Building Digital Future Sustainable Interoperable Accessible NYU by jennyyingdi


									             Building a Digital Future:
            Sustainable, Interoperable,
             Accessible Repositories

                       Howard Besser
         NYU Archiving and Preservation Program and
                    Library Senior Scientist

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Sustainable, Interoperable, Accessible
            Repositories -
        Models for Digital Repositories
        Importance of Metadata Standards & Philosophies
        Discovery Metadata: The Dublin Core
        Administrative and Structural Metadata: MOA2/METS
        Actors Metadata
        Longevity Metadata & Preservation Repositories
        Preserving Electronic Art
        Identification/Provenance
        Technical Imaging Metadata
        Various other Metadata

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        Our Images & Words are often
                not accurate

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     From Digital Collections to Digital
        Libraries, Museums, and
     _   No longer merely experiments
     _   Adhere to our fields’ traditions (access,
         interoperability, sustainable, privacy, …)
     _   Provide services

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     To respond to our needs for both
     Service & Traditions, we face the
              challenges of:

      Access (discovery)
      Sustainability (longevity)-
      Interoperability-

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           Serious Longevity Problems
      What   we know from prior widespread digital
       file formats
      Images separating from their metadata
      Inaccessibility of software needed to view an
      Inability to even decode the file format of an

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             Traditional Digital Repository
      DL                                               DL

                              DL                                               DL
search & presentation                           search & presentation

                        search & presentation                           search & presentation

                             user                     user
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         Ideal Digital Repository Model

                    DL                        DL

                             DL                       DL

                              search & presentation

                              user              user
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      For Interoperability, Repositories
      Need Standards (as well as Sustainability
                             & Access)
      Descriptive Metadata for consistent description
      Discovery Metadata for finding
      Administrative Metadata for viewing and
      Structural Metadata for navigation
      ... Terms & Conditions Metadata for controlling
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         Why are Standards and
      Metadata consensus important?
      Managing          digital files over time
      Longevity
      Interoperability
      Veracity
      Recording  in a consistent manner
      Will give vendors incentive to create
       applications that support this
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                Philosophical Metadata
     _   Warwick vs MARC
     _   Where to put the metadata

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         Containers and Packages of
                         Warwick, not MARC
     _   modular
     _   overlapping
     _   extensible
     _   community-based
     _   designed for a networked world to aid
         commonality btwn communities while still
         providing full functionality within each
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         Some different schemes where
               Metdata is kept
     _   embedded within the object (TIFF headers)
     _   encapsulated with image (MOA2/METS)
     _   in a separate related DB maintained by same
         organization (OPAC)
     _   in a separate DB maintained by a separate
         organization (Books in Print, ratings systems)

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                    Discovery Metadata
     _   Dublin Core - NISO Z39.85 (3/95)-
     _   CBIR (ongoing)

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               Dublin Core--further work
     _   Warwick Framework
         –   metadata packages for extensible functions
         –   layed groundwork for RDF
     _   Canberra Qualifiers
         –   refining the semantics of the element set to provide more precise info
     _   Granularity
         –   no hierarchical relationships w/i a given DC record; only one record per
             discrete object (collection or item-level), and relationship field plus
             qualifier links them

Besser--SfS-Hague 18/10/02                                                              19
             The Research Process and
              Functional Categories of
     _   Discovery
     _   Retrieval
     _   Collation
     _   Analysis
     _   Re-presentation

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             Structural & Administrative
      Making of America II (MOA2)
      Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard

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                        MOA II Metadata
     _   Administrative Metadata
         –   for enhancing resource management
     _   Structural Metadata
         –   for reflecting internal hierarchies and relationships
             btwn parts

     _   Raw/Seared/Cooked

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                       MOA II Behaviors
      Navigation
      Display/Print

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                  MOA II Best practices
      Use/Users/Collection:
      Benchmarking
      Masters vs. Derivatives
      Scanning-
      Administrative Metadata-
      Structural Metadata-

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                Scanning Best Practices
     _   Think about users (and potential        _   Include color bar and ruler in the scan
         users), uses, and type of               _   Use objective measurements to
         material/collection                         determine scanner settings (do NOT
     _   Scan at the highest quality that            attempt to make the image good on
         does not exceed the likely potential        your particular monitor or use image
         users/uses/material                         processing to color correct)
     _   Do not let today’s delivery             _   Don’t use lossy compression
         limitations influence your scanning     _   Store in a common (standardized) file
         file sizes; understand the difference       format
         between digital masters and             _   Capture as much metadata as is
         derivative files used for delivery          reasonably possiple (including
     _   Many documents which appear to              metadata about the scanning process
         be bitonal actually are better              itself)
         represented with greyscale scans

