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1 UNIT III. ART AND ARTISTS GRAMMAR: PASSIVE VOICE (Simple Tenses) Pre-reading questions: 1. The great Russian writer Dostoevsky said: “Beauty will save the world”. How do you understand this? 2. How do you understand freedom in art? TEXT: ART FOR HEART’S SAKE. 1 (after Rube Goldberg, adapted) “Here, take your juice,“ said Koppel, Mr. Ellsworth’s servant and nurse. “No,” said Collis P. Ellsworth. “But it’s good for you, sir!” “No!” “The doctor insists on it!” “No!” Koppel heard the front door bell and hurried to leave the room. He found Doctor Caswell in the hall downstairs. “I can’t do a thing with him,” he told the doctor. ”He doesn’t want to take his juice. I can’t persuade him to take his medicine. He doesn’t want me to read to him. He hates television. He doesn’t like anything.” Doctor Caswell took the information with his usual professional calm. This was not an ordinary case. The old gentleman was in pretty good health for a man of seventy. But it was necessary to keep him from buying things. His financial deals always ended in failure, which was bad for his health. But the old man hated it when anybody interfered in his affairs and ordered him to do things “How are you this morning? Feeling better?” asked the doctor. I hear you haven’t been obeying my orders.” “Who is giving me orders at my time of life? Am I to ask for permission every time I want to do something? Am I to be punished for disobedience?” The doctor drew up a chair and sat down close to the old man. He had to do his duty and he was prepared to take a chance. “I’d like to make a suggestion,” he said quietly. He didn’t want to argue with the old man. Old Ellsworth looked at him over his glasses. The way Doctor Caswell said it made him suspicious. 1 Art for art’s sake искусство ради искусства; art for heart’s sake искусство для души; for the sake of smb./smth., for smb’s sake ради кого-либо/ чего-либо 2 “What is it? More medicine, more automobile rides to keep me away from the office?” The old man asked with suspicion. “Not at all,” said the doctor. “I’ve been thinking of something different. As a matter of fact I’d like to suggest that you should take up painting.” “Nonsense!” the old man’s voice rose. “I don’t mean seriously of course,” said the doctor, glad that his suggestion had been taken calmly enough. “Just try. You’ll like it.” Much to his surprise the old man agreed. He only asked who was going to teach him drawing. “I’ve thought of that too,” said the doctor. “I know a student from an art school who can come round once a week. If you don’t like it, after a little while you can throw him out.” The person he had in mind and promised to bring about was a certain Frank Swain, eighteen years old and a capable student. Like most students he needed money. Doctor Caswell kept his promise. He got in touch with Frank Swain and the lessons began. The old man liked it so much that when at the end of the first lesson Koppel came in and apologized to him for interrupting the lesson, as the old man needed a rest, Ellsworth looked disappointed. When the art student came the following week, he saw a drawing on the table. It was a vase. But something was definitely wrong with it. “Well, what do you think of it?” asked the old man stepping aside. “I don’t mean to hurt you, sir, there is one thing I want to draw your attention to…” began Swain. “I see,” the old man interrupted, “the halves don’t match. I can’t say I am good at drawing.” He added a few lines with a shaky hand and painted the vase blue like a child playing with a picture-book. “Listen, young man,“ he whispered. “I want to ask you something before Old Juice comes again. I don’t want to speak in his presence.” “Yes, sir,” said Swain with respect. “Could you afford the time to come twice a week or perhaps three times?” They arranged to meet on Monday, Wednesday and Friday. Ellsworth never missed a lesson. As the weeks went by, Swain’s visits grew more frequent . The old man drank his juice obediently. Doctor Caswell hoped that business was forgotten forever. When spring came, Ellsworth painted a picture which he called “Trees Dressed in White”. The picture was awful. The trees in the picture looked like salad thrown up against the wall. Then he announced that he was going 3 to display it at the Summer Show at the Lathrop Gallery. Doctor Caswell and Swain thought the old man was joking but said they admired it. The Summer Show at the Lathrop Gallery was the biggest exhibition of the year. All the outstanding artists in the United States dreamt of winning a Lathrop prize. “We’ve got to stop him. It’s our duty,” said Koppel. He insisted that they should do something about it. “No,” said the doctor. “We can’t interfere with his plans now and spoil all the good work we’ve done. Besides I can’t order that he should take the picture back”. To the astonishment of all three Trees Dressed in White was accepted for the Show. Young Swain went to the exhibition one afternoon and blushed when he saw Trees Dressed in White hanging on the wall. As two visitors stopped in front of the strange picture, Swain rushed out. He was ashamed that a picture like that had been accepted for the Show. He didn’t want to hear what they might say. However Swain didn’t give up teaching the old man who spent a lot of time drawing. Every time Koppel entered the room he found the old man painting something. Koppel even thought of hiding the brush from him. The old man seldom mentioned his picture and was unusually cheerful. Two days before the close of the exhibition Ellsworth received a letter. Koppel brought it when Swain and the doctor were in the room. “Read it to me,” asked the old man putting aside the brush he was holding in his hand. “My eyes are tired from painting.” The letter said: ‘It gives the Lathrop Gallery pleasure to announce that Collis P. Ellsworth has been awarded the First Landscape Prize of ten thousand dollars for his painting Trees Dressed in White’. Swain became dumb with astonishment. Koppel dropped the glass with juice he was about to give Ellsworth and did not bend to pick up the fragments. Doctor Caswell managed to keep calm. “Congratulations, Mr Ellsworth,” said the doctor. “Fine, fine…Frankly, I didn’t expect that your picture would win the prize…Well…Anyway I’ve proved to you that art is more satisfying than business.” “Art is nothing. I bought the Lathrop Gallery,” said the old man very pleased with the effect of his deception. VOCABULARY art n – искусство modern (national, realistic, abstract, etc.) art. Phr a work of art - произведение искусства; an art student - студент художественной 4 школы ; an art exhibition - художественная выставка ; artist – художник, an art school – художественная школа, направление в искусстве. hurry vt /vi cпешить, торопить(ся), hurry home (to school, to the station, etc.,); Don’t hurry him, he’ll make a mistake. Hurry up! Скорее, поторопитесь! hurry n спешка What’s the hurry? In a hurry в спешке, второпях He is always in a hurry. Он всегда спешит. (Ему всегда некогда). deal n сделка, соглашение to do/make a deal with sb – заключить с кем-то сделку; dealer n to deal (dealt, dealt) – 1. иметь дело, вести дело, рассматривать, касаться The book deals with modern art. It is difficult to deal with the man. Who deals with such matters? 2. торговать What goods does this shop deal in? suggestion n предложение At whose suggestion did your arrange this exhibition? make a suggestion – внести, сделать предложение; suggest vt – предлагать suggest a plan (idea, trip, etc) suggest that sb (should) do sth; I suggest that they (should) visit the art museum. to be prepared to do sth – быть готовым сделать что-то; to be ready for sth – быть готовым к чему-то chance n случай, возможность, шанс a lucky chance (good, excellent, etc) chance; I had no chance to speak to him . The chances are a hundred to one against him. Phr by chance случайно; lose (miss) a/one’s chance – упустить случай, возможность; take a/one’s chance (of doing sth) – решиться (на что-то), рискнуть; leave sth to chance – оставлять что-то на авось rise vi (rose, risen) 1. вставать, подниматься When I entered he rose (from his seat) to greet me. The sun rises early in summer; 2. повышаться (о цене, температуре и т.д.) His voice rose in excitement (anger, etc) ; rise n повышение, увеличение a rise in temperature (prices, one’s pay, etc) interrupt vt прерывать, мешать interrupt a lesson (a game, a person, etc); I am sorry to interrupt you. The rain interrupted the game. interruption n miss vt 1. пропускать, упускать прослушать, не заметить miss a lesson the beginning of a story; a chance; sb’s words; a mistake, etc); miss a train – опоздать на поезд 2. скучать по кому-н./чему-н. miss sb (a friend, one’s family, one’s home, etc) 3. обнаружить отсутствие (кого-н. / чего-н.) When did you miss your book? 4. промахнуться, не достичь цели He fired 5 at the bird but missed. He tried to catch the ball but missed; missing a недостающий, отсутствующий There two pages missing from (in) the book. admire vt восторгаться, восхищаться admire a picture (house), sb's talent, etc. ); admiration n восторг, восхищение afford vt позволить себе, (быть в состоянии) (обычно употр. с глаголом can) Can you afford (to buy) an expensive coat? I can't afford the time. Мне некогда. spend vt (spent) 1. тратить spend money (time, energy, etc.) on sth; 2. проводить (о времени) He spent two weeks in a sports camp. mention vt упоминать (о чем-л.) mention a fact (name, incident,etc) to sb Don’t mention it! Не стоит благодарности! mention n There was no mention of it in the letter. to be good (bad) for sb. – быть полезным (вредным) для кого-то: Smoking is bad for your health. To be good (bad) at sth, e.g. He is very good at drawing – Он очень хорошо рисует. insist (on sth.) – настаивать (на чем-либо); insist that sb. should do sth. – настаивать, чтобы кто-л. сделал что-л. persuade sb. to do sth. – убедить кого-л сделать что-л. take sth. easy/calmly, etc. - воспринимать что-л спокойно. keep sb. from doing sth.. – удерживать кого-л от совершения какого-л действия. order – 1. приказ; vt to order sb. to do sth. – приказать кому-л. сделать что-либо; (to order that sb. should do sth.) Phr by order по приказу 2. порядок He likes order in everything. She keeps the house in good order. Phr be in (out of) order быть в порядке, исправности (в неисправности, испорченным); disorder n беспорядок. 3. заказывать order a taxi (a dress, dinner, books, etc) obey sb. – повиноваться, подчиняться кому-л, чему-л obedient – послушный , покорный; disobebient – непослушный. 6 suspicion – подозрение; suspicious подозрительный, вызывающий подозрение, недоверчивый promise vt – обещать что-л., Phr to keep one’s promise – cдержать обещание; to breake one’s promise – нарушить обещание. attention – внимание; to draw (call) sb.’s attention to sth. – обращать чье- то внимание на что-то, to pay (much, little, no) attention to sb/sth – обращать (много, мало, никакого) внимания на кого-л , что-л.; to give attention to sb/sth – уделять внимание кому-то,.чему-то; to catch sb’s attention – привлечь чье-л. внимание; (in)attentive – (не)внимательный, to be (in)attentive to sb. WORD COMBINATIONS get in touch with sb. – вступить в контакт, связываться с кем-л . apologise to sb. for sth. – просить прощения у кого-то за что-то. paint sth. blue (red, white, etc,) красить что-л. в голубой (красный, белый) цвет. announce sth. – объявить о чем-л. dream of sth./doing sth. (dream, dreamt, dreamt) – мечтать о чем-л , о том, чтобы … give up sth./doing sth. – бросать что-л, отказываться продолжать делать что-л. EXERCISES COMPEHENSION Ex. 1. Answer the following questions. 1. Why wasn’t Koppel satisfied with the behaviour of his patient? 2.Why wasn’t Ellsworth an ordinary case? 3. Who was Frank Swain? 4. What proves that Ellsworth liked to be taught painting? 5. What picture did Ellsworth paint? 6. What happened two days before the close of the exhibition? 7. What did the letter received by Ellsworth say? 8. How did everybody react to the news that Ellsworth had been awarded a prize? 