102--LOGOS_PATHOS_ETHOS

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102--LOGOS_PATHOS_ETHOS Powered By Docstoc
					PERSUASIVE
 APPEALS:
Logos, Pathos, Ethos
             RHETORICAL                               2




             STRATEGIES
•   DESCRIPTION
•   NARRATION (anecdotes)
•   ILLUSTRATION (examples)
•   PROCESS-ANALYSIS
•   DIVISION and CLASSIFICATION (roles, types)
•   COMPARISON and CONTRAST (similarities, differ.)
•   DEFINITION
•   REFUTATION
•   PARADOX
•   CAUSE and EFFECT
•   ANALOGY
                                                  3




    TYPES of EVIDENCE
•   FACTS
•   STATISTICS
•   FIGURES, NUMBERS, DATES
•   EXAMPLES
•   REASONS
•   DETAILS
•   ANECDOTES
•   EYE-WITNESS TESTIMONY (first-hand, primary)
•   EXPERT TESTIMONY
                                         4

     HOW TO EVALUATE
        EVIDENCE
•   TIMELINESS (relevance)
•   INTENT (to entertain, to persuade)
•   CREDIBILITY (sincerity, agendas)
•   CONTEXT (circumstance, situation)
                                                        5

    HOW TO EVALUATE
       EVIDENCE
• LOGICAL:
  o reasons, examples, details, facts, stats, figures

• EMOTIONAL:
  o examples, anecdotes, eye-witness testimony

• CREDIBLE:
  o details, facts, stats, figures, expert testimony
                              6


          LOGOS




            THE
         Rhetorical
         TRIANGLE

PATHOS                ETHOS
• Not to be confused with Alexandre Dumas’ Three   7


  Musketeers:
  o Athos
  o Porthos
  o Aramis
  o (and d'Artagnan )
                                                             8

   BACKGROUND: ARISTOTLE and the
      RHETORICAL TRIANGLE
• In Rhetoric (350 BC), the Greek philosopher Aristotle
  (384-322 BC) suggests that the fundamental human
  characteristics include:
   o logic, reasoning
   o emotion, empathy, compassion
   o credibility, trust (perception of character)
• Thus, he divided the persuasive appeals of rhetoric into
  3 parts:
   o Logos,
   o Pathos,
   o Ethos
                                                  9




                   LOGOS
• “logic”

• SUPPORT, PROOF, “GROUNDS”:
  o logic,
  o reasons,
  o examples,
  o details,
  o facts
  o “Just the facts, ma’am.” (Dragnet)
  o appeals to the Vulcan inside us (Star Trek)
                                                              10




EVALUATING LOGOS
• PURPOSE= to stir readers’ thoughts, to offer readers
  different perspectives, for readers to see something in a
  new way

• THESIS= reasonable

• EVIDENCE= accurate; clear, convincing; relevant,
  appropriate

• REASONS= make sense, no fallacies
                                                      11




   LOGOS EXAMPLES
SHAKESPEARE’S SONNET #18:
  Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
  Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
  Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
  And summer's lease hath all too short a date:
  Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
  And often is his gold complexion dimmed,
  And every fair from fair sometime declines,
  By chance, or nature's changing course untrimmed:
  But thy eternal summer shall not fade,
  Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st,
  Nor shall death brag thou wander'st in his shade,
  When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st,
  So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,
  So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
                                                           12




   LOGOS EXAMPLES
SONNET 18:
• LOGICAL CONSTRUCTION:
  o ordered structure
      3 quatrains + 1 couplet
      evidence to support the point + concise statement
      of the point
• RHYME SCHEME (ABAB, CDCD, EFEF, GG)
• REGULAR RHYTHM
  o 14 lines of rhymed iambic pentameter
• LOGIC, REASONS
  o COMPARISONS and CONTRASTS
                                        13

    Other Examples of Logos
        in Shakespeare
•   Macbeth on regicide
•   Hamlet on anything (esp. suicide)
•   Brutus on Conspiracy
•   Jacques on the world stage
•   Jacques on the 7 ages of man
•   Ulysses on degree
                                                  14




