309 - DOC

Document Sample
309 - DOC Powered By Docstoc
					                                    FORECAST TESTS FOR ENGLISH MAJORS
                                                     GRADE EIGHT--
                                                          Test Ten
In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening, take notes on
the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a gap-filling task on
ANSWER SHEET ONE after the mini-lecture. Use the blank sheet for note taking.
Now listen to the mini-lecture.
       When Germany invaded Poland, Britain and France declared war on Germany.
       Then                      the                      U.S(1)                     ______in                    debate.
(1) ______
       Roosevelt            asked            congress            to           amend          the(2)          ______Act
(2) ______
       in            order            to            help            the           "non-aggressive(3)           ______."
(3) ______
       Most Americans now saw Hitler as a great danger to the world.
       Before the Hitler-Stalin pact in August, the U.S. Communist Party had favored changing the Act. Now they
joined the
(4)        ______and        others       railing      against       U.S.      involvement      in     Europe's      war.
(4) ______
       The              Party(5)               ______newspaper,                 the            Daily             Worker,
(5) ______
       editorialized that the people of the world wanted peace, and the Daily Worker was suggesting that atrocities
Germany's National Socialists were no worse than British atrocities in India.
       In the spring of 1940, Churchill was complaining in(6) ______that the United States was giving Britain too
little help,
and isolationists in the U.S. were continuing their campaign against involvement abroad.                              (6)
       Americans were surprised by Hitler's move westward, especially against peaceful Norway. In responding to
Hitler's new invasions, Roosevelt spoke of America's anger and(7) ______isolationism again.                           (7)
       In July, 1940, the Battle of Britain began.
       In      the      United       States      an      aroused       public      rushed     to     buy(8)      ______
(8) ______
       "God Bless America" began being sung at sporting events, school meetings and at gatherings for bingo. In
October             the          U.S.          began(9)            ______men            into        the         military.
(9) ______
       But Charles Lindbergh believed that if the United States defeated Germany, it would result in the(10)
______of all
European                                                                                                    civilization.
(10) _____
Questions 1 to 5 are based on an interview. At the end of the conversation you will be give 10 seconds to answer
each of the following five questions.
Now listen to the interview.
1. What was most important, according to Kofi Annan
     A. Getting the WHO work
     B. Looking at the figures and statistics and the devastation
     C. Getting the leaders speaking up
     D. Discussing the issue with the WHO and the UNAIDS
2. How did Annan see the individuals struggle through the course of the illness?
     A. He was concerned with the statistics
     B. He was concerned with the suffering and the pain
     C. He was concerned with the medication
     D. He was concerned with the UN's activities there
3. Annan hoped that the governments could increase assistance in the areas of ______.
     A. treatment, funds, prevention and getting organizations involved
     B. prevention, education, treatment and getting organizations involved
     C. education, leadership, prevention and treatment
     D. treatment, education, prevention and leardership
4. Annan was pleased with Dr. Lee's approach of rying to get the AIDS medication to ______.
     A. three billion people in four years
     B. three million people in four years
     C. four million people in three years
     D. three million people in five years
5. Why did Annan meet the seven top pharmaceutical companies?
     A. He urged them to provide more medications for these countries
     B. He urged them to reduce the production of the medications
     C. He urged them to lower the prices of the medications
     D. He urged them to produce more effective medications
Question 6 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 15 seconds to answer the
Now listen to the News.
6. These militants ______.
     A. suffered severe casualties
     B. were on the recently issued list of terrorists
     C. fought with Saudi police forces
     D. were thought to be hiding in al-Rawdah district
Question 7 and 8 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 15 seconds to
answer each of the following questions.
Now listen to the News.
7. Which statement is not true ?
     A. The girl was living with her mother
     B. The landlady witnessed the crime
     C. The girl and the suspect probably were dating
     D. The girl was found dead on the floor
8. We can learn from the news that ______.
     A. Police provided detail in formations about the girl
      B. Tobago has a.population of 1.2 million
      C. Homicide increased in Tobago
      D. Tobago is generally a peaceful island
Questions 9 and 10 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 15 seconds to
answer each of the following questions.
   Now listen to the News.
9. Rabbi Michael Strassfeld says that one should be grateful ______.
      A. when everything goes smoothly
      B. when the sun stands still
      C. for people's appreciation
      D. for everyday aspects of life
10. When a traditional Jew blesses God as " the true Judge" at hearing someone's death, he ______.
      A. is acknowledging that death is part of life
      B. is happy that his enemy finally died.
      C. thinks that death is a blessing
      D. God is good to that person.
In this section there are several reading passages followed by a total of twenty multiple-choice questions. Read the
passages and then mark your answers on your answer sheet.
      Thomas Jefferson, who died in 1826, looms ever larger as a figure of special significance. Americans, of
course, are familiar with Jefferson as an early statesman, author of the Declaration of Independence, and a
high-ranking presidential Founding Father. But there is another Jefferson less well known. This is the Jefferson
who, as the outstanding American philosopher of democracy, has an increasing appeal to the world's newly
emerging peoples.
      There is no other man in history who formulated the ideas of democracy with such fullness, persuasiveness,
and logic. Those interested in democracy as a poetical philosophy and system -- even those who do not accept his
postulates or are critical of his solutions -- must reckon with his thought.
      What, then, is his thought, and how much of it is still relevant under modern conditions?
      Of all the ideas and beliefs that make up the political philosophy known as Jefferson democracy, perhaps
three are paramount. These are the idea of equality, the idea of freedom, and the idea of the people's control over
government. Underlying the whole, and serving as a major premise, is confidence in man.
      To Jefferson, it was virtually axiomatic that the human being was essentially good, that he was capable of
constant improvement through education and reason. He believed that "no definite limit could be assigned" to
man's continued progress from ignorance and superstition to enlightenment and happiness. Unless this kept in
mind, Jefferson cannot be understood properly.
      What did he mean by the concept of equality, which he stated as a "serf-evident" truth? Obviously, he was
not foolish enough to believe that all men are equal in size or intelligence or talents or moral development. He
never said that men are equal, but only that they come into the world with "equal rights". He believed that equality
was a political rather than a biological or psychological or economic conception. It was a gift that man acquired
automatically by coming into the world as a member of the human community.