9. Which of Ellsworth’s words show that Doctor Caswell hadn’t proved to the old man that art was more important than business? Ex. 2. Find equivalents for the following phrases in the text. 7 быть полезным для кого-то; настаивать на чем-то; убеждать кого-то сделать что-то; воспринять информацию; необычный случай; заканчиваться провалом; вредно для чьего-то здоровья; вмешиваться в чьи-то дела; приказывать кому-то сделать что-то; просить разрешения; выполнять свой долг; спорить с кем-то; предлагать, чтобы кто-то сделал что-то; один раз в неделю; способный студент; извиняться перед кем-то за что-то; выглядеть разочарованным; в чьем-то присутствии; договориться о встрече; выдающийся художник; в письме говорилось; пейзаж; онеметь от удивления; подобрать осколки; обман. Ex. 3. Is the statement true or false? If it is false, give a correct answer. 1. Mr. Ellsworth was very ill. 2. Doctor Caswell wanted all his patient’s business transactions to be a success. 3. Mr. Caswell liked painting very much and was very good at drawing. 4. Mr. Caswell’s picture was accepted for the show. 5. Doctor Caswell, Coppel and Swain were happy to learn that Mr. Ellsworth’s picture had been accepted for the show. 6. Doctor Caswell managed to prove to Ellsworth that art was more satisfying than business. Ex. 4. Finish the statements choosing a phrase from the ones in brackets. 1. Doctor Caswell … (always kept calm; was impatient and rude; was polite and patient; didn’t like to argue). 2. Every time Koppel saw Doctor Caswell he said that the old man … (was obedient; was disobedient; liked television; hated television; took his medicine obediently; didn’t want to take his medicine). 3. All of Ellsworth’s deals … (ended in failure; were a success; were bad for his health). 4. Ellsworth hated it when anybody … (interfered in his affairs; ordered him to do things; suggested things that kept him in the office; suggested something that kept him away from the office). 5. When the first lesson of drawing was interrupted, the old man … (was glad; got angry; felt awkward; was disappointed; was pleased). 6. When Doctor Caswell heard that the old man was going to send his picture to the Show, he thought that the old man … (was doing the right thing; had gone mad; was sure to win the prize; was joking). 7. When Frank Swain saw “Trees Dressed in White” hanging on the wall, he … (felt proud; felt awkward; blushed; was ashamed). 8 8. Ellsworth’s picture was accepted for the Show because … (it was really a work of art; it was really very good; the old man had bought the Gallery). Ex. 5. Put questions to the words in bold type. 1. Koppel tried to persuade Ellsworth to take medicine. 2. Doctor Caswell got in touch with Frank Swain. 3. Ellsworth painted a picture “Trees Dressed in White”. 4. All outstanding artists dreamt of winning a Lathrop Prize. 5. Koppel tried to hide the brush from the old man. 6. Koppel insisted that they should interfere with the old man’s plans. 7. Frank Swain’s words hurt the old man. 8. He painted the vase blue. 9. Swain saw “Trees Dressed in White” at the Lathrop Gallery. 10. Buying the art gallery was a very successful transaction. KEY STRUCTURES AND WORD STUDY Ex. 6. Give the four forms of the following verbs. hear, tell, hate, draw, prepare, say, keep, know, receive, stop, spend, rise, admire, promise, get Ex . 7. Insert prepositions where necessary. 1. Vegetables are very good … your health. 2. The doctor insisted …an operation. 3. He is … pretty good health for an eighty-year old man. 4. How can I keep him … doing what he wants? 5. She told me not to interfere … her affairs. 6. Children should obey … adults. 7. Don’t argue … him. He is quite right. 8. The boy was punished … disobedience. 9. Who shall I ask … permission to leave? 10. Keep … … the dog. It may bite you. 11. I haven’t seen my friend … ages. I think I have to get … touch… him. 12. You must apologize … your colleagues … being so rude. 13. Look at this car! Something is definitely wrong … it! 14. When he was younger he was very good … playing tennis. 15. It’s bad manners to whisper … somebody’s presence. 16. She has been dreaming … becoming a famous actress since childhood. 17. It has become impossible to deal … her. We have to do something … it. 18. Don’t mention … it in your mother’s presence. She’ll get upset. 19. Everybody was surprised to learn that an unknown artist was awarded … the First Prize. 20. Your teacher is very pleased … your answer. 9 Ex. 8. Change the meaning of the sentences to the opposite by adding the negative prefix ‘un-‘ to the words in bold type, and making other necessary changes. 1. It was very kind of you to come to see us off. We had so many pieces of luggage. 2. That is a rather usual way to begin a conversation with a stranger. 3. She was quite prepared for what she found on her return home. 4. In the silence of the night I heard hurried steps under my window. 5. It’s so like him to give a promise and never keep it. 6. We were told that it was safe to cross the river in that place. 7. When I finished speaking he made an important remark. 8. She was quite able to do without outside help. 9. I believe these changes to be necessary. 10. He felt well that day and enjoyed the long country walk. 11. There was something pleasant in the way she spoke and laughed. Ex. 9. Paraphrase the sentences, using the negative prefix un- with the words in bold type without changing the meaning of the sentences. 1. His first picture was never finished, death interrupted the artist’s work. 2. On her desk the secretary found some letters that were not answered yet. 3. I hope my absence from last night’s meeting wasn’t noticed.4. We didn’t expect him to return two days before the time. It came as a surprise to all of us. 5. It was a wonder that after all these years the picture was not spoiled. 6. She was not prepared to answer the interviewer’s questions. Ex. 10. Translate the following sentences into English, using a different phrasal verb in each. take off, send off, cut off, get off, break off, turn off, pull off, throw off, pay off, run off, hurry off 1. Она поспешила на почту. Ей сказали, что там ее дожидается письмо от сына. 2. Соглашение было расторгнуто. 3. Наконец-то он сбросил маску, и мы узнали, что он за человек. 4. Туристы сошли с поезда на маленькой станции. 5. С ним расплатились и сказали, что его помощь больше не нужна. 6. Выключи свет, пожалуйста. 7. Здесь довольно жарко, советую снять пальто. 8. Мы не могли продолжать игру. Какой- то мальчишка поймал мяч и убежал с ним. 9. Каждое лето его отправляли к бабушке в деревню. 10. Ребенок стянул со стола скатерть. На полу валялись ложки, вилки, разбитые чашки и тарелки. 11. Он отрезал кусок мяса и бросил его собаке. 10 Ex.11. (A) Answer the following questions according to the model, using the verb ‘to insist’. Model: He insisted on sending his picture to the show. Ellsworth insisted that the painting should be accepted for the show. 1. Why did the old man have to drink fruit juice? Who insisted on it? 2. What did Doctor Caswell insist that the old man should do? 3. Why did Doctor Caswell insist that the old man should take up art? (B) Translate into English. 1. Никто не настаивает на этом. 2 Я настаиваю на том, чтобы вы объявили об этом на завтрашнем собрании. 3. Никто не настаивает на том, чтобы вы вмешивались в их дела. 4. Я настаиваю, чтобы вы извинились перед нею за свои слова. 5. Сначала она настаивала на том, чтобы машину продали. 6. Он сказал, что не настаивает на том, чтобы план работы был изменен. Ex. 12. (A) Fill in the blanks with “rise” or “raise”. Model: His voice …rose… in anger. He …raised… his voice in anger. 1. The lift … slowly to the top floor. 2. When the visitor … to go, I … from my chair, too. 3. As they watched the game, the excitement … . 4. When she entered the office he didn’t even … his head and continued working. 5. When the moon … we could continue our way. 6. Don’t … your voice speaking to a child. 7. As he passed by he … his hat to greet me. 8. His voice … in excitement. 9. The question was … at our last meeting. 10. He … very early that morning. 11. It was late and the sun … when the expedition started out. 12. The girl … her eyes which were filled with tears. 13. After a few polite remarks the visitor … to leave. 14. The quarrel between the boys … from a mere trifle. 15. The car … a cloud of dust. 16. It’s getting warm – the temperature … . 17. The last bell has gone. The curtain is going to … in a minute. (B) Translate into English. 1. Если вы хотите сказать что-нибудь, поднимите руку. 2. Зимой солнце встает поздно. 3. Поднимите бокалы и выпейте за здоровье друзей. 11 4. Хозяин поднялся поприветствовать гостей. 5. Возможно ли поднять уровень жизни путем сокращения инфляции? 6. На вчерашней конференции были подняты какие-либо важные вопросы? 7. Нет необходимости поднимать голос. Я хорошо слышу. 8. Toм поднялся из- за стола и поблагодарил хозяйку за чудесный обед. 9. Ребенок был так смущен, что не мог поднять глаз на учителя.. 10. Не повышай на меня голос! 11. Когда поднялся занавес, все увидели лес и озеро. 12. Майкл встал и поднял бокал за здоровье г-на Грина. Ex. 13. (A) Fill in the blanks with “suggest” or “offer”. 1. Mr Ford … me a cigarette. 2. One of my friends … to get tickets to the stadium, as he had nothing to do that afternoon. 3. Who … that the question should be discussed immediately? 4. The shop assistant said that he couldn’t … us anything else. 5. Martin … that I should show him my collection of pictures. 6. Let’s go to the picture gallery,” somebody … . 7. “You have … a very interesting plan,” said Mr .Thompson. 8. I am grateful to you for the help you are … me. 9. Can I … you another cup of tea? 10. Who … discussing this problem tomorrow? 11. Yesterday my sister … me tickets to a concert. 12. When I was ill, my neighbour … to take my books to the library. 13. The secretary … (we) leave the documents with her. 14. Peter … (his friend) spend the summer holidays at his parents’. 15. When somebody … a trip to the country. We all welcomed the idea. (B) Translate into English. 1. Что еще вы можете нам предложить? 2. Он предложил прекратить разговор на эту тему. 3. Преподаватель предложил студентам прочесть еще несколько книг о современной Англии. 4. У нас было много тяжелых вещей, и он вызвался нам помочь. 5. Кто предложил вам перевести эту статью? Вы не справитесь без специальных словарей. 6. Доктор предложил пациенту носить очки. 7. Вопрос обсуждался в течение полутора часов, когда она сделала это предложение. 8. Мой брат всегда предлагает мне свою помощь. 9. Джефф предложил новый план, но мы не приняли его. 10. Позвольте предложить вам чашечку кофе. Ex. 14. Translate the sentences using “why (not) do sth. 1. Зачем упускать такую возможность? 2. Почему бы не последовать его примеру? 3. Зачем спорить по таким пустякам? 4. Зачем тратить такие деньги на эти туфли? Почему бы не выбрать другую пару? 5. Зачем 12 торопиться? У нас есть время. 6. Почему бы не упомянуть об этом в разговоре? 7. Почему бы не присоединиться к ним? Я думаю, они не будут возражать. 8. Почему бы не зайти к ним сейчас? Они будут рады. 9. Зачем перебивать его? Пусть говорит. 10. Зачем говорить ей об этом? Это только огорчит ее. 11. Почему бы не решить этот вопрос сегодня? Все в сборе. 12. Зачем повышать голос? Это только испортит все дело. 13. Зачем молчать? Почему не сказать им всей правды? 14. Зачем нарушать правила игры? Почему бы не придерживаться их? Ex. 15. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs where necessary. 1. The next morning when the mail came, he looked … the papers but there was no mention … the incident … them. 2. Do you … any chance remember her telephone number? 3. His father chose the best art school … the boy and spent lots … money … his education. 4. Wrap the matches … oil paper if you want to keep them dry when camping out. 5. You mustn’t decide anything … a hurry, of course, but if you wait much longer, you may not get another chance like that. 6. No wonder you have a headache, that’s what comes of lying … the sun … hours. 