Home » MAKALAH BAHASA INGGRIS » Environmental Engineering & EIA Environmental Engineering & EIA 1CHAPTER IPENDAHULUAN1.1. BackgroundIn general, humans depend on the circumstances lingkungandisekitarnya the form of natural resources which can menunjangkehidupan daily. The main natural resource for humans adalahtanah, water, and air. Land is a place for melakukanberbagai human activities. Water is needed by humans as komponenterbesar of the human body. To maintain balance, water sangatdibutuhkan with considerable amounts and quality yangbaik. In addition, the air is a natural source of oxygen bagipernapasan humans. A healthy environment will be realized if manusiadan baik.Lingkungan environment in living conditions in Indonesia need to be addressed because adanyabeberapa determining factors, one of which adanyamasalah about the state of the environment as ataudegradasi deterioration that occurs in various regions. Broadly speaking komponenlingkungan can be divided into three groups, namely the biotic (terrestrial and water flora, fauna, land and water), the abiotic (rice, water danudara) and the culture (economic, social, cultural and kesehatanmasyarakat). With the changing times accompanied development everywhere, the city of Kupang as one of the capital city of any province in Indonesia menjadisalah a city experiencing the impact of the changing times tersebut.disatu the progress of the positive impact on the community, other namundisisi been detrimental to the public, as a result of pembangunanyang not consider ecological factors , each ketergantunganmakluk life and nature, which then affect the environment padaketidakseimbangan sendiri.Telah it happens a wide range of environmental pollution dikotaKupang which then makes the city is no longer a city Environmental Engineering & EIA 2ramah environment. Based on the description above, the authors thenwant to put it in a paper entitled: " Environmental Pencamaran Happened in the city" 1.2. Problem FormulationBased on the background of the telas described, then dapatdibuat formulation of the problem as follows: a. Any problems that occur in the environment in the city? B. What are the causes and impacts of issues such Environmentalists? C. How do the efforts to overcome the masalahlingkungan life?1.3. PurposeThe purpose of writing this paper is dapatmengetahui problems that occur in the environment hidupKhususnya in the city and attempt to do to resolve the issue Environmental Engineering & EIA 3CHAPTER IILANDASAN TEORI2.1. Definition of EnvironmentBefore we talk about environmental pollution, there baiknyakita must know in advance the definition of the environment that this paper will be submitted sendiri.Dalam some defisini of Law No. lingkungan.Menurut. 23, 1997, hidupadalah neighborhood unity with all things space, power, state, and living creatures, including humans and their behavior, which mempengaruhikelangsungan livelihoods and human well-being and other living creatures. While the scope of environmental meliputiruang Indonesia, the Republic of Indonesia where the berWawasanNusantara in implementing the sovereignty, sovereign rights, and environmental yuridiksinya.Dalam contained ecosystem, namely the order unsurlingkungan whole life as a union, and comprehensive salingmempengaruhi in the form of balance, stability, environmental danproduktivitas hidup.Merujuk the above definition, the Indonesian environment is none other than the Archipelago, who finished antaradua cross continents and two oceans denganiklim tropisdancuacasertamusim which gives the state of nature and the role strategisyang notch higher the value, where bangsaIndonesiamenyelenggarakan kehidupanbernegara in all legal aspeknya.Secara the insight in conducting environmental penegakanhukumpengelolaan hidupdiIndonesiaadalahWawasan Nusantara.Sedangkan according to experts, among others: Munajat saputra: All items and conditions contained in the human ruangdimana was and affect the continuity of human dankesejahteraan Environmental Engineering & EIA 4Otto Sumarwoto: The environment is the amount of an object and kondisiyang be in the space we occupy a mempengaruhiKehidupan manusia.Emil Salim: All objects, conditions, circumstances and the effect that terdapatdi in space that affect all who are in ruangyang we live.2.2. Identification of Environmental QualityBiotic environments are all living creatures from organismeyang invisible to the animals and vegetation on the surface of the earth yangterdapat giant. While the abiotic environment merupakansegala everything that is around the living things that are not berupaorganisme.Adanya desire to achieve development targets idealialah Indonesia fully formed human beings are material and construction spiritual.Setiap need to review the components that include komponenbiotik, abiotic and culture are as follows: a . Environmentally sound development, is the best resource management and sustainable denganpembangunan mutuhidup improvements to the public. Development goals, namely to meningkatkankesejahteraan community. Development activities can be substantial menimbulkanpengaruh on the environment. Tersebutdapat activity is a natural, chemical as well as fisik.b. Environmental quality of life, ie by taking into account the environmental conditions around yangberhubungan the quality of life. Quality of life can be determined olehtiga main