      Intertwined with equality was the concept of freedom, also viewed by Jefferson as a "natural fight." In the
Declaration of Independence he stated it as "self-evident" that liberty was one of the "inherent" and "unalienable
rights" with which the Creator endowed man. "Freedom", he summed up at one lime, "is the gift of Nature."
      What did Jefferson mean by freedom and why was it necessary for him to claim it as an "inherent" or
"natural" right? In Jefferson thought there are two main elements in the idea of freedom. There is, first, man's
liberty to organize his own political institutions and to select periodically the individuals to run them. The other
freedom is personal. Foremost in the area of individual liberty, Jefferson believed, was the untrammeled right to
say, think, write, and believe whatever the citizen wishes -- provided, of course, he does not directly injure his
      It is because political and personal freedom are potentially in conflict that Jefferson, in order to make both
secure, felt the need to found them on "natural right". If each liberty derives from an "inherent" right, then neither
could justly undermine the other. Experience of the past, when governments, were neither too strong for the ruled
or too weak to rule them, convinced Jefferson of the desirability of establishing a delicate natural balance between
political power and personal rights.
      This brings us to the third basic element in the Jeffersonian idea: the people's control over government. It is
paradoxical that Jefferson, who spent most of his adult years in politics, had an ingrained distrust of government
as such. For the then-existing governments of Europe, virtually all of them hereditary mortar chies, he had
antipathy mixed with contempt. His mistrust of strong and unchecked government was inveterate. "I am not," he
said, "a friend to a very energetic government. It is always oppressive."
      Government being a necessity for civilized existence; the question was how it could be prevented from
following its tendency to swallow the rights of the people. Jefferson's answer to this ancient dilemma was at
variance with much traditional thinking. He began with the postulate that government existed for the people, and
not vice versa; that it had no independent being except as an instrument of the people; and that it had no legitimate
justifications for existence except to serve the people.
      From this it followed, in Jefferson's view that only the people, and not their rulers or the privileged classes,
could and should be relied upon as the "safe depositories" of political liberty. This key idea in the Jeffersonian
political universe rested on the monumental assumption that the people at large had the wisdom, the capability,
and the knowledge exclusively to carry the burden of political power and responsibility. The assumption was, of
course, widely challenged and vigorously denied in Jefferson's day, but he always asserted his confidence in it.
      Confidence in the people, however, was not enough, by itself, to serve as a safeguard against the potential
dangers inherent in political power. The people might become corrupted or demoralized or indifferent. Jefferson
believed that the best practice for the avoidance of tyranny and the preservation of freedom was to follow two
main policies. One was designed to limit power, and the other to control power.
      In order to put limits on power, Jefferson felt, it was best to divide it by scattering its functions among as
many entities as possible -- among states, countries, and municipalities. In order to keep it in check, it was to be
impartially balanced among legislative, executive, and judicial branches. Thus, no group, agency, or entity would
be able legitimately to acquire power for abuse. This is, of course, the theory that is embedded in the Constitution
and that underlies the American federal system with its "check and balance".
      For the control of power or, more specifically, the governmental apparatus itself, other devices had to be
brought into play. Of these, two are of special importance: suffrage and elections.
      Unlike many contemporaries, Jefferson believed in virtually universal suffrage. His opinion was that the
universal fight to vote was the only "rational and peaceable instrument" of free government.
      Next to the right to vote, the system of free elections was the foremost instrument for control over
government. This involved, first, the election by the people of practically all high government officials, and,
secondly, fixed and regular periods of polling, established by law.
      To make doubly sure that this mechanism would work as an effective control over power, Jefferson
advocated frequent elections and short terms of office, so that the citizens would be enabled to express their
"approbation or rejection" as soon as possible.
      This, in substance, is the Jeffersonian philosophy -- faith in the idea of equality, of freedom, and in the right
to and need for popular control over government.
      What, in all this, is relevant to peoples without a democratic tradition, especially those who have recently
emerged in Asia and Africa? The rejection of democratic procedures by some of these peoples has been
disheartening to believers in freedom and democracy. But it is noteworthy that democratic and parliamentary
government has been displaced in areas where the people had no background in freedom or self-rule, and where
illiteracy is generally high. Even there it is significant that the new dictatorships are usually proclaimed in the
name of the people.
       The Jeffersonian assumption that men crave equality and freedom has not been denied by events. Special
conditions and traditions may explain non-democratic political methods for the achievement of certain purposes,
but these remain unstable wherever the notion of liberty has begun to gain ground. "The disease of liberty",
Jefferson said, "is catching."
       The proof of this is to be found even in such societies as the Spanish and the Islamic, with their ancient
traditions of chieftainships where popular eruptions against dictatorial rule have had an almost tidal constancy.
       But it is a slow process, as Jefferson well knew, "The ground of liberty", he said, "is to be gained by inches;
we must be contented to secure what we can get, from time to time, and eternally press forward for what is yet to
get. It takes time to persuade men to do even what is for their own good."
       Does Jefferson survive? Indeed he does.
11. What are the three most paramount ideas in Jeffersonian democracy?
       A. Equality, freedom and people's control over government.
       B. Equality, confidence in man and people's control over government.
       C. Equality, freedom and confidence in man.
       D. Freedom, confidence in man and people's control over government.
12. How did Jefferson interpret the concept of equality?
       A. He asserted that it was a political concepts as well as a biological and economic concept.
       B. He believed that men were born with equal rights.
       C. Equality is a gift of Nature.
       D. Both B and C.
13. In Jefferson's opinion, what could prevent tyranny and preserve freedom?
       A. Suffrage and election.
       B. Checks and balances.
       C. The two politics to limit power and to control power.
       D. The dividing of functions among many entities.
14. Which of the following statements would the writer probably Not support?
       A. The rejection of democratic procedures is partly attributed to ignorance.
       B. Jefferson's ideas of democracy are often distorted by some people on purpose.
       C. Universal suffrage is the cardinal instrument for control over government.
       D. Once the concept of liberty is accepted by the majority, a democratic society will be strongly demanded.
15. The primary purpose of this text is to ______.
       A. explain Jefferson's ideas of democracy
       B. exalt Jefferson as an outstanding philosopher
       C. illustrate Jefferson's influence on modem politics
       D. view Jeffersonian democracy under modem conditions
       The dream of lost innocence recovered in a golden future always haunts the imagination of colonial pioneers.