Besser--SfS-Hague 18/10/02                                                                     25
                 Why Scale is important

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               Administrative Metadata
         to uniquely identify a digital resource and manage it over

     _   Information about where the various
         pieces/versions of the object reside
     _   Information to view the digital object
     _   Information about the scanning process

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                    Structural Metadata:
         that which is relevant to presentation of the digital
                          object to the user

     _   metadata defining the "object”: a book, a diary,
         a photo album
     _   metadata defining the “sub-objects”: pages
         (physical) or chapters and subheads

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              Other Types of Metadata-
     _   Actors Metadata
     _   Longevity
     _   Identification/Provenance
     _   Rights Management

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          DELOS/NSF Working Group
             Reference Models
             Digital Libraries:
             Actors and Roles

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             NSF/DELOS Actors/Roles
     _   Classes of Actors, including
         –   Persons
         –   Organizations
         –   automata
     _   Roles & implications
         –   Production
         –   Dissemination
         –   Management
         –   use

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             Multimedia & Collaborative
                  Authorship imply
     _   Not only:
         –   Authors
         –   Editors
         –   Publishers
     _   But also creators of
         –   Text
         –   Illustrations
         –   Composers
         –   Musicians...

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         And goes beyond conventional
     _   Others that are part of digital library
         –   Users
         –   Catalogers
         –   Reference librarians
     _   Even other groups/entities
         –   Software agents
         –   Mediators
         –   Special rights holders...
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Borbinha’s “naive tentative sketch” of the problem...
                                             Digital Library


                                                         Licensing       Acquisition

                                                        Dissemination   Registration


                                                          Access        Preservation

  Creator      Editor               User   Registered

 Distributor                               Anonymous

Besser--SfS-Hague 18/10/02                                                             34
                             Benefits for
     _   Linking metadata to authority records
     _   Rights management
     _   Privacy protection

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_ Workshop     proceedings: proceedings with invited
  contributions and papers selected from a call, intended
  to be a reference source for the current state of the art.
_ White paper:
   – Definition and introduction to the problem.
   – Description and analysis of the requirements.
   – A proposal to the community for a reference model,
      focusing on definitions of key concepts,
      terminology, classes of agents, services,
      relationships, etc.
   – Proposals for an international agenda for further
      technical and collaborative developments.
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Core group
 DELOS (Europe)                                NSF (USA)
 _   José Borbinha, National Library of        _   John Kunze, University of California,
     Portugal (DELOS coordinator)                  USA (NSF coordinator)
 _   Michel Mabe, Elsevier Science, UK         _   Barbara Tillett, Library of Congress, USA
     (Publishing industry)                         (Libraries)
 _   Peter Mutschke, Social Science            _   Becky Dean, OCLC, USA (Libraries
     Information Centre, Germany (Software         services)
     agents, Information Retrieval)            _   Angela Spinazze, CIMI/RLG, USA
 _   Hans-Jörg Lieder, Berlin State Library,       (Museums)
     Germany (LEAF project)                    _   Howard Besser, University of California,
 _   Gunnar Karlsen, University of Bergen,         USA (Multimedia and digital art
     Norway (Archives)                             production)
 WIPO – World Intellectual                     DCMI - Dublin Core Metadata
  Property Organisation                         Initiative
 _   Glenn Macstravic                          _   Warwick Cathro, National Library of
Besser--SfS-Hague 18/10/02                                                               37
Work plan
  Phase 1: Starting (March - April 2002)
  _ Tuning objectives, scope, and action plan
  _ Identification of reference sources
  _ Call for contributions to the workshop

  Phase 2: Internal Discussion (May - June 2002)
  _ Analysis of the problem
  _ Draft paper

  Phase 3: Public Discussion (July - October 2002)
  _ Expose the draft paper. Promote open public discussion
  _ Workshop in Portugal (July 3-5). Workshop report
  _ Draft paper (second version)

  Phase 4: Conclusions (November - December 2002)
  _ Review of the work done...
  _ Final report

Besser--SfS-Hague 18/10/02                                   38
... Actors and Roles ???