7. Can I have your text-book … a moment, there are several pages missing … mine. 8. Early … the morning the hunter left the log cabin with the gun … his arm and the dog walking … him. 9. Goods … shop windows are almost never sold, but if they are, they are sold … lower prices. 10. You haven’t mentioned the news … anybody yet, or have you? 11. She cut … a big piece (slice) … bread, put butter … it and handed it … the boy. 12. Will you please step … … my way and let me pass. 13. When they came … … the shop they saw a note … the door saying “Closed”. 14. He got quite a bit … money … his first book of poems but spent it all … something worthless, I forget what exactly it was. 15. He saw a group … small children stop … the shop window and look … interest … the toys … it. 16. I don’t advise you to argue … him … it, he knows the subject much better than you do. 17. She was quite unprepared … the surprise their unexpected arrival gave her. 18. … my mind the idea … the sentence is quite clear; read it again and you will see. 19. Everybody liked the arrangement and they quickly came … an agreement. 20. The art dealer was quite prepared … sell the picture … 20 pounds which we found cheap … the price. Ex. 16. Fill in the blanks with a suitable word. Use the correct form. spoil (3), spend (2), interrupt (2), hurry v,n , admire, admiration, prepare (2), afford, miss v , lie v (3), rise v, raise (2), cut v, mention v, art, price (2), expensive, chance (2) 13 1. I was eager to say my word in the general discussion but they never gave me a ….. , they were ….. me all the time. 2. The sandwiches were ….. and ….. on the plate. Now she could start making the tea. She had her own special way of ….. it. 3. There was no hope of agreement. Hours were ….. in useless talk. 4. His temperature suddenly ….. . He was told to ….. down and keep the bed for some days. 5 We all ….. the way the girl stopped the argument without even ….. her voice. 6. I fully agree with you that as a book it is quite worthless, but it was made into a beautiful film, a real work of ….. . 7. The plan was discussed and agreed upon last week. Nothing can be changed, so why ….. the question again? 8. Somebody pushed him and the coffee was all over his shirt. The shirt was ….. , so was the tie. 9. The post office stands at the corner of the street, you can’t ….. it. 10. The bell gave a loud ring and she ….. out of the room to answer the door. 11. The ….. was too high. I couldn’t ….. such an ….. camera at the moment. Well, I would have to do without it a little longer. 12. The painter was spoken of with ….. . 13. My friend had clearly left in a ….. . His things were ….. all over the room. 14. It was a wonderful ….. and I didn’t want to ….. it. 15. Too much salt will ….. any dish. 16. The dress was very pretty and cheap at the ….. too, but she had already ….. a lot of money on herself as it was. 17. The vacation was ….. for them by the heavy rain. They weren’t at all ….. for such weather. 8. Don’t you know it’s bad manners to ….. people? 19. The incident was spoken of in a general way. No names were ….. . Ex. 17. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the active vocabulary. 1. Никто не настаивает на этом. 2. Я настаиваю на том, чтобы вы извинились перед нею за свои слова. 3. Друзья уговаривали нас остаться еще на несколько дней в Париже. 4. Она сказала, что не сможет уговорить Майкла поехать за город на субботу и воскресенье, если будет футбольный матч. 5. Как они отреагировали на ваши слова? 6. Мы отнеслись к этому очень серьезно. 7. Как можно было отвлечь Элзворта от заключения сделок? 8. Скажите, чтобы он держался подальше от этого места. 9. Люди любят вмешиваться в дела своих родственников. 10. Почему доктор не вмешался и не удержал Элзворта от посылки картины на выставку? 11. Старик поинтересовался, кто мог отдавать ему приказы в его возрасте. 12. Кто велел выбросить это письмо? 13. Доктор предложит Элзволту заняться искусством. 14. Он предложил интересную идею, которая всем понравилась. 15. Мистер Форд предложит мне сигару. 16. Начальнику не понравилось, как вы выполнили эту работу. 17. Мне понравилось то, как она вела себя на приеме. 18. - Что-то случилось с моими часами. - Что с ними 14 случилось? - Они остановились. 19. Гид обратил наше внимание на небольшую красивую церковь. 20. В комнату вошла высокая светловолосая девушка и привлекла внимание всех. 21. Сначала я не обратил внимания на его слова. 22. Старик бросил заниматься бизнесом, когда начал рисовать? 23. Вам следует бросить курить. 24. Почему вы отказались извиниться перед Джоржем? 25. Она сказала, что обидится, если мы не приедем. . LANGUAGE WORK Ex. 18. Study the following word collocations. GIVE - a party TAKE - a look at sth sb a call care of sth birth to a baby part in sth sb a lift (to a place) place (in … ) a talk about sth a long time to do sth sb trouble a break from doing sth Ex. 19. Rewrite the second sentence in each pair. Use no more than five words including the word in bold type. Do NOT change this word. Model: Phone me tomorrow please. give Please …give me a call tomorrow… 1. What is the subject of your lecture tomorrow? talk What are … …… . …. ….. tomorrow? 2. There is a conference here tomorrow. taking A conference .. …… ….. tomorrow. 3. Do politics interest you? take Do you take an interest in politics? 4. My wife had twins last week. gave Last time my wife …. ….. .. twins. 5. I spent an hour doing this exercise. took It …. .. an hour to do this exercise. 6. Get in my car. I’ll take you to the station. give Let me …. … to the station. 7. When my mother was ill, I looked after her. took I …. …. .. her when she was ill. 8. Lately I’ve had problems with my back. trouble My back … …. …… .. …….. lately. 9. There were three participants in the discussion. 15 took Three people …. …. .. the discussion. Ex. 20. Translate into English using the expressions given above. 1. У меня ушло 3 часа на домашнюю работу. 2. Извините, мне нужно срочно позвонить. 3. – У Тома будет вечеринка в следующую субботу. – Я знаю. Я помогаю ему ее организовать. 4. Боль в спине последнее время причиняет мне беспокойство. 5. Садись в машину, я подвезу тебя. 6. Конференция должна состояться с 21 по 22 марта. 7. Он совершенно не проявляет интереса к искусству. 8. Кто ухаживал за ней, когда она болела? PHRASAL VERBS « COME » and « GO » Ex.20. Match the phrasal verbs in A (1-6) with the meanings in B (a-g). A 1. Where did you come across this information? 2. Your name came up again in the conversation. 3. How did this misunderstanding come about? 4. Have you ever come up against this problem? 5. The boy came down with a bad cold. 6. The patient was given an anaesthetic and didn’t come to for three hours. B a) meet or face a difficulty b) happen c) regain consciousness d) find by accident or hear about e) be talked about f) fall ill with Ex.21. Replace the words in italics with a suitable phrasal verb with “come” in its correct form. across up down with come to about up against Model: Have you found the invoices I asked you to find yesterday? Have you come across the invoices I asked you to find yesterday? 16 1. I’m afraid we are going to face a lot of problems trying to introduce this new system. 2. The new project was mentioned at the directors’ meeting last week. 3. The room was so hot that a man actually fainted. Luckily he regained consciousness almost immediately. 4. One of the secretaries has developed a nasty cold and won’t be in today. 5. What I want to know is how the accident happened. 6. Where on earth did you find this beautiful old desk? Ex. 22. Rewrite the second sentence in each pair. Use no more than five words including the word “come” in the proper form. Do NOT change this word. Model: All students face the problem of phrasal verbs, come All students …come up against… phrasal verbs. 1. Is it the first time you’ve heard of phrasal verbs? come Have you ever ……….. phrasal verbs before? 2. What is another way of saying “I fell ill with a cold”? came How can I say “I ………….. a cold? 3. What about “We often discuss this subject in our lessons? comes What about “This subject …………….. our lessons? 4. The house was clearly seen in the light of the full moon. came The house …………. in the light of the full moon. 5. The patient regained consciousness in fifteen minutes after the operation. came The patient ………… in fifteen minutes after the operation. Ex. 23. Translate the following into English. Use phrasal verbs. 1. В этом рассказе я нашел несколько интересных слов и выражений, которые мне раньше не попадались. 2. Врач сделал все возможное, и больной, наконец, пришел в себя. 3. Интересно, нам придется столкнуться с какими-нибудь проблемами, если мы примем это решение? 4. Его имя было упомянуто во вчерашнем докладе. 17 5. Боюсь, мы ничего не можем без него сделать, а он слег с простудой и сможет помочь нам не раньше, чем через несколько дней. 6. Не сердись на меня. Я только хочу знать, как это произошло. Ex.24. Study the following meanings of the phrasal verb “go”. 1. go on sth (a trip, an excursion) - отправляться в/на … (doing sth) - продолжать (делать что-л.) with sth - 1. продолжать (работу, путешествие) 2. хорошо сочетаться с чем-л. 2. go off - 1. испускать, выделять 2. выстрелить 3. go for sth/sb -1. сходить, за чем-л./кем-л. 2. пойти на прогулку (a walk) 4. go down - снижаться, падать ( about prices, salary, etc) 5. go without - обходиться без чего-л. 6. go in for - (начать) заниматься чем-л. 7. go back on (one’s promise) - нарушать (обещание) 8. go over sth - осмотреть, рассмотреть что-л. внимательно 9. go out - 1. выходить 2. погаснуть 10. go through sth - тщательно разбирать пункт за пунктом Ex. 25. Paraphrase the following sentences using phrasal verb “go”. 1. Before leaving the house Martin checked all the things very carefully so as not to take something that didn’t belong to him. 2. John thought to himself that the scarf he had given Ann really looked good with her coat. 3. Though the manager entered the room, his secretary continued to talk on the phone to her boy-friend. 4. It’s quite unpleasant to deal with him. He often breaks his promises. 5. Sometimes Peter thought of taking up football but each time he changed his mind and preferred reading and watching TV. 6. Bond’s gun shot while he was pulling Mary through the window. 7. The teacher looked through the test very carefully, pointing out the student’s mistakes. 8. When the meeting had finished, they scanned the plan once again. 9. The police dog ran after the criminal. 10. Production of this kind of car has been decreasing lately. 11. People cannot live without water more than a few days. Ex. 26. Use phrasal verbs “come” and “go”. Put in the correct prepositions or adverbs. 18 1. It was some time before he came ….. after being knocked out. 2. I had to wait for permission from the Town Council before I could go ….. with my plans. 3. He came ….. to my way of thinking after a good deal of argument. 4. The guard dog went ….. the intruder and knocked him down. 5. He had a sandwich and a cup of coffee, then went ….. working. 6. It’s no use trying to keep it secret; it’s sure to come ….. in the end. 7. I went ….. the proposal very carefully with my solicitor and finally decided not to accept their offer. 8. The gun went ….. by accident and wounded him in the leg. 9. The question of salary increases will come ….. at the next general meeting. 10. Wearing black for mourning went ….. many years ago. 11. She went ….. ….. a beauty contest and got a prize. 12. Those rust marks will come ….. if you rub them with lemon. 13. The price of tomatoes usually goes ….. in England. 14. Seeing me from across the room, she came ….. me, and said that she had a message for me. 15. The early colonists of Canada went ….. many hardships. 16. You can’t go ….. ….. your promise now; we are depending on you. 17. I have changed my mind about marrying him. I simply can’t go ... ... it. 18. The aeroplane crashed and went ….. in flames. 19. He came ….. a fortune last year. (He inherited it). 20. I refuse to go ….. now. I’m going on. 21. Wait till prices come ….. again before you buy. 22. They have gone ….. all the calculations again but they still can’t find the mistake. 