The Civil Rights Movement

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					The Civil Rights Movement
           Unit 6
   The Civil Rights Movement
• The Civil Rights Movement and the
  escalating war in Vietnam were the two
  great catalysts for social protest in the
   – Since the end of the Civil War many
     organizations had been created to
     promote the goals of racial justice and
     equality in America, but progress was
     painfully slow.
• It was not until the sixties that a hundred
  years of effort would begin to garner the
  attention necessary to force a modicum of
  How Was Equality Achieved??
• There was little consensus on how to
  promote equality on a national level
  – Groups such as the NAACP, CORE, and Dr.
    Martin Luther King's SCLC, endorsed peaceful
    methods and believed change could be affected
    by working around the established system
  – Other groups such as the Black Panthers, the
    Nation of Islam, and the Black Nationalist
    Movement advocated retaliatory violence and a
    separation of the races.
 Violent and Non-Violent Means
• There were numerous marches, rallies,
  strikes, riots, and violent confrontations with
  the police.
• National leaders such as Dr. Martin Luther
  King Jr. and Malcolm X would be
  assassinated, violence would claim the lives
  of young and old, and rigged all-white juries
  mocked justice in cases involving crimes
  perpetrated by whites against African
          Fighting for Equality
• Restaurants, hotels, night clubs, public facilities,
  and the school systems were still segregated
  during the early sixties, and educational and job
  opportunities for minorities were far below those
  available to the white majority.
• The African-American community, being in the
  minority, depended on the support of the white
  population, and at least in terms of sentiment,
  those caught up in the spirit of the hippie
  movement took the cause of racial justice and
  equality to heart, and often to the streets.
        Martin Luther King, Jr.
• Martin Luther King, Jr., was a civil rights leader
  and minister who worked for racial equality and
  civil rights in the United States of America.
   – He was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, GA.
• During the 1950's, Dr. King became active in the
  movement for civil rights and racial equality. He
  participated in the Montgomery, Alabama, bus
  boycott and many other peaceful demonstrations
  that protested the unfair treatment of African-
• He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964.
          Letter from a Birmingham Jail
• In the eleven-year period between 1957 and
  1968, King traveled over six million miles
  and spoke over twenty-five hundred times,
  appearing wherever there was injustice,
  protest, and action
• In these years, he led a massive protest in
  Birmingham, Alabama, that caught the
  attention of the entire world, providing
  what he called a coalition of conscience.
• He was jailed for protesting police actions
  in Birmingham, AL
• His "Letter from a Birmingham Jail",
  became a manifesto of the civil rights
         Kennedy on Civil Rights
• Persuaded Alabama judge to
  release King on bail, resulting in
  increasing African American vote
  in 1960 election
• Embarrassed by world’s response
  to Freedom Rides in 1961
• Proposed civil rights bill, but
  southern segregationists in
  Congress kept it from coming up
  for a vote
   – Speech 6-11-63
          LBJ and Civil Rights
• After being an outspoken
  critic of the civil rights
  movement during the 1950s,
  Lyndon B. Johnson
  championed the cause during
  his presidency
• He promoted African-
  Americans to key government
