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					Digging into Digital Libraries:
    From Archaeology to
         Formalism

            Edward A. Fox
      Virginia Tech, Dept. of CS
              fox@vt.edu

       CSC Spring Colloquium
    Villanova – February 20, 2006   1
Acknowledgements (selected)
• 5S Helpers: Weiguo Fan, Marcos Gonçalves,
  Doug Gorton, Rohit Kelapure, Neill Kipp, Uma
  Murthy, Ananth Raghavan, Rao Shen, Hussein
  Suleman, Srinivas, Vemuri, Layne Watson, …

• Sponsors: ACM, AOL, CAPES, DFG, IBM,
  Microsoft, NSF (IIS-9986089, 0086227,
  0080748, 0325579, 0535057, 0535060; ITR-
  0325579; DUE-0121679, 0136690, 0121741,
  0333601), SUN
                 Outline
•   WWW and Digital Libraries (DLs)
•   Minimal DLs
•   Powerful DLs
•   Why
•   How
•   Summary and Conclusions


                                      3
            WWW and DLs
• Both emerged in early 1990s.
• Convergence began around 1994 .
• Example: Google spun off from Stanford DL.
• Crawling WWW is one way to build DLs.
• WWW support many portals to DLs.
• Parts of WWW that have catalogs (e.g.,
  Yahoo categories) are close to DLs.
• Web Services help move WWW toward DLs,
  as the Semantic Web emerges.             4
          Degree of Structure


 Web             DLs            DBs


Chaotic       Organized    Structured



                                      5
           NSDL Information Architecture
Essentially as developed by the Technical Infrastructure Workgroup

         Portals &                User
          Portals &
          Clients &
           Portals             Interfaces
           Clients                                    NSDL
             Clients
                                                     NSDL
                                                     Services
                                                 Other NSDL
                                                    Services
                                                   Services
                                  Core
                                 NSDL             Usage
  NSDL                           “Bus”
   NSDL                                        Enhancement
     NSDL
Collections
 Collections
  Collections
                Collection                         CI Services:
                                                Core Services
                Building                      information retrieval
                                                    CI Services
                                                     browsing
                                                    CI Services
  referenced
 referenced             Core Services:
                        Core Collection-           authentication
                                                      CI Services
    items
  items &
 Special&              metadata gathering
                        Building Services
                          Core Collection-         personalization
                                                      CI Services
  collections
Databases
 collections                protocols
                         Building Services            discussion
                             harvesting                annotation     6
7
8
9
                 Outline
• WWW and Digital Libraries (DLs)
• Minimal DLs
    – Definitions
    – ETANA example
•   Powerful DLs
•   Why
•   How
•   Summary and Conclusions
                                    10
       Minimal Digital Libraries
•   Key concepts, core ideas
•   Minimalist perspective
•   Underlying concepts: 5S (ETANA example)
•   Higher DL constructs
•   Bases:
    – Literature
    – Informal explanations
    – Formal definitions
                                         11
     Informal 5S & DL Definitions

    DLs are complex systems that
•   help satisfy info needs of users (societies)
•   provide info services (scenarios)
•   organize info in usable ways (structures)
•   present info in usable ways (spaces)
•   communicate info with users (streams)

                                              12
                        5Ss

Ss          Examples                    Objectives
Streams     Text; video; audio; image   Describes properties of the DL content
                                        such as encoding and language for
                                        textual material or particular forms of
                                        multimedia data

Structures Collection; catalog;         Specifies organizational aspects of the DL
                                        content
            hypertext; document;
            metadata
Spaces      Measure; measurable,        Defines logical and presentational views
                                        of several DL components
            topological, vector,
            probabilistic
Scenarios   Searching, browsing,        Details the behavior of DL services
            recommending
Societies   Service managers,           Defines managers, responsible for
                                        running DL services; actors, that use
            learners, teachers, etc.    those services; and relationships among
                                        them                                13
         Example of 5Ss: ETANA-DL

