(1) Locality (8-9) Contributing (10-11) CRASH LEVEL
1 Rural (<30% developed)
2 Mixed (30% to 70% developed)
North Carolina Circumstances, Non-Motorist First Harmful Event
(Maximum – two per person) & Most Harmful Event
3 Urban (>70% developed)
Crash Report Form DMV-349 0 Unknown
Circumstances 8 - 9
(2) Predominant A reportable motor vehicle crash must meet at 1 Coming from behind parked veh. Non-Collision Non-Motorist
2 Darting 1 Ran off road – right
Development Type least one of the following criteria:
3 Lying and/or illegally in roadway 2 Ran off road – left
1 Farms, woods, pastures
1 2 Residential • results in a fatality, or 4 Failure to yield right of way 3 Ran off road - straight
• a non-fatal personal injury, or 5 Not visible (dark clothing, etc.) 4 Jackknife
6 Inattentive (talking, eating, etc.) 5 Overturn/rollover
4 Institutional • property damage of $1,000 or greater, or 13 Other non-collision*
5 Industrial 7 Failure to obey traffic signs, First Harmful
• property damage of any amount to a vehicle seized Signals Collision of Motor Event at 10
2 (3) Road Surface Condition In addition, a reportable motor vehicle crash must 8 Wrong side of road Vehicle With Crash Level
1 Dry occur on a trafficway (any land way open to the public as a 9 Other* 14 Pedestrian
2 Wet matter of right or custom for moving persons or property from 10 Unknown 15 Pedalcyclist
3 Water (standing, moving) one place to another) or occur after the motor vehicle runs off 16 RR train, engine
4 Ice the roadway but before events are stabilized. 17 Animal
3 5 Snow 18 Movable object* Most Harmful
The terms collision, accident, and crash are synonymous when (12-13) Contributing
6 Slush describing a motor vehicle crash. 19 Fixed object* Event at 11
7 Sand, Mud, Dirt, Gravel Circumstances, Roadway
(Maximum - two per crash) Collision of Two or More Crash Level
8 Fuel, Oil (FILLING OUT THE DMV-349)
10 Unknown (*) EXPLAIN IN CRASH NARRATIVE 0 None (no unusual conditions) 20 Parked motor vehicle
(-) IF QUESTION DOES NOT APPLY, USE A DASH 1 Road Surface Condition 21 Rear end, slow or stop
2 Debris 22 Rear end, turn
(4-5) Weather Condition (If a section does not apply, draw diagonal line through section) 3 Rut, holes, bumps 23 Left turn, same roadway
(Maximum – two per crash) o ONLY USE "CHECK BLOCKS" IF THEY APPLY 4 Work zone (construction, 24 Left turn, different roadways
1 Clear maintenance, utility) 25 Right turn, same roadway
2 Cloudy The Division of Motor Vehicles (DMV) requests that: 5 Worn travel-polished surface 26 Right turn, different roadways
4-5 3 Rain 6 Obstruction in roadway 27 Head on
4 Snow 1. The DMV-349 should be typewritten or if 7 Traffic control device inoperative, 28 Sideswipe, same direction
5 Fog, smog, smoke handwritten the officer should use black ink, not visible or missing 29 Sideswipe, opposite direction
6 Sleet, hail, freezing rain/drizzle 2. The report should be legible. This is of the utmost 8 Shoulders low, soft or high 30 Angle
7 Severe crosswinds 9 No shoulders 31 Backing up Contributing
importance for clarity, when reports are microfilmed