Its premise is myopia: F. Scott Fitzgerald conjured “a fresh, green breast of the new world" for his Dutch sailors, a
story that began without Indians. Golda Meir infamously insisted that there was no such thing as Palestinians.
Breaking new ground on a distant shore is easier if no one is there when you arrive. Plan B allows that the natives
are happy to see the newcomers. But soon enough it all turns nasty and ends in tears.
      "A Strange Death," Hillel Halkin's beautifully written and wisely confused account of the local history of the
town he lives in, Zichron Yaakov, takes us back to the earliest days of Jewish settlement in Ottoman Palestine. His
ostensible subjects are members of the Nili spy ring operated out of Zichron daring World War Ⅰ by local
pioneers on behalf of the British, its ramifications among the local populace and the betrayals and revenge that
floated in its wake. He is deeply seduced, however, by the lovely ambiguities of the past as they arise in
relationships between Arabs and Jews at a time when both groups were under Turkish rule. Yes, there is murder
just around the corner (Jews were hacked to pieces in Hebron and Arabs massacred in Deir Yessin) but in 1916 a
man could still be known by the horse he rode from village to village rather than the tank he roiled through in.
      The spy ring ("Nili" is a Hebrew acronym that translates as "the strength of Israel will not lie"), which
functioned less than a year from the winter of 1916 through the fail of 1917, was the brainchild of Aaron
Aaronsohn and Avshalom Feinberg, two Palestine-born Zionists convinced that a British victory over the Turks
would help pave the way to a Jewish state. Aaronsohn was a charismatic figure with an international reputation as
a botanist (he discovered triticum dioccoides, the wild ancestor of cultivated wheat). Feinberg, a local farmer, was
a swashbuckler, a superior shot and impressive horseman. Aaronsohn brought two of his sisters into the ring:
Rivka, who was engaged to Feinberg, and the beautiful and spirited Sarah. At 24, Sarah had abandoned her
Turkish Jewish husband in Constantinople and had witnessed, on her journey to Palestine, the Turks' genocidal
assault on the Armenians. The network was augmented by Yosef Lishansky, a maverick adventurer and a tough
guy, and a few more trusted relatives of the two leaders.
      The likelihood of the spies living to comb gray hair wasn't enhanced by the anxieties of some Jews. After a
successful run passing information on Turkish troop positions to a British freighter waiting offshore came the
inevitable capture, torture and interrogation of an operative, Naaman Belkind, and soon enough the jig was up. In
October 1917, the Turks cordoned off Zichron. Aaronsohn was luckily in Cairo at the time. Lishansky escaped
only to be caught after three weeks, and hanged by the Turks. Sarah was captured and marched through town.
Four Jewish women abused, excoriated and perhaps assaulted her, but whether they acted out of animosity or an
instinct for self-preservation has never been clear. After being tortured by Turkish soldiers Sarah escaped to her
own home long enough to retrieve a hidden gun and shoot herself.
      Nothing is at it was, and perhaps it never was as Halkin supposed. In an empty house he finds a discarded,
anonymous book, "Sarah, Flame of the Nili." A little research reveals that the hagiography was written by
Alexander Aaronsohn, Sarah's younger brother, who, Halkin also finds out, had a penchant for pubescent girls
well beyond his own adolescence. The countryside was thinly populated and the grass grew high; there are secrets
in Zichron. At the end of the book, the town has health food stores, gift and antique shops and ice cream parlors.
But it has lost its soul.
      A riot of names in "A Strange Death" sometimes threatens to overwhelm the reader -- as if Haikin wants to
honor every inhabitant. The poet Stanley Kunitz once heard a voice telling him to "live in the layers." Halkin's
book lives wonderfully in the layers but the layers, of course -- a millennium or two of who did what to whom and
when -- disturb everybody in his part of the world.
16. In the beginning of the passage, the author tells us that ______.
      A. the colonists were always welcomed by the natives.
      B. the colonization will never be with a happy ending.
      C. the colonists hoped that there were always people on the new continents.
      D. the colonists hoped that they may perform ethnic cleansing on the new continents.
17. Concerning the main characters, which statement is true?
      A. Aaronsohn and Sarah are relatives.
      B. The spy ring stands by the Turkish side.
      C. Sarah is captured at the end of the novel.
      D. Lishansky is caught and hanged by the British army.
18. This book is ______.
      A. a spy story.
      B. with a happy ending.
      C. a story of a group of suppressed people.
      D. a story about a poor women.
19. What is the main problem that puzzles the readers of the novel?
      A. Dull story.
      B. Complex relationship.
      C. Names.
      D. Sad ending.
      Eskimo villages today are larger and more complex than the traditional nomadic groups of Eskimo kinsmen.
Village decision making is organized through community councils and co-operative boards of directors,
institutions which the Eskimos were encouraged by the government to adopt. They have been more readily
accepted in villages like Fort Chimo where there is an individualistic wage ethos and where ties of kinship are less
important than in the rural village such as Port
      Burwell, where communal sharing between kinsmen is more emphasized. Greater contact with southern
Canadians and better educational facilities have shown Fort Chimo Eskimos that it is possible to argue and
negotiate with the government rather than to acquiesce passively in its policies.
      The old-age paternalism of southern Canadians over the Eskimos has died more slowly in the rural villages
where Eskimos have been more reluctant to voice their opinions aggressively. This has been a frustration to
government officials trying to develop local leadership amongst the Eskimos, but a blessing to other departments
whose plans have been accepted without local obstruction. In rural areas the obligations of kinship often ran
counter to the best interests of the village and potential leaders were restrained from making positive contributions
to the village council. More recently, however, the educated Eskimos have been voicing the interests of those in
the rural areas. They are trying to persuade the government to recognize the rights of full-time hunters, by
protecting their hunting territories from mining and oil prospector, for example. The efforts of this active minority
are percolating through to the remoter villages whose inhabitants are becoming increasingly vocal.