components, namely the requirement for biological survival, the requirement for human survival and fulfillment of the freedom to choose. Environment must be maintained in order to support the community life terhadapkualitas a level higher. Environment Environmental Engineering & EIA 5mempunyai ability to generate resources and pollution substances sertamengurangi limited social tensions. Bataskemampuan is called the carrying capacity. Life in Law UndangLingkungan, environmental carrying capacity is the ability suatulingkungan to support human livelihoods and other living creatures.2.3. Limitations of Ecology in DevelopmentEnvironmental biology or commonly known as the ecological adalahbagian of science who has close ties denganlingkungan. Ecology comes from the word oikos which means household danlogos science that has meaning. Thus, user define the ecology of knowledge about the interrelationships between living things with the state of the environment that is dynamic. Hubunganantara living environment is very limited with terhadaplingkungan is concerned, the relationship is called denganketerbatasan ecology. In the ecological limitations occur degradasiekosistem caused by two things: natural events and kegiatanmanusia. Naturally occurring events are not karenadisebabkan by human behavior. While humans are caused olehkegiatan ecosystem degradation that can occur diberbagaibidang include agriculture, mining, forestry, highway construction, water resources development and the urbanization.2.4. Understanding And Various Kinds Environmental Pollution a. Pollution LingkunganPencemaran sense, according to Ministerial Decree No. Population Environmentalists 02/MENKLH/1988, is entered or dimasukkannyamahluk life, matter, energy, and / or other components to dalamair / air, and / or changing the order of (composition) of water / udaraoleh kegiatanmanusiadan natural processes , so the quality of the water / air could be kurangatau no longer function according to the destining Environmental Engineering & EIA 6Untuk prevent environmental pollution and industrial activity olehberbagai human activity, it diperlukanpengendalian menetapkanbaku to environmental contamination with environmental quality. Environmental quality standards is the limit for the substance or yangdiperkenankan levels of pollutants are dilingkungandengan not cause disruption to living things, objects tumbuhanatau lainnya.Pada today, pollution to the environment takes place everywhere at a very fast pace. Now this is getting bebanpencemaran in severe environments with masuknyalimbah industridari various chemicals including logamberat. Environmental pollution can be categorized into: 1. Air2 pollution. Udara3 pollution. Tanahb pollution. Types of Pollution LingkunganSeperti was said before, pencemaranlingkungan divided into three, namely: 1. AirPencemaran water pollution is a change of circumstances in a tempatpenampungan sepertidanau water, rivers, lautandanair tanahakibat human activity. Walaupunfenomenaalam sepertigunung eruptions, hurricanes, earthquakes bumidll also resulted in major changes to water quality, this is not considered a pencemaran.Pencemaran water can be caused by many things and memilikikarakteristik different. Increased organic padaeutrofikasi.Sampah kandungannutriendapat lead as aircomberan (Sewage) Led to an increased need for water oksigenpada accept that leads to berkurangnyaoksigen which can have a serious impact on the entire ecosystem Environmental Engineering & EIA 7Industri dispose of a wide range of pollutants into the water limbahnyasepertilogam weight, toksinorganik, oils, nutrients and solids. Waste water has a thermal effect, especially the dikeluarkanolehpembangkit electricity, which can also reduce oxygen dalamair.2. UdaraPencemaran air pollution is the presence of one or more substansifisik, chemical, ataubiologidiatmosferdalam amount that could endanger human health, animals, and plants, disrupting the aesthetics and comfort of, or damage can be caused by air properti.Pencemaran sources alamimaupun human activities. Some definitions of physical disorders sepertipolusi sound, heat, radiasiataupolusi cahayadianggap as air pollution. The nature of the air resulting impact can be directly danlokal pencemaranudara, regional, maupunglobal. Air pollutants can be divided into primary and pencemarsekunder polluters. Primary pollutants are substances directly yangditimbulkan contaminants from pollution sources udara.Karbonmonoksidaadalah an example of primary air pollutants are the result daripembakaran.Pencemar karenaia adalahsubstansi secondary pollutant formed from the reaction of pollutant-pencemarprimer diatmosfer.Pembentukanozondalamsmog fotokimiaadalah an example of air pollution is a system sekunder.Atmosfer complex, dynamic, danrapuh. Recent growth in concern about the effects of air pollution dariemisi in a global context and its relationship to global denganpemanasan, changes in stratospheric ozondi iklimdandeplesi increasing. Environmental Engineering & EIA 83. TanahPencemaran soil contamination is a state in which chemicals buatanmanusia in and change the natural soil environment. Pencemaranini usually occurs due to: leaking waste water or material kimiaindustri or commercial facilities; penggunaanpestisida; airpermukaan entry of polluted groundwater into the sub-surface layer; pengangkutminyak vehicle