Introduction by HC120721181538

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									Guardrail and Access to Elevated Equipment

1.   Standard rails 8 CCR ' 3209. Wherever guardrail protection is required, the
     following standards shall be adhered to:

     a)    A standard guardrail shall consist of a top rail, mid-rail or equivalent
           protection and post should have a vertical height within the range of 42" to
           45" from the upper surface of the top rail to the floor, platform, runway, or
           ramp level.

     b)    The top rail shall be a smooth surface throughout the length of the railing.
           The mid-rail should be approximately half-way between the top rail and
           the floor, platform, runway, or ramp.

     c)    All guardrails, including their connections and anchorage, shall be
           designed for a light load of twenty pounds per linear foot applied either
           horizontally or vertically downward at the top rail. Railing members should
           be framed in such position that they will afford the greatest support and
           protection, for example, top rails of structural steel angle should have the
           outside face of vertical leg located on the side adjacent to the side of
           normal contact by the employee.

     d)    Other combinations will be accepted as long as equal strength and
           protection are maintained. The following are some acceptable guardrail
           specifications:

           i)     If constructed of standard metal pipe, the top rails and single mid-
                  rail, where permitted, to be 12 in. outside diameter or larger. The
                  post to be 12 in. outside diameter or larger, the spacing not to
                  exceed 8 ft.


           ii)    If constructed of structural metal, the top rails are to be angle iron
                  of at least 2x2x3 in. angles or other metal shapes of equivalent
                  bending strength; and a single mid-rail where permitted, to be iron
                  or steel of at least 2x2x3 in. angles or other metal shapes of
                  equivalent strength. The post to be angle iron of at least 2x2x3 in.
                  stock, the spacing not to exceed 8 ft. See Figure 4.




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                                                         Table of Risers and
                                                           Runs for Stairs
                                                        (Run + Riser = 17 ½)
                                                     Angle with   Riser in     Run in
                                                     Horizontal    Inches     Inches
                                                    22’ – 0’      5          12 ½
                                                    23’ – 14’     5¼         12 ¼
                                                    24’ – 38’     5½         12
                                                    26’ – 00’     5¾         11 ¾
                                                    27’ – 33’     6          11 ½
                                                    29’ – 03’     6¼         11 ¼
                                                    30’ – 35’     6½         11
                                                    32’ – 08’     6¾         10 ¾
                                                    33’ – 41’     7          10 ½
                                                    35’ – 16’     7¼         10 ¼
                                                    36’ – 52’     7½         10
                                                    38’ – 29’     7¾         9¾
                                                    40’ – 08’     8          9½
                                                    41’ – 44’     8¼         9¼
                                                    43’ – 22’     8½         9
                                                    45’ – 00’     8¾         8¾
                                                    46’ – 38’     9          8½
                                                    48’ – 16’     9¼         8¼
                                                    49’ – 54’     9½         8




                        Figure 4. Guardrails and ladder pitch.

2.   Toeboards: 8 CCR ' 3209(d). Where toeboards are required, they shall be
     constructed of concrete, metal, or other suitable material. Where constructed of
     metal grid mesh not to exceed 1 in. The top of toeboard should not be less than
     32 in. above the platform, walkway or other working level and the bottom
     clearance should not exceed 3 in.



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3.   Guardrails for elevated locations: 8 CCR ' 3210(a). Guardrails shall be provided
     on all open sides of landings, platforms, runways ramps, or working levels more
     than 30 in. above the floor, ground, or other working areas. Where clearance
     prohibits installation of a 42 in. guardrail, a lower rail or rails shall be installed.
     The railing shall be provided with a toeboard where the platform, runway, or
     ramp is 6 ft. or more above places where employees normally work or pass and
     the lack of toeboard could create a hazard from tools, material or equipment.