8 Blowing sand, dirt, snow 10 Non-highway work 32 Other collision with vehicle* Circumstances 12 - 13
or imaged for later storage, and 11 Other* Roadway
3. The original should be submitted to the DMV Traffic 12 Unknown (14-19) Contributing
(6) Weather Contributed Records Section. Circumstances, Driver
6 To the Crash (Maximum - three per driver)
1 Yes 2 No 3 Unknown 0 No contributing circumstances
(20) Commercial Motor Vehicle (CMV) indicated
(7) Ambient Light A commercial motor vehicle (CMV) is defined as a motor vehicle or combination of motor vehicles used 1 Disregarded yield sign
1 Daylight in commerce to transport passengers or property if the motor vehicle: 2 Disregarded stop sign Driver 1
2 Dusk 3 Disregarded other traffic signs Contributing
a. Has a gross combination weight rating of 10,001 or more pounds inclusive of a towed unit, or 4 Disregarded traffic signals
3 Dawn b. Is designed to transport 16 or more passengers, including the driver, or Circum-
7 4 Dark – lighted roadway 5 Disregarded road markings
c. Is of any size and is used in the transportation of materials found to be hazardous for the purposes of the 6 Exceeded authorized speed limit
stances 14 - 16
5 Dark – roadway not lighted
6 Dark – unknown lighting Hazardous Materials Transportation Act and which require the motor vehicle to be placarded under the Hazardous 7 Exceeded safe speed for conditions
Materials Regulations (49 CFR Part 172, Subpart F). 8 Failure to reduce speed
8 Unknown 4 If the vehicle is a CMV, check box 20 on the DMV-349 9 Improper turn
10 Right turn on red
11 Crossed centerline/going wrong way
(21) Vehicle (23) Seating Position (24) DOB (28) Air Bag Deployed (30) Trapped Names and 12 Improper lane change
Number 1 Front – left (Driver, mm/dd/ccyy 1 Yes Addresses 13 Use of improper lane
0 No Air Bag(s)
1, 2, 3, etc. motorcycle driver) 1 Not deployed
2 No 14 Overcorrected/oversteered
(If unavailable 3 Unknown Names and Driver 2
2 Front – middle 2 Deployed front 15 Passed stopped school bus
(22) Person 3 Front – right approx. Age) addresses are 16 Passed on hill Contributing
3 Deployed side
Type (31) Ejection necessary for all 17 Passed on curve Circum-
4 Second seat – left 4 Deployed both front and side
1 Not ejected persons involved in 18 Other improper passing stances 17 - 19
(motorcycle passenger) 5 Unknown
1 Driver (25) Ethnicity 2 Totally ejected the crash, including 19 Failed to yield right of way
2 Passenger 5 Second seat – middle non-motorists, as
3 Partially ejected 20 Inattention
6 Second seat – right W White well as motor
(27) Occupant/Non- (29) Air Bag 4 Unknown 21 Improper backing
Non-Motorist 7 Third row – left B Black vehicle occupants.
Motorist Protection Switch Status 22 Improper parking
(including) (motorcycle passenger) N Native
3 Pedestrian American 0 None used (32) Injury This will help later 23 Driver distracted
8 Third row – middle 0 No ON-OFF 24 Improper or no signal
4 Pedalcyclist 9 Third row – right H Hispanic 1 Lap belt only switch Status investigations,
A Asian 2 Shoulder and lap belt 1 Killed including identifying 25 Followed too closely