      Continuing change is inevitable but future development policy in ungave must recognize that most Eskimos
retain much of their traditional outlook on life. New schemes should focus on resources that the Eskimos are used
to handling as the Port Burwell projects have done, rather than on enterprises such as mining where effort is all to
easily consigned to an unskilled labor force The musk-ox project at Fort Chimo and the tourist lodge at George
River are new directions for future development but there are pitfalls.
      Since 1967 musk oxen have been reared near Fort Chimo for their finer-than-cashmere undercoat which can
be knitted. But the farm lies eight kilometers from the village, across a river, and it has been difficult to secure
Eskimo interests in the project. For several months of the year-at the freeze-up and break -- up of the river ice --
the river cannot be crossed easily, and a small number of Eskimo herdsmen become isolated from the amenities
and social life of Fort Chimo.
       The original herd of fifteen animals is beginning to breed but it will be difficult to attract more herdsmen as
long as other employment is available within the village.
      The Eskimo-owned tourist lodge near George River has been a success. American fishermen spend large
amounts of money to catch trout and Arctic char, plentiful in the port sub-Arctic rivers. The lodge is successful
because its small size allows its owner to communicate with his employees, fellow villagers in George River, on a
personal basis. This is essential when Eskimos are working together. If the lodge were to expand its operations,
the larger number of employees would have to be treated on a more impersonal and authoritarian basis. This could
lead to resentment and a withdrawal of labor.
20. What was the Canadians' attitude towards Eskimos in the past?
      A. They were a useful source of unskilled labor.
      B. The Canadians had the responsibility of looking after them for the Eskimos' own good.
      C. They should be encouraged to carry out useful government projects.
      D. They should be kept under firm government control.
21. According to the passage more government assistance is needed for the Eskimos in ______.
      A. providing schools.
      B. safeguarding their traditional means of livelihood.
      C. encouraging agricultural production.
      D. promoting industrial job possibilities.
22. Why is the Fort Chimo scheme not very popular?
      A. This kind of work does not appeal to Eskimos.
      B. At certain times the work can be dangerous.
      C. The location of the scheme has certain drawbacks.
      D. Too few people are involved in it.
      One of the most interesting paradoxes in America today is that Harvard University, the oldest institution of
higher learning in the United States, is now engaged in a serious debate about what a university should be, and
whether it is measuring up. Like the Roman Catholic church and other ancient institutions, it is asking-still in
private rather than in public whether its past assumptions about faculty, authority, admission, courses of study, are
really relevant to the problems of the 1990's. Should Harvard-or any other university-be an intellectual sanctuary,
apart from the political and social revolution of the age, or should it be a laboratory for experimentation with these
political and social revolutions; or even an engine of the revolution? This is what is being discussed privately in
the big clapboard houses of faculty members around the Harvard Yard.
      Walter Lip Mann, a distinguished Harvard graduate, defined the issue several years ago. "If the universities
are to do their work." he said," they must be independent and they must be disinterested... They are places to
which men can turn for judgments which are unbiased by partisanship and special interest. Obviously, the moment
the universities fall under political control, or under the control of private interest, or the moment they themselves
take a hand in politics and the leadership of government, their value as independent and disinterested sources of
judgment is impaired... "
      This is part of the argument that is going on at Harvard today. Another part is the argument of the militant
and even many moderate students: that a university is the keeper of our ideals and morals, and should not be "
disinterested" but activist in bringing the nation's ideals and actions together.
      Harvard's men of today seem more trebled and less sure about personal, political and academic purpose than
they did at the beginning. They are not even clear about how they should debate and resolve their problems but
they are struggling with privately, and how they come out is bound to influence American university and political
life in the 1990's.
23. According to the passage, universities like Harvard should ______.
      A. fight against militarism.
      B. take an active part in solving society's evils.
      C. support old and established institutions.
      D. involve themselves in politics.
24. It can be inferred from the passage that in life's goal people of Harvard are becoming ______.
      A. less sure about it.
      B. more sure about it.
      C. less interested in it.
      D. more hopeful of it.
25. The " paradoxes" in the passage mean ______.
      A. unusual situations.
      B. difficult puzzles.
      C. abnormal conditions.
      D. self-contradictions.
26. In the author's opinion, the debate at Harvard ______.
      A. is a symbol of the general bewilderment.
      B. will soon be over.
      C. will influence the future life in America.
      D. is interesting to Harvard men and their friends.
      In sixteenth-century Italy and eighteenth-century France, waning prosperity and increasing social unrest led
the ruling families to try to preserve their superiority by withdrawing from the lower and middle classes behind
barriers of etiquette. In a prosperous community, on the other hand, polite society soon adsorbs the newly rich,
and in England there has never been any shortage of books on etiquette for teaching them the manners appropriate
to their new way of life.
      Every code of etiquette has contained three elements: basic moral duties; practical rules which promote
efficiency; and artificial, optional graces such as formal compliments to, say, women on their beauty or superiors
on their generosity and importance.
      In the first category are considerations for the weak and respect for age. Among the ancient Egyptians the
young always stood in the presence of older people. Among the Mponguwe of Tanzaia, the young men bow as
they pass the huts of the elders. In England, until about a century ago, young children did not sit in their parents'
presence without asking permission.
      Practical rules are helpful in such ordinary occurrences of social life as making proper introductions at parties
or other functions so that people can be brought to know each other. Before the invention of the fork, etiquette
directed that the fingers should be kept as clean as possible; before the handkerchief came into common use,
etiquette suggested that after spitting, a person should rub the spit inconspicuously underfoot.
      Extremely refined behavior, however, cultivated as an art of gracious living, has been characteristic only of
societies with wealth and leisure, which admitted women as the social equals of men. After the fall of Rome, the
first European society to regulate behavior in private life in accordance with a complicated code of etiquette was
twelfth-century Province, in France. Provinces had become wealthy. The lords had returned to their castle from
the crusades, and there the ideals of chivalry grew up, which emphasized the virtue and gentleness of women and
demanded that a knight should profess a pure and dedicated love to a lady who would be his inspiration, and to
whom he would dedicate his valiant deeds, though he would never come physically close to her. This was the
introduction of the concept of romantic love, which was to influence literature for many hundreds of years and
which still lives on in a debased form in simple popular songs and cheap novels today.