     Exceptions:

     a)     Runways used exclusively for oiling, adjusting or otherwise maintaining
            shafting or other machinery may have the guardrail adjacent to the
            machinery omitted provided that individual guarding requirements of
            power transmission equipment, prime movers, machine and machine
            parts is complied with.

     b)     Elevated locations used for entry or exit by employees if the employees
            are using them are protected by approved safety belts and lanyards
            securely anchored to a solid structure in a manner which will prevent a
            free fall exceeding 4 ft.. Note: An exception is allowed when access is
            infrequent and the employees are protected by an approved safety belt
            and lanyard anchored securely to prevent a free fall exceeding four feet.
            This is applicable to the ladders of a tower dryer. A sign or warning
            stenciled on the dryer is recommended stating: "Use only with safety belt".

4.   Floor opening protection: 8 CCR ' 3212(a). Every floor opening shall be
     guarded by a cover, a guardrail or equivalent on all open sides (except at
     entrance to stairway or ladder). The floor opening shall be constantly attended
     by someone or should be protected by guardrails. Attend or barricade temporary
     openings (to pits, etc.).

5.   Floor opening covers: 8 CCR ' 3212(c) Covers shall not project more than 1 in.
     above the floor level and all edges shall be chamfered to an angle with a
     horizontal over 30. All hinges, handles, bolts, or other parts shall fit flush with
     the floor or cover surroundings. Consider trap doors to press pits and machinery
     basements.

6.   Skylight screens: 8 CCR ' 3212(e). Skylight screens shall be of such
     construction and mounting to withstand a load of 200 pounds applied at any
     point on the screen. Where existing skylights are not screened and there is an
     need to approach within six feet, 1) approved fall protection shall be used
     securely anchored to a solid structure, or 2) temporary covers shall be used, or
     3) temporary railings, barricades, or cones warning of the hazard shall be used.
     Exception: When the work is of short duration with limited exposure (e.g.,
     inspection work), the provisions may be temporarily suspended provided there is
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      adequate risk control.

7.    Access to elevated machinery: 8 CCR ' 3270(b). Every permanent elevated
      location where there is machinery that is customarily operated or frequently
      repaired, serviced, adjusted, etc. shall be provided with a safe platform. Access
      shall be by means of fixed ladders or stairways. Frequent servicing includes
      daily lubrication or inspection. In addition to suction separators, inclined cleaners
      and other machinery inside the gin, consider outside elevated machinery such as
      mechanical conveyors for seed and trash.

8.    Second means of egress: 8 CCR ' 3228(h)(1). Elevated platforms over 10 ft.
      from the ground and pits over 30 in. below the ground, having over 200 sq. ft. of
      area and where the absence of a second exit would increase the risk of injury, at
      least two exits placed to provide alternate means of escape shall be provided.
      Catwalks over seed piles should be considered for a second ladder or stairs.

9.    Stair surfaces: 8 CCR ' 3231(d). All stairway treads shall be slip-resistant and
      surfaces shall be maintained clear and in good repair.

10.   Overhead clearance from floor: 8 CCR ' 3272(b). Six-feet eight-inch minimum
      clearance shall be provided from overhead obstructions in floor level aisles and
      walkways unless protected. Suitable protection includes any of the following or a
      combination: warning sign, contrasting paint, striping, or padding the obstruction.
       In no case shall the clear headroom be less than six feet. In cases under six
      feet, a permanent variance should be sought from the Standards Board.

11    Permanent aisles to be kept clear: 8 CCR ' 3272(c). Aisles, ladders, stairways
      and walkways shall be kept reasonably clear. This is a safe housekeeping
      requirement.

12.   Permanent floors and platforms to be kept clear: 8 CCR ' 3273(a). Permanent
      floors and platforms (work areas) shall be kept clear of obstructions and
      reasonably free of oil and grease. This is a safe housekeeping requirement.

13.   Overhead clearance from elevated platforms: 8 CCR § 3273(c). Six feet six inch
      minimum clearance to overhead obstructions from elevated working levels
      unless protected. Suitable protection includes any of the following or a
      combination: warning sign, contrasting paint, striping, or padding the obstruction.

14.   Catwalk width: 8 CCR § 3273(d). Catwalks shall not be less that 18 in. wide.

15.   Fixed ladders: 8 CCR § 3277(b). A fixed ladder is a ladder permanently attached
      to a structure, building, or equipment. Shop-made or home-made ladders must
      meet several specifications. See Figure 5.