accidents, chemical substances, or waste, waste water accumulation daritempat sampahserta limbahindustri directly discharged into the soil not eligible (illegal dumping). When a substance is hazardous / polluting beracuntelah permukaantanah, then it can evaporate, or airhujandan swept into the ground. Pollution that enters the soil kemudianterendap as toxic chemicals in soil. Toxic substances can have a direct impact on tanahtersebut kepadamanusiaketikabersentuhan or can contaminate groundwater and air in atasnya.c. The occurrence of the cause of environmental pollution Pollution LingkunganPenyebab most besardisebabkan by human hands. Water and soil pollution adalahpencemaran occurring in waters such as rivers, times, lake, sea, groundwater, and so forth. While adalahpencemaran soil contamination that occurred on land in both urban and desa.Alam have the ability to restore contaminated airyang with the purification process of purification or purification alamidengan road soil, sand, rocks and micro in nature organismeyang around k Environmental Engineering & EIA 9CHAPTER IIIPEMBAHASAN3.1. Environmental AnalysisBased on the data obtained, Indonesia has the world hutantropis by 10 percent. Approximately 12% of state forests in Indonesiayang is part of the number of animals belonging to species of mammals, 16% percent are part of the animal species of amphibians and sejenisreptil and 25% of the similar species of birds and about 1.519merupakan part of the bird species. The rest is an endemic area can be found yanghanya tersebutPenyusutan natural forest area which is the original Indonesiamengalami menurunan is quite alarming speed. MenurutWorld Resource Institute (1997), to this native forest degradation Indonesia.Selama 1985-1997 period reached 1.6 million hectares per year. In the period 1997-2000 increased to 3.8 million hectares per tahun.Berdasarkan on Landsat imagery results in 2000terdapat 101.73 million hectares of forest and land yangcukup serious damage. Among them, the forest area of 59.62 million hectares are forest dalamkawasan [Ministry of Forestry Planning Agency, 2003]. According to data from the National Coordination for Disaster yangdiperoleh in 2003, disaster that occurred during 1998 to mid 2003 yangdidapat the data showed there has been a disaster with 647 deaths danmengalami 2022 billions of dollars in losses by 85% is bencanabanjir and landslides Environmental Engineering & EIA 10pemanfaatan hot water. Biological, physical and chemical compounds can not be destroyed sepertilogam. In various industrial sectors and households as the use of materials from plastik.b. TanahTanah pollution could be contaminated if the use of fertilizer and pesticide materials berlebihanterhadap. Soil contamination has ciriyaitu a change of land becomes dry and hard, it inidisebabkan by a number of very large salt content in soil yangterdapat. In addition, soil pencemara dapatdisebabkan by plastic waste because, in general plastic waste does not undergo a process of destruction is sempurna.c. HutanHutan pollution can also be damaged if the pemanfaatannyatidak well controlled. Forests are one source that can updated dayaalam. One example is the pollution of forest ataukerusakan illegal logging. If kegiatantersebut carried out continuously, it can mengakibatkanpenggundulan forest.3.3. Causes and Impact of Environmental IssuesChanges in ecosystems caused olehperilaku most major communities in poor utilization of resources in order to meet their needs. This is yangmenyebabkan ecosystem changes. Suatulingkungan ecosystem changes occur in the presence of community activities such as pemanfaatanlahan is used as an agricultural area so that it can mengurangiluas other land. The existence of population growth will impact the environment dalammemanfaatkan for yangada chain in an ecosystem. Besides the damage that occurs karenaadanya forest logging and forest fires can lead to many Environmental Engineering & EIA 11hewan and plant species. Though the forest is sumberkehidupan for some people who serve as penghasiloksigen, where food and medical providers obatan.Jumlah damage to flora and fauna will continue to grow in its use danberlangsung long if people do not pay attention to the environmental balance of the ecosystem. Dariperubahan ecosystem impacts will be reduced if people know danmemahami function of an ecosystem. Damage ekosistemmembawa impact not only on the diversity of flora danfauna also other influences on the community mmbawa it sendiriseperti landslides, flooding and erosion. In addition to the environmental damage caused by waste. The more waste that can menimbulkanpenguapan river and running out of oxygen that is needed bagimikroorganisme who live in the river. And can also be caused daripembuangan wastewater from ships and the use of heat which can cause penggunaanair sea became polluted.3.4. Efforts Addressing Environmental Issuesa. Addressing the various issues of business environment HidupPada general issues raised can be addressed by the following ways: 1. Implement the use of environmentally friendly technologies padapengelolaan natural resource that can and can not be updated with respect to the carrying capacity and dayatampungnya.2. To avoid environmental pollution dankerusakan natural resources it would require the enforcement of fair and konsisten3 hokumsecara. Giving authority and responsibility