•   Archaeological DL (Electronic Tools for Ancient
    Near Eastern Archaeology Digital Library)
•   Integrated DL
    –   Heterogeneous data handling
•   Applies and extends the OAI-PMH
    –   Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Handling
•   Design considerations
    –   Componentized
    –   Extensible
    –   Portable
    –   Work based on 5S framework                        14
15
             ETANA Societies
1. Historic and pre-historic societies (being studied)
2. Archaeologists (in academic institutes, fieldwork
   settings, or local and national governmental
   bodies)
3. Project directors
4. Technical staff (consisting of photographers,
   technical illustrators, and their assistants)
5. Field staff (responsible for the actual work of
   excavation)
6. Camp staff (e.g., camp managers, registrars, tool
   stewards)
7. General public (e.g., educators, learners, citizens)
                                                    16
      ETANA Societies – cont’d
•   Social issues
    1. Who owns the finds?
    2. Where should they be preserved?
    3. What nationality and ethnicity do they
       represent?
    4. Who has publication rights?
    5. What interactions took place between those
       at the site studied, and others? What
       theories are proposed by whom about this?
                                                17
                  ETANA Scenarios
1.    Life in the site in former times
2.    Digital recording: the planning stage and the excavation stage
3.    Planning stage: remote sensing, fieldwalking, field surveys, building
      surveys, consulting historical and other documentary sources, and
      managing the sites and monuments
4.    Excavation
     1.   Detailed information is recorded, including for each layer of soil, and for
          features such as pole holes, pits, and ditches.
     2.   Data about each artifact is recorded together with information about its
          exact find spot.
     3.   Numerous environmental and other samples are taken for laboratory
          analysis, and the location and purpose of each is carefully recorded.
     4.   Large numbers of photographs are taken, both general views of the
          progress of excavation and detailed shots showing the contexts of finds.
5.    Organization and storage of material
6.    Analysis and hypotheses generation and testing
7.    Publications, museum displays
8.    Information services for the general public                               18
             ETANA Spaces
1. Geographic distribution of found artifacts
2. Temporal dimension (as inferred by
   archaeologists)
3. Metric or vector spaces
  1. used to support retrieval operations, and to
     calculate distance (and similarity)
  2. used to browse / constrain searches spatially
4. 3D models of the past, used to reconstruct and
   visualize archaeological ruins
5. 2D interfaces for human-computer interaction

                                                     19
          ETANA Structures
1. Site Organization
  1. Region, site, partition, sub-partition, locus,
     …
2. Temporal orderings (ages, periods)
3. Taxonomies
  1. for bones, seeds, building materials, …
4. Stratigraphic relationships
  1. above, beneath, coexistent
                                                      20
          ETANA Streams
1. successive photos and drawings of
   excavation sites, loci, unearthed artifacts
2. audio and video recordings of excavation
   activities and discussions
3. textual reports
4. 3D models used to reconstruct and
   visualize archaeological ruins.

                                             21
5S and DL formal definitions and compositions (April 2004 TOIS)


                                measurable(d.12), measure(d.13), probability (d.14),         language (d.5)
       relation (d. 1)          vector (d.15), topological (d.16) spaces
                                                                                  sequence      tuple (d. 4)*
 sequence graph (d. 6)                                                              (d. 3)
 (d. 3)                        function
                               (d. 2)                                 state (d. 18)        event (d.10)
                                                    5S
                                                                                              grammar (d. 7)

  streams (d.9)           structures (d.10) spaces (d.18) scenarios (d.21) societies
                                                                                                   (d. 24)

               structured                                                                services (d.22)
               stream (d.29)

                          structural      descriptive
                          metadata                           (d.34)indexing    browsing        searching
     digital                              metadata                   service   service         service (d.35)
                          specification   specification
     object               (d.25)                                                 (d.37)
                                          (d.26)            hypertext
     (d.30)
                                                            (d.36)

                                      metadata catalog
 transmission collection (d. 31)          (d.32)
 (d.23)
                                                                        digital
                                                                        library
                         repository
                          (d. 33)                                       (minimal) (d. 38)                       22
A Minimal DL in the 5S Framework
   Streams       Structures        Spaces      Scenarios         Societies