5 Roller skater, 10 Sleeper section of cab 1 Switch in ON 26 Operated vehicle in erratic, reckless, careless,
roller blader, O Other* 3 Shoulder belt only 2 A type injury persons previously
(truck) position negligent or aggressive manner
etc. U Unknown 4 Child restraint (disabling) involved in a crash,
11 Passenger in other 2 Switch in OFF 27 Swerved or avoided due to wind, slippery
5 Helmet (motorcyclist or 3 B type injury as well as persons
enclosed area (refer to position surface, vehicle, object, non-motorist
6 Other* Non-Motorist) (evident) whose injury status
multi-occupant form) 3 Unknown if 28 Visibility obstructed
7 Unknown (26) Gender Codes 6-8 Non-Motorist 4 C type injury is later updated
12 Passenger in unenclosed Switch present 29 Operated defective equipment
6 Protective pads (possible) following a crash.
area (pickup) M Male 4 Unknown pos. 30 Alcohol use
7 Reflective clothing 5 No injury
13 Trailing unit F Female in vehicle 31 Drug use
8 Lighting 6 Unknown Vehicle
14 Riding on vehicle exterior U Unknown 9 Other* 32 Other*
15 Unknown Towing 33 Unable to determine
10 Unable to determine
Towed To/By: 34 Unknown
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
(33) Relation to Roadway (36) Driver License Restrictions (40) Vehicle Seizure (DWI) (43) TAD (45) Cargo Body Type
Surface Restrictions assigned to an individual's Check this box if the crash involves
1 Bus (seats for 16 or more,
The location of the first harmful driver license by the license examiner. alcohol or other drugs in sufficient including driver)
amount to constitute a DWI, and the FC Front concentrated 2 Bus (seats for less than 16,
event (at the crash level) as it
Indicate restrictions shown on the Driver’s vehicle is “seized.” FD Front distributed including driver)
relates to its position within or
License. For out-of-state drivers, write out FL Front left corner 3 Van/enclosed box
outside the traffiicway
the restriction. FR Front right corner 4 Grain/chips/gravel truck
(41) Vehicle Style (Type) BC Rear concentrated
1 On Roadway (Surface) 1 Passenger car 5 Pole truck
BD Rear distributed 6 Cargo tank
Off Roadway 2 Pickup BL Rear left corner
2 Shoulder (37) Alcohol/Drugs Suspected 3 Light truck (mini-van, panel) 7 Flatbed
BR Rear right corner 8 Dump
3 Median 0 No 4 Sport utility LP Left side (door)
4 Roadside 1 Yes – alcohol, impairment 5 Van 9 Concrete mixer
RP Right side (door) 10 Auto transporter
5 Outside Trafficway suspected 6 Commercial bus LFQ Left side front quarter
6 Unknown 2 Yes – alcohol, no impairment 7 School bus 11 Garbage/refuse
RFQ Right side front quarter 12 Log truck
detected 8 Activity bus LBQ Left side rear quarter
3 Yes – other drugs, impairment 9 Other bus 13 Other*
(34) Vision Obstruction RBQ Right side rear quarter
0 None suspected 10 Single unit truck (2-axle, 6-tire) LD Left side distributed
4 Yes – other drugs, no impairment 11 Single unit truck (3 or more axles) RD Right side distributed
1 Vehicle window(s) obscured (46) Name of EMS
2 Trees, crops, brush, etc. detected 12 Truck/trailer L&T Left side & top (rollover)
5 Yes – alcohol and other drugs, 13 Truck/tractor (i.e., bobtail) R&T Right side & top (rollover) Record the name of the EMS
impairment suspected 14 Tractor/semi-trailer TOP Top (or EMS unit number if
6 Yes – alcohol and other drugs, 15 Tractor/doubles UND Underneath available) that responded to
no impairment detected 16 Unknown heavy truck the crash. A letter
7 Unknown 17 Taxicab designation, unique to each
7 Parked vehicle(s) Extent of Deformity injured person is provided in
8 Vehicle(s) in traffic/moving 18 Farm equipment
The Severity of Damage is based
19 Farm tractor the first column of the
9 Blinded, headlights on a scale of “0” being no damage
20 Motorcycle Occupant and Non-Motorist
10 Blinded, sunlight and “7” being the most severe
(38) Alcohol/Drugs 21 Moped Section. This unique identifier
11 Blinded, other lights damage
12 Other* Test Status 22 Motor scooter or motor bike must precede the name of the
0 No test 23 Pedalcycle EMS for each injured person
1 Alcohol test 24 Pedestrian (44) Estimated Damage being transported.
2 Test for other drugs 25 Motor home/recreational vehicle
Dollar estimate of the cost to Example: A - Cumberland
(35) Physical Condition 3 Alcohol & other drugs test 26 Other*
27 All terrain vehicle (ATV) restore the vehicle to its condition County Ambulance
1 Apparently normal 4 Test refused
28 Firetruck just prior to the crash, or the
2 Illness 5 Unknown
29 EMS Vehicle, Ambulance, Rescue Squad estimated value of the vehicle
before the crash, whichever is (47) Injured Taken by EMS to
4 Fell asleep, fainted, loss 30 Military
31 Police less. For a “totaled” vehicle, enter Record the destination of the injured
of consciousness (39) Alcohol/Drugs
32 Unknown a dollar estimate of the retail person preceded by the unique letter
5 Impairment due to medica- Test Results value of the vehicle prior to the designation (from the first column) for
tions, drugs, alcohol 0 No test crash. Do not enter the word the person involved, if they were taken
6 Medical condition 1 No alcohol or other drugs (42) Vehicle Drivable “totaled”. to a hospital, clinic, doctor’s office, or
7 Other physical impairment 2 Alcohol (percent BAC) Vehicle is disabled by damage
8 Restriction not complied with A vehicle being towed by another other place of emergency medical aid.
3 Other drugs reported severe enough to prevent driving it. Include both name of treatment facility
9 Other* 4 Contaminated sample/unusable For comparison purposes, this data is part of the towing vehicle and
10 Unknown its damage should be included in and city or town.
5 Pending element could be used as a minimum
6 Unknown reporting threshold for “property the “Parts Damaged” and Example: A - N.C. Memorial, Chapel
damage only” crashes. “Amount of Damage” categories. Hill; B - Duke Hospital, Durham, etc.