bertahapterhadap natural resource management and environmental Environmental Engineering & EIA 124. Management of natural resources and environment secarabertahap can be done by way of civilizing masyarakatdan ekonomi.5 strength. To find out the success of resource management alamdan environment with effective use of indicators should diterapkansecara 6. Determination of a new conservation by maintaining existing keragamankonservasi sebelumnya7. Engaging the community in order menanggulangipermasalahan globalb environment. Natural Resources Management Environmental Concept danBerkelanjutanUntuk tackle the damage that occurs in lingkunganperlu held conservation. Conservation can be interpreted as upayauntuk maintain an environment ranging from family, community to bangsa.Pengelolaan natural resources is a conscious effort to dig dengancara natural resources, but does not destroy the source of other dayaalam so its use should memperhatikanpemeliharaan and improving the quality of those resources. There is an increasing progress in the field of production is not necessary to sacrifice the environment that may cause kerusakanlingkungan. If the polluted environment will adversely affect the continuation of the existence of natural resources which ultimately dapatmenurunkan masyarakat.Dalam life management of natural resources need to be considered keserasiannyadengan environment. Prosespembentukan environmental compatibility are relatively similar in nature environment environmental denganpembentukan. Management of natural resources need to be issued agarberkelanjutan tanpamenghambat advances the preservation of the environment Environmental Engineering & EIA 13c. BerkelanjutanDalam natural resource management natural resources in order to remain sustainable then dapatdilakukan uasaha or effort as follows: 1. Keeping the rain catchment area as the region pegununganyang should always be green because of the mountainous area of waters in darat2 merupakansumber. To reduce the flow of surface water as well as to partially meningkatkanresapan groundwater, it is necessary to manufacture dansumur resapan3 land. Reforestation in the mountains, where the area berfungsisebagai water reservoir, the water system, water infiltration, and keseimbanganlingkungan.4. This lack of regulation of water use by pemerintah5. Before performing the necessary processing of waste water disposal pencegahanterhadap much disposed to sungai6 secaralangsung. The existence of greening activities at each edge of the highway, pemukimanpenduduk, offices, and centers lain7. Democratic control of a motor vehicle causing high pollution memilikitingkat polusi.8. Increase the use of organic manure and artificial fertilizer use compared with no damage to sehinnga tanah.9. Reforestation of critical land as a form of control efforts in order to have value ekonomis.10. Making sengkedan, guludan, and sasag which aims to reduce the rate of erosi11. The existence of control over the use of resources berlebihan.12 alamsecara. To increase the economic value of the use of mentahperlu reduced because it is considered less efficient Environmental Engineering & EIA 1413. Land reclamation in areas previously used as sebagaidaerah penggaliand. Resource Recycling Management alamTingkat pollution and environmental damage can be reduced dengancara doing business development such as recycling materials that most people consider waste, sebenarnyadapat other items that could be useful and certainly a baik.Pengelolaan denganpengolahan highly efficient waste in an effort to mengatasimasalah environment. The steps to do dalampengelolaan waste by using the concept of recycling adalahsebagai follows: 1. Grouping and separation of waste prior dahulu2. Management of waste into useful goods and memilkinilai ekonomis3. In sewage treatment should also develop penggunaanteknologie. Preservation of Flora and FaunaUntuk preserving the flora and fauna, which can dilakukanadalah efforts to establish places or areas with special memberikanperlindungan as follows: 1. Forest and nature is a special area diperuntukanuntuk hayati2 protect nature. Wildlife Refuge is one of the goals suakaalam forest area as a sanctuary for rare animals that are not punah3. National Park is a fairly broad area tujuannyasebagai natural shelter and not as tempattinggal but as a place of recreation Environmental Engineering & EIA 154. Nature reserve is an area of forest preserves yangdijadikan as a refuge for natural conditions yangmempunyai special features including flora includes danfauna and abiotiknya environment that serves to kepentingnkebudayaan and science Environmental Engineering & EIA 16CHAPTER IVPENUTUP3.1. ConclusionCauses of environmental problems is adanyakegiatan people like sewage plants, waste from households, logging and forest fires that can menimbulkanpencemaran of river and sea, land, forests and many floradan extinct fauna.3.2. SuggestionSociety must preserve the environment. Dalampemanfaatan resources must consider the effects daripenggunaan these resources to the surrounding environment to prevent pollution or environmental damage. Environmental Engineering & EIA 17DAFTAR PUSTAKADr.H. Totok Gunawan, M.S., et al. , 2004. Facts and Concepts Geography. New York: Ganeca Exact.Sugandi, Dede. , 2005. Geography. New York: Regina.
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