  LOGOS in everyday life
• to win an argument on any subject:
   o receipts, ticket stubs
   o photos, video
   o text or phone or e-mail messages
   o witnesses, quotes
   o examples, instances, incidents, anecdotes
   o weather, financial, medical, legal reports
                                                             15




  LOGOS in everyday life
FRIENDS:
• to win an argument on sports (e.g.):
   o use reasons supported by statistics, highlights
     (examples), details, facts, spectator (witness)

SCHOOL:
• to argue a grade:
   o refer (rationally) to the syllabus, assignment sheet,
     textbook, test question, lecture notes, handouts
                                                   16




  LOGOS in everyday life
PARENTS:
• to argue for a raise in allowance
• to argue to borrow the car
• to argue to extend curfew
   o refer to “record” (stats) or make a bargain

CAR:
• to buy a car, to repair/keep vs. trade/sell/junk
   o use a debit sheet, refer to an advertisement
   o Kelley Blue Book, NADA, Edmunds.com, Lemon Law
                                                             17




  LOGOS in everyday life
WORK (with your boss):
• to argue for a raise, day off
• employment file, service, dedication, time card, schedule

WORK (with a customer):
• refer to circular, advertisement, sign, computer, register

WORK (as a customer):
• with the cashier, customer service representative
• refer to circular, advertisement, sign, register receipt
                                                     18




  LOGOS in everyday life
• Card Stacking
   o present only one side of the issue
   o failure in Iraq
• Erroneous, faulty data
   o WMD                         BAD LOGOS
   o mistaken witness
   o false credentials
   o assumption, inference, implication (not fact)
• Faulty reasoning
   o poor induction or deduction
                                                         19




                  PATHOS
• “sympathy,” “empathy,” “pathetic”
• appeal to emotions (*fear, pity, guilt)
• human emotions= affection, anger, contempt, delight,
  despair, disgust, embarrassment, envy, excitement, fear,
  guilt, hope, horror, humiliation, humor, jealousy, joy,
  love, royalty, passion, pity, pride, remorse, ridicule,
  sadness, shame, shock, shyness, sorrow, vengeance



• *often stronger than LOGOS
                                       20




 EVALUATING PATHOS
• LEGITIMATE & APPROPRIATE
  o NOT forced,
  o NOT faked,
  o NOT manipulative

• With RESTRAINT
  o NOT exaggerated,
  o NOT overdone with wild hysterics

• With a SENSE of AUDIENCE
                                                   21




 EVALUATING PATHOS
DANGERS:
• manipulative:
   o can lead readers from their better judgment
   o mob mentality
• often uses loaded language
   o emotionally charged words or phrases
   o words with strong connotations
                                                        22




  PATHOS EXAMPLES
Shakespeare’s Sonnet #29:

  When in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes
  I all alone beweep my outcast state,
  And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries,
  And look upon myself, and curse my fate,
  Wishing me like to one more rich in hope,
  Featured like him, like him with friends possessed,
  Desiring this man's art, and that man's scope,
  With what I most enjoy contented least;
  Yet in these thoughts my self almost despising,
  Haply I think on thee, and then my state,
  Like to the lark at break of day arising
  From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven's gate;
  For thy sweet love remembered such wealth brings
  That then I scorn to change my state with kings.
                                                         23

    Other Examples of Pathos
         in Shakespeare
• Macbeth’s “Tomorrow” (self-pity)
• Lear on ingratitude (self-pity)
• Lear with “Mad Tom”
• Lear with dead Cordelia
• Ophelia’s madness, Gertrude at Ophelia’s, Horatio at
  Hamlet’s death
• Mark Antony with Julius Caesar’s wounds
  (manipulative)
• Timon’s or Coriolanus’ vitriol
• Romeo and Juliet’s death
                                                      24




PATHOS in everyday life
FRIENDS:
• peer pressure
• teasing

SCHOOL:
• to argue a grade, to submit a late assignment
   o appeal to your bad day, death in the family
   o the evil computer (“the computer ate my homework”)
   o your race or gender, the teacher’s race or gender
                                             25




PATHOS in everyday life
PARENTS:
• guilt-trips by/to your mother
   o previous events or relationships
   o other siblings
   o playing one parent against the other