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Recent Digital Preservation Activities-

      The Problem
      Preservation Repositories
      Preservation Metadata
      Other Digital Preservation Activities
      Special concerns of Cult Heritage community

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           Serious Longevity Problems
      What   we know from prior widespread digital
       file formats
      Previous formats required little ongoing
       intervention (remote storage facilities, Iron
       Mtn); digital formats require intense ongoing
      The Short Life of Digital Info-

Besser--SfS-Hague 18/10/02                             41
          The Short Life of Digital Info:
           Digital Longevity Problems
      Disappearing  Information
      The Viewing Problem
      The Scrambling Problem
      The Inter-relation Problem
      The Custodial Problem
      The Translation Problem

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               Older Longevity Projects

      CPA  Task Force
      Getty “Time & Bits” Conference & Follow-ups-
      Preservation experiments in US and Europe
         NEDLIB,            CURL, Michigan

      Internet
      Long Now

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                Preservation Repositories:
              Projects based on OAIS Model
      CEDARS
      NEDLIB
      Pandora
      CDL
      OCLC/RLG     Working Group on Preservation
        Metadata, Attributes of a Trusted Digital
        Repository, August 2001-
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                      Preservation Metadata

      OCLC/RLG     Working Group on Preservation
       Metadata, Preservation Metadata for Digital
       Objects: A Review of the State of the Art,
       January 31 2001
      OCLC/RLG Working Group on Preservation
       Metadata, A Recommendation for Content
       Information, October 2001

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              Preservation Repositories:
            Open Archival Info System Model
        High-level reference model describing submission, organization
         and management, and continuing access
        Conceptual framework for different organizations to share
         discussions with a common language
        Producers, consumers, management, actual repository
        SIP, DIP, AIP
        AIP consists of data objects plus representation info (Content,
         Preservation Description, Packaging, Descriptive)
        Originally developed for Space Science community

Besser--SfS-Hague 18/10/02                                                 46
      Preservation Repositories -- AIP
     _   Preservation Description Info
         –   reference info
         –   context info
         –   provenance info
         –   fixity info
     _   Packaging Info
     _   Descriptive Info
     _   Content Info
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         Other Digital Preservation Activities-

        LC Natl Dig Info Infrastructure & Preservation
        InterPARES
        Emulation Projects
        E-Journal Archiving
        ERPANET
        Persistent Naming

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         LC’s National Digital Information
          Infrastructure and Preservation
     _   Authorized Dec 2000
     _   LC, Dept of Commerce, NARA, White House
         Office of Sci & Tech Policy
     _   with help from CLIR, NLM, NAL, OCLC, RLG
     _   Ongoing collab process
     _   Commissioned papers on preserving: the Web,
         periodicals, digital sound, E-Books, Digital TV,
         Digital Video
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          International Research on Permanent Authentication
                     Records in Electronic Systems
     _   Ongoing international archival world project
         examining how to make electronically-
         generated records last over time
     _   Developing the theoretical and methodological
         knowledge needed, then will formulate model
         policies, strategies, and standards
     _   Next year will be extended to include images
         and rich media

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         Electronic Resource Preservation and
             Access NETwork (ERPANET)
     _   Best practices and skills development for digital
         preservation of cultural heritage and scientific
     _   3 year project launched Nov 2001; 1.2 million

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                             Persistent Naming

        URNs
        Handles
        PURLs
        Re-directs

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              What’s special about Cult
                Heritage Materials?
     _   Images & rich media
     _   Inter-relationships btwn parts
     _   For Contemporary Art: What is the Work?-

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              LeWitt: Wall Drawing 340

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                         Installing LeWitt

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                LeWitt Install Directions

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              Complexity of Rich Media
     _   Works often have artistic nature (including
         video games)
     _   Enormous number of elements can, at times, be
         very important to preserve (pacing, original
         artifact, elements used to construct the artifact)
     _   Too complex to save every one of these aspects
         for every type of material
     _   Importance of saving documentation
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             What can we do specific to
                  Electronic Art?
     _   Works themselves may no longer even exist; in many cases, what we can
         save amounts to forensic evidence
     _   Enormous number of elements can, at times, be very important to preserve
         (pacing, original artifact, elements used to construct the artifact)
     _   Too complex to save every one of these aspects for every type of material
     _   Importance of saving pieces, representations, and documentation
     _   Involve the artists to capture their intentions
     _   Importance of Standards
     _   Familiarize ourselves with recent conservation developments (Who Knows?,
         TechArcheology, Tate, IMAP)

Besser--SfS-Hague 18/10/02                                                           58
                Standards for encoding
                   artists intentions
                (group efforts w/i Cult Heritage community)