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16.   Fixed ladder rungs: 8 CCR § 3277(d)(1). All rungs shall have a minimum
      diameter of 3/4 in. for metal and 1 1/8 in. for wood.




                                 Figure 5. Fixed ladder specifications.



17.   Rung spacing: 8 CCR ' 3277(d)(2). Rungs shall be uniformly spaced throughout
      the length of the ladder but the spacing shall not exceed 12 in.


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18.   Back clearance: 8 CCR ' 3277(f)(4). The distance from the rung to the nearest
      permanent object back of the ladder shall not be less than 7 in.

19.   Ladder cages: 8 CCR ' 3277(g)(2). Cages shall be provided on ladders of more
      than 20 ft.

20.   Landings: 8 CCR ' 3277(j)(1). Where ladders are used to ascent to heights
      exceeding 30 ft., landings shall be provided for each 30 ft. or fraction thereof.

21.   Ladder grab rail extensions: 8 CCR ' 3277(k). Side rails shall extend 32 ft.
      above the landing or level accessed.

22.   Defective portable wood ladders: 8 CCR ' 3278(e)(5). Inspect portable wood
      ladders frequently and those which have developed defects shall be withdrawn
      from service for repair or destruction and tagged: "Dangerous, Do Not Use".
      Particularly note ladders provided for access to modules or trailers.

23.   Unstable ladders: 8 CCR ' 3278(e) (11). Portable ladders shall not be placed
      on boxes, barrels, or other unstable bases (tractor hoods, machinery, scaffolds,
      etc.) to obtain additional height.

24.   Ladder use: 8 CCR § 3278(e)(16). A ladder shall not be used for other than its
      intended purpose. Do not use ladders as hangers for coats, rags, tools, etc.

25.   Portable ladder height: 8 CCR ' 3278(e)(19). No ladder shall be used to gain
      access to a roof or elevated location unless the top of the ladder extends at least
      three feet above the location to be accessed.

26.   Damaged portable metal ladders: 8 CCR ' 3279(d)(5). Ladders having defects
      shall be marked and taken out of service.

27.   Footing support for portable metal ladders: 8 CCR § 3279(d)(7). Also see:
      Securing portable ladders: 8 CCR § 1675(j). Portable ladders in use shall be
      tied, blocked, or otherwise secured to prevent their being displaced. The ladder
      base shall be placed with a secure footing. Safety shoes shall be installed on all
      portable ladders. Be particularly careful in placing long ladders on the gin's
      concrete floor. Otherwise good floor surfaces can become very slippery with
      pepper trash during the ginning season. Whenever possible, tie-off the ladder
      top to prevent slipping or have a helper hold the ladder base.

28.   Forklift platforms for elevating employees: 8 CCR ' 3657(a) When it is
      necessary to elevate employees using an industrial truck, the following shall be
      accomplished: 1) The platform shall be not less than 24 in. x 24 in., 2) The
      platform shall be secured to the forks or mast to prevent tipping, slipping or
      falling, 3) The platform shall be provided with guardrail and toeboard.
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29.   Forklift platform back guard: 8 CCR ' 3659(a). The side of the platform nearest
      the mast shall be guarded with 2 in. expanded metal in a substantial frame to a
      height of 7 ft. where there is exposure to moving parts of the mast frame truss of
      the lift truck.

30.   Safety belt use with forklift platform: 8 CCR ' 3657(b). Where a clearance
      restriction or the nature of the work prohibits the use of guardrails, a safety belt,
      or harness, with lanyard shall be used.

31.   Operator at controls of forklift: 8 CCR ' 3657(d). There shall be an operator in
      the control position on the truck while employees are on the elevated platform.

32.   Operating rules whenever elevating personnel: 8 CCR ' 3657(h). Before
      elevating personnel, employees shall be instructed to:
      a)     Use a securely attached safety platform
      b)     Make sure the lifting mechanism is operating smoothly.
      c)     Make sure that the mast is vertical. The mast shall not be tilted forward or
             rearward while persons are elevated.
      d)     Place truck in neutral and set parking brake.
      e)     Lift and lower smoothly and with caution.
      f)     Watch for overhead obstructions.
      g)     Keep hands and feet clear of controls other than those in use.
      h)     Never travel with personnel on the work platform other than to make minor
             movements for final positioning of the platform.