23. I came ….. a vase exactly like yours in an antique shop. 24. Don’t go ….. food if you want to economize. Just drink less. 25. I’m at home all day. Come ….. whenever you have time. CINEMA and THEATRE Theatre At the theatre you can see plays, e.g. Hamlet by Shakespeare, or musicals, e.g. Phantom of the Opera by Andrew Lloyd Webber. In a play the cast (= the total number of actors) is usually quite small, but musicals often have a very large cast. You usually book (= reserve) tickets in a box-office in advance (some time before the actual performance) if you are going to the theatre. Your seat can be in the stalls, one of the boxes, the dress-circle or balcony / gallery. The 19 curtain rises (falls in the end) and you see the scenery. The audience (= the people watching the play / musical) clap at the end of the performance. Cinema Plays are performed on a stage, films are shown on a screen. In your country, films in English are either shown with subtitles (= there is a translation across the bottom of the screen), or they are dubbed (= the English is removed and replaced by actors speaking in your own language). Films are set (= take place) in many different periods and places, e.g. Room with a View is set in the early part of the 20th century; Blade Runner is set in the future. And when people talk about films, they often talk about the director, e.g. Spielberg, Bertolucci; and the stars, the most important actors and actresses, e.g. Tom Hanks and Jodie Foster. Types of films Western: a film about America in the 19th century; often with cowboys and Indians War film, e.g. Born on the 4th of July Horror film, e.g. Dracula; Frankenstein Science fiction film: about the future Action film, e.g. Indiana Jones Comedy: a funny film that makes you laugh Thriller: an exciting story about a crime Journalists write articles in which they give their opinion of new films and plays. They are called critics, and their articles are called reviews. These are some words they may use: Moving: producing strong emotions, often of sadness; a positive word Violent: includes lots of scenes with fighting and death Powerful: has a big effect on our emotions Gripping: exciting and very interesting Good fun: used to describe a film that may not be very serious or important but is enjoyable. Slow: boring Ex. 27. What word or phrase is being defined? 1. A play or film in which part of the story is sung to music. 2. The total number of actors in a play or film. 20 3. The people who watch a play at the theatre. 4. What these people do with their hands at the end of a play. 5. The person who makes a film. 6. Journalists who write articles about films and plays. 7. The name of the articles they write. 8. The translation of the story of a film across the bottom of the screen. 9. To reserve tickets before the performance. 10. The most important actors or actresses in a film. Ex. 28. Write 120 words about a film you have seen. Use the sentences below and go on to briefly describe what happens in the film. Then give your opinion of it. Was it brilliant? Boring? Exciting? Frightening? Depressing? The film is called… It stars… It takes place in… The film is about… MUSIC, ART and LITERATURE A Forms and people Forms Person Music classical composer pop/ rock songwriter Art painting painter / artist artist (general) sculpture sculptor Literature novels novelist short stories short story writer writer (general) poetry poet plays dramatist/playwright B Music Classical music: e.g. Beethoven’s piano concertos, Schubert’s symphonies, Beethoven and Schubert are both composers (= people who write music) and most of their music is played by an orchestra (= a large group of musicians including violins, cellos, etc.) which is led by a conductor. 21 Opera (= a play in which the words are sung): e.g. Carmen by Bizet. Rock and pop music: e.g. U2, Bon Jovi, Maria Carey. This music is played by groups / bands, or solo artists, e.g. Madonna. Many solo artists, e.g. Phil Collins, are singer-songwriters (= they write and perform / play their own songs). Jazz: e.g. Duke Ellington, Miles Davis, Stan Getz. C Art If you want to see the painting of a famous artist, you need to go to an art gallery or museum. There you can see individual paintings and sometimes an exhibition (= a collection of paintings by one painter or school of painters, e.g. the Impressionists), e.g. There’s a Monet exhibition at the National Gallery next week. There are many different types and styles of paintings: a watercolour / an oil painting / a drawing an etching (= a picture made first on a metal plate and then printed on paper) a portrait (= a painting of a person) a self-portrait (= a painting of the artist by himself/herself) a landscape / a seascape (= a painting of part of the countryside / sea) a still life (pl. still lifes) (= a painting of an arrangement of objects including flowers and food) a mural (= a painting made on a wall, inside or outside) a fresco (= a watercolour wall painting made on wet plaster) a mosaic (= a picture made of pieces of stone or stained glass) an abstract painting (= a painting that is not realistic) Art trough ages and schools of art Early Beginnings: Stone Age - cave drawings Classical Greek sculpture Byzantine art Flemish tapestries Gothic architecture The Golden Age: the Renaissance period the Baroque age the Romantic era the Neo-Classicists Recent Developments: Impressionism the Symbolists and Expressionism Cubism. Pop art. Abstract art. 22 Ex. 29. Discuss your answers to the following questions with your partner. Use the words from the above list if necessary. 1. What is your favourite style of art? (e.g. classical, renaissance, pre- Raphaelite, impressionist, abstract, realist, surrealist, pop-art, cubist, modern) 2. What styles of art do you dislike? 3. When was the last time you went to an art gallery? Why? Did the visit impress you? 4. What have you got on the walls at home? 5. If you could afford it, what kind of art would you have in your home? Ex. 30. Describe your favourite work of art? − Is it a painting (sculpture, mural, etc.)? What type is it? − Who was it made by? When? − Where can one see it? − When and where did you see it? − What can one see in it? What does it depict? What is it about? − Why do you like it? Ex. 31. Get a book on art. Describe the period you find most interesting to the group. READING I AT THE ART DEALER’S (after ‘Lust for Life’ by Irving Stone) The little bell on the front door jingled. A stranger walked in. “That picture you have in the window,” he said. “That still life. Who is it by?” “Paul Cezanne.” “Cezanne? I have never heard of him. Is it for sale?” “Ah, no, alas, it is already …” Madame Tanguy saw her chance. A wiry little woman with a hard, thin face and bitter eyes, she quickly rose from the chair, threw off her apron, pushed Pere Tanguy out of the way, and ran up to the man eagerly. “ But of course it is for sale. It is a beautiful still life, is it not, Monsieur? Have you ever seen such apples before? We will sell it to you cheap, if you admire it.” “How much?” 23 “How much, Tanguy?” asked Madame Tanguy raising her voice. Tanguy swallowed hard. “Three hundred…” “ Tanguy!” “Two hundred…” “TANGUY!” “Well, one hundred francs!” “A hundred francs? I wonder…” said the stranger. ”For an unknown painter… I’m afraid that’s too expensive. I don’t think I can afford it. I was only prepared to spend about twenty-five.” The canvas was immediately taken out of the window and put before the customer. “See, Monsieur, it is a big picture. There are four apples. Four apples are a hundred francs. You only want to spend twenty-five.” Madame Tanguy broke off. Suddenly she suggested: “Then why not take one apple? The price is only twenty-five franks.” When the price was mentioned, the man began to study the canvas with new interest. “Yes, I could do that. It’s a fair offer. Just cut this apple the full length of the canvas and I’ll take it.” Madame hurried to her apartment and returned with a pair of scissors. The end apple was cut off, wrapped in a piece of paper and handed to the man. He paid the money and walked out with the canvas under his arm. The soiled masterpiece lay on the counter. “My favourite Cezanne,” cried Tanguy unhappily. “I’ll miss it so! I put it in the window. I wanted people to see it for a moment and go away happy.” Madame Tanguy interrupted him. “Next time someone wants a Cesanne and hasn’t much money, sell him an apple. Take anything you can get for it. They are worthless, anyway, he paints so many of them.” Ex. 32. Answer the following questions. 1. What brought the stranger to the shop? 2. What kind of shop was it? 3. What did the stranger want to buy there? 4. Why did the stranger think that the price asked for the painting was too high? 5. How much was he prepared to spend? 6. Why did Madame Tanguy decide that she must take the matter in her own hands? 7. How did it happen that the painting was cut up? 8. What instructions did Madame Tanguy give her husband after the customer had left the shop? 9. Why did she speak of Cezanne’s paintings as worthless? 10. Why hadn’t Tanguy wanted to sell the painting? READING II BRITISH PAINTING 24 It is sometimes possible to see the national character in painters or groups of painters. But the visual language of art travels quickly and easily, and artists are influenced by things they see all over the world. Painters themselves also travel a great deal, and one of the first important periods of English painting was started by a German visitor. Hans Holbein the Younger lived in London between 1527 and 1543, and painted wonderful portraits of the rich and famous around the court of King Henry VIII. He had learned from Italian painters – which shows how international the art world was, even at that time, when travel was slow and difficult. Inspired by Holbein, a school of portrait painters developed in England. The result was that there are many lovely pictures of Queen Elizabeth I and those who surrounded her. One of the most famous of these painters was Nicholas Hilliard, who specialized in miniatures: very small, beautifully coloured paintings. Another great portrait painter, Joshua Reynolds (1723-92), spent time studying in Italy in the 18th century. Of course, from the viewer’s perspective, portraits are a strange art form. As with photographs, why should you be interested if you do not know the person in the picture? But, like that of his contemporaries William Hogarth and Thomas Gainsborough, the quality of Reynolds’ painting is enough in itself; the expression in the faces, and the insights into character are fascinating. One of Reynolds’ students was as much a writer and poet as a painter. The mystic William Blake (1757-1827) had extraordinary religious dreams and visions, which he expressed in poetry, drawings and paintings. Although there have been brilliant British painters, few of them have achieved an international reputation. However, there is at least one notable exception – J.M.W. Turner (1775-1851). His paintings were years ahead of their time. He was working in the first half of the 19th century, but his work seems to look forward to the impressionism of 75 years later. While almost all other paintings of his period were realistic and detailed, Turner’s were free, daring and impressionistic. In fact, the genius of Turner was not really appreciated in his own time. Only more recently has he come to be regarded as the greatest of British painters. Much of Turner’s work is at the Tate Gallery in London, which is also the best place in the country to see modern art. The 20th century was an extremely busy and exciting time for British painting. At first the tendency was, as often in the past, to imitate the big names from Europe. The French impressionists had taken the world by storm, and there was little to do but try to copy them. Then Picasso and Braque came up with something completely new – cubism; again British painters followed. British art history books are therefore pleased to report that in the middle of the 20th century a new movement actually started in the UK. In the 25 1950s and 60s, Britain was in many ways a very fashionable place: British pop music and clothes were big news all over the world. The visual arts too joined in this successful piece of marketing. Pop art in particular caught the imagination of young people. This movement dropped almost all previous ideas about painting, and picked up the images of advertising, pop music and cheap everyday objects. The first artists to do this were Richard Hamilton, Eduardo Paolozzi (who is Scottish, in spite of his Italian name) and Peter Blake (who made the famous cover of the Beatles album Sergeant Pepper). In 1957, Hamilton said that pop art should be: “Popular, expendable, low cost, mass produced, young, witty, sexy, glamorous”. The same feeling of confidence, freshness and innovation gave rise to other styles, too. In her accurate, beautifully designed paintings, Bridget Riley made images which created interesting optical effects – and as a result came to be known as opt art. One surprise was that she used only black and white, a very unusual thing for a painter to do! For some years now, young British artists seem to have given up the traditional forms of drawing, painting and sculpture. If you go to an art college exhibition, you will probably see photos, videos, constructions with lights and sounds, live people performing, found objects and philosophical statements. Media attention is always on the new, the daring and the shocking, and art prizes often reward originality rather than old-fashioned taste and skill. Ex. 33. Answer the following questions. 