  positions and ordering his
  administration to stay away
  from segregated meetings.
  – Carl Rowan became the first
    black man to head the U.S.
    Information Agency.
• The oldest of the Civil Rights organizations
• Founded by WEB DuBois at the turn of the
  century to overcome discrimination and to
  challenge laws
• In the 1950’s the NAACP hired lawyers to
  represent the Brown family in their struggle to
  integrate schools in Brown v Board of
• The Southern Christian Leadership
  Conference (SCLC) was formed in
  1957 by group of black clergy, ministers,
  and civil rights activists.
   – Martin Luther King, Jr. served as President
     and Ralph David Abernathy served as
     Program Director.
• The SCLC had two objectives, one to
  use nonviolent protest as a method of
  resistance to discrimination and the
  other to appeal to the moral conscience
  of Americans.
• The first important action was the
  Montgomery Bus Boycott.
              The SCLC in Montgomery
• The Montgomery Bus Boycott began on
  December 5, 1955 after Rosa Parks was
  arrested for refusing to give up her seat
  to a white man on the bus.
• The boycott lasted for 381 days and
  ended on December 21, 1956, with the
  desegregation of the Montgomery bus
• The boycott was carried out by the
  newly established Montgomery
  Improvement Association (MIA).
• It was one of history’s most dramatic
  and massive nonviolent protests,
  stunning the nation and the world
• On February 1, 1960, a
  group of black college
  students from North
                            •   The Student Nonviolent
  Carolina A&T University       Coordinating Committee, or
  refused to leave a            SNCC (pronounced "snick"),
  Woolworth's lunch             was created on the campus
  counter in Greensboro,        of Shaw University in Raleigh
  North Carolina where they     two months later to
  had been denied service.      coordinate these sit-ins,
                                support their leaders, and
• This sparked a wave of        publicize their activities.
  other sit-ins in college
  towns across the South.
     Famous Members of SNCC
• Out of SNCC came some of
  today's black leaders, such as
  Congressman John Lewis,
  NAACP chairman Julian Bond,
  and Black Panther Stokely
• Together with hundreds of
  other students, they left a
  lasting impact on American
• James Farmer and several
  Christian pacifists
  founded the Congress on
  Racial Equality (CORE) in
• The organization's
  purpose was to apply direct
  challenges to American
  racism by using Gandhian
  tactics of non-violence.
  Farmer's religious beliefs
  resulted in him refusing to
  serve in the armed forces
  during WWII
              James Farmer
• In 1947 Farmer participated
  in CORE's campaign of sit-
  ins which successfully ended
  two Chicago restaurants'
  discriminatory service
  practices against blacks.
   – Articulate and
     charismatic, Farmer
     became CORE National
     Director in 1961. In this
     position he helped
     organize student sit-ins
     and the Freedom Rides in
     the Deep South
      • 1943, Jack Spratt
        Coffee House in
        Chicago; used by
      • 1960, four students
        from NCA&T sat at
        Woolworth’s counter
        in Greensboro, NC
       National Urban League
• The National Urban League is an American
  service agency founded for the purpose of
  eliminating racial segregation and discrimination
  and helping African Americans and other
  minorities to participate in all phases of
  American life.
• From its founding, the League has been
  interracial in its efforts to overcome
  discrimination in labor unions, and cities
        Freedom Summer - 1964

