Pathogens Disease Unit Test Take Home

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					Due Date: Monday May 7th (no exceptions)                                 Name:_____________________________


SNC4M: Pathogens and Disease Unit Assessment (take-home)

Part A: Multiple Choice     /15 marks
                                                                                                      /70
Choose the best answer and record in the ANSWER BOX below.
1.          2.          3.         4.        5.         6.                         7.
8.          9.          10.        11.       12.        13.                        14.          15.
1) Microorganisms that are disease producing are called:
   a) Pathogens
   b) Toxins
   c) Communicable
   d) Strains

2) Infectious disease are different from chronic diseases because:
   a) Infectious diseases are usually caused by another organism
   b) Chronic diseases are usually caused by genetic disorders or poor lifestyle habits
   c) Chronic disease are not contagious
   d) Infectious diseases have a greater impact developing nations compared to chronic diseases
   e) Al of the above differences are true

3) One of the easiest and most effective ways to keep from transmitting diseases in the home and
   school is:
   a) Keep all contaminated materials together
   b) Disinfect spores
   c) Wear gloves, a gown and a mask
   d) Practice proper hand washing

4) A pandemic:
   a) Is a local outbreak
   b) Is a world-wide outbreak
   c) Is a national outbreak
   d) None of the above

5) __________ represents diseases that are present in the population at a low level all of the time.
   a) endemic
   b) epidemic
   c) basemic
   d) epolemic

6)    Which of the following refers to the relative ability of a pathogen to cause rapid and severe disease
     in a host?
     a) Morbidity rate
     b) Virulence
     c) Infection rate
     d) Mortality rate

7) Which of the following is not a bacterial shape
   a) Rod
   b) Spherical
   c) Cone
   d) Spiral

8) The Ebola virus is one of the most feared diseases – the effects on the body are horrifying and the
   virus kills 9 out of 10 of its victims. Here, the virus:
   a) The vector
   b) The host
   c) The pathogen
   d) Has a high virulence
   e) Is the reservoir
   f) both c and d

9) Macrophages are specialized types of white blood cells that destroy pathogens by
   a) injecting enzymes onto the surface of the pathogen which makes it easily detected by immune
      cells
   b) engulfing the pathogen and using enzymes to destroy both cells
   c) attaching to the outside surface of the pathogen and then destroying the pathogen using
      enzymes
   d) attaching to pathogens and guiding them into the lymph nodes so they can pass into the blood
Due Date: Monday May 7th (no exceptions)                                    Name:_____________________________


10) Why is it useful to classify diseases by the type of infectious agent (e.g., virus, bacteria, etc.)?:
    a) Because different infectious agents have the same symptoms
    b) Because the same type of infectious agents tends to have similar treatment types
    c) Because the mode of transmission is the same for each infectious agent type
    d) Because the different types of infectious agents have different virulence levels

11) Why is it useful to classify diseases by the mode of transmission?
    a) Because knowing the way the pathogen is transmitted may indicate where it can be found
       (where it “lives”)
    b) Because knowing the way the pathogen is transmitted may indicate how it can be prevented
       from spreading
    c) Because the different types of infectious agents have different virulence levels
    d) a and b

12) Bacteria reproduce asexually through a process called
    a) binary fission
    b) conjugation
    c) spore formation
    d) lysis

13) All viruses consist of:
    a) nucleic acids, ribosomes, capsid, and mitochondria
    b) nucleic acids, capsid, chloroplasts, and cell membrane
    c) nucleic acids and capsid
    d) nucleic acids

14) Which of the following scenarios does not create antibiotic resistant bacteria?
    a) Not taking the medication for the entire duration of treatment
    b) Taking antibiotics when they are not prescribed
    c) Taking antiviral medication for a viral infection.
    d) Disposing of antibiotics down the drain.

15) What type of disease transmission is most likely represented by the graph shown below?




    a)   Person to person
    b)   Food borne
    c)   Airborne
    d)   Airborne and Food borne

Part B: True/False, Matching, and Short Answer                                                 /20 marks

16. Indicate whether the sentence is True or False. Also correct any false statements to make
them true.                                                             /6 marks

______a. Koch’s postulates are a sequence of steps that determines a bacterium’s resistance.



_____ b. At the clinic, tests performed by your doctor’s office come back indicating that you
have Staphylococcus infection. This means that the bacteria infecting you are spherical and
occur in clumps.
Due Date: Monday May 7th (no exceptions)                          Name:_____________________________


_____ c. Gram stains divide bacteria into two major groups – gram positive and gram negative.



______d. The rate and pattern of airborne disease transmission is predictable.



17. Matching: Select the best answer from Column B that matches the term in Column A.

   Place the letter (answer) in the middle column.             /5marks

Column A                         Answers (Letter)     Column B
   1. Lytic cycle                                        A. A disease present in a low number
                                                            of individuals in a population or
                                                            area.
   2. Bacillus                                           B. Something that can cause disease;
                                                            for example, a bacterium or a virus.
   3. Endemic                                            C. A naturally or synthetically
                                                            produced substance that kills or
                                                            inactivates bacteria, but has no
                                                            effect against viruses; used as a
                                                            medication.
   4. Pathogen                                           D. Viral DNA enters the host cell and
                                                            uses the resources of the host cell
                                                            to produce new viruses.
   5. Antibiotic                                         E. A rod-shaped bacterium.



   18. a. Why does a virus rely on the cycle depicted below?       /4 marks




           b. Briefly describe the five stages depicted in the diagram below.      /5 marks




                                                     A._________________________________

                                                     B. _________________________________

                                                     C. _________________________________

                                                     D. ________________________________

                                                     E. _________________________________




Part C : Essay Question                                                       /15 marks


CHOOSE ONLY ONE OF THE ESSAY QUESTIONS. Please type answers in full sentences with
proper spelling and grammar.

10 marks + 5 marks for level of communication.
Due Date: Monday May 7th (no exceptions)                           Name:_____________________________


1. You are the Director of the Toronto Health Unit and there is a serious flu outbreak in
   Toronto. Use your knowledge of pathogens and disease to develop a plan to discover the
   source and type of pathogen, ways to control (limit) the outbreak, and ways to prevent
   future outbreaks. Discuss at least three different roles of public health care workers in this
   process and at least five major challenges you would encounter. Demonstrate your
   knowledge of classification of pathogen types, the differences and similarities in modes of
   transmission, the issues concerning the emergence of new disease and/or the re-
   emergence of old diseases, and other relevant knowledge.

2. The development of antibiotics such as penicillin and sulfa in the twentieth century saved
   many lives. However, there is a growing concern for the development of “superbugs”
   through antibiotic-resistant forms of bacteria that are becoming a threat to public health.
   Describe what you have learned about the cause of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, how
   bacteria become “superbugs”, and how to help reduce this phenomenon. Make specific
   reference to the results in the lab experiment that you analyzed.


Part D: Media Analysis                                                              /15 marks

Watch this TED Talk - Seth Berkley: HIV and flu -- the vaccine strategy
http://www.ted.com/talks/seth_berkley_hiv_and_flu_the_vaccine_strategy.html

Answer the following questions:
   1. According to this TED Talk, what is a vaccine and how does it work? [2 marks]
   2. According to this TED Talk, what is the main challenge for developing effective vaccines
      to fight flu viruses? [1 mark]
   3. According to this TED Talk, what are three major challenges for fighting HIV? [3 marks]
   4. According to this TED Talk, discuss a couple promising findings of research that may help
      us fights the HIV virus? [2 marks]
   5. If you were a scientist in charge of designing a smart vaccine, which virus
      characteristic(s) would you target (attack), and which would you not target, and why? [4
      marks]
   6. In your own words, describe how new technologies might allow us to rapidly produce
      vaccines for greatly reduced costs. [2 marks]
   7. What is the overall message of this TED Talk? [1 mark]



Part E: Personal Response                                                           /5 marks


Please discuss five (5) interesting things you learned in this unit about pathogens and disease
that you did not know before and why you think they are interesting. What activities and
assignments did you enjoy during this unit and which ones would you change, and why?

				
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