RELATIONSHIPS:
• guilt-trips by/to your significant other
   o previous events or relationships
   o other boy/girlfriends
                                                            26




PATHOS in everyday life
CAR:
• to buy or keep
   o attraction, sentimentality, frustration
• to try to get out of a speeding ticket
   o appeal to your bad day, death in the family, race or
     gender, to the officer’s race or gender
   o flirt, act dumb or innocent
                                                            27




PATHOS in everyday life
WORK:
• to argue with your boss (raise, promotion, break)
   o use your family, dedication, years of service, long shift
• as a customer:
   o to argue a price, repair work, warranty coverage
   o use your years of customer loyalty, justifiable anger
     or indignation
   o threaten to take your business elsewhere, to write or
     call the supervisor, to take your issue up the “food
     chain”
                                                           28




PATHOS in everyday life
• Sentimentality: save the children commercials
• Hatred: mobs, gangs, voters, anti-? demonstrations
• Patriotism: rallies, parades, 9/11, commercials,
  commercialization (not just USA patriotism)
• Love: Valentine’s Day, ad/commercials, Web sites
• Sex: ad/commercials (cars, TAG), Web sites
• Humor: stand-ups, late-night shows, cartoons (hit&run)
• Religiosity: guilt-trips, hell fire & brimstone, hypocrisy,
  extremists, fundamentalists, cults
                                  BAD PATHOS
                                                           29




                     ETHOS
• “ethics”
• writer’s credibility, character
• characteristics of an ethical person: benevolence,
  courage, credibility, decency, dedication, dignity,
  enthusiasm, good will, honesty, honor, idealism,
  intelligence, morality, nobility, patriotism, resolve,
  respect, responsibility, seriousness, sincerity,
  trustworthiness, valor, wisdom
                   30




EVALUATING ETHOS
Is the writer… ?
• fair-minded,
• trustworthy,
• believable,
• sincere,
• honest,
• well-prepared
                                                                              31




EVALUATING ETHOS
AN ETHICAL WRITER ...
• presents both sides of the issue AND
• is fair to both sides (Rogerian Method)
• shows different points of view
• appears well-versed on subject (accuracy)
• gives biography (job, education, credentials)
• uses data that’s well-researched (*authority)
• has displays of intellect/knowledge
• exhibits a sense of right & wrong
• is not manipulative (*with PATHOS)
• uses the voice of a concerned citizen addressing a serious societal issue
• perhaps is challenging givens/bullies
• demonstrates good will & good intentions
• appears dedicated to the truth
                                              32




                     ETHOS
TONE: (toward the subject and the audience)
• concerned,
• caring, compassionate
• interested
• genuine, frank, earnest, honest

•   NOT sarcastic,
•   NOT self-aggrandizing, self-righteous
•   NOT condescending,
•   NOT arrogant,
•   NOT insincere
                                                       33




                   ETHOS
DANGER:
• exploited to serve unethical ends:
• pretending to be moral,
• irresponsible/immoral persons presenting themselves as
  responsible/moral
                                                       34




    ETHOS EXAMPLES
SHAKESPEARE’S SONNET #130:
  My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun;
  Coral is far more red, than her lips red:
  If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;
  If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.
  I have seen roses damasked, red and white,
  But no such roses see I in her cheeks;
  And in some perfumes is there more delight
  Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks.
  I love to hear her speak, yet well I know
  That music hath a far more pleasing sound:
  I grant I never saw a goddess go,
  My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground:
  And yet by heaven, I think my love as rare,
  As any she belied with false compare.
                                                           35




    ETHOS EXAMPLES
SONNET #130:
• Same LOGOS as #18 (14 lines of rhymed iambic
  pentameter, 3 quatrains + couplet, contrasts)
• BUT…
• What is the Speaker’s tone?
   o Down-to-earth honesty, wit (anti-Petrarchan)
   o Mean-spirited sarcasm
   o “dun,” “black wires,” “reek”
   o “rare” = 1) precious, special, 2) unusual, freakish
                                                                                           36




