Seeking Innovative Methods for Aquarium Sustainability
A 2012 Group Project Proposal
Researched and Produced By:
Professor Hunter Lenihan
Table of Contents
Executive Summary .............................................................................................................................. 4
Project Background .............................................................................................................................. 5
Literature Review…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5
Project Significance .............................................................................................................................. 7
Project Objectives & Deliverables ................................................................................................... 9
Management Plan................................................................................................................................ 10
Timeline ................................................................................................................................................. 12
Opportunities with Outside Advisors .......................................................................................... 13
Budget ..................................................................................................................................................... 14
References ............................................................................................................................................. 16
Aquarium of the Bay (AOTB) is a nonprofit marine nature center that creates experiences aimed
at inspiring conservation of the San Francisco Bay and its watershed. As an affiliate of The Bay
Institute, the Aquarium’s mission is to research and educate the general public about the ecosystems
that lie within the local area. AOTB is a Certified Green Business under the San Francisco Green
Business Program. The aquarium has asked master’s students from the Bren School to help further
advance the organization’s sustainability goals.
This Bren School master’s project group, nicknamed “Aquarius,” is a group of four students. This
team will emphasize a “quantify and analyze” approach to help the aquarium reduce its
environmental impact and reach its sustainability goals. Focusing on energy use, the team will
evaluate the aquarium’s life support system energy consumption and make recommendations for
cost-effectively reducing the associated costs and environmental impacts.
Finally, the project team will work to develop a conceptual model that can be utilized by other
aquariums around the globe. As a result, this project has the potential to set the standard for zoo
and aquarium energy footprinting practices.
Aquarium of the Bay (AOTB), located on Pier 39 in San Francisco, CA, is a non-profit organization
that strives to inspire conservation of the San Francisco Bay, its watershed, and marine habitats.
AOTB is currently a certified San Francisco Green Business, and aims to further improve its
environmental sustainability and serve as a leader in the aquarium industry. Unique to the area’s
green business community, the aquarium provides a habitat for thousands of native San Francisco
Bay marine species and the Pacific Ocean, along with an exhibit featuring exotic tropical marine life.
Marine organisms require a highly regulated habitat with specific chemical, quality, and temperature
characteristics. Under the San Francisco Green Business system, the aquarium is categorized as a
retail operation. This distinction does not account for the requirements of marine organism care.
Therefore, this project has an opportunity to address environmental sustainability through a unique
lens of aquarium operations.
AOTB’s life support systems maintain a closely controlled and monitored habitat through pumps,
multiple types of filters, and chillers. These combined systems require a large amount of energy to
pump, filter, circulate, and treat the water used in the exhibits. This energy use is the target of the
The aquarium is closely affiliated with The Bay Institute, a local marine conservation non-profit. In
accordance with these values, the aquarium seeks to reduce its environmental impact, establish itself
as a sustainability leader in the community, and serve as an example for other aquariums to follow.
By conducting this assessment and analysis, Aquarius will gain crucial experience analyzing an
organization’s impacts through environmental accounting techniques and seeking out the best
opportunities for reducing those impacts.
The team’s objectives for this project are to produce a water-energy footprint assessment that
quantifies the aquarium’s operational water consumption based on different sources, uses,
treatments, and disposal. Using the initial assessment, Aquarius will then conduct an energy analysis,
identifying areas in which Aquarium of the Bay can make cost-effective investments that reduce the
energy footprint of the facility. This information will be used to provide a set of tiered
recommendations providing a range of options to AOTB. If feasible, we will propose models or
practices that can be utilized by other aquariums to reduce their operational energy consumption. A
final report, presentation, and project brief summarizing our assessment and recommendation will
be delivered at the completion of the project.
In operation since 1996, Aquarium of the Bay (AOTB) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization located
on Pier 39 in San Francisco, CA. It is closely affiliated with The Bay Institute, a conservation group
focused on the San Francisco Bay and its watershed. It is the only operating aquarium exclusively
dedicated to the aquatic life of the San Francisco Bay.
AOTB is one of 35 aquariums accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) in the
United States. In 2005, the aquarium earned recognition as a certified San Francisco Green Business
by the San Francisco Department of the Environment. Among other achievements, the organization
diverts about 80% of waste from landfill through recycling and composting efforts.
The aquarium hosts over 600,000 visitors per year and has provided free classes and tours to over
100,000 K-12 students and teachers in the area. AOTB’s operation includes two gift shops,
administrative offices, pumping and treatment facilities and exhibits displaying over 20,000 aquatic
animals. Two underwater tunnels, totaling 300 feet in length, are central features of the building.
Motivating the project is the growing global and national demand for energy. According to the U.S.
Department of Energy, 483.597 Quadrillion Btu of energy were consumed throughout the world in
2007 (Independent Statistics and Analysis). More importantly, the United States accounted for 21%
of world energy consumption. With approximately 4.5% of the world’s population (U.S. Census
Bureau), the U.S. is using energy at a per capita rate much higher than many of its peers.
The implications of this increase are serious because of the associated environmental problems
arising from energy production and consumption. Most prominent among these issues are
greenhouse gas emissions and global warming effects. In the U.S., buildings account for 42% of
electricity usage (Independent Statistics Analysis). Moreover, aquarium facilities likely use more
energy per square foot than the average building due to the needs of life support systems
Furthermore, the City of San Francisco set a goal to reduce carbon emissions and energy
requirements by 20% below 1990 levels, or by about 3.6 million tons of carbon dioxide, from energy
use (San Francisco Energy Watch). To meet this goal, businesses will need to become more energy
efficient. Since AOTB seeks to maintain its reputation as an environmental leader, they seek to build
upon their Green Business Certification to help the City of San Francisco reach its environmental
According to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the average water
temperatures across San Francisco Bay vary from 53 oF - 60 oF, with levels above 55oF for roughly
half the year (Pacific Coast: Central). Energy requirements from cooling alone amount to roughly
4.75x109 Btu a year for AOTB (Chillers Basic Resource Center). This is equivalent to 3,169 12-gallon
tank vehicles (Physics at Syracuse University). These estimates assume that water from the Bay
during the other half of the year is below the 55oF threshold. However, friction from plumbing and
heating from pumps warms the water, so true numbers are likely much higher.
Our research of aquarium facilities indicates the use of three chillers in the building. All three utilize
480 volts and are stationary (AOTB Equipment, 3). Stationary chillers do not include a pump, so
water is cooled as it flows through the chiller, relying on external pumps to maintain water flow.
Generally, the coolant or refrigerant is a chemical that exchanges heat with the water and has a low
boiling point. These refrigerants usually include Freon and ammonia (Chillers Basic Resource
Center). Refrigeration then occurs in which the refrigerants are evaporated and removed from the
water (Chillers Basic Resource Center). Other water treatment processes are then conducted to
ensure the water is ready to be returned to the system.
In general, aquarium filters are designed to remove:
suspended solids and chemical compounds (Moe, 1995). To
maintain the well-being of the marine inhabitants, the
aquarium must employ filtering techniques to address both
forms of potential contaminants. There are four types of
1) Mechanical Filtration
A mechanical filter serves as a screen to catch
suspended solids. It does so by sending the sea water
through a material that limits the size of the particles
entering the system. AOTB uses sand in its
mechanical filters as the initial step in the filtration
process (see Figure 1).
Factors that influence efficiency for this type of filter
are a) the size of the filtering material (i.e. sand), b) the Figure 1: Sand based mechanical filters
at the Aquarium of the Bay
pace of the water moving through the system, and c)
the surface area of the filter. While a system with larger
material and a large amount of surface area would operate most efficiently from an energy
standpoint, it may compromise the filtering quality or systems operations. Hence, a balance
must be struck between filtering ability, energy and operational efficiency.
Filters also become less efficient as they collect more particulate matter. Thus, the filter
operator must clean the filter daily by running the system in reverse (termed “backwashing”).
2) Chemical Filtration
Unlike a mechanical filter, the purpose of a chemical filter is to remove dissolved chemical
compounds from the water. There are many ways to do this, but AOTB uses protein foam
skimming and ozone filtration.
Protein foam skimming operates on the premise that chemical compounds are attracted to
the surface of gaseous bubbles in water. By injecting the water with these bubbles, the gas
will rise to the top, bringing chemicals with it. At the top, they will create foam, which can
simply be skimmed off the water to remove potential contamination (Moe, 1995).
While very effective, there are caveats to this approach. For example, skimming can remove
benign compounds and nutrients beneficial to marine life. Another issue is the efficiency of
the gas injectors, which can significantly alter the efficacy of the filter with minor changes in
gas releases. Thus, the injectors require regular check-ups, calibration, and replacement
The ozone process works by introducing O3 (ozone)
to the water. It is created by passing oxygen through
an electrical discharge before it enters the water.
Ozone is very reactive, so it will oxidize any organic
matter in the water almost immediately. This process
degrades dissolved organics, and neutralizes biotic
threats like bacteria (Moe, 1995).
Concerns regarding the ozonation process require
close monitoring. Because of its high reactivity, ozone
is harmful to all biota, so oversaturation can harm
marine animals (Moe, 1995). AOTB uses a process
called “off-gassing” to avoid this. Off-gassing
involves the collection and release of built up ozone.
However, once released into the air, ozone can be an
irritant for people as well (Moe, 1995). To monitor
ozone, the water conductivity is reported, with the the
unit of measure being the volt.
Figure 2: The protein skimmer at
3) Biological Filtration
Aquarium of the Bay. Foam can be seen
collecting in the clear tank.
Biological filters work by cultivating the growth of
nitrifying bacteria. By providing surface area on which
bacteria can grow, the microorganisms will convert molecules that can be harmful in large
quantities to a benign form. The problem arises because the production of waste from the
marine animals leads to a buildup of ammonia. The nitrifying bacteria will counteract this
buildup by oxidizing the ammonia to nitrite, and eventually nitrate. Special care must be
taken during this process to prevent the buildup of nitrite, also harmful to marine life.
4) Natural System
Some systems with a small bioload can rely on a natural biological filtration system,
essentially using just a water pump to maintain mixing without a filter. Biological filtration
will still occur because nitrifying bacteria will grow on most surfaces, but is less efficient than
an artificial biological filter, so water must be exchanged regularly.
One of the primary missions of the zoo and aquarium industry is to educate the public about
conservation of earth’s species and habitats by bringing wildlife to people. In accordance with this
objective, many of these institutions pursue in-depth environmental sustainability programs. This is
made for difficult by the constraint imposed by the resource needs of the animals in their care. One
useful definition of ecological sustainability is “reducing ecological impacts through reducing
resources used, waste produced and emissions released”(Townsend 60). Aquarium of the Bay has
made environmental sustainability a central focus of its operation Although sustaining life support
systems leaves little room for reducing resources, it also creates opportunity for spear heading the
sustainable movement. Thus, with AOTB’s position of being an educator to the public, the facility
should move towards being becoming a leader of sustainability for the aquarium industry.
The project is important in several aspects. The obvious of course is making AOTB more eco-
friendly. As mentioned, the AOTB is already a Certified Green Business for the city of San
Francisco, however there is still room for progress. Already the AOTB practices recycling, uses
energy saving light bulbs, and participates in composting methods which have collectively earned the
facility the Green Business title. In order to maintain their status against an ever-increasing green
standard by the city of San Francisco, the AOTB needs to achieve new levels of sustainability.
The Bren group project is a platform for which the AOTB can achieve this goal. Team Aquarius
will set out to identify areas in which AOTB can substantially reduce their energy inputs. On
average, a 180 gallon coral reef aquarium requires 700 kilowatt/hours-yr-1 to cycle water 24 hours
(California Energy Commission). In comparison, that’s more energy needed than to run a
refrigerator for the same length of time (California Energy Commission). AOTB itself has
approximately 50,000 square feet of exhibits which collectively hold over one million gallons of
water that is constantly pumped, filtered, chilled, heated, and treated (Schmidt 1). Using the above
ratio, that’s more energy consumed than 5,556 refrigerators. The energy requirements are
substantial, and so the team can certainly assist AOTB in reducing their environmental impact.
Another significance of the project is helping AOTB be genuine stewards to the Bay Area
ecosystems. In conjunction with the Bay Institute, AOTB seeks to inform the public about the
wildlife and habitats found locally. Furthermore, AOTB stresses eco-friendly practices such as
reducing trash that can accumulate on the sea bed. By modifying the aquarium so that it has a
comparatively low environmental footprint, Aquarius can help elevate AOTB to become a true
example of safe environmental practices. As a result, the public can learn not only about the local
ecosystems, but also how some businesses are actively trying to conserve these unique
environments. We hope that this will inspire the public to evaluate their own impacts and strive for
better environmental practices such as energy efficiency.
Finally, we anticipate that AOTB will also be a model for other aquariums and zoos worldwide.
Information, practices, and even animals are already widely shared in this industry, and so both
Aquarius and AOTB intend on publicizing the deliverables of this project. AOTB of the Bay is an
active member of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA), which alone has over 224 zoos
and aquariums working in conjunction for conservation purposes (Association of Zoos and
Aquariums). This means that any assessments, models, and innovative ideas can immediately be
accessed by hundreds of zoos and aquariums around the world, theoretically conserving vast
amounts of energy and water resources. AOTB has already expressed strong interest in becoming a
model aquarium for others to emulate, and we will work hard to help them achieve this goal.
Conceptual Model: AOTB Water Cycle
Project Objectives and Deliverables
Because Aquarium of the Bay (AOTB) wishes to become more sustainable and further reduce
their environmental impact, the team has decided to focus the project on the energy usage within the
life support systems of the exhibits. Aquarius will focus on evaluating the energy needed to pump,
filter, and treat water as it enters from the Bay and flows through the aquarium exhibits, holding
tanks, and other systems. The team’s objectives for this project are to complete the following:
Water Energy Footprint Assessment: Quantify the aquarium’s operational salt water
consumption based on different sources, uses, treatments, and disposal. We will evaluate the
basic water flow through the aquarium system and assess potential areas where energy
efficiency can be implemented. This involves calculating the amount of water and associated
energy necessary to transport, filter, heat, and dispose of the water that passes through the
various systems. The deliverable from this will be an assessment that outlines to AOTB the
amounts of water-related energy resources needed to maintain their operational systems.
This assessment will serve as a baseline with which to compare energy-saving alternatives.
Energy Analysis: Using the initial assessment, Aquarius will then conduct an energy
analysis, identifying areas in which Aquarium of the Bay can make cost-effective investments
that reduce the energy footprint of the facility. This includes researching new technologies
such as pumps, solar panels, and chillers that are more energy efficient and can be installed
immediately. The product of this objective is a technical guide that illustrates the various
system adjustments and modifications that the AOTB can use for future assessments and
Recommendations: The baseline and energy analysis information will be used to provide a
set of tiered recommendations providing a range of options to AOTB. These will vary from
basic adjustments to operation and replacement of individual equipment to extensive facility
renovations designed as innovative, industry-leading solutions. Each scenario will include
data encompassing return on investment, energy savings, and carbon dioxide emission
Aquarium Model/Case Study: If feasible, we will propose models or practices that can be
utilized by other aquariums to reduce their operational energy consumption.
Gather information from AOTB of the Bay, including:
Electricity source and usage for aquarium processes such as pumps, filters, chillers, light
fixtures, and temperature control of the facility.