     _   Artists Interviews Project, Netherlands Institute for Cultural
         Heritage 1998-1999, (
     _   TechArcheology: A Symposium on Installation Preservation
     _   More recent SFMOMA/Tate collaborations
     _   IMAP
     _   Guggenheim’s Variable Media

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         Structural Metadata Standards
            for Encoding Multimedia
                             (no time for details)

     _   SMIL
     _   MPEG 4

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      The number of variant forms of a work can be
      Image Families
      A digital image frequently has many layers of
      Information about the parentage that can indicate the
       quality and veracity of the image (Dublin Core
       "Source" and "Relation")
      how to deal with different versions derived from the
       same scan or different encoding schemes
      Vocabulary Standards to express this
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     The number of variant forms of a
         work can be enormous
      different views of the same object
      different scans of the same photo
      different resolutions
      different compression schemes
      different compression ratios
      different file storage formats
      different details of the same image
      ...

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                             Image Families

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      how  to deal with different versions (browse, hi-
       res, medium res) derived from the same scan or
       different encoding schemes (TIFF, PICT, JFIF)
      Vocabulary Standards to express this
         –   VRA Surrogate Categories
         –   CIMI's "Image Elements”

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         Incorporate parts of Functional
         Requirements for Bibliographic
                Records (FRBR)
     _   work
     _   expression
     _   manifestion
     _   item

     _   (and push into “change history” section of
         Technical Image Metadata)
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NISO/DLF Technical Image Metadata
                             (Z39.87-2002 draft)

      create  metadata needed to manage images in
       digital repositories over long periods of time
       (full life-cycle mgmt)
      document image provenance & history
      ensure that the images will be rendered
       accurately on any output device
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                             Technical Image Metadata

          Focus on Metadata that may
               prove helpful for
      management
      use
      preservation
      ...

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                             Technical Image Metadata

                               In Scope
           bit-mapped pictorial images
      still,
      scanned/reformatted images (+ born digital)

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                             Technical Image Metadata

                             Out of Scope
      vector images
      moving images
      images of OCR-able text
      structural and hierarchical relationships between
      rights management, terms of use
      (authenticity/security)

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                             Technical Image Metadata

         Technical Image Metadata-Z39.87

      Image  parameters (MIME type, compression,
       colorspace & profile, …)
      Image Creation (source, capture info, etc.)
      Image performance assessment (sampling,
       colormap, whitepoint, target data, etc.)
      Change history (source, processing, etc.)

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                             Technical Image Metadata

         Technical Image Metadata-Z39.87

      additional       XML implementation schema (MIX)

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                         Other Metadata
     _   Description of depiction/surrogate (What VRA
         calls its "Surrogate Categories")
     _   Description of original object

     _   Rights and Reproduction Information
     _   Location Information

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                         Data Structures:
                          The VRA Core
      28 elements specifically for visual resource
      Work Description Categories-
      Visual Document Description Categories-

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                 VRA Core:
          Work Description Categories
        Work type           _   Repository number
        Title               _   Current site
        Measurements        _   Original site
        Material            _   Style/period/group/movemen
        Technique               t
        Creator             _   Nationality/culture
        Role
                             _   Subject
        Date
                             _   Related work
        Repository name
        Repository place    _   Relationship type
                             _   Notes
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                         VRA Core:
        Visual Document Description
      Visual document type
        Visual document format
        Visual document measurements
        Visual document date
        Visual document owner
        Visual document owner number
        Visual document view description
        Visual document subject
        Visual document source

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                   Data Value Metadata
      LCSH
      TGM
      AAT
      ULAN
      TGN
      VRA       Core

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      very     general

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      Thesaurus for Graphic Materials
      designed  for subject indexing of pictorial materials,
       particularly large general collections of historical
      for cataloging and retrieval
      good for general audiences and broad approaches to
       the material
      TGM-I: Subject Terms & TGM-II: Genre and Physical
       Characteristic Terms
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      120,000  terms
      for describing objects, textual materials, images,
       architecture, and material culture from antiquity
       to present
      large and complex

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      name   authority

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     Thesaurus of Geographic Names
      over 1 million records
      hierarchical and global
      throughout history
      most records include coordinates and
       descriptive notes

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       Metadata for Digital Commerce
      DOI
      <indecs>-

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        formal structure for describing and uniquely identifying intellectual property
         itself, the people and businesses involved in its trading, and the agreements
         which they make about it (primarily for publishing, music, and visual arts)
        will develop high-level specifications for the services that will be required to
         implement a global IP trading system based on this <indecs> generic data
        focus is on encoding rights at a high level, not on resource discovery
        likely to involve metadata schma registration and directory to allow
         interoperation of personal identifiers for rightsholders and users
        supported by EEC DG-13
        First meeting July 1999