1. What artist made the first important contribution to British painting? 2. What is a miniature? 3. Why are portraits so fascinating? 4. Who were the most famous British painters of the 18 th century? What made them famous? 5. Why were Turner’s paintings ahead of their time? 6. Where can one see Turner’s work? 7. What movement started in England in the middle of the 20 th century? What was new? Why did it become popular? 8. What do you think of Hamilton’s statement about pop art? 9. What is modern art like? 10. Is art national or international? READING III FRIDA KAHLO 26 Frida Kahlo was born in Mexico in 1907. However, she claimed her birthday as 1910, the year of the Mexican Revolution, saying that she and modern Mexico had been born together. When she was six years old she contracted polio and spent nine months, confined to her room. As a result, her right leg was very thin and made her walk in a strange way. When she returned to school, the children teased her. From then on, she always concealed her right leg. When she was eighteen, she was seriously injured in an accident between a street car and a bus: a metal handrail pierced her body. Over the years she underwent thirty-two major operations and suffered enormous pain for the rest of her life. She was her father’s favourite daughter, and he called her his dove. She married a famous muralist, Diego Rivera, when she was twenty. He was forty-two and had been married twice before. She told a journalist, “When I was seventeen (subtracting three years from her age) Diego began to fall in love with me. My father didn’t like him because he was a communist and because they said it was like an elephant marrying a dove.” They had a stormy relationship. Her husband was often unfaithful and even had an affair with Cristina, Frida’s younger sister. Frida also had extramarital affairs, including one with Leon Trotsky when the Russian leader was exiled from the Soviet Union. In January 1939 she traveled to Paris where she met Picasso. The Louvre purchased one of her self-portraits. In April, on her return to Mexico, Frida and Diego began divorce proceedings. Frida was devastated and for a while stopped wearing the traditional Mexican dresses that Diego loved so much. Ironically, she painted some of her most powerful works during her separation from Diego. The couple remarried in December 1940. In 1946 she had surgery on her spine, and in 1953 her right leg was amputated below the knee. Frida was never able to have children. She said, “My painting carries within it the message of pain.” And when asked why she painted herself so often, she replied, ”Because I am all alone.” She died in July 1954, barely two weeks after taking part in a communist demonstration. Ex. 34. Complete these sentences about Frida Kahlo’s tragic history of ill-health. a) When she was six years old she contracted polio / an accident. b) She spent nine months confined to traveling / her room. 27 c) When she was eighteen she was heavily / seriously injured in an accident. d) Over the years she underwent / tolerated thirty-two major operations. e) In 1946 she had illness / surgery on her spine. Ex. 35. Answer the following questions. 1. What was Frida’s nationality? 2. What health problems did she have? 3. Do you think she was a talented artist? Prove it. 4. Why did she paint so many self-portraits? 5. Was her marriage to Diego Rivera a happy one? READING IV. GREENWICH VILLAGE Greenwich Village is a place in New York City where many artists have been living and working since the nineteenth century. At that time, a small group of artists and writers began to meet in the cafes and bars of the ‘Village’ to discuss the newest and most modern ideas in art and literature. By the early 1900s, Greenwich Village was well known as a place where artists with different or unconventional views about art, and other people with generally unusual or non-conformist life-styles, spent their time. The bohemian life of Paris had a great influence on the gradual creation of Greenwich Village as New York’s bohemian, ‘avant-garde’ center. There is even an imitation of Paris’ famous Arch of Triumph in the center of Greenwich Village, Washington Square Park. In 1917, the famous French avant-guard artist, Marcel Ducamp, a resident of the Village, climbed to the top of the Washington Square arch and declared the Greenwich Village a separate, independent ‘nation of bohemians’. Such outrageous and eccentric behaviour became more and more typical of Greenwich Villagers, and began to attract tourists from everywhere. In 1920s, there was also something else in Greenwich Village which attracted tourists – alcohol. The 1920s was the Era of Prohibition in the United States; the buying and selling of alcoholic drinks was illegal. But, in Greenwich Village, there were many secret bars called ‘speakeasies’ where people could buy alcohol. Today, there is a famous bar in Greenwich Village called Chumley’s, which was once a speakeasy. A lot of famous artists and writers went to this bar – among them, playwright Eugene O’Neill and the poet Edna St. Vincent Millay. 28 Chumley’s is still popular with Greenwich Villagers, and also with many tourists who walk along the Greenwich Village streets in search of art galleries, cafes, and special ‘bohemian spirit’. Ex. 36. Read the text for the following information: 1. When did artists and writers first begin to meet in Greenwich Village? 2. What kind of things did they talk about? 3. What was Greenwich Village well-known for by the early twentieth century? 4. What other city influenced the development of Greenwich Village? 5. What can you find in Washington Square Park? 6. Who was Marcel Duchamp? What did he do in 1927? 7. What two things began to attract more and more tourists to Greenwich Village? 8. What was Prohibition? 9. What kind of places were speakeasies? 10. What is Chumley’s? 11. Name two famous writers who went to Chumley’s in the 1920s. GRAMMAR. THE PASSIVE VOICE (Simple forms and basic patterns) I. The passive voice can only be formed of transitive verbs (vt), i.e. verbs that take an object (what?/who? noun), e.g. to translate (what?) an article, to cook (what?) dinner, to bring (what?) a chair, to see (who?) a man, to award (who?) a student, etc. Intransitive verbs (vi) do not form the passive voice, as they do not require any object, e.g. to live, to exist, to cry, to sleep, to go, to stand, to fall, etc. Some verbs can be both transitive and intransitive, for example, The cup fell and broke. (intransitive) You’ve broken (what?) my cup! (transitive) Some transitive verbs cannot be changed into the passive voice, e.g. to have, to suit, to resemble, to lack, etc. When you learn a new verb pay attention to what your dictionary says about it! Ex. 37. Use your dictionary to find out if the following verbs are transitive or intransitive or both. 1. please 2. call 3. cook 4. weep 5. laugh 6. pose 7. remember 8. lead 9. die 10. run 11. share 12. breathe 13. examine 14. fit 15. change 29 16. earn 17. imagine 18. pay 19. dye 20. brood 21. sign 22. clasp 23. take 24. sigh 25. weigh 26. adore 27. fly 28. envy 29. stagger 30. ride II. The passive voice is used : 1. When the agent (the person who does the action) is unknown, not important, or obvious from the context, e.g. a) Five policemen were killed in Northern Ireland yesterday. (unknown agent) b) Repairs were made on the runway. (obvious agent) 2. When we are interested more in the action than the agent, such as in news reports, formal notices, instructions, processes, headlines, advertisements, etc. a) The whole area was evacuated. (news report) b) Breakfast is served from 6.00 to 10.30. (formal notice) c) The water was heated and a solution of chemicals was prepared. (process) 3. To make the object of the active verb more important, e.g. A description of the gunman was issued by the police. (Attention is drawn to the description of the gunman rather than who issued it.) 4. To make a statement more formal or polite, e.g. My new dress has been ruined. (More polite than saying “You ruined my dress.”) 5. To put emphasis on the agent or when the description of the agent is very long. The Pyramids were built by the ancient Egyptians. A charity record will be made by many famous names in the world of pop music. III. The passive voice is formed with the help of the auxiliary verb to be in the proper tense form and Participle II (third form of the verb) of the verb in the active voice. TO BE + PARTICIPLE II (DONE) Present Simple am / are / is asked Past Simple was / were asked Future Simple will be asked 30 The negative and interrogative forms do not require any other auxiliaries: This house was built last year. This house was not built last year. Was this house built last year? Study the examples: A lot of articles are published on the subject. (Present Simple) Rome wasn't built in one day. (Past Simple) The origin of the Universe will never be explained. (Future Simple) Ex. 38. Make the following sentences passive. 1. They serve dinner at 6 o’clock. 2. We built this house last year. 3. I’m sure he will finish this portrait soon. 4. They watered the roses twice a day. 5. Nobody took this information down. 6. They didn’t translate his last book. 7. Maybe they will employ you. 8. He wrote this music when he was young. 9. They will certainly not accept this project for competition. 10. They clean rooms every morning. 11. We regularly look through our e-mail. 12. They restored this castle two years ago. 13. No doubt they will buy all the necessary things. 14. They lock the front door every night. 15. They didn’t pack their suitcases. Ex. 39. Make the sentences interrogative and then negative. Model: This dictionary is sold out. Is this dictionary sold out? This dictionary isn’t sold out. 1. The bridge was repaired last year. 2. His books were translated into many languages. 3. The landscape will be finished next week. 4. You are invited to the party. 5. All the students were examined. 6. His music is played in restaurants. 7. The roads will be paved, too. 8. The airfield was repaired and enlarged. 9. Your work is monitored. 10. Many workers were sacked. IV. In the passive voice by + agent is used to say who or what did / caused the action and with + instrument / material to say what the agent used, e.g. She was hit on the head by (who?) the burglar with (what?) a piece of wood. 31 In some cases, however, you have to memorize the right preposition, e.g. (be done) by hand, (be written) in ink/pencil. The picture was done in water colours. In questions the preposition is usually placed at the end of the sentence, e.g. Who was it destroyed by? What is the table laid with? Ex. 40. Supply the missing preposition. 