      In Renaissance Italy too, in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, a wealthy and leisured society developed
an extremely complex code of manners, but the rules of behavior of fashionable society had little influence on the
daily life of the lower classes. Indeed many of the rules, such as how to enter a banquet room, or how to use a
sword or handkerchief for ceremonial purposes, were irrelevant to the way of life of the average working man,
who spent most of his life outdoors or in his own poor hut and most probably did not have a handkerchief,
certainly not a sword, to his name. Yet the essential basis of all good manners does not vary. Consideration for the
old and weak and the avoidance of banning or giving unnecessary offence to others is a feature of all societies
everywhere and at all levels from the highest to the lowest.
27. One characteristic of the rich classes of a declining society is their tendency to ______.
     A. take in the recently wealthy
     B. retreat within themselves
     C. produce publications on manners
     D. change the laws of etiquette
28. Which of the following is NOT an element of the code of etiquette?
     A. Respect for age
     B. Formal compliments
     C. Proper introductions at social functions
     D. Eating with a fork father than fingers
29. According to the writer which of the following is put of chivalry? A knight should ______.
     A. inspire his lady to perform valiant deeds
     B. perform deeds which would inspire romantic songs
     C. express his love for his lady from a distance
     D. regard his lady as strong and independent
30. Etiquette as an art of gracious living is quoted as a feature of which country?
     A. Egypt
     B. 18th century France
     C. Renaissance Italy
     D. England
There are ten multiple-choice questions in this section. Choose the best answer to each question. Mark your
answer sheet.
31. Which is the biggest church in London?
     A. More Church              B. Christian Church         C. St. Paul's Cathedral D. St. Henry Cathedral
32. Buckingham Palace is ______'s present London home.
     A. parliament               B. churchmen                C. monarch               D. the prime minister
33. As Americans are called Uncle Sam, British are called ______.
     A. Henry Bull              B. John Bear                 C. John Bull            D. John Bear
34. The largest and smallest states of the United States are ______.
       A. Alaska and Rhode Island
       B. Texas and Maine
     C. Texas and Rhode Island
     D. Alaska and Maine
35. Which movie is not awarded the Oscar's best movie?
     A. American Beauty         B. A Beautiful Mind        C. Shakespeare in Love D. Secret Window
36. Who raised the notion of "objective correlative"?
     A. Robert Penn Warren B. Flannery O'Conner C. William Faulkner                  D. TS. Eliot
37. ______ draws on the Jewish experience and tradition and examines subtly the dismantling of the self by an
intolerable modern history.
     A. Allen Ginsberg           B. John Updike             C. Saul Bellow           D. J.D. Salinger
38. We may hear children say "what he wants?". This is an example of ______.
     A. interference             B. transformation           C. overgeneralization   D. over-extension
39. In some speech community, two languages are used side by side with each having a different role to play, this
is ______.
     A. pidgin                    B. creole                   C. diglossia            D. bilingualism
40. Japanese attacked the Pearl Harbor in ______.
      A. 1940              B. 1941                C. 1942               D. 1943
The following passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of One error. In each case,
only One word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way. For a wrong
word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line. For a
missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a "∧"sign and write the word you believe to be missing
in the blank provided at the end of the line. For an unnecessary word, cross out the unnecessary word with a slash
What happens if you release the odor of lavender into a restaurant? In case of                                   1.
a small shop in France, at least, it led to customers' staying longer and spending more,
researchers say. The researchers, whose report appears in the current edition of                                 2.
Hospitality Management (a journal), say the findings offer more evidence of the power that aromas have
to influence human behavior. In the past, studies have suggested, among other things,
that peppermint oil may help athletic performance and that pleasant smells make
people more collaborative and even induce them to gamble more at casinos.                                         3.
The authors of the new study say this is the first time when researchers have looked at                          4.
the effect on restaurant customers of aromas - at least, those not coming from the kitchen.
In Brittany on three Saturday evenings at a 22-seats restaurant that serves mainly pizza,                        5.
the researchers released either oil of lavender, oil of lemon or nothing at all. The scent was spread
by diffusers that plugged into three electrical outlets. The study found                                         6.
no change in customer behavior when no scent was used or when they used lemon,
considering to have stimulating effects. Things changed, though,                                                  7.
with the lavender, which is believed to make people relax. In average,                                           8.
customers spent about 15 minutes long in the restaurant. And they spent almost                                   9.
4 euros more, about $5. Noting that the findings were in with earlier research,                                 10.
the researchers wrote, "These studies taken together support the position that scents could influence many
consumption environments."
Translate the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
Translate the following underlined part of the TEXT into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET
      How was it possible, I asked myself, to walk for an hour through the woods and see nothing worthy of note?
I who cannot see find hundreds of things to interest me through mere touch. I feel the delicate symmetry of a leaf.
I pass my hands lovingly about the smooth skin of a silver birch, or the rough, shaggy bark of a pine. In the spring
I touch the branches of trees hopefully in search of a bud the first sign of awakening Nature after her winter's
sleep. I feel the delightful, velvety texture of a flower, and discover its remarkable convolutions; and something of
the miracle of Nature is revealed to me. Occasionally, if I am very fortunate, I place my hand gently on a small
tree and feel the happy quiver of a bird in full song. I am delighted to have the cool waters of a brook rush thought
my open finger. To me a lush carpet of pine needles or spongy grass is mom welcome than the most luxurious
Persian rug. To me the page ant of seasons is a thrilling and unending drama, the action of which streams through
my finger tips.
      Write an essay about 400 words entitled "Background music".
      In the first part of your writing you should present your thesis statement, and in the second part you should
support the thesis statement with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a
natural conclusion or a summary.
      Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above
instructions may result in a loss of marks.
      Write your composition on ANSWER SHEET FOUR.