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                      Metadata Mapping
      Crosswalks
      ResourceDescription Framework (RDF)
      Open Archives & metadata harvesting

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      mapping  btwn differing metadata structures
      eliminate the need for monolithic, universally
       adopted standards
      focus on flexibility and interoperatiblity
      RDF-based metadata registries

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                                               C I MI                                      VRA Core                                DU B LIN
          CDWA               Ob je ct ID                                F DA                               U S MARC
                                              S chem a                                     Ca tegor i es                            C O RE
        O B J ECT /W                                              D oc um en t
        O R K (c ore )
                                      Crosswalk Example           C l ass i fic a ti on
                                                                  - Ca t al o g
                                                                  Le vel (c or e)
                                                                  D oc um en t
                                                                  C l ass i fic a ti on
                                                                  - G rou p Ty p e
        O bj ect /W or k-   T y pe of      o bj e ct N A M E      D oc um en t             W 1. W or k     6 5 5 G e n re -      T y pe
        Ty pe (c o re )     O bj ect                              C l ass i fic a ti on    Ty pe           F o rm
                                                                  - D oc um en t
                                                                  T y pe (c o re )
                                                                  P u rpos e -
                                                                  P u rpos e
                                                                  ( B r oa d) (co re )
                                                                  P u rpos e -
                                                                  P u rpos e
                                                                  ( Na rr ow)
        O bj ect /W or k-                  q ua nti t y           D oc um en t                             3 0 0a P hys ica l
        C om p one n ts                                           C l ass i fic a ti on                    D e s c rip ti on -
                                                                  - Ex t en t                              E x te n t
        O R I ENT A TI                                                                                                           D e s cr ip ti on
        A RR AN G E
        M E NT
        TI TLE S O R        Ti t le        o bj e ctT itl e       G rou p/ Ite m           W 2. Ti t le    2 4 X a Ti t le       Ti t le
        NAMES                              b ib li og ra p hi c   I de n t ifi cat i on-                   a ndT i tl e -
        (co re )                           Ti tle                 R e p os it o ry                         R e la t ed
                                                                  Ti tle                                   In fo rm at io n
                                                                  G rou p/ Ite m
                                                                  I de n t ifi cat i on-
                                                                  D es c ri p ti v e
                                                                  Ti tle (c or e)
                                                                  G rou p/ Ite m
                                                                  I de n t ifi cat i on-
                                                                  I n s c rib e d
                                                                  Ti tle

Besser--SfS-Hague 18/10/02                                                                                                                           86
            Resource Description
         Framework (RDF, spec released 2/99)
     _   W3C Metadata activity
     _   designed to move the Web beyond simple links to semantically-
         rich relationships btwn resources
     _   metadata application using XML as a common syntax for
         exchange and processing
     _   flexible architecture for managing diverse application-specific
         metadata packets that can be processed by machines
     _   associates resources, property types, and corresponding values

Besser--SfS-Hague 18/10/02                                                 87
     _   Resources (character strings, names, digital
     _   Property (“is the author of”)
     _   Value

     _   resources+properties=relationships
     _   many different relationships can be reflected
Besser--SfS-Hague 18/10/02                               88
                     XML-encoded RDF
     _   <?xml:namespace ns=
         prefix="RDF" ?>
     _   <?xml:namespace ns= prefix="DC" ?>

     _   <RDF:RDF>
     _   <DC:Creator>Howard Besser</DC:Creator>
     _   </RDF:Description>
     _   </RDF:RDF>

Besser--SfS-Hague 18/10/02                                            89
            Open Archives & metadata

Besser--SfS-Hague 18/10/02             90
          Our Images & Words are not
                always accurate
      We  do not yet have digital libraries
      But there are avenues we can follow to move
       from digital collections to digital libraries

Besser--SfS-Hague 18/10/02                             91
Besser--SfS-Hague 18/10/02   92
        Digital Repository Traditions &
                Services require
     Sustainability
     Interoperability
     Access

     And     all of these require Standards and Metadata

Besser--SfS-Hague 18/10/02                                  93
        Building a Digital Future: Sustainable,
       Interoperable, Accessible Repositories
                           Howard Besser
                 NYU Archiving & Preservation Program
   Baca, Murtha (ed). Introduction to Metadata, Los Angeles: Getty Information Institute, 1998
Besser--SfS-Hague 18/10/02                                                                       94

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