  Structured    Structural
   Stream       Metadata                                     services
               Specification

                         Descriptive
                          Metadata      indexing
                        Specification
                                                browsing searching
                                   hypertext

       Digital Object      Metadata Catalog



          Collection            Repository                 Minimal DL
                                                                             23
Streams
                          image                  is_version_of/                                  Structures
                                                 cites/links_to
                   contains
            text                                                   metadata
                                                       describes   specifications
                          video     digital
                                    object                                     
                      contains                                   describes
             audio                                    Collection
                                      Index                                  Catalog
                                                                   stores

                                        Topological            Repository
                       Measurable                                                             employs
                               is_a           is_a                                            produces
                         Measure                                                                                       Societies
 employs                       is_a Vector Metric
 produces
                        Probabilistic                                                                         inherits_from/includes

                        Spaces         employs                                                runs                              Service
                                                              Service
                                       produces                                                                                 Manager
                                                                                      uses

                                                           extends          Scenario           participates_in Actor
                                                                                                                                     
                                                           reuses
                                               precedes        contains                       recipient         association
                                               happens_before
                                                          event                                                               operation
                                                                                              executes
                              Scenarios                                                                                           24
                                                                                                                               redefines
                                                                                                                               invokes
                Outline
• WWW and Digital Libraries (DLs)
• Minimal DLs
• Powerful DLs
  – Services
  – Ontology
• Why
• How
• Summary and Conclusions
                                    25
Infrastructure Services                                         Information
                                                                Satisfaction
  Repository-Building                           Add               Services
    Creational         Preservational          Value
    Acquiring            Conserving           Annotating        Browsing
   Cataloging            Converting           Classifying       Collaborating
Crawling (focused)   Copying/Replicating      Clustering        Customizing
   Describing            Emulating            Evaluating        Filtering
    Digitizing           Renewing              Extracting       Providing access
   Federating        Translating (format)      Indexing         Recommending
   Harvesting                                 Measuring         Requesting
   Purchasing                                 Publicizing       Searching
   Submitting                                    Rating         Visualizing
                                            Reviewing (peer)
                                               Surveying
                                              Translating
                                                   (language)

                                                                           26
Ontology: Applications




                         27
    Ontology: Applications
• Expand definition of minimal DL by
  characterizing
  – typical DL services
  – in the context of “employs” and “produces”
    relationships
• Use characterization to:
  – Reason about how DL services can be built
    from other DL components
  – As well as be composed with other services
    through extension or reuse
                                                 28
Composition of key fundamental /
    infrastructure services
       universal                                                         Authoring
       collection                                                        Digitizing

                                                             p

                              Describing e doi
                              Cataloguing
                     Acquiring            e e
                                                 p
                                                                  mskj
                          p
                                                                  e
                                                 p
                                                          Submitting
                                  C    de
                                         scr                  p
                                               ibe
                              e                   s
                                                          DMC
               Indexing


                          p
                                  Ic
                                           Linking
                                                      p

                                        Hypertext                                     29
   Infrastructure
                                                                                                                Information
   Services (Add_Value)                                                                                         Satisfaction
                                                                                                                Services
 Rating         Indexing         Training                          Society


       p                 p               p                          actor


                                                 anchor             handle                 query
{(digital object, Index
actor, rate) }                    classifier              e                 e                  e
                          e                      Browsing            Requesting         Searching
                                                                                                                     fundamental
                                                               p           p        p                                  composite
   e                               e                                                          
           user model                   query/category         Collection, {digital object}                      {digital object}
                                                                                                            e
                e                                                                    e        transformer
                                                           e            e                                              e
                         e                   e                                                        e
   Recommending                        Filtering                    Binding              Visualizing            Expanding query

                    p                        p                         p                        p                     p

              {digital object}          {digital object}              binder                  space                query’