                                          Test Ten 试题答案解析及录音原文
1.erupted          2.Neutrality       3.belligerents        4.pacifists       5.sponsored
6.private         7.denounced         8.flags        9.drafting      10.downfall
1~5 C B B D C
6~10 D D D D A
11~15 A D C B D
16~20 B A C C D
21~25 B C B A D
26~30 C B D C C
11.[答案] A。
第四段 perhaps three are paramount. These are the idea of equality, the idea of freedom,and the idea of the
people's control over government 为此问题提供答案。
12.[答案] D。
第七段 Intertwined with equality was the concept of freedom,also viewed by Jefferson as“a natural right”. 直
13.[答案] C。
第十三段 Jefferson believed that the best practice for the avoidance of tyranny and the preservation of freedom
was to follow two main policies. One was designed to limit power, and the other to control power.为本题目提供
14.[答案] B。
通读全文我们发现,Jefferson 关于民主的观点不屈从于他人意图,因此 B 项符合本题目的要求。
15.[答案] D。
通读全文可以发现,本文的目的是在当今的情况下对 Jefferson 民主观点进行解读,因此应该选 D。
16.[答案] B。
最好能收到土著人的欢迎。但是实际上希望终归只是希望。最后的结局总是充满仇恨和眼泪,                                              “But soon
enough it all turns nasty and ends in tears.”。因此这道题选择 B。
17.[答案] A。
原文见第二段“Aaronsohn brought two of his sisters into the ring:Rivka,who was engaged to Feinberg, and
the beautiful and spirited Sarah.”选项 B 不对,因为主人公们支持的是英军一方, British victory over the
Turks would help pave the way to a Jewish state”    。小说的结局中莎拉开枪自杀,因此 C 也不对。而 Lishansky
是被土耳其士兵捕获并绞死,因此 D 不对。
18.[答案] C。
结局自然不可能皆大欢喜。因此这道题只能选择 C。
19.[答案] C。
文章的最后一段提到“A riot of names in‘A Strange Death’sometimes threatens to overwhelm the reader”      ,
20.[答案] D。
本题的答案可从第 2 段第 1~2 句归纳出来。
B。本题答案可从文章第 4 段第 1 句话找到。
22.[答案] C。
本题答案可从文章第 5 段找到, 5 段全部都是关于该计划中的养牛场的位置较远,                                        不能吸引爱斯基摩人。
23.[答案] B。
本题答案可从文章第 3 段第一句的修辞问句看出。
24.[答案] A。
本题答案可从文章倒数第 1 段第一句看出。
25.[答案] D。
本题要求理解 paradox 的词义,根据文章第一段的内容可以看出美国当今面临的一个自相矛盾的事情是像
26.[答案] C。
27.[答案] B。
细节题。     由文中第一段前两行可知他们通过离开中下层来保持自己的优越性。                                   因此他们有一种逃避的趋势。
28.[答案] D。
是非题。可用排除法。由第二段第二行... optional graces such as formal compliments to...可知 B 项正确。由
第三段第一句 In the first category are considerations for weak and respect for age.可知 A 项正确。in the first
category 指代的是第二段中的 basic moral duties.由第四段第一行 Practical rules are helpful... as making
proper introductions at parties or other functions... 可知 C 项正确。因此只有 D 项不包括在内。
29.[答案] C。
他可能从来也不能接近她。这就是一种罗曼蒂克式的爱。因此 C 项正确。
30.[答案] C。
推断题。从文中第五段可知 Provence 是把礼节作为一种特色。在第六段第一行可知文艺复兴时期的意大利
也是这样。因此可知 C 项正确。
31~35 C C A A D
36~40 D C C D B
1.In ∧case of→the
4.time when researchers→time researchers
6.that plugged→that were plugged
10.in∧with→in line with
1.[考点] 短语辨析。In case of 是强调“如果发生……”                              ,强调假设的可能性。而 in the case of 强调“就
某一特定情况而言”              ,强调环境。而本文中正是后者,因此选择 in the case of。
2.  [考点] 词语辨析。           这里的 Hospitality Management 是一种期刊,               因此它的某一       “期”   应该用 issue。      Edition
3.[考点] 词语辨析。             “collaborative effort/work/project etc”是指“a job or piece of work that involves two or
                                                        ,                 而              有
more people working together to achieve something” 强调团体协作。 “cooperative” “willing to cooperate”
4.[考点] 定语从句。在定语从句当中,以 time 和 moment 等个别词汇引领的从句较为特殊,就这两个时
间名词而言,其后的关系词有时必须省略,短语“the first time”就是其中一例。
5.[考点] 构词法。这里是将数词和名词结合构成复合形容词,在构词时要将名词后的复数词尾去掉。
6.[考点] 语态。Plug 是及物动词,因此这里要用被动语态。同时综合上下文考虑,要使用过去时。
7.[考点] 句式结构。这里是说“柠檬被认为可以起到刺激作用”                                          ,对于名词“lemon”来说,应该使用表
8.[考点] 固定搭配。             “on average”是“平均来说”的意思。没有“In average”这一短语。
9.[考点] 逻辑关系。纵观上下文,这里讲的是在施以薰衣草香味以后,人们的逗留时间比以前长了,是
10.[考点] 固定短语。考察短语“in line with”                       ,表示“符合……”           。
     According to legend, the sailors drowned in the Lijiang River would become the ghosts, who would pull the
ships sailing in the torrents. When the ships passed through villages, bamboo forests and low hills with hovering
thick fog, the tourists on the ships felt as if the time would turn back while they looked at a traditional Chinese
painting. Actually, the local rafts were still towed up against the current by manpower, with some of them pulled
by men and women.
     On the way, the famous hill scene came into the tourists' view. The Trunk Hill is located on the outskirts of
Guilin, and it is like an elephant drinking water on the riverside. The Old Man Peak is like a person's profile and
neck. There is also a steep hill called the Nine-Horse Hill with various colorful vines, and it is like a drove of
horses in different shapes, stretching their necks to neigh, bending their knees to drink water or lying to rest.
When the ships went through the Gong-and-Drum Beach, and the rapid flowing water sounded like gongs and
drums. Still ahead were the Diejin Hill and the Crescent Hill. The Diejin Hill was covered with colorful vegetation,
and there was a crescent cave at the top of the Crescent Hill.
                                                  Background Music
      Music is an art form that most people like. We can say music is a universal language. It influences people
from all cultures, educational levels, and socioeconomic backgrounds. It relates to our work, our play, and our
relationships with one another. It can make us dance and even help us fall in love. The oldest music is probably
vocal music. Almost every culture has work songs, lullabies, love sons, and ballads in its folk music. What is
background music? Background music is music used to provide a pleasant, atmosphere by conversation or other
activities in lounges, bars, elevators, lobbies, or waiting rooms. It is usually instrumental music, such as movie
theme songs, light modern jazz, or contemporary classical.
