The Effects of Roundup� on the Survival and Growth Rate of

Document Sample
The Effects of Roundup� on the Survival and Growth Rate of Powered By Docstoc
					The Effects of Roundup®
on Eisenia fetida

Nathan Brownrigg
Senior Capstone
Spring 2005
Topics to be Discussed

    Background Information
    Materials and Methods
    Results
    Discussion of Results
    Questions
Background Information

  Roundup® is a
   common herbicide.
  Glyphosate is the
   active chemical. It is
   also used in many
   other herbicides.
  Ingredients:
   Glyphosate 18%,
   Diquat Dibromide
   0.73%, Others
   81.27%.
Background Information
  Generally used to kill weeds and grasses.
   Tree stumps can also be killed by drilling holes
   into a fresh stump and applying the
   concentrated herbicide into the holes.
  The herbicide is applied to the foliage of the
   plant and it systemically moves to the roots.
  The chemical works by preventing the plant
   from producing certain amino acids.
  This inhibits protein synthesis in the plant and
   eventually kills it.
Background Information

  Glyphosate is generally not active in the
   soil (it is applied to foliage).
  Strongly absorbed by the soil.
  Half-life can range from 3-130 days.
  Eventually broken down by soil
   microorganisms.
  Effects on soil invertebrates not known.
Background Information

  Eisenia fetida
    Known as redworms.
    Very important
     compost organism.
    Commonly bred for
     use in compost
     heaps.
Background information

  Earthworms in general are important soil
   invertebrates. Their burrowing and
   feeding activities enhance soil fertility by
   incorporating thatch throughout the soil.
  Because so much soil passes through
   their bodies and they are in constant
   contact with the soil, there is a significant
   possibility of toxins becoming
   concentrated within them.
Background Information

  Because of possible toxin build up,
   earthworms can be used as bioindicators
   of pollution in the soil.
Topics to be Discussed

    Background Information
    Materials and Methods
    Results
    Discussion of Results
    Questions
Materials and Methods

  Roundup®
   superconcentrate
   was obtained from
   local lawn and
   garden center.
  Enough to treat
   3,000 sq ft. (using
   recommended
   amount).
Materials and Methods

  Containers were
   prepared by adding
   approximately 1,000
   grams of soil.
  Soil depth was about
   3 cm, which was
   recommended by the
   Carolina Biological
   Supply Co.
Materials and Methods

  In all, 12 containers
   were prepared this
   way.
  One other container
   was filled with a little
   more soil to maintain
   the earthworms not
   to be used in the
   experiment.
Materials and Methods
  Earthworms were then
   counted into groups of
   50 and weighed using an
   electronic balance and
   placed in one of the 12
   containers.
  These numbers later
   serve as the initial
   biomass of the
   earthworms.
Materials and Methods

  The recommended concentration for
   Roundup®:
    6.0 fl oz. per gallon of water.
  Converted for experimental use; the
   recommended concentration:
    14.1 ml Roundup® per 300 ml solution
     (distilled H2O + herbicide.) (4.7%)
Materials and Methods

  Concentrations were then determined for
   experimental use:
    Control: 0.00 (distilled H2O)
    Experimental groups: 7.05(2.4%),
     14.1(4.7%), 28.2(9.4%), 42.3(14.1%), and
     70.5(23.5%) ml Roundup® per 300 ml
     solution.
Materials and Methods

  The concentrations were applied to each
   container.
    One concentration per container, 6
     concentrations, 12 containers = two
     experiments running concurrently.
Materials and Methods

  The containers were
   then left to incubate
   for 30 days.
    Day 14: Moist corn
     meal was applied to
     the soil for food (as
     instructed by Carolina
     Biological Supply Co.
     manual).
Materials and Methods

  Worms removed and reweighed after 30
   days.
    Weight was compared to original biomass.
  Number of dead worms was also
   recorded.
Topics to be Discussed

    Background Information
    Materials and Methods
    Results
    Discussion of Results
    Questions
Results

  Too many earthworms from trial 1 died to
   collect data.
    Due to dehydration (no mortality was
     observed in other three trials).
  The following tables and graphs show the
   results from trials 2-4.
Results

   Biomass of Earthworms Before and After Exposure to
                   Roundup® (Trial 2)
Concentration   Original Biomass   Biomass Following   Difference
    (%)                (g)            Exposure (g)         (g)
     0.0              14.3               14.4           (+) 0.1
     2.4              15.2               15.2              0
     4.7              13.9               13.7            (-) 0.2
     9.4              15.6               15.5            (-) 0.1
    14.1              14.9               13.6            (-) 1.3
    23.5              14.6               14.3            (-) 0.3
                                                                   Biomass After Exposure (Trial 2)
                                                              Biomass After Exposure (Trial 2)
                                                  1
                                                              0.01      0
                                                  0       1      0.01       0
                                                          0
                            Percent Increase/Decrease



                                             -1                                             -0.7
                                                         -1                              1 -0.7                            Control
Percent Increase/Decrease




                                             -2                                   -1.5
                                                         -2                       -1.5                              -2.1       Control
                                                                                                                           2.40%
                                             -3
                                                         -3                                                  -2.1              2.40%
                                             -4          -4                                                                4.70%
                                                                                                                               4.70%
                                             -5          -5                                                                    9.40%
                                                                                                                           9.40%
                                             -6          -6                                                                    14.10%
                                                         -7                                                                14.10%
                                                                                                                               23.50%
                                             -7
                                                         -8                                                                23.50%
                                             -8
                                                         -9
                                             -9         -10                                        -8.7
                                                                                                      -8.7
                                     -10
                                                                                Concentration
                                                                                  Concentration
Results