33.   Elevating work platform design placard: 8 CCR § 3638(b). (scissor lifts, self-
      propelled cherry pickers, etc.) Each elevating work platform shall have a legible
      plate verifying the machine was manufactured in accordance to specific national
      specifications and include the rated capacity, restrictions, operating instructions,
      a chart of operating capacities in various operating positions, etc.

34.   Scaffold outriggers: 8 CCR ' 1646(a). The minimum base dimension of a
      free-standing or rolling scaffold shall not be less than 1/3 the scaffold height
      unless it is guyed. Outriggers shall be used to satisfy the minimum base
      requirement.

35.   Rolling scaffold wheel locks: 8 CCR ' 1646(c). Wheels or casters shall be kept
      locked when workers are climbing or working on the scaffold.

36.   Body belt prohibition: 8 CCR ' 1670(b). Effective January 1, 1998, body belts
      shall not be used as a part of a personal fall arrest system. Note: Body belts are
      allowed after the stated date for personal fall restraint (where the employee is
      supported on an elevated surface with both hands free while leaning and the free
      fall distance is limited to two feet).
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37.   Fall arrest system material: 8 CCR ' 1670(b)(9). Ropes and straps used in
      lifelines, lanyards, body harnesses shall be made from synthetic fibers, except
      for when they are used in conjunction with hot-work where the lanyard may be
      exposed to damage from heat or flame.

38.   Free fall limit: 8 CCR ' 1670(b)(11)(C). A personal fall arrest system, when
      stopping a fall, shall be rigged such that an employee can neither free fall more
      than four feet nor contact any lower level.

39.   Used fall arrest systems and components: 8 CCR ' 1670(B)(14). Safety
      harnesses, lanyards and lifelines subjected to in-service loading shall
      immediately be removed from service and shall not be used again for employee
      fall arresting devices.

40.   Fall arrest system inspection: 8 CCR ' 1670(b)(20). Each personal fall arrest
      system shall be inspected not less that twice annually by a competent person in
      accordance with the manufacturer=s recommendations. The date of each
      inspection shall be documented.

41.   Positioning device system free fall limit: 8 CCR ' 1670(c)(1). A positioning
      device system (a body belt or body harness rigged to allow the employee to be
      supported on an elevated surface with both hands free while leaning), shall be
      rigged such that an employee cannot free fall more that two feet. With pre-
      planning and necessary anchorages, a body belt may be used as a positioning
      device, for example, in a lint slide.

42.   Locking snaphooks: 8 CCR ' 1670(c)(4). The use of non-locking snaphooks in
      fall arrest or positioning device systems shall be prohibited after January 1, 1998.

43.   Lanyard use and features: 8 CCR ' 1670(f). Lanyards shall be secured to a
      substantial member of a structure or to securely rigged lines, and have energy-
      absorbing devices or methods.

44.   Fall arrest equipment use: 9 CCR ' 1670(g). All fall arresting, descent control,
      and rescue equipment shall be approved and used in accordance with the
      manufacturer=s recommendations.

45.   Harness and belt labeling: 8 CCR ' 1670(l & m). All safety belt, harnesses, and
      lanyards purchased before February 1, 1997 shall be labeled as meeting ANSI
      A10.14-1975. All personal fall arrest, personal fall restraint, and positioning
      device systems purchased or placed in service after February 1, 1997 shall be
      labeled as meeting ANSI A10.14-1991.


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46.   Safety belt with aerial device: 8 CCR § 3648(o). While elevated in an aerial
      device (vehicle-mounted or self-propelled equipment), the employee shall be
      secured to the device’s boom or basket by means of a body belt or safety
      harness and lanyard. Employees elevated in “cherry pickers” or “scissor lifts”
      must wear and tie off with the body belt or harness and lanyard. Note: This is
      one of the only uses allowed of a body belt after January 1, 1998.




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