1. Most children are strongly influenced … their parents. 2. The jam sandwiches were made … white bread. 3. Jake was dismissed … his boss. 4. The note was written … her handwriting. 5. The show was presented … Mr Jones. 6. The parcel was tied … string. 7. The meal was eaten … chopsticks. 8. The song was performed … Madonna. 9. This awful mess was made … Carol’s dog. 10. The pottery was painted … hand. 11. My hair was cut … a top stylist. 12. The goal was scored … Liverpool’s youngest player. 13. The beds were made up … clean sheets. 14. The supermarket trolley was filled … cat food. 15. My camera was loaded … a black and white film. 16. Was his drawing made … ink? Ex. 41. Ask questions about the words in bold type. 1. Paints are mixed on a palette. 2. You will be protected by a bodyguard 24 hours a day. 3. Plants are used by herbalists to cure common illnesses. 4. She laid the table with her finest china. 5. The mountain peaks were covered in sparkling snow. 6. Symphony #7 was composed by D. Shostakovich in Leningrad in 1941. 7. His first novel was received with enthusiasm. V. After some verbs you can use the passive infinitive (to be done) to say that the subject of your sentence is the logical object of the action: a) He wanted (what?) them to choose him for that job. → He wanted (what?) to be chosen for that job. b) With verbs that take a gerund (-ing form) the passive form (being done) is used to say that the subject of your sentence is the logical object of the action: She likes (what?) people admiring her. → She likes (what?) being admired. Ex. 42. Open the brackets using the proper form of the verb. 32 1. I wanted … (show) them my collection. 2. I wanted … (show) the collection. 3. He expected … (give) some explanation. 4. I’m going … (take) the students round the university. 5. She liked … (clean) the house before the guests arrived. 6. What am I going … (ask) at the interview? 7. I hate … (interrupt). 8. I expected … (find) you in. 9. He didn’t expect … (dismiss). 10. When are we going … (examine)? 11. I can’t stand people … (play) such jokes! 12. He hated … (deceive). 13. They expected … (invite) to the party. 14. I didn’t want … (ask) about my family. 15. He was going … (punish) for his bad behaviour. 16. He expected me … (invite) them to the exhibition. 17. I love people … (give) me flowers. 18. She likes … (compliment) on her work. 19. She likes her paintings … (admire). 20. They can’t stand people … (criticise) them. VI. After modal verbs the passive infinitive (to) be done can be used to say that the subject of your sentence is the logical object of the action: MODAL VERB + (TO) BE + PARTICIPLE II (DONE) may / might can / could must be need(n’t) should done have / has / had am / are/ is / was / were to be ought You must serve (what?) dinner. → Dinner must be served. I needn’t translate (what?) this text. → This text needn’t be translated. You have to do (what?) it today. → It has to be done today. Ex. 43. Change the sentences from the active into the passive. 1. You should take these tablets before meals. 2. You must wash coloured clothes separately. 3. The strike may delay your flight. 4. You needn’t do these exercises for tomorrow. 5. We can settle this problem in no time. 6. You can’t leave your children here alone. 7. He was to deliver the packet the next day. 8. You mustn’t disturb him. 9. We had to postpone the meeting. 10. You ought to take the dog for a walk. 11. We needn’t change the agenda. 12. I’m afraid you have to clean your car. 13. Nobody can repair this chair. 14. They 33 ought to drive tourist buses more carefully. 15. You must lengthen your skirt. 16. They may lose our luggage. 17. We couldn’t divert his attention. 18. We have to check this information. 19. You should cover the pan with a lid. Ex. 44. Supply the necessary modal verb with the proper form of the infinitive. Model: Synthetics … (wash) in hot water. Synthetics mustn’t / shouldn’t be washed in hot water. 1. The document … (sign) by the director. 2. Butter … (leave) in a warm place. 3. The walls … (paint) blue. 4. The picture is awful! It … (exhibit) in the gallery. 4. It was part of our agreement. I … (place) in charge of the office. 5. (Police notice) Cars … (park) here. 6. (Notice) Cameras, sticks and umbrellas … (leave) at the desk. 7. He … (disturb). He’s working. 8. Courgettes … (eat) raw. 9. Children … (allow) to play with matches. 10. (Notice above petrol pump) All engines … (switch) off. 11. Exams … (retake) twice. 12. (Park notice) All dogs … (keep) on leads. 13. Champaign … (serve) cool. 14. Test papers … (mark) by all the teachers. 15. Exit doors … (lock) during performance. Ex. 45. Translate into English. 1. Это блюдо следует подавать горячим. 2. Нет необходимости проверять это еще раз. 3. Острые предметы не должны перевозиться в ручной клади. 4. Его должны были назначить главой делегации. 5. Это колесо надо заменить. 6. Эти картины нельзя выставлять в холодном помещении. 7. Эту мелодию можно легко узнать по первым нотам. 8. Возможно, его скоро уволят. 9. Ручная кладь должна быть размещена на полке, либо под сиденьем. 10. Алкогольные напитки нельзя продавать детям. 11. Это старое здание может быть снесено осенью. 12. Эти книги придется отнести на чердак. VII. Some verbs and phrases in English, for example need, want, be worth require an active gerund (doing), though the meaning is passive, e.g. The window needs cleaning. = You need to clean (what?) the window. Окно надо помыть. The film is worth seeing. = You should see (what?) the film. Фильм стоит посмотреть. 34 Ex. 46. Complete the sentences logically using a gerund. 1. Your shoes need … 2. This student’s course paper is worth … 3. The Mona Lisa is worth … 4. Their concerts aren’t worth … 5. This information needs … 6. His flat needs … 7. This knife wants … 8. Her advice is worth … 9. Your fingernails want … 10. Is the film Avatar worth … ? Ex. 47. Translate into English. 1. Картины этого художника стоит купить. 2. Стоит ли читать эту книгу? 3. С ним стоит встретиться. 4. Машину нужно помыть. 5. Твою бороду надо подстричь (trim). 6. С ними стоит посоветоваться. 7. Эти факты надо проверить. 8. Это блюдо стоит попробовать. 9. Об этом не стоит горевать (grieve about). 10. Твои брюки надо погладить. 11. Не стоит это обсуждать. *** Ex. 48. Supply the missing auxiliary or modal verb. 1. The telegram … sent at five o’clock yesterday. 2. I am sure, a lot of questions … asked when he finishes speaking. 3. The shops … opened at 8 o’clock in the morning. 4. When … the road made? 5. It’s very cold. You … be warmly dressed. 6. This report … be sent at once. 7. This work is easy. It … be done by a child. 8. The doctor … called early in the morning. 9. These questions … be raised at tomorrow’s meeting. 10. The book … be enjoyed by a person of any age. 11. All his documents … lost during the war. 12. This museum … closed in summer. 13. Traffic rules must always … followed. 14. The room … filled with smoke. Ex. 49. Ask questions using the question words in brackets. Model: The doctor was called at 5.30. (When?) When was the doctor called? 1 . Such books are sold in special shops. (In what shops?) 2. These magazines must be returned in an hour. (When?) 3. The picture was spoilt by fire. (How?) 4. This work can be done in two days. (In how many days?) 5. The money will be spent on food. (On what?) 6. Such question are often raised by students. (By whom ?) 7. Hot meals are served in this restaurant till 11 p.m. (Till what time?) 8. Umbrellas and coats must be left in the cloak-room. (What?) 35 Ex. 50. Make the sentences negative. Explain why something can’t be done (Use the prompts in brackets). Model: This book can be taken home. (It/read/reading-room) This book can’t be taken home. It must (can only) be read in the reading-room. 1. This dress can be washed. (It/dry-clean) 2. The letter can be sent. (It/stamp) 3. He can be relied on. (He/not/keep/promises) 4. The envelope was found on the desk. (It/find/floor). 5. The advertisements were looked through very attentively. (An important one/miss) 6. Dictionaries may be used at the exams. (It/forbid). 7. The book was read. (The pages/not/cut). 8. The note was written in pencil. (It/ write/in ink) 9. Everything was ready for the party. (Cakes/not/bake) 10. His plan should be changed. (Everything/plan/carefully). Ex. 51. Translate into English using the passive voice. 1. Ваза на его рисунке была раскрашена синим. 2. За игрой следили с большим вниманием. 3. Его можно было увидеть на стадионе в любую погоду. 4. Эта повесть была переведена с русского языка на английский четыре года назад. 5. Моих друзей нужно встретить на станции завтра утром. 6. Чтобы отпраздновать окончание университета, будет организован вечер. 7. Торт нужно разрезать на равные части. 8. Все его указания должны быть выполнены. 9. Деньги были истрачены на книги. 10. Дверь была закрыта на замок. 11. Эти факты следует упомянуть в завтрашнем докладе. 12. Какие достопримечательности покажут гостям? *** Passive Voice of Verbs with Two Objects or a Prepositional Object. I. With verbs that take two non-prepositional objects, for example, give, send, tell, show, pay, promise, offer, hand, etc, sb sth, there are two patterns of the passive construction: She handed (who?) me (what?) the plate. → 1. I was handed the plate. (The who-object becomes the subject of the passive construction. This pattern is neutral and more common.) Мне подали тарелку. 36 2. The plate was handed to me. (The what-object becomes the subject of the passive construction. The emphasis in this case is on the who-object which is used with the preposition “to”.) Тарелку подали мне. NOTE: If it is possible to make two different passive constructions, it is more usual to begin with the person. Ex. 52. Make sentences with both passive patterns. Model: They gave him an apple. a) He was given an apple. b) An apple was given to him. 1. They showed us the way to the station. 2. He will give me the money for my holiday. 3. Did you send him a telegram? 4. They promised their son a bicycle. 5. They can’t tell her the truth. 6. We told him the news before he left. 7. They gave us no explanation. 8. They offered him a good job after graduation. 9. I showed them the garden. 10. They promised us a good pay rise. Ex. 53. Disagree making the sentences negative and passive, emphasize the correct information. Model: They gave him the first prize. (she) - No, he wasn’t given the first prize. It/The prize was given to her. 1. They offered him that post. (his colleague) 2. They promised you promotion. (another clerk) 3. They showed him the documents. (his boss) 4. They will give her a new computer. (her brother) 5. They offered her a two-week holiday. (I) 6. He paid them a bonus. (you) 7. They gave you a ticket to the concert. (my friend) 8. They sent her an invitation. (he) 9. He gives you driving lessons. (my wife) 10. They handed you their passports. (the customs officer) Ex. 54. Put questions to the parts in bold type. 1. He was given two days to think the matter over. 2. We were shown a new film. 3. The instructions were given to everybody. 4. The new method will be shown to the young specialist today. 5. He was told that she had finished school the year before. 6. He was paid $3000. 7. You were offered this job 37 because your qualifications are excellent. 8. The students are given two lectures a week on this subject. Ex. 55. Ask all possible questions about the following sentences. 1. My elder brother was offered three part-time jobs. 2. Three best students will be given awards for their course-papers. Ex. 56. Translate into English using the passive voice. 1. Ответ вам пришлют по почте. 2. Ему дали в библиотеке несколько книг. 3. Вечером им показали очень интересный фильм. 4. Мне заплатили за перевод 2000 рублей. 5. Когда ей отправили письмо? 6. Нам обещали отличный отдых. 7. Ему не сообщили эту новость. 8. Нам покажут новую коллекцию? 9. Нам вчера все рассказали. 10. Вам предложили очень хорошую цену. 11. Когда вам это рассказали? 12. Ему дали бланк, который он должен был заполнить. 13. Ей нельзя говорить всей правды. 