      ETHOS EXAMPLES
POLONIUS to LAERTES:                             Give every man thy ear but few thy voice.
  Yet here, Laertes? Aboard, aboard, for         Take each man's censure but reserve thy
  shame!                                         judgment.
  The wind sits in the shoulder of your sail     Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy,
  And you are stayed for. There, my blessing     But not expressed in fancy—rich, not gaudy,
  with thee.                                     For the apparel oft proclaims the man,
  And these few precepts in thy memory           And they in France of the best rank and
  Look thou character. Give thy thoughts no      station
  tongue,                                        Are of a most select and generous chief in
  Nor any unproportioned thought his act.        that.
  Be thou familiar but by no means vulgar.       Neither a borrower nor a lender be,
  Those friends thou hast, and their adoption    For loan oft loses both itself and friend,
  tried,                                         And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry.
  Grapple them unto thy soul with hoops of       This above all: to thine own self be true,
  steel,                                         And it must follow, as the night the day,
  But do not dull thy palm with entertainment    Thou canst not then be false to any man.
  Of each new-hatched, unfledged comrade.        Farewell. My blessing season this in thee.
  Beware
  Of entrance to a quarrel, but being in,
  Bear 't that th' opposèd may beware of thee.
                                                                 37




    ETHOS EXAMPLES
• Polonius’ LOGOS:
   o practical information
   o aphorisms, maxims, clichés
• Polonius’ ETHOS:
   o rambling, meddling old man
   o fathering at last minute (and the ship’s waiting!)
   o not practical, but selfish, self-serving
   o opposite of Jesus: Beatitudes & faith, hope, love/charity
   o making Laertes into a “mini-Polonius”
• Polonius’ TONE?
   o loving, tough love, thoughtful
   o rambling, babbling, long-winded
   o crude, manipulative, sinister, worldly
                                                                 38




    ETHOS EXAMPLES
• CLAUDIUS at PRAYER:
  “My words fly up, my thoughts remain below. / Words
  without thoughts never to heaven go.” (3.3.98-99)

    BAD ETHOS = “words without thoughts”
• insincerity, artificiality, dishonesty, duplicity, hypocrisy
• heart vs. words
                                                          39

  Other Examples of Ethos
      in Shakespeare
• Claudius on death
• Claudius at prayer
• Lady Macbeth attacking her husband’s manliness to
  convince him to murder Duncan
• Decius’ re-interpretation of Julius Caesar’s dream to get
  him to go to the capital
• Mark Antony’s eulogy of Julius Caesar to sway the mob
  against the Conspirators
                                                               40




  ETHOS in everyday life
FRIENDS:
• your best interest, no ulterior motives
• advice from personal experiences

POLITICS:
• political, religious, sports scandals (who do you believe)
• voting for a politician (record, accountability)

SCHOOL:
• request for help or argue a grade
   o factors: attendance, participation, preparedness, tone
                                                               41




  ETHOS in everyday life
PARENTS:
• advice from experience
• fair, consistent rulings (parents)
• honesty, reliability, responsibility, accountability (you)

RELATIONSHIPS:
• trust
• honesty, best interests, morals, values, sincerity
• responsibility, accountability
                                                        42




  ETHOS in everyday life
CAR:
• reliable dealer, quality service, good reputation
• responsibility, accountability, dependability

WORK:
• attempt to be fair-minded, understanding, calm, rational
• you, your boss, the customer
                                                              43




  ETHOS in everyday life
• false charm:
   o proverbial wolf in sheep’s clothing
   o politician, serial killer, ex-boy/girlfriend
• hypocrites:
   o who say one thing but do another
• arguing a grade:
   o disrespectful tone, poor record       BAD ETHOS
• relationships:
   o poor record, caught in a lie (lipstick, cig. smell), faulty
     reasoning, limited sense of right & wrong, bullying
                    44




       THE


 PERSUASIVE
   APPEALS
in everyday life:
A CASE STUDY
                     45




BASEBALL & STEROIDS
   The STEROID Era
                  46




MITCHELL REPORT
                                                                                                47




 DRAMATIS PERSONAE
Kirk Radomski                           Barry Bonds                             Brian McNamee




                                              Sen. George Mitchell,
                                              union leader Donald Fehr,
                                              commissioner Bud Selig




        Sammy Sosa, Jason Giambi, Rafael Palmeiro, Mark McGwire, Jose Canseco, Miguel Tejada
                  48




HE SAID-HE SAID
                                                                                                           49




                 CREDIBILITY?
MITCHELL REPORT:
•   George Mitchell, former Senate Majority leader, Maine Democrat (retired 1995)
•   20-month investigation & report has no legal standing
•   relied on McNamee and Radomski (limited contact)
•   only 2 active players involved (Giambi, Frank Thomas)
     o only 5 approached to be interviewed
•   only 68 of 500 former players interviewed
•   remainder of the 700 = current or former club officials, managers, coaches, team physicians,
    athletic trainers, or resident security agents
•   failure to release most of the evidence from his probe on doping in baseball
     o (50+ documents referenced in footnotes )
•   Conflict of interest:
     o   Mitchell is on the board of directors for the Boston Red Sox; no BRS prime player was named, but
         prime NY Yankees players were
     o   leaked information prior to Game 7 of ALCS (Indians-Sox) @ Paul Byrd’s (Indians pitcher) alleged
         steroids use
     o   chairman of the board of the Walt Disney Co., parent of ESPN, which has an eight-year, $2.4 billion
         contract to televise MLB games & is currently producing a reality show with Barry Bonds
     o   Mitchell was hired by the Commissioner’s Office and then suggests in the report that the CO have
         more testing power, rather than outside, independent testing
     o   players were named, but not team officials (who knew @ steroid use, traded players when they quit)
                                                                                 50




             CREDIBILITY?
RADOMSKI:
• a former New York Mets clubhouse attendant (11 yrs.)
• became the chief supplier of drugs for baseball players after the 2003 federal
  shut-down of BALCO
• after a December 2005 federal raid on his NY home (operation base)
• pleaded guilty last year (April 2007 ) in SF to money laundering & to the illegal
  distribution of anabolic steroids, human growth hormone, Clenbuterol,
  amphetamines, & other drugs to McNamee and current & former MLB
  players
• cooperated (17+ months) with the federal authorities and Mitchell’s
  investigators in exchange for leniency (plea deal)
   o 17+ months of cooperation
   o “undercover” distribution of steroids (wire)
   o his own distribution of steroids
   o his witnessing of steroid usage among Mets players
   o knowledge of steroids in general
   o Sentence: five years' probation & an $18,575 fine
        • faced up to 25 years in prison & $500,000 in fine
                                                          51




         CREDIBILITY?
McNAMEE:
• a prior sexual assault allegation against him
• prior public denials about giving steroids to ballplayers
• cooperated with federal authorities & Mitchell as part of
  a plea agreement on steroids-dealing charges
• “drug dealer”
• kept “blackmail” evidence
• brought in Clemens’ wife
• RC was not at the 1998 J. Canseco party in Miami
                                                          52




         CREDIBILITY?
CLEMENS:
• Andy Pettitte’s recollection of a 1999 conversation w/RC
• Clemens’ wife Debbie used HGH, from McNamee, in 2003
• McNamee was right @ Pettitte and Knoblauch
• Mitchell Office’s notification to MLBPU in July
• only B-12 and Lidocaine injections from McNamee
   o Clemens had a "palpable mass" on his buttocks that
     was, according to Toronto Blue Jays' doctors &
     trainers, unlike anything they had ever seen caused by
     such injections
• Why would McNamee lie @ Clemens but not @ AP, CK?
                                                        53




         CREDIBILITY?
CONGRESS:
• divided on party lines
   o Republicans = supported Clemens
   o Democrats = supported McNamee
   o Why? Clemens is from Texas and is a friend of the
     Bush family.
• off-topic: supposed to be on the credibility of the
  Mitchell Report and not on individual culpability
• race: Barry Bonds = black, Roger Clemens = white; in
  order not to appear to have shown any bias, Congress
  wants to pursue Clemens with the same zeal it did Bonds
                                                                                            54




                CREDIBILITY?
             MAJORITY (Democrats)                                MINORITY (Republicans)
•   Henry Waxman, Chairman, California            •   Tom Davis, Ranking Member, Virginia
•   Ed Towns, New York                            •   Dan Burton, Indiana
•   Paul E. Kanjorski, Pennsylvania               •   Christopher Shays, Connecticut
•   Carolyn B. Maloney, New York                  •   John M. McHugh, New York
•   Elijah Cummings, Maryland                     •   John Mica, Florida
•   Dennis J. Kucinich, Ohio                      •   Mark Souder, Indiana
•   Danny K. Davis, Illinois                      •   Todd Russell Platts, Pennsylvania
•   John F. Tierney, Massachusetts                •   Chris Cannon, Utah
•   William Clay, Missouri                        •   John James Duncan, Jr., Tennessee
•   Diane Watson, California                      •   Michael R. Turner, Ohio
•   Stephen Lynch, Massachusetts                  •   Darrell Issa, California
•   Brian Higgins, New York                       •   Kenny Marchant, Texas
•   John Yarmuth, Kentucky                        •   Lynn Westmoreland, Georgia
•   Bruce Braley, Iowa                            •   Patrick McHenry, North Carolina
•   Eleanor Holmes Norton, District of Columbia   •   Virginia Foxx, North Carolina
•   Betty McCollum, Minnesota                     •   Brian Bilbray, California
•   Jim Cooper, Tennessee                         •   Bill Sali, Idaho
•   Chris Van Hollen, Maryland                    •   Jim Jordan, Ohio
•   Paul Hodes, New Hampshire
•   Chris Murphy, Connecticut
•   John Sarbanes, Maryland
•   Peter Welch, Vermont
                                                                                           55




               CREDIBILITY?
Committee Jurisdiction
•   Legislative Responsibilities
    The legislative jurisdiction of the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform
    includes the following areas, as set forth in House Rule X, clause 1:
•   Federal civil service, including intergovernmental personnel; and the status of officers
    and employees of the United States, including their compensation, classification, and
    retirement;
•   Municipal affairs of the District of Columbia in general (other than appropriations);
•   Federal paperwork reduction;
•   Government management and accounting measures generally;
•   Holidays and celebrations;
•   Overall economy, efficiency, and management of government operations and activities,
    including federal procurement;
•   National archives;
•   Population and demography generally, including the Census;
•   Postal service generally, including transportation of the mails;
•   Public information and records;
•   Relationship of the federal government to the states and municipalities generally; and
•   Reorganizations in the executive branch of the government.
                                                                                                                      56




                   CREDIBILITY?
Oversight Responsibilities
•   The oversight responsibilities of the Committee are set forth in House Rule X, clauses 2, 3, and 4.
•   House Rule X, clause 2(b), provides that the Committee shall review and study on a continuing basis—
•   (A) the application, administration, execution, and effectiveness of laws and programs addressing subjects within
    its jurisdiction;
•   (B) the organization and operation of Federal agencies and entities having responsibilities for the administration
    and execution of laws and programs addressing subjects within its jurisdiction;
•   (C) any conditions or circumstances that may indicate the necessity or desirability of enacting new or additional
    legislation addressing subjects within its jurisdiction (whether or not a bill or resolution has been introduced with
    respect thereto); and
•   (D) future research and forecasting on subjects within its jurisdiction.
•   House Rule X, clause 3(i), provides that the Committee shall “review and study on a continuing basis the
    operation of Government activities at all levels with a view to determining their economy and efficiency.”
•   House Rule X, clause 4(c)(1), provides that the Committee shall:
•   (A) receive and examine reports of the Comptroller General of the United States and submit to the House such
    recommendations as it considers necessary or desirable in connection with the subject matter of the reports;
•   (B) evaluate the effects of laws enacted to reorganize the legislative and executive branches of the Government;
    and
•   (C) study intergovernmental relationships between the States and municipalities and between the United States
    and international organizations of which the United States is a member.
•   And House Rule X, clause 4(c)(2), provides that the Committee “may at any time conduct investigations of any
    matter without regard to clause 1, 2, 3, or this clause [of House Rule X] conferring jurisdiction over the matter to
    another standing committee.”
•   <http://oversight.house.gov/rules/>
              57




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