• Voter
  drive in
• A thousand
  came to
  Americans to
Freedom Rides
     • Boynton v. Virginia 1960,
       integrated bus waiting
       rooms and restaurants
     • 1961, bus left Washington,
       D.C.; Anniston, AL, bus
       attacked and firebombed;
       riders were beaten
     • Resulted in desegregation
       of all transportation
          Freedom Summer - 1964
• Three men were reported
  missing and found buried in
  an earthen dam
  – Michael Schwerner, a 24-year
    old from Brooklyn, New York
  – James Chaney a 21-year old
    from Meridian, Mississippi
  – Andrew Goodman, a 20-year old
    from Manhattan, New York
     • It was Goodman’s first day in
• Each had been beaten to
• http://www.whitehousetapes.
CORE Protests and Organizations
• In Birmingham, Alabama, one of the CORE buses
  was fire-bombed and passengers were beaten by a
  white mob.
• Two years later, the organization helped organize
  the famous March on Washington
   – On 28 August 1963, more than 200,000 people
     marched peacefully to the Lincoln Memorial to demand
     equal justice for all citizens under the law.
• At the end of the march Martin Luther King
  made his famous "I Have a Dream" speech.
March on Washington- 1963
             • August 1963; organized
               by A. Philip Randolph
             • Many leaders and
               celebrities took part
             • Speech by Martin
               Luther King, Jr.
             • “I have a dream…”,
               page 832 in textbook
    The Fight for Voting Rights
• CORE, SNCC, and the NAACP organized the
  Freedom Summer campaigns.
• Its main objective was to attempt to end the
  political disenfranchisement of African Americans
  in the Deep South.
  – In 1962 only 6.7 percent of African Americans in the
    state were registered to vote, the lowest percentage in
    the country.
• Volunteers from the three organizations decided
  to concentrate its efforts in Mississippi.
           Integration at “Ole Miss”
• James Meredith, an Air Force
  veteran sued claiming he was
  denied entrance to Ol’ Miss
• The suit alleged that Meredith
  was refused admission to the
  university based solely upon
  his race.
• After numerous legal battles
  and appeals, the United States
  Supreme Court handed down
  its decision on September 10,
• The Court upheld Meredith’s
  right to attend the University
  of Mississippi
 Enforcing the Court’s Ruling- 1962
• Governor Ross Barnett
  blocked the way to the
  admissions office
• Violence erupted; two
  killed with hundreds hurt
• President Kennedy sent
  army troops to restore
  order and marshals
  escorted him to class
          The March to Selma
• In March of 1965, the Southern Christian
  Leadership Conference along with other civil rights
  groups planned a march from Selma to the state
  capital of Montgomery.
• The plan was designed to protest the growing
  violence against civil rights activists throughout
• As the marchers neared the Edmund Pettus bridge,
  they were met by Sheriff Jim Clark and his Alabama
  State Troopers.
   – They were confronted and then attacked by
     Alabama State troopers.
Selma March
             Results from Selma
• Footage of the attack was broadcast to the nation
  by ABC News. News interrupted the network's
  Sunday night movie, to show 15minutes of raw and
  dramatic footage from the attack on the Edmund
  Pettus Bridge.
• On the evening of March 15, 1965, President
  Lyndon Johnson addressed a joint session of
  Congress and a national television audience.
• His response to the violence in Alabama was to
  propose a law that would "strike down restrictions
  to voting in all elections--Federal, State, and local--
  which have been used to deny Negroes the right to
    The Civil Rights Act of 1964
• Civil Rights Act of 1964:
  (1)Banned use of different voter registration
  (2)Prohibited discrimination in public areas
  (3)Allowed the withholding of federal funds
  (4)Banned discrimination on the basis of race,
  sex, religion, or national origin
  (5)Created the Equal Employment
  Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to
  investigate charges of job discrimination
      The Civil Rights Act of 1964
• Although Congress had
  passed civil rights bills in
  1957 and 1960, most
  analysts agree that the
  measures were weak and
                                 –In LBJ's words, "no
   – Not so with the Civil
                                 memorial or eulogy could
     Rights Act of 1964.
                                 more eloquently honor
• The act banned                 President Kennedy's
  segregation in all public      memory than the earliest
  facilities and authorized      possible passage of the
  the Department of Justice      civil rights bill for which
  to bring legal action          he fought."
  against segregation.
      Text from LBJ’s Message
   The most dramatic moment of LBJ's speech
  came when he invoked the anthem of the
  civil rights movement:
"But even if we pass this bill, the battle will not be
  over. What happened in Selma is part of a far larger
  movement which reaches into every section and
     State of America. It is the effort of American
  Negroes to secure for themselves the full blessings
  of American life. Their cause must be our cause
  too. Because it is not just Negroes, but really it is
  all of us, who must overcome the crippling legacy of
  bigotry and injustice. And we shall overcome."
        Voting Rights Act of 1965
• Federal officials could register
  voters in places where local
  officials were blocking
  registration by African
• Effectively eliminated literacy
  tests and other barriers
• 400,000 African Americans
  registered to vote in the Deep
                   March 1965    November 1988
                Black White Gap Black White Gap
(1965 vs. 1988)
        Alabama     19.3   69.2   49.9   68.4   75.0   6.6

         Georgia    27.4   62.6   35.2   56.8   63.9   7.1

       Louisiana    31.6   80.5   48.9   77.1   75.1   -2.0

      Mississippi    6.7   69.9   63.2   74.2   80.5   6.3

   North Carolina   46.8   96.8   50.0   58.2   65.6   7.4

   South Carolina   37.3   75.7   38.4   56.7   61.8   5.1

         Virginia   38.3   61.1   22.8   63.8   68.5   4.7
      Twenty-fourth Amendment
• Ratified in 1964
• Barred the use of the
  poll tax in federal
• Forced southern states
  to open up elections to
  all races
     The Black Power Movement
• Black Power was a political
  movement that arose in the middle
  1960s, that strove to express a new
  racial consciousness among Blacks
  in the United States.
• The movement stemmed from the
  earlier civil rights movements, but
  its meaning was vigorously debated.
    – To some African Americans,
      Black Power represented racial
      dignity and self-reliance (i.e.
      freedom from white authority in
      both economic and political
    – To others, it was economic in
 1968 Olympics
• Tommie Smith
  (gold medal) and
  John Carlos (bronze
  medal) famously
  performed the Black
  Power salute on the
  200 m winners
  podium at the 1968
                       Malcolm X
• Real name- Malcolm Little
• Joined the National of Islam
  or Black Muslims, which
  preached black separation and
   – Formed Muslim Mosque, Inc.
• Trip to Saudi Arabia changed
  his mind
   – Became more tolerant
• Assassinated by fellow killed
  by Nation of Islam members
  because of his changing
           Elijah Mohammed
• Elijah Muhammad (1897-1975)
  was the leader of the Nation of
  Islam ("Black Muslims")
  during their period of greatest
  growth in the mid-20th century.
• He was a major advocate of
  independent, black-operated
  businesses, institutions, and
• In the early 1960s Muhammad
  came to be overshadowed by
  the charismatic Malcolm X,
  leader of the New York Temple.
         Black Panthers
• When the Black Panther Party
  began to grow in the late 1960s,
  it became the largest Black
  organization advocating Black
• It was a militant political party
  formed by Bobby Seale and
  Huey Newton
                                                    Bobby Seale
• Motto: “Power flows from the
  barrel of a gun.”
   – Mao Zedong
• Wanted government to help
  inner cities and rebuild the
• They also sponsored programs
  that set up day-care centers and    Huey Newton
  breakfast programs
 Stokely Carmichael Joins the Black
• Carmichael became less pacifist in
  his outlook in the later 1960’s and
  joined the Black Panthers.
• He changed his name to Kwame
  Ture and later moved to Africa,
  adopting the cause of pan-
• He wanted an Africa united as a
  single socialist state.
• His motto became “We Shall
Reaction to the Civil Rights Law
• 1964 seemed to mark a turning point in America
   – The Rights Act seemed to appeared to be
     dawning a new age in race relations.
• But the states acted quickly to circumvent the new
  federal law.
   – California reacted with Proposition 14, which
     moved to block the fair housing components of
     the Civil Rights Act.
• This, and other acts, created a feeling of injustice
  and despair in the inner cities.
• The result was violence and rioting in Watts (South
  Central LA) and in other cities around the country
                  The Watts Riot
• On August 11, 1965, a
  routine traffic stop in
  South Central Los Angeles
  provided the spark that lit
  the fire of those seething
• The riots lasted for six
  days, leaving 34 dead, over
  a thousand people injured,
  nearly 4,000 arrested, and
  hundreds of buildings
        Other Important People:
            James Baldwin
• Wrote The Fire Next
  Time, describing the
  oppression and
  suffering of African
• Supported the civil
  rights movement
         Other Important People:
              Anne Moody
• College student from Centreville,
• Joined NAACP, CORE, and SNCC
   – Brother beaten and nearly lynched
   – Told to never return home, but
     continued to protest
• Wrote Coming of Age in Mississippi
• Left South to move to North; she felt
  that things remained the same in
  Mississippi, regardless of the protests
        Other Important People:
            Barbara Jordan
• First African- American woman to be
  elected to the House of
  – She came from Texas where she had
    been both a State Representative and a
    State Senator
• Her career in Washington was from
  1973 to 1979
• Upon her retirement she was awarded
  the Presidential Medal of Freedom in
    Other Important Concepts
• De jure segregation: created by law
  – School integration was established by Brown v
    Board in 1954
  – Brown II- “With all deliberate speed”
• De facto segregation: caused by social
  conditions (neighborhoods)
  – Was not illegal but the courts forced integration
    by busing students
  – Neighborhoods were torn into parts
  – Riots and protests resulted from the busing
The First Struggles were Hard-Fought
   and Victory came with a Price.

   The Fight for Civil Rights
      Continues Today…

If you aren’t part of the solution,
    you are part of the Problem!

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