Fresh water and salt water usage
Water flow specifics from pumping to disposal
Manufacturer and model of equipment used for pumping, filtering, and cooling
Biological requirements for aquarium animals
Evaluation of Current Water-related Energy Use
Detailed flow diagram of facility water use
Break-down of energy usage by individual machine and process.
Comparison to similar aquariums for establishing a baseline
Research Available Solutions and Technologies
Consult with outside experts on aquarium technologies to gather information on
sustainability best practices, constraints, and energy efficiency solutions.
Research consumer reports on best available technologies for the various functions.
Analyze models of prospect equipment for energy efficiency.
Consider solutions ranging from changes in equipment and operations to alterations of
Evaluate options for improving water-related energy usage
Compare available technologies, using metrics of cost, energy usage, return on investment
and other relevant factors
Consult with experts to determine feasibility
Conduct analysis of resulting carbon and energy savings for each option
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Create tiered recommendation alternatives based on scenarios including cost, overall energy
use and carbon emissions, and feasibility.
Develop a model of energy savings opportunities transferable to other aquariums
Primary Group Roles
Project Manager: Max Broad
Data Manager: Brittany King
Financial Manager: Matthew Blazek
Web Manager: Scott Salyer
Ancillary Group Roles
Group Mediator: Matt Blazek
Editor: Scott Salyer
Formatter: Brittany King
Meetings with our advisor will be held once per week or when deemed necessary. Other group
meetings will be held as deemed necessary by any of the group members.
After non-routine meetings (i.e. aquarium visits) a follow-up debrief meeting is to be held within 24
hours. The purpose will be to consensus building and goal refining.
Writing tasks that two or more group members are responsible for are to be completed using one of
the two following options, to be predetermined by the group.
1. The project is to be shared on google docs so that multiple members can access it at once.
Since google docs is not conducive to formatting, placeholders will be given for pictures,
figures, and tables. After writing is completed, the document will be downloaded to dropbox
by the editor. After the editor has edited the document, he is to then notify the formatter,
who will then proceed with placing in relevant images, a title page, a table of contents, page
numbers, and other relevant improvements.
2. The group can use dropbox exclusively to store the file if a predetermined schedule for
completing the assignment is agreed upon by all members.
Conflict resolution strategy will be divided into two categories, with a hierarchical approval structure
Interpersonal conflict will be mediated by Matt Blazek, the group mediator. The conflicted
parties should approach the mediator and together identify common ground. If the conflict
includes the mediator or cannot be resolved by the mediator, it should then be directed to
another neutral party within the group. If, at that point, the matter is still not resolved, outside
consultation should be sought, either with the group project adviser or with the ombudsmen.
If the concern is toward a group member that is not adequately completing work or is missing
deadlines, it will be the role of the mediator to address this person to maintain the prosperity of
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IMPORTANT: It is vital that all feedback is given constructively, and that group members
respond in kind, knowing that the interests of the group project, and not personal vendettas, are
the ultimate criterion.
Decisions directly regarding the project will be made by unanimous vote. If consensus is not
attained, pros and cons will be outlined and reconsidered, followed by a new vote. If the matter
is still not resolved, it is to be brought up for consideration by a group adviser. The external
advisers should be questioned for topics regarding their respective fields of expertise, whereas
general group direction should fall under the purview of the primary adviser.
For each meeting, at least one group member, who will be determined at the beginning of the
meeting, will take notes. There is a shared Dropbox folder in which meeting minutes are to be
archived. The file will be named by the name of the person met with followed by the date (for
instance “Lenihan 5-20”).
The primary advisor, Hunter Lenihan, will give regular guidance for the group, providing direction
in our weekly meetings. In addition, Professor Lenihan may give feedback on group reports,
assignments, and deliverables.
The external advisors will serve in a need-based capacity. The group will reach out to external
advisors when consult is needed to progress a relevant area of the project.
Our primary contact with the client has transitioned as of May 9, 2011 from Tucker Hirsch to
Crystal, following Tucker’s departure. Crystal will play an important role in both providing feedback
as well as being a liaison between the group and key players with the aquarium. It will be important
to touch base with Crystal regularly, and pay a visit approximately once per quarter.
Students: All material should be prepared within the constraints of deadlines. Advance notice
should be given to the advisor for meetings as well as when feedback on work is wanted.
Advisor: The advisor should be available to attend meetings when requested with advance notice,
and provide thoughtful insight and direction for the group.
June 2nd – Final Proposal Submitted
June 1-10th – Proposal Review Completed
June 10th – Project Webpage Completed
June-August – Continue literature review of relevant technologies and best practices
June-August – On-site and Off-site Data Collection with AOTB staff
June-September – Monthly Phone Call with All Aquarius Members to Discuss Progress and Next
September – Phone Meeting with AOTB Staff to Discuss Progress
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October/November – Second Site Visit to AOTB
November 11th – Progress Review Completed
December 9th – Written Progress Report Submitted
December 2011– Complete Data Collection and Energy Footprint Analysis
January/February – Third Site Visit to AOTB
February 24th – Draft Report Sent to Faculty Advisor
March – Phone Call with AOTB Staff to Discuss Findings and Recommendations
Project Defense – Mid to Late Winter Quarter
March 8th – Presentation Program Abstract Submitted
March 23rd –
Final Report Completed (hard copy and PDF to GP Coordinator)
Project Poster Submitted (.pdf)
Self/Peer and Faculty Advisor Evaluations Submitted
Group Project Presentation – Spring Quarter (TBD)
PowerPoint Presentation Submitted to Faculty Advisor
Presentation Practice Conducted
Opportunities with Outside Advisors
Outside advisors will play an important role in two capacities. The first is to familiarize the group
with the practice of energy foot printing. The technical nature of carrying out an energy footprint
analysis will require that the group seek advice from professionals and experts in the field. Although
the group has already met with people who provided guidance, the next step will be to identify who
will best serve as the External Advisor on Energy.
The other field of significant advice sought will be on aquarium practices and norms. For this we
have requested that Scott Simon, Manager of Education Programs at the UCSB REEF, to be the
External Advisor on Aquarium Practices. Scott introduced the team to the aquarium setting with a
behind the scenes tour of the UCSB aquarium facilities. In addition, the team will pursue insight on
aquariums as well as “best practices” from personnel associated with other aquariums. A list of such
personnel has been compiled, and is listed below.
Outside Aquarium Contacts
Aaron Pope Ed Mastro
Manager of Sustainability Programs Exhibits Director
California Academy of Sciences Cabrillo Marine Aquarium
Mag Matthews Allison Trimble
Sustainability Coordinator Ty Warner Sea Center
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The Bren School of Environmental Science and Management will provide $1300 to cover
project costs, with an additional $200 for printing costs. The Client, AOTB, will provide an
additional $2500 for any further necessary expenses including a possible onsite internship.
Bren School Allocation Aquarium of the Bay Allocation
Travel to Site Travel to Site
Car Rental $400 Fuel1 $500
Phone Conferences Plane $500
Conferences Calls $50 Hotel $300
Deliverables Final Poster
and Brief $260 Salary
Books $40 Misc. and
Office Supplies $50 Unforeseen $100
TOTAL $1,300 TOTAL $2,500
Concept Models $10
1 Based on 4 to 5 trips
2 Assuming roughly $30/person/day for 2 trips
3 For 1-2 people for 2 nights
4 For 1-2 people for 3 days
5 For 1 person, 8 hours a week for 10 weeks
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This budget is a forecast of Aquarius’s expected costs over the next 10 months. Adjustments will
be made to the budget as necessary. All changes to the budget will be discussed as a group and
finalized through the project Financial Manager.
