paid
commentator for the station.
But Robert Beatty, vice president for public affairs at the Miami Herald Media Company, said the editor
of El Nuevo, Humberto Castello, learned only on Thursday. The Herald, long owned by Knight Ridder,
was acquired in March by the McClatchy Company.
Mr. Beatty said that Jesús Diaz, publisher of The Miami Herald and El Nuevo Herald, had decided to fire
Mr. Alfonso and Mr. Cancio and to sever ties with Ms. Connor, a freelance journalist who wrote about
Cuban culture.
"Journalism's ethical guidelines are neither subjective nor selectively enforced," Mr. Beatty said. "Where
conduct of this sort is brought to our attention, we act decisively."
Mr. Cancio said Friday evening that his supervisors had known and approved of his appearances on Radio
and TV Mambí, during which he said he always expressed his own opinions and not the government's.
"It is for these reasons that I deny any conflict of interest in my professional behavior," he said, "and I
believe my termination to be an unfair and disproportionate decision made in bad faith."
Pedro Roig, director of the Office of Cuba Broadcasting, could not be reached for comment. But he told
The Miami Herald that hiring Cuban-American journalists was part of a broader mission to improve the
stations' quality.
Joe O'Connell, a spokesman for the government's International Broadcasting Bureau, which oversees the
Office of Cuba Broadcasting as well as Voice of America and Radio Free Europe, said the bureau did
background checks on journalists who contributed to its programming but had no ethics code for them.
After Mr. Williams admitted in 2005 to accepting money from the Federal Education Department through
a public relations company, federal auditors said the Bush administration had violated the law by
disseminating "covert propaganda."
A few months later, The Los Angeles Times reported that the Pentagon had paid millions of dollars to
another public relations firm to plant propaganda in the Iraqi news media and pay friendly Iraqi journalists
monthly stipends.
Government spending on Radio and TV Martí - $37 million this year - has long been the subject of
criticism because the broadcasts appear to reach only a minute number of Cubans. The Cuban government
jams the signals. This year, the Bush administration spent $10 million on a new plane designed to transmit
TV Martí more effectively.


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