  Biomass of Earthworms Before and After Exposure to
                  Roundup® (Trial 3)
Concentration   Original Biomass   Biomass Following   Difference
    (%)                (g)            Exposure (g)         (g)

     0.0              14.8               15.3           (+) 0.5
     2.4              15.7               15.5            (-) 0.2
     4.7              14.9               14.5            (-) 0.4
     9.4              14.9               14.3            (-) 0.6
    14.1              14.5               14.1            (-) 0.4
    23.5              13.6               13.1            (-) 0.5
                                                                 Biomass After Exposure (Trial 3)
                                                             Biomass After Exposure (Trial 3)
                                   0.5
                                                             0.03
                                               0        1
                                                               0.03
                            Percent Increase/Decrease



                             -0.5
                                                        0                                                                    Control
Percent Increase/Decrease




                                          -1                                                                                     Control
                                                                                       1                                     2.40%
                             -1.5
                                                        -1                                                                       2.40%
                                                                      -1.3
                                                                      -1.3                                                   4.70%
                                                                                                                                 4.70%
                                          -2            -2                                                                       9.40%
                             -2.5
                                                                                                                             9.40%
                                                                                                                                 14.10%
                                                        -3                     -2.7                                          14.10%
                                          -3                                    -2.7                -2.8-2.8                     23.50%

                             -3.5                       -4                                                     -3.7          23.50%
                                          -4
                                                                                           -4.1                       -3.7
                                                        -5
                                                                                             -4.1
                             -4.5
                                                                             Concentration
                                                                                Concentration
Results
Biomass of Earthworms Before and After Exposure to
                Roundup® (Trial 4)
Concentration   Original Biomass   Biomass Following   Difference
    (%)                (g)            Exposure (g)         (g)
     0.0              15.9               16.2           (+) 0.3
     2.4              15.9               15.8            (-) 0.1
     4.7              14.1               13.7            (-) 0.4
     9.4              15.2               14.8            (-) 0.6
    14.1              16.8               16.3            (-) 0.5
    23.5              13.5               13.1            (-) 0.4
                                                                  Biomass After Exposure (Trial 4)
                                                             Biomass After Exposure (Trial 4)
                                          1

                                                        1    0.02
                                          0                    0.02
                            Percent Increase/Decrease



                                                        0                                                               Control
Percent Increase/Decrease




                                     -1                               -0.7
                                                        -1                             1                                    Control
                                                                                                                        2.40%
                                                                      -0.7                                                  2.40%
                                     -2                 -2                                                              4.70%
                                                                                                                            4.70%
                                                                                                                            9.40%
                                     -3                 -3                                   -2.7
                                                                                           -2.7                         9.40%
                                                                                                    -3   -3   -3   -3       14.10%
                                                        -4                                                              14.10%
                                                                                                                            23.50%
                                     -4
                                                        -5                                                              23.50%
                                     -5                                        -4.9
                                                                                -4.9
                                                        -6
                                     -6
                                                                             Concentration
                                                                                Concentration
                                      Average Biomass After Exposure (Trials 3,4)

                            0.5
                                   0.025
                              0
                                                            1
                            -0.5
Percent Increase/Decrease




                             -1                                                       Control
                                            -1                                        2.40%
                            -1.5                                                      4.70%
                             -2                                                       9.40%
                                                                                      14.10%
                            -2.5                                                      23.50%
                             -3
                                                                       -2.9
                            -3.5                                              -3.35
                                                                -3.4
                             -4                      -3.8
                                                     Concentration
Topics to be Discussed

    Background Information
    Materials and Methods
    Results
    Discussion of Results
    Questions
Discussion of Results

  These numbers indicate that Roundup®
   has a negative effect on the biomass of
   Eisenia fetida. However, the herbicide is
   not fatal to the earthworms at these
   concentrations.
Discussion of Results

  Concentrations above the recommended
   did not consistently decrease the
   biomass of the earthworms.
  Experimental error may have had an
   effect on trial 2. However, this was
   corrected and results of trials 3 and 4
   were relatively consistent.
Questions????????
References
    Bauer C., Rombke J. 1996. Factors influencing the toxicity of two
     pesticides on three lumbricid species in laboratory tests. Soil Biol.
     Biochem. 29, 705-708.
    Callahan C.A. 1984. Earthworms as ecotoxicological assessment tools.
     United States Environmental Protection Agency, EPA-600/D-48-272.
    Mosleh Y.Y., Paris-Palacios S., Couderchet M., Vernet G. 2003. Acute
     and sublethal effects of two insecticides on earthworm (Lumbricus
     terrestris L.) under laboratory conditions. Environ. Toxicol. 18(1), 1-8.
    Mosleh Y.Y., Paris-Palacios S., Couderchet M., Vernet G. 2002. Effects
     of the herbicide isoproturon on survival, growth rate, and protein content
     of mature earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) and its fate in the soil.
     Applied Soil Ecology 23, 69-77.
    Pendergrass W. 1980. Carolina Protozoa and Invertebrates Manual.
     Carolina Biological Supply Company. Burlington, NC. 34
Acknowledgements

  Dr. McShaffrey
  Dr. Pate

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:14
posted:7/20/2012
language:English
pages:33