Googling by liwenting



Library Research in Context:
Communication Studies
Fall 2007

      Anatomy of a URL

• Type of file (http, ftp, telnet)

• Domain name (location on the Internet) and
  server (closest thing to a publisher)

• Path or directory on the computer to this file

• Name of file, and its file extension (usually ending
  in .html or .htm)
Searching on the Web - Agenda

   How search engines work
   What search engines can and
    cannot do
   Variety of search tools and
How Google Works—
Indexing/Locating Pages

   Pages are indexed by spiders (a.k.a.
    robots or “bots”)
   Spiders reads pages, report back,
    and then visit all other pages to
    which that new pages link
   Pages with no links are unlikely to be
   Each search engine has it’s own
    algorithms for retrieving results
How Google Works—
Searching Cached Pages
   When you search, you’re actually
    searching Google’s cache of Web pages.
   And because of this, you can search for
    more than text or phrases in the body of
    a Web page.
   Google has some secret, advanced search
    operators that let you search specific
    parts of Web pages or specific types of
Source: Google Hacks, p. 5
Linda J. Goff,
How Google Works—
Google looks at:
 Your words as a phrase (Xs)
 Your words as they appear adjacent to
  one another (Ys)
 The number of times your words appear
  within a page (Zs)


Source: Google Hacks, p. 21
Linda J. Goff,
How Google Works—
Part 2

Google also considers:
 About 100 other secret variables
 Throws out everything but the top 2,000
 Multiplies each remaining page’s
  individual score by its “PageRank”—how
  often others link to that page
 And, finally, displays the top 1,000 in
Googling Basics

   AND is the default operator
   Word order matters
   Capitalization does not matter
   “Stop words” are ignored (in, is, it,
    of, etc.)
Advanced Googling

   Search by field (site:, link:,
    filetype:,intitle:, etc.)
   Advanced search screen
   Other Googles (Scholar, Froogle,
    News, Book, language tools, etc.)
What Search Engines like Google
CANNOT do (yet)

   Search the Invisible Web
    (proprietary databases, sites that
    can’t be crawled)
   Provide evaluation of content
Other Search Engines

 (Teoma)
MetaSearch Engines


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