      The background music is popular. Many people, especially for the students, like to listen to the background
music. Companies pay millions of dollars every year for background music. It's supposed to give you a better
feeling about yourself and the people around you. Factories use it a lot. It makes the workers happy, and they work
better that way. Humorously, farmers use it to keep their calm. It seems that the background music has an effect on
the animal and plants.
      There are many advantages for you to listen to the background music. It makes one feel happy if you have
something complaining. Besides, it puts one in the right mood, relaxes one's nerves regulates the work pace.
      However, the harmful thing caused by the background music isn't ignored If you are a student, how can you
concentrate on a book. If you are a driver, it't more dangerous for you to listen to the background. While driving, it
will make you distract. Many traffic accidents are caused by it.
      In a word, we had better appreciate music in a harmonious, quiet atmosphere.
      Germany's invasion of Poland on September I and Britain und France's declaration of war startled Americans.
The nation erupted in debate? Roosevelt called Congress into special session, and on September 21 he spoke for
remaining neutral but for amending tile Neutrality Act in order to aid the "non-aggressive belligerents." The sale
of newspapers soared. Isolationism and analogies with World War Ⅰ were losing ground. Most Americans now
saw Hitler as a great danger to the world. Crowds overflowed at the galleries of the Senate and House of
Representatives. Congress was changing with the change in public opinion. On October 27, after much debate, the
Senate voted 63 to 30 to amend provisions in the Neutrality Act, and the House of Representatives voted its
approval a few days later.
      Joining those opposed to the amendment of the Neutrality Act was the U.S. Communist Party. Before the
Hitler-Stalin pact in August, they had favored changing file Neutrality Act. Now they joined the pacifists and
others railing against U.S. involvement in Europe's war -- while many were leaving the Party, unable to stomach
the sudden switch in attitude toward fascism. The Party. sponsored newspaper, the Daily Worker, editorialized that
the people of the world wanted peace, and the Daily Worker was suggesting that atrocities by Germany's National
Socialists were no worse than British atrocities in India.
      In the spring of 1940, while Hitler's armies took Norway and rumbled through Denmark, Holland and France,
Churchill was complaining in private that the United States was giving Britain too little help, and isolationists in
the U.S. were continuing their campaign against involvement abroad.
      Americans were surprised by Hitler's move westward, especially against peaceful Norway? Americans
became concerned that German forces would now move into Greenland -- territory of Denmark and near the
United States. In responding to Hitler's new invasions, Roosevelt spoke of America's anger. And, on the day that
Holland quit fighting, he again denounced isolationism.
      Charles Lindbergh was leading the movement to stay out of the war, and he countered Roosevelt. declaring
that the United States must stop the "hysterical chatter of calamity and invasion." The United States, he said,
cannot be invaded. He spoke of the danger of the U.S. becoming involved in the war in Europe because "powerful
interests in America" wanted it. "They represent a small minority of the people," he said, "but they control much
of the machinery of influence and propaganda."
      By now, Congress was more concerned with military, readiness. In June, Roosevelt signed bills that allowed?
construction for the Navy and? an expanded an corps. Roosevelt chose to send some World War Ⅰ weapons to
Britain, to help Britain's Home Guard and to replace a fraction of the artillery Britain's army had lost on the
continent -- his first shipment leaving the United States on June 24.
      In July, 1940, the Battle of Britain began. In the United States an aroused public rushed to buy flags. "God
Bless America" began being sung at sporting events, school meetings and at gatherings for bingo. In September,
Roosevelt delivered 50 destroyers to Britain in exchange for bases at eight points on the Atlantic coast, from
Newfoundland to British Guiana.
      Concerned about the prospect for war, Congress passed the Selective Service and Training Act, and
Roosevelt signed the bill into law, establishing the first peacetime military service draft in the United States. In?
late October the U.S. began drafting men into the military. And from Congress the U.S. Navy won authorization to
double the number of their combat ships, and the production of planes for the Army Air Corps was being readied.
      Charles Lindbergh, continued his campaigning against intervention, using his popularity as a national hero
and drawing on his expertise in aviation and as a world traveler Speaking at Yale in October, Lindbergh claimed
that the United States could fight a successful war against Japan but only if it stayed neutral concerning Europe.
But if the United States became involved in another war, he said, "life as we know it today would be a thing of the
past." If the United States defeated Germany. he said, it would result in "the downfall of all European civilization,
and the establishment of conditions in our own country far worse even than those in Germany today."
      Over the past two weeks the BBC World Service has been running an AIDS season and we've heard many
aspects of the illness but today we want to get a sense of your personal contribution mad whether you think that
you're winning the battle. So I want to start by asking you about the enemy. When did you first realize what a
serious enemy you were up against with AIDS?
Annan: I think it was when I discussed the issue with the World Health Organization and the UNAIDS mad
looked at the figures and the statistics and the devastation it was causing in many African countries and the
attitude of the leaders. We needed leadership. We needed leadership at all levels. But it was most important to get
the Presidents and the Prime Ministers speaking up and that was not happening and I thought we should do
whatever we can to raise awareness and to get them involved.
BBC: And is your sense of the problem, is it all from talking to leaders and talking to officials or have you been
out there on the ground talking to sufferers?
Annan: I've been out there on the ground talking to sufferers, in fact my wife and I were in Lima just last week
and we had a rather painful experience with a group of women who had set themselves up to help AIDS sufferers.
They had with them a nine years old. The mother and the father had died of AIDS. She was left with her
grandmother who was illiterate and didn't know what to do. When we met them she was getting no assistance at
all so I called my UNDP colleague there, the resident coordinator, and I said "can't we do something for this girl?"
And of course he's going to try and see if PAHO, the WHO's regional organization can help her. But we were both
quite struck, we knew this was happening but we hadn't expected--I've seen the situation in parts of Africa where
I've visited AIDS patients in villages where you see grandmother and lots of grandchildren, no mother, no father
and yet you go to a place like Mozambique, a small clinic which is doing a lot, which is following pregnant
women, ensuring that the children are born free of AIDS and following the mother to try and protect her so that
they can have their mother as well and they do not become one of the 14 million plus orphans. And I've also lost
some very close friends, including people who worked here in the UN and that also hits you.