                                                                                                                            30
                       Outline
•   WWW and Digital Libraries (DLs)
•   Minimal DLs
•   Powerful DLs
•   Why
    –   Support DL education
    –   Practical systems
    –   Institutional repositories (DSpace)
    –   Personal DLs (SenseCam -> Memex)
    –   Support archaeology
• How
• Summary and Conclusions                     31
               DL Curriculum Framework
STRUCTURE
 COURSE




                                Semester 1:                                                       Semester 2:
                               DL collections:                                                   DL services and
                            development/creation                                                  sustainability




                                  Metadata            Architectures                                 Services
             Digitization                                                     Naming                                      Archiving and
                                 Cataloging          (agents, buses,                               (searching,
              Storage                                                       Repositories                                  preservation
                                   Author          wrappers/mediators)                               linking,
            Interchange                                                      Archives                                        Integrity
CORE DL




                                 submission          Interoperability                            browsing, etc.)
 TOPICS




                                            Spaces                            Architectures                               Intellectual property
                     Digital objects
                                          (conceptual,                       (agents, buses,                                  rights mgmt.
                      Composites
                                          geographic,                      wrappers/mediators)                                   Privacy
                       Packages
                                           2/3D, VR)                         Interoperability                          Protection (watermarking)



                                     Multimedia             Thesauri              Info. Needs              Routing
            Documents
                                 streams/structures        Ontologies              Relevance               Filtering
            E-publishing
                               Capture/representation     Classification           Evaluation             Community
RELATED




              Markup
 TOPICS




                                Compression/coding        Categorization         Effectiveness             filtering


                                                                                     Search & search strategy
            Bibliographic      Content-based                                                                            Info
                                                     Multimedia                       Info seeking behavior
             information         analysis                                                                          summarization
                                                    presentation,                         User modeling
            Bibliometrics       Multimedia                                                                          Visualization
                                                      rendering                             Feedback
               Citations         indexing

                                                                                                                                             32
    Foundations for Information Systems:
    Digital Libraries and the 5S Framework
• Ch. 1. Introduction (Motivation, Synopsis)
•   Part 1 – The “Ss”
•   Part 2 – Higher DL Constructs
•   Part 3 – Advanced Topics
•   Appendix


                                               33
  Book Parts and Chapters - 1
• Ch. 1. Introduction (Motivation, Synopsis)
• Part 1 – The “Ss”
  – Ch. 2: Streams
  – Ch. 3: Structures
  – Ch. 4: Spaces
  – Ch. 5: Scenarios
  – Ch. 6: Societies

                                               34
  Book Parts and Chapters - 2
• Part 2 – Higher DL Constructs
  – Ch. 7: Collections
  – Ch. 8: Catalogs
  – Ch. 9: Repositories and Archives
  – Ch. 10: Services
  – Ch. 11: Systems
  – Ch. 12: Case Studies

                                       35
    Book Parts and Chapters - 3
• Part 3 – Advanced Topics
  – Ch. 13: Quality
  – Ch. 14: Integration
  – Ch. 15: How to build a digital library
  – Ch. 16: Research Challenges, Future Perspectives
• Appendix
  – A: Mathematical preliminaries
  – B: Formal Definitions: Ss
  – C: Formal Definitions: DL terms, Minimal DL
  – D: Formal Definitions: Archeological DL
  – E: Glossary of terms, mappings
                                                  36
           Practical Systems
• Commercial: IBM, VTLS, …
• Open Source
  – Greenstone
  – CWIS (for NSDL)
  – Institutional repositories
     • DSpace
     • Fedora



                                 37
      Institutional Repositories
• “A university-based institutional repository is a set
  of services that a university offers to the members
  of its community for the management and
  dissemination of digital materials created by the
  institution and its community members. It is most
  essentially an organizational commitment to the
  stewardship of these digital materials, including
  long-term preservation where appropriate, as well
  as organization and access or distribution.”
• Lynch, C.A. In ARL Bimonthly Report 226, pp. 1-7,
  Feb. 2003, www.arl.org/newsltr/226/ir.html         38
39
ETANA-DL Global Architecture
          DigBase and DigKit

                                   Search
     Lahav       D                                U
                 A
                 T                Browse          S
    Nimrin       A                                E
                 B              Recommend         R
                 A
    Umayri       S                  Note          I
                 E   ETANA-DL
                                                  N
    Hisban            UNION     Personalize       T
                 W
                 R   CATALOG                      E
    Megiddo      A
                                   Review         R
                 P                                F
                 P              Visualizations    A
     Jalul       E                                C
                 R              Archaeology       E
      …          S
                                  Specific
     New Sites                                          40
                                              Work in progress
Megiddo Opening Screen




                         41
     Locus Screen:
        Pictures
View all




                     42
Area Screen




              43
Global DL: Architecture of a Union DL

      DL1                 Union DL                 DL2
                        Union Society
     Society                                      Society
                                             
  archaeologists       Archaeologists          General Public
                       General Public

                        Union Service
     Service                                      Service
    Searching       Harvesting, Mapping,         Browsing
                    Searching, Browsing,
                   Clustering, Visualization


    Catalog1               Union                 Catalog2
                           Catalog
                          Union
   Repository1           Repository             Repository2
                                                              44
                       Outline
•   WWW and Digital Libraries (DLs)
•   Minimal DLs
•   Powerful DLs
•   Why
•   How
    –   Components
    –   Metamodels, Models
    –   Graphical model building aids
    –   DL generators
    –   Integration
    –   Quality
• Summary and Conclusions
                                        45
                                                            Document
                                                              Document
                                                                Document
                                                             1010100101
                                                               1010100101
                                                             0100101010
                                                                 1010100101
                                                               0100101010
                                                             1001010101
                                                                 0100101010
                                                               1001010101
                                                             0101010101
                        ?                                        1001010101
                                                               0101010101
                                                                 0101010101

        ?                           ?
                    ?                                   ?   Program
                                                              Program
                                                ?               Program
                                                             1010100101
    ?                                                          1010100101
                                                             0100101010
                                                                 1010100101
                                                               0100101010
                                                             1001010101
                        ?                                        0100101010
                                                               1001010101
                                            ?                0101010101
                                                                 1001010101
                                                               0101010101

        ?       ?               ?
                                                                 0101010101

                                        ?
    ?                                                       Image
                                            ?                 Image
                                                                Image
                                                             1010100101

?                                   ?                          1010100101
                                                             0100101010
                                                                  1010100101
                                                               0100101010
                                                             1001010101
                                                                  0100101010
                                                               1001010101
                                                             0101010101
            ?               ?                   ?                 1001010101
                                                               0101010101
                                                                  0101010101
                    ?                               ?       Video
                                                              Video
                                                                Video
                                                             1010100101
                                                               1010100101
                                                             0100101010
                                                                  1010100101
                                                               0100101010
                                                             1001010101
                                                                  0100101010
                                                               1001010101
                                                             0101010101
                                                                  1001010101
                                                               0101010101
                                                                  0101010101


    componentized digital library

                                                                     46
The World According to OAI:
     Open Archives Initiative –
  Protocol for Metadata Harvesting
               Service Providers
                    Current
   Discovery                       Preservation
                   Awareness




               Data Providers
                                                  47
48
49
               Metamodels
• Completed
  – Minimal
  – Archaeological
• Planned
  – Practical
  – System oriented
    • Doug Gorton’s thesis, so people can build models
      for their systems, and have them generated to
      work with a particular DL system
                                                     50
A Minimal DL in the 5S Framework
   Streams       Structures        Spaces      Scenarios         Societies


  Structured    Structural
   Stream       Metadata                                     services
               Specification

                         Descriptive
                          Metadata      indexing
                        Specification
                                                browsing searching
                                   hypertext

       Digital Object      Metadata Catalog



          Collection            Repository                 Minimal DL
                                                                             51
5SL – The Minimal DL Metamodel
   Scenarios                              Societal
   (Meta-) Model                          (Meta-) Model
                                                                             Meta-Models

      Service         uses Actor                                     Meta-Models
                      runs                                           Primitives
     Scenario                  receiver
                                                   Community
                           Service
     Event
                           Manager