Budget A – Bren School Allocation
Travel to Site: We anticipate sending team members to our project site in San Francisco 3 to 4
times in the summer, fall, and winter quarters; we are expecting Bren to finance the car rental costs
(the Client will pay for fuel costs – see Budget B for full description of Client’s contribution to
budget). The estimated $400 for car rental is based on rental rates through UCSB Transportation
Department which are roughly $50/day. In addition, we will budget for food expenses incurred by
the four group members during the site visits.
Telephone: Aquarius will be conducting many conference calls with the Client through the
Bren school. We estimate incurring $50 for incoming phone charges using the Bren system.
Deliverables: The group is allocating an estimated $260 for the final poster and brief as required
by the Bren School to complete the group project requirement of the MESM degree.
Materials: There are several references books regarding sustainable aquariums that the team will
purchase for research and guidance purposes. These books can be found either through libraries or
online sources. An allocation of roughly $40 will set aside for obtaining these reference materials.
We also plan to buy basic office supplies for proper organization and presentation needs. We
estimate the cost to be $50 for initial purchases of supplies, such as folders, binders, highlighters,
business envelopes, and Thank You cards.
Printing: We plan to divide the $200 allocated for printing costs among each of the four group
members. This money will be used not only for day-to-day printing of literature and document
drafts, but reports and concept models as well. The team also expects printing several reports and
potential posters for the Client in addition to the final poster.
Budget B – Aquarium of the Bay Allocation
The client, Aqurium of the Bay (AOTB), has pledged significant funding for team expenses not
covered in the Bren School budget:
Travel to Site: Apart from the rental car allocation as specified in Budget A, gasoline will be
covered by AOTB to further finance the group’s 3 to 4 site visits to San Francisco.
Travel to Conferences: There are several upcoming conferences throughout the nation that
involve creating sustainable zoos and aquariums. The client has expressed interest in attending some
of these conferences and suggested a team member can also attend if we deem it necessary for our
group project. We will budget $500 for a round trip plane ticket as well as $300 for a few nights stay
at a hotel. In addition, $300 will be set aside for meals of the group member while on their travels.
If the team decides not to attend a conference then this money can be reserved for meeting with
industry experts throughout the nation.
Salary: AOTB stated that the $2500 can also cover an internship should a team member wish
to be a part-time intern during the summer. While no group member has expressed interest in being
an exclusive intern, some members are willing to conduct routine site visits and shadow AOTB staff
while they spend time in the area. We decided to allocate roughly $800 for an estimated 80 hour
tour of duty over the summer.
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“About AOTB.” Aquarium of the Bay. 9 May 2011. Web:
“AOTB Equipment.” Underwater World Equipment Schedule. 1-8.
“Zoo and Aquarium Statistics.” Association of Zoos and Aquariums. May 9 2011.
“Chillers Basic Resource Center.” Cold Shot Chillers. Web. 15 May 2011.
“Consumer Energy Center.” California Energy Commission. 9 May 2011. Web:
Schmidt, K. “Aquarium of the Bay Fact Sheet.” Aquarium of the Bay. 2011. p1-2.
“Independent Statistics and Analysis. Frequently Asked Questions.” U.S. Energy and Information
Administration. U.S. Department of Energy. Web: 15 May 2011.
Moe, Martin A. The Marine Aquarium Handbook: Beginner to Breeder. Plantation, FL: Green
Turtle Publications, 1995. Print.
“Pacific Coast: Central.” National Oceanographic Data Center. NOAA. Web: 15 May 2011.
"Rough Values of Power of Various Processes (watts)." Physics Home Page. Physicas at Syracuse
University. Web. 15 May 2011.
San Francisco Energy Watch Program. SF Environment. Web. 15 May 2011.
Townsend, S. "Incorporating Sustainable Practices for Zoos and Aquariums: a Triple Bottom Line
Approach." Int. Zoo Yb 43 (2009): 53-63.
"US & World Population Clock." Census Bureau Home Page. U.S. Census Bureau, 22 May 2011.
Web. 22 May 2011. <http://www.census.gov/population/www/popclockus.html>.
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