BBC: So you've watched individuals struggle through the course of the illness?
Annan: Exactly, so for me it's not statistics, it's not statistics. I've seen the human suffering and the pain and what
is even more difficult is when you see somebody lying there dying who knows that there's medication and
medicine somewhere else in the world that can save her but she can't have it because she's poor and lives in a poor
country. Where is our common humanity? How do you explain it to her that in certain parts of the world AIDS is a
disease that can be treated and one can live with and function but in her particular situation it's a death sentence.
It's a tough one.
BBC: And how do you explain it?
Annan: You try to explain to them about what you are trying to do and what you are trying to get the governments
to do to increase assistance, not only in areas of treatment, prevention and education and getting the youth and the
women's organizations involved, it may not necessarily help her particular situation but at least its good for her to
know that action is contemplated, action is on the way, if it will not save her it will save others, that in itself is
consoling but its not good enough. This is why I'm rather pleased with Dr. Lee's approach of trying to get the
AIDS medication to three million people in five years. Today we have three hundred thousand people on the
BBC: This is the World Health Organization initiative?
Annan: Yes.
BBC: We'll talk about that in a moment but first I want to get a sense of how you feel when you're faced with
these people asking you "why can't I have the drug?"
Annan: It is extremely difficult and I can tell you I've really tried very hard. You may know that I've had several
meetings with the chairmen of the seven top pharmaceutical companies to press for reduction in the prices of these
medications, to get across to them that whilst I respect and support intellectual property, it is extremely difficult
not to make the medication accessible to the poor and that we need to be able to balance--and they have reduced
some of the prices and in some cases like neverapine in some countries they're giving them away free.
BBC: This is the drug for mother-to-child transmission for pregnant mothers?
Annan: Exactly, which I consider the cruellest of all transmissions. So you press and push and try and get as much
as you can and governments are becoming engaged, but for the person who is lying there, in some cases like the
child I mentioned in Lima, you are able to get them some assistance but it doesn't always happen that way, with
others you cannot immediately get them assistance.
BBC: And does that make you feel angry or does it make you feel distressed?
Annan: Both. I feel angry, I feel distressed, I feel helpless and I feel that to live in a world where we have the
means, we have the resources to be able to help all these patients, what is lacking is a political will. How do you
generate that political will to ensure that assistance roaches them and of course with somebody like myself who
tries to speak for the poor and the voiceless you sort of feel you're failing, you're not getting enough done and you
walk away a bit depleted and upset, really upset if not depressed.
BBC: What more can you do though, when you ask yourself what more can I do, what answers do you come up
Annan: I think we should continue our efforts to mobilize the societies to play a role. We should get the leaders to
speak out against discrimination, the stigma that is attached to it. We need resources, we need resources, to assist
these people. We are operating at a relatively low level. We estimate that by 2005 we will need ten billion dollars
worldwide per annum to fight the disease. Today I'm trying to see if we can get three billion a year for the next
five years going into the global fund I would want to see one billion dollars from the European Union per year for
the next five years, one billion dollars from the United States government and one billion from other sources. But
multi-year commitment over the next five years and of course the rest of the resources will have to come from
      News Item One (For Question 6)
      Saudi forces clashed with suspected militants in the capital Riyadh on Sunday and there were reports of
casualties, security officials said. The clashes in al-Rawdah district, an upscale neighborhood in eastern Riyadh,
erupted after security forces raided an area where suspected militants were thought to be hiding, interior Ministry
spokesman Brig. Mansour al-Turki said. "Some of those militants were on the recently issued list of 36 suspected
terrorists," he said. He said there were reports of at least one militant killed.
      News Item Two (For Questions 7 and 8)
      A 14-year-old American girl was stabbed and killed ill a quiet seaside village on the island of Tobago, police
said Saturday. Kitty Nichole Pete was killed late Friday night in the apartment she had been sharing with her
mother in Charlotteville, a village on the northeastern tip of Tobago, said police inspector Glen Sharpe. Police
were searching for a 22-year-old local man whom the landlord saw leaving the apartment with a knife. The
landlord told police he went to the apartment alter heating screams and found Pete's body on the floor. She had
been stabbed in the eye and stomach. Police said they believe the girl had been dating the 22-year-old.The girl's
mother, Heather Pete, was not in the apartment at the time of the attack. Police could not immediately provide the
girl's hometown or say how long she mid her mother had been in Tobago. While homicides and kidnappings have
been rising in Trinidad, violent crime is rare in its smaller sister island of Tobago. Pete was the fifth homicide
victim on the island of 55,000 people this year. There have been more than 140 homicides in Trinidad, population
1.2 million.
      News Item Three (For Questions 9 and 10)
      Host: Every language has a phrase for "thank you" It's a sentiment children everywhere are encouraged by
their parents to express easily and often.
      Every religion has a special way to say "thank you" to God. In the Jewish faith, these "thank you" often take
the form of formal blessings, or "brachot."
      In addition to "thank you blessings" for food and health, there are also brachot to be recited upon seeing a
rainbow, a wise person, a beautiful woman, a long-lost friend or a king. There is even a long blessing one says
after using the toilet, which gives thanks for the smooth functioning of the human body.
      Michael Strassfeld is the rabbi of the Society for the Advancement of Judaism in New York and the author of
recently a book of Life: Embracing Judaism as A Spiritual Practice.
      Voice: Being Grateful I think makes us aware or reminds us of the blessings of our lives. It reflects a sense of
how important it is to go through life and go through every day really appreciating the miracles of every day. And
I don't think it's about making the sun stand still as it were or dividing the Red Sea; but really just the everyday
aspects of life, for nature and beauty and relationships. All those things we enjoy every day, but often we forget
      Hest: Rabbi Strassfeld says that traditional Jews also thank God at painful moments. When one hears of a
death, for example, one blesses God as "the true Judge".
      Voice: And it's a way of expressing an acknowledgment that death is also part of life. It doesn't mean that
death is a blessing or that that person is better off, but it just really understands that everything in life is part of life,
and that everything from a traditional viewpoint is created by God. So all of life is part of that. Blessing and
gratitude allows you to emphasize or to focus more on the good things and to put the difficult things in the broader

Shared By: