VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 4 POSTED ON: 7/20/2012
The Respiratory System I. Structure of the Respiratory System 1. Given that there are an estimated 300 million alveoli, explain why this is advantageous to gas diffusion? 2. How much surface area is available for gas exchange in an adult human? 3. The air passage of the respiratory system is divided into two functional zones, name these zones and describe the function of each. 4. Describe the trachea. 5. What is the thoracic cavity? 6. What is the mediastinum? 7. List the two pleural coverings in the lung? 8. What is the intrapleural space? What is the pressure in this area? 9. In the spaces provided, identify and label the following important thoracic cavity structures: a. Bronchus b. Pericardium c. Lung d. Mediastinum, e. Parietal pleura f. Visceral pleura 10. What area of the respiratory system have smooth muscle associated with it? II. Mechanical Aspects of Ventilation 1. Why does air enter the lungs? 2. What is normal atmospheric pressure at sea level? What is normal intrapulmonary pressure during inspiration and expiration? 3. What is transpulmonary pressure and why does it occur? How does this maintain the intrapleural space? 4. Write the equation and define the terms for Boyle’s law. 5. What happens, according to Boyle’s law, if you decrease or increase the volume in the lungs? 6. In order to decrease pressure in the lungs you must increase the space or volume where? III. Respiratory Cycle 1. Breathing occurs in two stages, name and describe the two stages. 2. How does the structure the rib cage assist in breathing? 3. What are the major muscle groups involved with inspiration at rest? During exercise? IV Pulmonary Disorders 1. What is asthma and what are its physical symptoms? 2. How does bronchoconstriction affect the airway? 3. What is emphysema and what are its symptoms? 4. What is a pneumothorax?. 5. What is a spontaneous pneumothorax and what is an external pneumothorax? 6. What is intubation and extubation and when would these two procedures be performed?
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