    Interface        Index                   Search            Repository         Browsing
    Manager          Manager                 Manager           Manager            Manager




    User              Index                  Collection           Catalog
    Interface
                                            Document              Metadata
                   Retrieval
                   Model
                                                Text      Video      Audio        Image



    Spatial                        Stream
                                                                  Structural
                                   (Meta-)Model                   (Meta-) Model              52
    (Meta-) Model
A Minimal ArchDL in the 5S Framework
     Streams          Structures      Spaces       Scenarios       Societies

                     Descriptive
     Structured       Metadata
      Stream        specification
                                                               services
                       SpaTemOrg

               StraDia
                                           indexing
                    Arch Descriptive
                  Metadata specification           browsing searching
 ArchObj
                                      hypertext

             ArchDO        Arch Metadata catalog

 ArchColl

             ArchDColl                 ArchDR           Minimal ArchDL    53
               5SGraph     5SLGen                        DL XML
Formal
                                                         Log
Theory/
Metamodel
                           OO Classes                       DL
   5S             5SL      Workflow      Components      Evaluation




Requirements    Analysis    Design      Implementation    Test




                                                                 54
Overview of 5SGraph


                Workspace
                (instance model)


                   Structured
                   toolbox
                   (metamodel)
                                55
                        Tools/Applications

                 5S                         DL
                Meta       5SGraph        Designer
 DL             Model
Expert
                                      Practitioner
                              5SL
                                                     Teacher
                              DL
                             Model
     component
         pool
     ODLSearch,
                                                         Researcher
     ODLBrowse,
     ODLRate,                          Tailored
     ODLReview,           5SLGen         DL
          …….




                                     Logging Module
                           XML
                           Log                                        56
5SGen – Version 2: ODL,
  Services, Scenarios
                                                       5SL-Scenario
                                                         Model (6)

                  DL
                              5SL-Societies           XPath/JDOM
                Designer
                                Model (1)             Transform (7)
                                                                                   DL
    Component
                                                       StateChart                Designer
      Pool                                               Model (8)
                            XPATH/JDOM
       .                     Transform (2)
                                                      Scenario
       .
       .                                 5SLGen       Synthesis (9)
      Java                   XMI:Class
                             Model (3)                Deterministic
    ODL                                                   FSM (10)
    Search
    Wrapping
                             Xmi2Java (4)
                import                                  SMC (11)
      Java
                                                            Java
     ODL                                                   Finite                     JSP
                              Java
     Browse        import    Classes     superclass    State Machine     binds       User
                                                           Class                   Interface
    Wrapping                 Model (5)
                                                       Controller (12)             View (13)

                                                                                               57
                                               Generated DL Services
XML-based DL Log Standard
• Log analysis
  – is a source of information on:
     • How patrons really use DL services
     • How systems behave while supporting user information
       seeking activities
• Used to:
  – Evaluate and enhance services
  – Guide allocation of resources
• Common practice in the web setting
  – Supported by web servers, proxy caches
• DL Logging can be more detailed

                                                              58
              The XML Log Format
                        Log
Transaction SessionId MachineInfo Timestamp        Statement

                        Event     SessionInfo     RegisterInfo   Timestamp    Statement


               StatusInfo       Action


          Search        Browse           Update     StoreSysInfo


   SearchBy   QueryString   Collection Catalog        Timeout      PresentationInfo




                                                                                          59
                DL Integration
•     What is “DL Integration”
     – Hide distribution
     – Hide heterogeneity
     – Enable autonomy of individual component
•     Why Integration
     – island-DLs
     – inability to seamlessly and transparently
       access knowledge across DLs

    Utilize various autonomous DLs in concert      60
    Formal Definition of DL Integration

•   DLi=(Ri, DMi, Servi, Soci), 1  i  n
    –   Ri is a network accessible repository
    –   DMi is a set of metadata catalogs for all collections
    –   Servi is a set of services
    –   Soci is a society
•   UnionRep
•   UnionCat
•   UnionServices
•   UnionSociety
                                                                61
Formal Definition of DL Integration (Cont.)