14. Нам предложат что-нибудь поесть? 15. Ему выплатили премию за сверхурочную работу. 16. Ей регулярно высылают копии тестов. 17. Вас подвезут. (Нас подвезут?) 18. Что вам сказали делать? 19. Мне пообещали повышение по службе. 20. Нам покажут новую квартиру? 21. Ему не дали никаких инструкций. II. With the verbs ask, envy, teach sb sth practically only one passive construction is used, i.e. when the direct object denoting a person becomes the subject of the passive construction, e.g. They asked (who?) him (what?) a lot of questions. → He was asked a lot of questions. Ему было задано много вопросов. (!) Ex. 57. Translate into Russian. 1. He was asked his occupation. 2. He was envied his enormous fortune. 3. I was never taught riding a horse. 4. The minister was to be asked that question at the end of the interview. 5. He had to be asked so many questions because we wanted him to see that we were really interested. 6. Do you think I’ll be asked this at the examination? 7. He was taught a lesson he’ll remember forever. 8. Who were you taught Chinese by? 9. He was envied his ability to get away with his wrongdoings. 38 Ex. 58. Make the following sentences passive. Translate them into Russian. 1. The lecture was interesting, the students asked the professor a lot of questions. 2. Do you think they will envy me my promotion? 3. They taught him several languages when he was a child. 4. They often ask him such questions. 5. They teach us two foreign languages at the university. 6. My elder brother taught me the rules of the game. 7. He asked them their names. 8. They envied him his talent. 9. Professor Smith taught us physics last year. 10. Everybody envied him his staggering success. 11. I’m sure they‘ll ask you about your income. 12. Our father was to teach them computer. 13. In this course they will also teach you diplomatic etiquette. 14. Our classmates envied us our friendship. Ex. 59. Make the sentence a question and give a positive answer in the passive voice. Model: You envied him his strength. → - Did you envy him his strength? - Yes, he was envied his strength. 1. You asked him some questions. 2. They taught him a lesson. 3. You asked them their names. 4. They asked you your telephone number. 5. You taught them Spanish. 6. They envied you your luck. 7. They asked you your age. 8. You taught her computing. 9. She envied him the love of his fans. Ex. 60. Ask all possible questions about the following sentences. 1. All the students will be asked three additional questions at the spoken exam. 2. The students of our group were taught simultaneous translation by an experienced interpreter. Ex. 61. Translate into English using the passive voice. 1. В конце выступления лектору задали очень много вопросов. 2. Его обучали французскому языку, когда он был ребенком. 3. Их попросили 39 прийти вовремя. 4. Какие вопросы ему задали? 5. Ее спросили, как ее зовут. 6. Нас научили, как играть в эту игру. 7. Меня спросили, где я родился. 8. Каких студентов будут учить логике и риторике? 9. Вам редко завидуют, если вы честный. 10. Профессор Браун должен был преподавать нам философию. 11. Здесь вас научат аккуратному вождению. - Несомненно. 12. Его способности решать самые сложные вопросы завидовали все. III. With the verbs explain, suggest, describe, dictate, repeat, mention, announce, etc. sth to sb only the what-object can become the subject of the passive construction, e.g. He described (what?) the situation (to who?) to me. The situation was described to me. Мне объяснили ситуацию. (!) Ex. 62. Make the following sentences passive. Translate them into Russian. 1. They will dictate the telegram to her over the phone. 2. We repeated the same thing to him several times. 3. Among other things he mentioned this most interesting fact to me. 4. Did they explain the problem to you? 5. They described to us the life in this out-of-the way place. 6. They announced the news to their friends at yesterday’s party. 7. They repeated the arrival time to the passengers. 8. Somebody suggested a trip to the Balkans to us. 9. She described her house and garden to them. 10. Are they going to repeat the names of the participants to us? 11. You should explain the possible problems of the experiment to them. 12. She must describe the mugger to the police. 13. My boss dictates different documents to me every day. 14. We announced the day of our wedding to our friends. Ex. 63. Make the sentence a question and give a negative answer in the passive voice. Model: You mentioned this fact to them. → - Did you mention this fact to them? - No, this fact wasn’t mentioned to them. 1. They suggested another plan to you. 2. He dictated the address to you. 3. They explained the situation to her. 4. They announced the names of the prize-winners to the students. 40 5. You repeated the phone-number to him. 6. They described the criminal to the police. 7. The professor mentioned this strange fact to his colleagues. 8. He described the place to you in detail. 9. She announced the time of the exam to all the students. Ex. 64. Ask all possible questions about the following sentences. 1. Two challenging projects were suggested to us at the graduates’ meeting. 2. The reason for our silence about it wasn’t explained to her. Ex. 65. Translate into English using the passive voice. 1. Нам объяснили, в чем проблема. 2. Ей повторили адрес несколько раз. 3. Мне так хорошо объяснили дорогу к его дому, что я сразу нашел его. 4. Им объяснили все значения этого слова. 5. Секретарю продиктовали имена участников конференции. 6. Нам лишь упомянули об этом инциденте. 7. Сообщение повторялось по радио с интервалами в 15 минут. 8. Нам не объяснили причину отказа. 9. Нам объяснят правила поведения? – Да, вам объяснят правила поведения. 10. Ему продиктовали сообщение по телефону. 11. Вам предложили новый план, не так ли? 12. Нам повторили имя этого человека несколько раз, но мы не запомнили его. 13. Нам упомянули об этом мимоходом. (in passing) 14. Мне не повторили сумму налога. IV. Passive Voice of Verbs which Have a Prepositional Object. When a verb + preposition + object combination is put into the passive, the preposition should not be dropped and should come immediately after the verb, e.g. They looked at the painting with admiration. The painting was looked at with admiration. We must write to him. He must be written to. Ex. 66. Change the sentences into the passive voice. 1. They listened to his lecture with great interest. 2. He throws away all his old note-books at the end of the school year. 3. You must think the matter over. 4. They spoke to the Dean on the subject. 5. We must send for the doctor immediately. 6. People talk much about this film. 7. People always 41 laughed at his jokes. 8. They argued about the incident for a long time. 9. We can’t speak of such important matters lightly. 10. She likes it when people talk about her. 11. We looked through all the advertisements very attentively. 12. The gardener gathered all the dry leaves and set fire to them. 13. People will talk much about the successful debut of the young actress, no doubt. 14. You can rely upon your guide’s experience. 15. Why didn’t the speaker dwell longer upon this question? 16. You should send the sick man to hospital. They will look after him much better there. 17. He was very glad that nobody took notice of his late arrival. 18. He was a brilliant speaker, and, whenever he spoke, the audience listened to him with great attention. 19. Why did they laugh at him? 20. Nobody ever referred to that incident again. 21. If you wear this, they’ll laugh at you. 22. Nobody lives in this house. 23. We always look after our pets. 24. We never listen to this kind of music when we want to have a rest. 25. You should take care of this business. 26. I should pay attention to my teacher’s advice. 27. Nobody slept in the bed. 28. They didn’t pay for the package at once. 29. People speak much about his new play. 30. We shouldn’t argue about such trifles. 31. They looked down on him. Ex. 67. Recast the sentence using the words in brackets. Model: He seldom keeps his promise. (he/can/rely on). He can’t be relied on. He’s very sensitive. (he/not like/ to laugh at). He doesn’t like to be laughed at. 1. The child is very ill. (the doctor/send for). 2. The old car is in excellent condition. (it/look after/well). 3. He was speaking for two hours. (he/listen to/in silence). 4. She is going to hospital tomorrow. (she/take good care of). 5. This little boy is always dirty. (he/not look after/properly). 6. She is always breaking things in the kitchen, (she/speak to/about her carelessness). 7. He’s a sensible man. (his advice/listen to/carefully). 8. The dentist said her teeth were very bad. (they/take care of). 9. He never broke a promise in his life. (he/can/rely on). 10. Shakespeare was born more than 400 years ago. (he/look upon/the greatest of English poets). Ex. 68. Supply the missing prepositions. 1. They read all the books that are much talked …. . 2. She always felt uncomfortable when she was looked … . 3. When are the old newspapers going to be thrown … ? 4. He is spoken … with warmth. 5. The question was 42 not to be argued … . 6. The tickets must be paid … immediately. 7. Each word he spoke was listened … . 8. The matter was argued … for days. 9. What’s that thing meant …? 10. This idea was given … long ago. 11. The passports were carefully looked … . 12. He wondered if the wounded would be taken care … . 13. The delegation was seen … by all the ministers at the airport. 14. The task we were charged … seemed impossible to do. 15. All the materials were handed … . Ex. 69. Translate into English using the passive voice. 1. C этим котенком можно поиграть. 2. Почта была просмотрена утром. 3. Зимой свет зажигают рано. 4. Если ей не будет лучше, надо послать за доктором. 5. О ней говорили с восхищением. 6. Об этом надо подумать заранее. 7. С ним надо поговорить об этом. 8. Лекцию слушали с большим вниманием. 9. О нем надо позаботиться. 10. Когда эти документы будут просмотрены, мы сообщим вам результаты. 11. Над ним всегда подшучивают. 12. На нее стоит посмотреть! 13. Им надо написать! 14. Где занимаются этими вопросами? 15. Нас проводят? WORD BUILDING. PREFIXES I) Adjective prefixes with the meaning ‘not’. un – is used with many different words, e.g. unfriendly, unable, unemployed, untidy, unkind, unpleasant, unlawful im – is used before some words beginning with m or p, e.g. impolite, immoral, impatient, improper, impossible, impure il – is used before some words beginning with l, e.g. illegible, illiterate, illegal ir – is only used before some words beginning with r, e.g. irresponsible, irregular, irrelevant dis – is used before some adjectives, e.g. dishonest, disabled, discouraged in – is used before a limited number of words, e.g. invisible, invariable, inaccurate, incorrect II) Verb prefixes : un- and dis- These prefixes mean ‘the opposite of an action’ or ‘to reverse an action’. This meaning is used with certain verbs, e.g. I locked the door when I left , but I lost the key, so I couldn’t unlock it when I got back. 43 I had to pack my suitcase very quickly, so when I unpacked at the hotel, most of my clothes looked terrible. The plane appeared in the sky, then suddenly disappeared behind a cloud. In the morning you get dressed ; when you go to bed you get undressed. The prefix dis- can also have a negative meaning ‘not to’ (as above, e.g. dislike, disagree, disbelieve) III) Other verb prefixes with specific meanings. re- (= again) My homework was terrible, so I had to redo it. The shop closed down but will reopen next month. I failed my exam but I can retake (or redo/resit) it. over- (=too much) I think my boss is overdoing it (overworking) at the moment. I’m afraid you’re overeating. mis- (=badly or Two of the students misread the first question. incorrectly) I’m afraid I misunderstood what he said. The boy misbehaved in class. Ex. 70. Add prefixes which form the opposite of these words. happy correct legible familiar rational patient regular friendly tidy arm polite visible employed clear sane legal possible honest able accustomed pack lock agree like perfect Ex. 71. Complete the verbs in these sentences. 1. I’m sorry, I mis.….……… her message completely. 2. We un…………… as soon as we got to the hotel, then went out for a walk. 3. She was here a minute ago, but then she dis…………… . I’m afraid I don’t know where she is now. 4. We normally have similar opinions but I dis………… with him totally on the subject of drugs. 5. My homework was so awful that I had to re…………. it. 6. Apparently her alarm clock didn’t ring and she over………. . 7. She finally managed to un……….. the door and we were able to go inside. 8. I dis………… the film, but the others enjoyed it. 44 9. I don’t think I’ll pass the exam, but I can always re……….. it in September. 10.The post office shuts for lunch but it should re………… at 2.00 p.m. 11.She’s over………… at the moment. She really needs a holiday and a complete break from her job. 12.My sister wrapped up my present so well that it took me about five minutes to un………… it. ARTICLE with names of people I. We usually use zero article before the names of particular people, e.g. _Robert is my best friend. _Charlie Chaplin was a famous actor in silent movies. II. However, we use the: a) when there two people with the same name and we want to specify which one we are talking about (when there is a limiting attribute), or when we want to emphasize that a person is the one that everyone probably knows, e.g. That is not the Stephen Fraser I went to school with. Do they mean the Ronald Reagan or someone else? b) with an adjective or a noun to describe a person or their job, e.g. the late (=dead) Buddy Holly; the artist William Turner; the aboriginal writer Sally Morgan; the wonderful actor Harrison Ford. c) with the plural of the family name when we talk about a family as a whole, e.g. The Robinsons are away this weekend. (= the Robinson family) III. The indefinite article a/an is used a) with a name to mean that someone else has or does not have the particular excellent qualities of the person named, i.e. in comparisons, or when names of persons become countable nouns indicating typical features of a well-known name, e.g. Jane plays tennis well, but she’ll never be a Steffi Graf. Why, you are quite a Monte Cristo. She felt like an Alice in Wonderland. b) to speak about one member of a family, e.g. 45 I have often wondered if Tim was really a Burton. (= one of the Burtons) c) to refer to a work of art by a famous artist, e.g. He has a Van Gogh and several Sezannes. d) before a person’s name (often modified by the adjective ‘certain’) if you don’t know the person yourself, e.g. There’s a Dr.Kenneth Perch on the phone. (=I haven’t heard of him before) Do you want to talk to him? I heard it from a certain Mr.Jagger. Ex. 72. Insert the proper articles. 1. He felt like … Columbus on his way to an unknown land. 2. I don’t know anybody who could afford … Goya. 3. The young writer has the humour of … J.K. Jerome. 4. Are you … Anne Bolton whose picture is in today’s paper? 5. She isn’t exactly … Cleopatra, yet a very beautiful girl. 6. He had just enough money to buy … second hand Ford. 7. I know as much about him as you do; he is … Mr. Kingsley. 8. Now she no longer looks like … Jane you used to go to school with. 9. If he is … Morgan, he must be awfully rich. 10. … Fords are one of the richest families in the USA. Ex. 73. Translate into English using the proper articles. 1. Тебя спрашивает какой-то Джон. 2. О нем много говорят, как о новом Чайковском. 3. Интересно, сколько сейчас стоит картина Пикассо? 4. Мне нужно навестить Ричардсов, пока они не уехали загород. 5. Ты упомянул какую-то Мэри. Это та Мэри, с которой мы познакомились у Браунов? 6. Я слышал, покойный мистер Смит оставил все свои деньги племяннице. 7. У него прекрасный стиль, он, можно сказать, современный Тургенев. 8. В местном музее есть она картина Сезанна (Cezanne) и несколько картин Ван Гога (Van Gogh). 9. Вас спрашивает какой-то г-н Смит. 10. Английский художник Томас Гейнсборо (Thomas Gainsborough) жил в XVIII веке и известен своими прекрасными портретами и пейзажами. 11. Где я могу найти инженера Петрова? TENSE AND VOICE REVISION. Ex. 74. Open the brackets, using correct tense forms (active and passive). Retell the passage in narrative form. 46 When he … (be) twenty-three years old Paul Morel … (send) in a landscape to the winter picture show at Nottingham Castle. His pictures already … (admire) greatly and much … (talk) about. One morning the young postman … (come) just as Paul … (wash) in the kitchen. Suddenly Paul … (hear) a loud cry that … (come) from the front door. He … (hurry) to the door and … (find) his mother with a letter in her hand that the postman … (hand) to her. Mrs. Morel … (cry): “Hurrah” Paul … (be) surprised and shocked. “Why, Mother!” he … (exclaim). “Hurrah, my boy! I knew you … (get) it!” He … (be) afraid of her – that small woman with grey hair who … (cry) so excitedly. The postman … (come) back, as he … (be) afraid something … (happen). Mrs. Morel … (open) the door to him. “His picture … (get) first prize, Fred!” she … (cry). “And it … (buy) by a Major Moreton!” The young postman, whom they … (know) all his life was glad he … (bring) such an important letter. “… the letter (say) how much the picture … (sell) for?” “It … (sell) for 20 guineas!” Paul … (follow) his mother into the room. He … (be) sure his mother … (make) some mistake reading the letter and now he … (want) to read it. He slowly … (read) the letter over unable to believe that it … (be) true. “Mother!” he … (exclaim). “Didn’t I say we … (do) it, Paul!” (After “Sons and Lovers” by D.H. Lawrence) WRITING. ADDITION ( A + B ) and CONTRAST ( A B ) Ex. 75. Study the tables. A B in one sentence The food is excellent and very good value. In two sentences The food is excellent in that They also serve very good wine. restaurant. It is also very good value. It is very good value as well / too. The set menu is $15, which is In addition / Besides, you get a free excellent value. glass of wine. The food is usually very good. Moreover / Furthermore, it is one of the cheapest restaurants in town. 47 A B in one sentence She still won the game although / (even) though she had a bad knee. Although / (Even)Though she had a bad knee, she still won the game. They still went for a walk in spite of / despite the rain / being tired. He service is worse in spite of the fact that / despite the fact that they have more staff. (just a fact of contrast about two different things or people, without a shade of surprise) John is very careful whereas Christopher makes a lot of mistakes. The south is hot and dry whereas the north gets quite a lot of rain. In two sentences (the opposite is true) It doesn’t seem ugly to me. On the contrary, I think it’s beautiful. (the second fact about the same thing or person is surprising after the first) I don’t agree with a lot of his Yet / However / Nevertheless, methods. he is a good teacher. We didn’t like the hotel at all. Yet / However / Nevertheless, we still enjoyed ourselves. (about two different things or people) I thought it was a great film. He, however / on the other hand, thought it was stupid. Ex. 76. Choose the correct word. Both answers may be correct. 1. Although / In spite of we left late, we still got there in time. 2. It was a fantastic evening although / in spite of the terrible food. 3. We decided to go in spite of / despite the cost of the tickets. 4. They enjoyed the course even though / whereas it was very difficult. 5. I love the sea furthermore / whereas most of my friends prefer the mountains. 6. He didn’t pass the examination. In addition / On the contrary, he failed it. 7. We found a lovely villa near the lake that we can rent. In addition / Moreover, it has its own swimming pool, and we have free use of a car provided by the owners. 48 8. We both told John the car was too expensive. However / On the other hand, he still decided to buy it. 9. Most people we met tried to help us. They were very friendly as well / too. 10. The questions were very difficult. Yet / Nevertheless, I was able to do all of them. 11. During the week the town centre is very busy. At the weekend whereas/ on the other hand, it is very quiet and almost empty. 12. My uncle is the owner of the factory opposite. He also / however runs the restaurant next door and the car hire company down the road. Ex. 77. Combine parts from each column to form a meaningful whole. A B He went to school today the pay isn’t very good. She managed to do it in time He’s the most experienced. even though He always did his best at The incomes fell sharply. school in spite of He’s got the right The help I gave him. qualifications. However, He didn’t feel very well. He didn’t pass the exam whereas All the difficulty of the job. He decided to take the job. Moreover, Most of his school friends The prices went up were very lazy. Ex. 78. Fill the gaps with a suitable link word or phrase. 1. ……… taking a map, they still got lost. 2. It took me two hours to do it …….. the others finished in less than an hour. 3. The hotel has a very good reputation. ……… , it is one of the cheapest in the area. 4. The situation didn’t improve. ……… , things got worse. 5. She managed to get there ………. She had a broken ankle. 6. It’s not the best dictionary you can buy; ……… , it’s better than nothing. 49 7. She’s younger than the others in the group, and she’s better than most of them ……….. . 8. We were able to obtain a grant ……….. that there was only limited money available for research. 9. It was a well-paid job. ……….. , there were good chances of promotion. 10. The workers threatened with a strike. The management , ………. , pretended to take no notice. 11. He decided to quit ……….. a good salary. 12. The book was a bestseller, it ………. won The Times Literary Award. 13. Germans are usually very punctual ………. Italians may arrive an hour late. Ex.79. Complete the sentences in a logical way. 1. I was able to follow what she was saying even though …….. 2. I was able to follow what she was saying whereas ……… 3. We enjoyed the holiday in spite of …….. 4. If you buy a season ticket, you can go as often as you like. Furthermore, …….. 5. The journey through the rain forest was very dangerous. However, ……. 6. Although it was a very long film, …….. 7. He was not promoted. On the contrary, …….. Ex. 80. Fill the gaps with the words from the box. on the contrary unlike although on the other hand in spite of the fact whereas and compared to however too despite moreover besides Bob and Sheila lived in New York for two years _________________ they enjoyed their stay there greatly. ____________________________ they worked they could still lead a normal life. All the shops are open till ten o’clock ___________________________ in England they close early. _____________________ , some supermarkets are open twenty four hours a day. ________________________, shops in America, __________________ England, don’t open until 10 or 11 in the morning. _____________________________ that public holidays in the States are much shorter than in England, only the banks are closed. Everything else stays open, so it makes life much easier. 50 New York is as cosmopolitan as London. ______________________ , it is not as mixed. Different nationalities stay in their own areas. _________________________ London, everything in New York is higher and faster. But the people are ruder ___________________ . ________________________________ Americans themselves are really friendly, the taxi drivers never speak to you. ________________________ , they don’t seem to know where anything in New York is. New York is quite a dangerous place. __________________________ that fact, Bob and Sheila made there more friends in two years than they have after two years of living back near London. They think that Americans are more open, they speak their minds. The British, ____________________________ , may think one thing and say another. *** Ex. 81. Write a contrasting comparison of two different films, books, music groups, cities, styles, genres, holiday tours, etc. Make use of the connectives given in this section. Write about 200-250 words.
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