•   DL integration problem definition:
    Given n individual libraries, integrate the n DLs
    to create a UnionDL.




                                                    62
             ETANA-DL Approach
• Applying and extending Digital Library (DL)
  techniques to solve key problems: making primary
  data available, data preservation, and interoperability
• Modeling archaeological information systems using
  5S to better understand the domain and design the
  system and the supporting services
• Rapidly prototyping DLs that handle heterogeneous
  archaeological data using componentized
  frameworks:
   – eliciting requirements
   – refining metamodel and union schema
   – modeling sites
   – mapping
   – harvesting
   – providing useful services                           63
Example of Union Service: CitiViz




                                    64
                  Union Catalog Integration
Virtual Nimrin                  Mapping
     (VN)         VN Metadata    Tool
                    Format
                                                      Union ArchDL

                      VN
                                Wrapper
                    Catalog
                                          Union     Global Metadata
                                          Catalog       Format
Halif DigMaster      HD
      (HD)                      Wrapper
                    Catalog

                  HD Metadata
                    Format
                                Mapping
                                 Tool

                                                              65
local schema   global schema




                               66
       Describing Quality in
         Digital Libraries
• What’s a “good” digital Library?
  – Central Concept: Quality!
  – Hypotheses of this work:
     • Formal theory can help to define “what’s a good
       digital library” by:
     • New formalizations of quality indicators for DLs
       within our 5S framework
     • Contextualizing these measures within the
       Information Life Cycle

                                                          67
    Quality Dimensions
DL Concept               Dimensions of Quality
Digital object           Accessibility
                         Pertinence
                         Preservability
                         Relevance
                         Similarity
                         Significance
                         Timeliness
Metadata specification   Accuracy
                         Completeness
                         Conformance
Collection               Completeness
                         Impact Factor
Catalog                  Completeness
                         Consistency
Repository               Completeness
                         Consistency
Services                 Composability
                         Efficiency
                         Effectiveness
                         Extensibility
                         Reusability
                                                 68
                         Reliability
Quality and the Information Life Cycle
                                                                               Accurac
                                                           Timeliness                  y
                                                 Similarity                   Comple
                             Active                                                  teness
                                                                              Conform
                                                                                      ance
                                Preservability
                                                                              Describing
                                                  Authoring                   Organizing
                                                  Modifying                   Indexing
                                                                                                                        Semi-Active
                     Pertinence

      Retention
                Significance
      Mining                                                   Creation
                Accessibility                                                                   Storing
                                Accessing                                                     Archiving       Ac
                Timeliness                       Utilization            Distribution          Networking Pr
                                                                                                                 ce
                                                                                                                s si
                                                                                                                    b
                                  Filtering
                                                                                                            ese ility
                                                                                                               rva
                                                                                                                     bil
                                                                                                                        ity
                                                                 Seeking


                                                                 Searching
      Discard                                                    Browsing
                    Inactive                                     Recommending


                                                                  Relevance                                            69
     Summary and Conclusions
•   WWW and Digital Libraries (DLs)
•   Minimal DLs
•   Powerful DLs
•   Why
•   How

• -> Theory-based discipline and high
  quality DL management systems (DLMS)
                                         70
   Selected Links - http://fox.cs.vt.edu
• CITIDEL (computing education resources)
  – www.citidel.org
• NCSTRL (computing technical reports)
  – www.ncstrl.org
• NDLTD (electronic theses and dissertations
  worldwide)
  – www.ndltd.org and etdguide.org
• NSDL (National Science Digital Library)
  – www.nsdl.org
• OAI (Open Archives Initiative)
  – www.openarchives.org
• Virginia Tech Digital Library Research Laboratory
  (DLRL, www.dlib.vt.edu)
  – 5S, AmericanSouth.Org, CSTC, DL-in-a-box, ENVISION,
    ETANA, MARIAN, NDLTD, NSDL, OAD, ODL, …) 71
Questions?
Discussion?


 Thank You!


              72

				
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