CRASH/MOTOR VEHICLE/UNIT MOTOR VEHICLE STATUS
NON-CONTACT VEHICLE OR NON-MOTORIST
A motor vehicle crash is any event that results in death, injury or property damage
attributable directly to a motor vehicle or its load in transport, but not involving aircraft or The use of the device at the time of the crash is the primary
Non-contact phantom motor vehicles or non-motorists are criterion for establishing motor vehicle status. For example:
watercraft. It must occur on a trafficway or after the motor vehicle runs off the roadway units that caused the crash but left the scene. They should not
but before events are stabilized. be counted in the number of units, but should be referred to in 1. A registered motor vehicle is being drawn by a team of
A motor vehicle is any mechanically or electrically powered device, not operated on the narrative. horses on a city street; it is considered other road vehicle.
rails, upon which any person or property may be transported or drawn upon a highway. 2. A registered motor vehicle is being used to draw a plow
Non-contact motor vehicles or non-motorists are units that engaged in breaking ground on a farm; it is considered
A unit is any motor vehicle, pedestrian, pedalcyclist, moped or other road vehicle,
caused the crash and remained at the scene. They should be farm machinery while engaged in plowing.
excluding railway vehicles, which can be shown on the report as "other" RR train.
counted as units with identifying information, and referred to in 3. A registered truck is engaged in spreading concrete at a
the narrative. A school bus could be an example of a non- road construction site; it is construction machinery.
DRIVERLESS MOTOR VEHICLE contact vehicle that is related to a crash (refer to data element 4. A motorized highway grader, under its own power, is
# 68). moving from one work place to another on a public way; it
A driverless motor vehicle, though previously parked, or a motor vehicle out of control
while being towed or pushed, is considered to be a motor vehicle in transport. Also, is considered a motor vehicle in transport.
an abandoned motor vehicle, upon a roadway, is considered to be a motor vehicle in SCHOOL BUS 5. A registered truck, with a blade attached, is engaged in
transport. This principle does not apply to such devices as farm or industrial plowing snow from a trafficway; it is considered road
A motor vehicle used for the transportation of any school
machinery, highway graders, construction machinery, or similar devices which are not maintenance machinery.
pupil at or below the 12th-grade level to or from a public or
in use at the time of the crash for transport. 6. A riding, motorized lawn mower, under its own power, is
private school or school-related activity.
being driven from one home to another on a city street; it
HIT & RUN is considered a motor vehicle in transport.
A school bus must be externally identifiable by the color
7. A military tank is being moved, under its own power, from
A hit & run vehicle is one which was involved in the crash as the “striking vehicle” or yellow, the words “school bus”, flashing red lights located
the firing range to the motor pool, on a land way of a
as the “vehicle struck” but which left the scene. The appropriate box must be on the front and rear, and identifying lettering on both sides
military post; it is considered a motor vehicle in transport.
checked, e.g., vehicle 1, vehicle 2, etc. and any information that is known, included in indicating the school or school district served, or the
the Driver and/or Vehicle areas. company operating the bus.
48 Points of Initial Contact 0 Pedestrian & Non-Contact Vehicle UNDERNEATH: 22 Front, 23 Center, 24 Rear, 25 Rollover, 26 Unknown
Collision with (52-56) UNIT LEVEL
Passenger Cars/Small Trucks Tractor-Trailers Motorcycle, Bicycle, Moped or ATV
(49) Vehicle Maneuver/Action (57) Distance & Direction (62) Estimate of Speed at Impact (71) Road (82) Trailer Type
1 Stopped in travel lane from Road to Object Struck Estimated speed in miles per hour for each Classification 0 No trailer
2 Parked out of travel lanes 0 None vehicle involved in the collision. Estimates 1 Interstate Non-semi trailers
3 Parked in travel lanes 1 In road reflect the speed of each vehicle at the 2 US Route 1 Boat
4 Going straight ahead 2 Right of road, 0-10 ft. moment of impact. 3 NC Route 2 Camper
5 Changing lanes or merging 3 Right of road, 11-30 ft. 4 State Secondary Route 3 Utility
6 Passing 4 Right of road, over 30 ft. (63) Tire Impressions Before Impact 5 Local Street 4 Horse
7 Making right turn 5 Left of road, 0-10 ft. Length (in feet) of the tire impressions (skid 6 Public Vehicular Area 5 House trailer (mobile home)
8 Making left turn 6 Left of road, 11-30 ft. marks, tire print yaw) for each vehicle 7 Private Road, Driveway 6 Towed vehicle
9 Making U turn 7 Left of road, over 30 ft. involved in the collision, prior to impact. 8 Other* 7 Other non-semi
10 Backing 8 Straight ahead, 0-10 ft. Semi trailers
11 Slowing or stopping 9 Straight ahead, 11-30 ft. (64) Distance Traveled After Impact (72) Road Surface Type 8 Tanker
12 Starting in roadway 10 Straight ahead, over 30 ft. Distance (in feet) each vehicle or pedestrian 9 Enclosed van
13 Parking traveled after impact as a result of the force 10 Flatbed or platform
2 Grooved concrete
14 Leaving parked position (58) Vehicle Underride/Override of the collision. 3 Smooth asphalt 11 Other semi trailer
15 Avoiding object in road An underride refers to a vehicle 12 Double trailer
4 Coarse asphalt
16 Other* sliding under another vehicle during a
crash. An override refers to a vehicle (65) Emergency Vehicle Use (83) Overwidth Trailer/Mobile
(50) Non-motorist Action riding up over another vehicle. Both Indicates vehicles which are on an emergency Home
1 Entering or crossing specified location can occur with a parked vehicle. response, i.e., traveling with physical emergency 8 Other* Enter the number of the vehicle
2 Walking, riding, running/jogging with traffic 1 Underride signals in use; lights, siren sounding, etc. pulling overwidth trailer, including
3 Walking, riding, running/jogging against traffic 2 Override 1 Firetruck overwidth mobile home, followed
4 Working 3 Neither Underride or Override 2 EMS Vehicle, Ambulance, Rescue Squad, etc. (73) Road Configuration
by the permit number.
5 Pushing vehicle 4 Unknown 3 Military (Trafficway Description)
6 Approaching or leaving vehicle 4 Police 1 One-way, not divided
(59) Vehicle Defects 2 Two-way, not divided (84) Crash Diagram
8 Standing Maximum of two per Vehicle 3 Two-way, divided, unprotected
0 None detected The diagram should include:
9 Other* median
1 Brakes (66) Post Crash Fire 1 Roads and intersecting roads;
4 Two-way, divided, positive
2 Headlights If "Yes" check block if a vehicle is struck exiting a
(51) Non-motorist Location Prior to Crash median barrier
1 Marked crosswalk at intersection 3 Rear lights 5 Unknown driveway, give the name of the
2 At intersection but no crosswalk 4 Steering (67) School Bus - Contact Vehicle business or resident
5 Tires 2 Direction of travel for each lane
3 Non-intersection crosswalk If "Yes" check block. This data element is used (74) Access Control
4 Driveway access crosswalk 6 Other defects* 3 All pertinent roadside features
to determine "school bus related." The school 1 No access control
5 In roadway 7 Unknown bus, with or without a pupil on board, is directly 4 Paths of travel for vehicles,
2 Full access control
6 Not in roadway involved as a contact vehicle. pedestrians, bicyclists, etc.
3 Partial access control
7 Median (but not on shoulder) (60) Authorized Speed Limit 5 Tire marks and debris
8 Island Authorized speed limit for the vehicle at 6 Measurements pertinent to the
the time of the crash. The authorization (68) School Bus - Noncontact Vehicle (75) Number of Lanes location of the point of impact. Use
9 Shoulder If "Yes" check block. This data element is used Total number of lanes in
10 Sidewalk may be indicated by the posted speed a tape for distances up to 500 feet.
limit, blinking sign at construction zones, to determine "school bus related." The school both directions in the Use an odometer for greater
11 Within 10 feet of roadway (not on bus, with or without a pupil on board, is trafficway. If parking lot,
shoulder, median, sidewalk, island) restricted speed for permitted vehicles distances
indirectly involved as a noncontact vehicle. enter “0”
12 Beyond 10 feet of roadway (within trafficway) For crashes within an Interchange:
13 Outside trafficway (61) Estimate of Original Speed
Estimated speed in miles per hour for (69) Road Feature (76) Traffic Control Device 1 Add a small line sketch of the
14 Shared-use path or trails interchange and show an "x" where
each vehicle involved in the collision. 0 No special feature 0 No control present
Estimates reflect the speed of each 1 Stop sign the crash occurred
(52-56) VEHICLE LEVEL 1 Bridge
vehicle at the moment the driver initially 2 Yield sign 2 Sketch should be less than 25%
2 Bridge approach
Crash Sequence of Harmful Events (First, perceived an existing hazard. 3 Stop and go signal of the total diagram area, and
4 Flashing signal with stop sign 3 Conform to the north arrow
Second, Third, Fourth), fields 52-55, and Most 4 Driveway, public
4 Identify number, name of the road(s),
5 Flashing signal without
Harmful Event, field 56 for each Unit (Vehicle) 5 Driveway, private
ramps, and service roads shown
6 Alley intersection stop sign
If a vehicle has only one event, then only one code is required. Vehicles can have
6 RR gate and flasher
up to 4 harmful events. The Most Harmful Event may or may not be one of the 4 events.
Intersection of roadways (7-12) 7 RR flasher (85) Crash Narrative
0 Unknown 7 Four-way intersection 8 RR crossbucks only
Non-Collision Collision with Fixed Object 8 T-intersection 9 Human control Provide a word description of events
1 Ran off road right 9 Y-intersection 10 Warning sign occurring prior to, during, and after
2 Ran off road left 10 Traffic circle/roundabout 11 School zone signs the crash which are not elsewhere on
34 Utility pole (with or without light)
3 Ran off road straight ahead 11 Five-point, or more 12 Flashing stop and go signal the form. Note all pertinent and
35 Luminaire pole (non-breakaway)
4 Jackknife 12 Related to intersection 13 Double yellow line, unusual aspects of the crash.
36 Luminaire pole (breakaway)
5 Overturn/rollover no passing zone Statements made in this narrative
37 Official highway sign (non-breakaway) 13 Non-intersection median crossing
6 Crossed centerline/median 14 Other* should be in the opinion of the
38 Official highway sign (breakaway) 14 End or beginning-divided highway
7 Downhill runaway investigating officer.
39 Overhead sign support
8 Cargo/equipment loss or shift Interchange (15-21)
40 Commercial sign
9 Fire/explosion (77) Traffic Control
41 Guardrail end on shoulder 15 Off-ramp entry (86) Additional Property Damage
11 Equipment failure (tires, brakes, etc.)
42 Guardrail face on shoulder 16 Off-ramp proper Operating
43 Guardrail end in median 17 Off-ramp terminal on crossroad 1 Yes Enter any property other than motor
12 Separation of units 44 Guardrail face in median 18 Merge lane between on and off ramp 2 No vehicles that was damaged, identify the
13 Other non collision* property and its owner and enter an
45 Shoulder barrier end (non-guardrail) 19 On-ramp entry 3 Unknown
Collision of Motor Vehicle With 46 Shoulder barrier face (non-guardrail) 20 On-ramp proper estimate of the dollar damage. Damage
14 Pedestrian 47 Median barrier end (non-guardrail) 21 On-ramp terminal on crossroad to signs, buildings, mailboxes, fences,
15 Pedalcyclist 48 Median barrier face (non-guardrail) (78 - 81) Work Zone Related etc., should be entered here.
16 RR train, engine 22 Railroad crossing
49 Bridge rail end
17 Animal 23 Tunnel
50 Bridge rail face 24 Shared-use paths or trails (78) Did crash occur in
18 Movable object* 51 Overhead part of underpass
25 Other* or near
Collision of Two or More 52 Pier on shoulder of underpass
1 Construction work area
Motor Vehicles 53 Pier in median of underpass
2 Maintenance work area (80) Work area marked with
20 Parked motor vehicle 54 Abutment (supporting wall) of underpass (70) Road Character - Horizontal
21 Rear end, slow or stop 55 Traffic island curb or median and Vertical Alignment
3 Utility work area warning signs, cones
4 Intermittent/moving work- 1 Yes
22 Rear end, turn 56 Catch basin or culvert on shoulder 1 Straight, level e.g., patching pothole
23 Left turn, same roadway 57 Catch basin or culvert in median 2 Straight, hillcrest 2 No
24 Left turn, different roadways 58 Ditch 3 Straight, grade
25 Right turn, same roadway 59 Embankment 4 Straight, bottom (sag) (79) Work activity at time
26 Right turn, different roadways 60 Mailbox 5 Curve, level (81) Location of crash
61 Fence or fence post
27 Head on 6 Curve, hillcrest
1 On going 1 Before work area
28 Sideswipe, same direction 62 Construction barrier 7 Curve, grade
2 No apparent activity 2 In work area approach taper
29 Sideswipe, opposite direction 63 Crash cushion 8 Curve, bottom (sag) 3 Adjacent to actual work area
30 Angle 64 Other fixed object* 9 Other*
31 Backing up
32 Other collision with vehicle*
Road with Road without
TRAFFICWAY DEFINITIONS LOCATIONS – SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS
Trafficway - the entire width between property lines, or other boundary lines, of every way or place, of Road On - Enter the class and number of the “road on”, such as U.S. 13. If this road is also
which any part is open to the public for purposes of vehicular travel as a matter of right or custom. referred to by street name, please list the street name in parenthesis, following the class of road
and number. If a road has more than one classification or number, use the highest class with the
Road - that part of a trafficway which includes both the roadway and any shoulder alongside the lowest number. If the “road on” is a ramp or service road, also indicate “ramp” or “service road.”
roadway. The road reflected in “Road On” and Diagram must be the same.
Roadway - that part of the trafficway designed, improved, and ordinarily used for vehicular travel. In the Primary roads (I, US, NC) ending with an odd number, such as “1, 3, 5, 7” are North-South roads,
event the trafficway includes two or more separate roadways, the term “roadway” refers to any such whereas roads ending with an even number, such as “2, 4, 6” are East-West roads, with the
roadway separately, but not to all such roadways collectively. exception of US 220 and US258, which are North-South roads.
Traffic Lane - the specific part of the roadway that is used for vehicular travel. Interchange Ramp - For “road on” enter the class and number of the road from which the ramp
exits, followed by the word “ramp.”
Auxiliary Lane – the portion of the roadway adjoining the through traveled way for parking, speed
change, turning, weaving, truck climbing, or for other purposes supplementary to through traffic Railroad Crossing – Enter the number posted at the site. It is composed of six digits and a letter.
movement. It may be found strapped to a railroad signal post or part of the gate structure. If the number is not
available, write in the name of the railroad company owning or operating the tracks and strike
Shoulder - that portion of the road contiguous with the roadway for accommodation of stopped vehicles, through the # on the form.
emergency use, and for lateral support of the roadway structure. The line between the roadway and the
shoulder may be a painted edge line, a change in surface color or material, or a curb. PVA - Public vehicular area is coded for any area generally open to and used by the public.
Clearzone Distance - the total roadside boarder area, starting at the edge of the traveled way, available
for safe use by errant vehicles. This area may consist of a shoulder, a recoverable slope, a non- l College campus (not state maintained road)
recoverable slope, and/or a clear run-out area. The desired width is dependent on the traffic volumes l Military reservation (not state maintained road)
and speeds, and roadside geometry. l Driveway to or parking lot of school, church, hospital or other facilities; service station, office
building, store or other business, etc.
Number of Lanes - the total number of thru lanes of the “road on” at the point of the collision (if two-way,
total for both directions). Do not count turning lanes unless they are continuous between intersections. In the space on the form for “road on” enter PVA and place in parenthesis a brief description of
Enter “0” for parking lots. where the crash occurred, name of shopping center, business, etc.
Median – the portion of a divided trafficway separating the traveled way for traffic in opposing directions. PP - Private property is coded for any private areas or non-traffic areas. In the space on the form
for “road on” enter PP and place in parenthesis a brief description or name of the private drive, or
Crossover – an area in the median of a divided roadway where vehicles are permitted to travel across other private area.
the opposing lanes of traffic or do a U-turn.
Driveway – a roadway providing access to property adjacent to a trafficway. ABBREVIATIONS FOR STREET DESIGNATORS
Intersection - an area which (1) contains a crossing or connection of two or more roadways not Word Abbreviation Word Abbreviation
classified as driveway access and (2) is embraced within the prolongation of the lateral curb lines or, if Alley AL Lane LN
none, the lateral boundary lines of the roadways. Where the distance along a roadway between two Avenue AVE Parkway PKWY
areas meeting these criteria is less than 30 feet, the two areas and the roadway connecting them are Boulevard BLVD Place PL
considered to be parts of a single intersection. Court CT Road RD
Circle CIR Street ST
Intersection Related - may refer to a crash that occurs within the influence area of the intersection and Drive DR Terrace TER
is caused by the operation of the intersection. The influence area is a variable distance that depends on Highway HWY Trail TR
the intersection design, traffic control and operating characteristics.
Access Control – the condition where the right of owners or occupants of abutting land or other persons Names which should not be abbreviated include: Acres, Heights, Hills, Loop, Park, Plaza, Row,
to access, light, air, or view in connection with a highway is fully or partially controlled by public authority. Saint, Square, Village, Way
Full Access Control – authority to control access is exercised to give preference to through traffic by
providing access connections with selected public roads only, by prohibiting crossings at grade or direct GEOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS
private driveway connections.
Global Positioning System (GPS) – exact geographic location indicated in terms of latitude and
Railway Grade Crossing – an intersection between a roadway and train tracks which cross each other longitude.
at the same level (Grade).
Geographic Information System (GIS) – system which associates information with specific
Highway, Street or Road – a general term denoting a public way for purpose of vehicular travel, geographic locations, for example roadway characteristics by latitude/longitude.
including the entire area within the right-of-way (recommended usage: in urban areas – highway or
street, in rural areas – highway or road). Latitude/Longitude on the DMV-349 – for those agencies/municipalities which are able to record
the latitude, longitude, and altitude (elevation) for specific crash locations, space has been
Outside Trafficway – not physically located on any land way open to the public as a matter of right or provided on the form for capturing this information.
custom for moving persons or property from one place to another.
CRASH SEQUENCE OF EVENTS, FIRST EVENT AND MOST HARMFUL EVENT CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC CRASHES
(According to the ANSI D16.1 Classification Manual)
The crash sequence of events is a list of things that occurred to the vehicle in question that was
relevant to the crash. The first harmful event is the injury or damage producing event which Motor vehicle traffic crashes have a number of characteristics which are used to distinguish between motor
characterizes the crash type. The most harmful event is the event which caused the most vehicle traffic crashes and other events such as non-crashes, aircraft or railway crashes and other motor
severe injury or greatest amount of property damage. vehicles, cataclysms and nontraffic crashes. The questions below address all of the distinguishing
characteristics of motor vehicle traffic crashes. If the answer to each of the questions below is “yes”, the
For crash sequence of events, up to four (4) harmful events may be recorded for each vehicle incident is a motor vehicle crash.
involved in the crash. If only one event occurred in the crash, events 2-4 would be marked with
a dash (-), not applicable. 1. Did the incident include one or more occurrences of injury or damage?
Data elements 10-11 refer to the first harmful and most harmful events at the crash level, while 2. Was there at least one occurrence of injury or damage which was not a direct result of a cataclysm?
data elements 52-56 refer to the first four harmful events (52-55) and the most harmful event
(56) at the vehicle level. 3. Did the incident involve one or more motor vehicles?
It is important that these separate data elements are captured at both the vehicle and crash 4. Of the motor vehicles involved, was at least one in transport?
levels and that a determination is made in a multi-vehicle crash, which harmful event was “first”
in the crash and which was the “most harmful event”. These distinctions are important in 5. Was the incident an unstabilized situation?
classifying and comparing different types of crashes.
6. Did the unstabilized situation originate on a trafficway or did injury or damage occur on a trafficway?
Data element values at the vehicle level have been expanded for “non-collision” and “fixed
object” crash types, to present a greater number of categories for describing crash sequence of 7. If the incident involved a railway train in transport, did a motor vehicle in transport become involved
events. prior to any injury or damage involving the train?
8. Is it true that neither an aircraft in transport nor a watercraft in transport was involved in the incident?
COLLISION WITH FIXED OBJECT DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC CRASH CHARACTERISTICS
The following fixed object descriptions are provided as a reference to the fixed object types listed In Transport – is the state or condition of a vehicle when it is in use primarily for moving persons or
under the data elements “Sequence of Events” (#52-55) and “Most Harmful Event” (#56) for each property (including the vehicle itself) from one place to another, and is:
- In motion, in readiness for motion, or on a roadway, but not parked in a designated parking area.
Utility Pole - a pole or post constructed for the primary function of supporting an electric line,
telephone line or other electrical-electronic transmission line or cable. Harmful Event - is an occurrence of injury or damage.
Luminaire Pole – a pole or post constructed to support a luminaire for lighting a roadway. Cataclysm - is a cloudburst, cyclone, earthquake, flood, tornado, or volcanic eruption.
Official Highway Sign – a pole, post or structure constructed to support a highway sign intended to Unstabilized Situation - is a set of events not under human control. It originates when control is lost and
guide, regulate or inform highway users. terminates when control is regained or, in the absence of persons who are able to regain control, when all
persons and property are at rest. Exclusions are:
Overhead Sign Support – a pole, post, or structure constructed to support a sign which is over a
roadway (usually installed on or relocated to nearby overpasses or other structures). - Deliberate Intent – suicide, homicide and other harmful events under human control do not imply the
existence of an unstabliized situation. A set of unintended consequences of such acts might be an
Commercial Sign – a sign placed by an area business as a means of advertising. Logo signs unstabilized situation.
(advertising upcoming businesses along the roadway) placed by the State DOT are not commercial
signs. Stabilized Situation - is the condition prevailing after motion and other action constituting the events of a
crash have ceased and no further harm will ensue unless a new series of events is initiated by some
Guardrail - a longitudinal barrier consisting of posts and rails or cables, whose primary functions are means.
to prevent penetration and to safely redirect an errant vehicle away from a roadside or median hazard.
Shoulder Barrier – concrete barrier or something other than a guardrail placed on the shoulder.
EXCLUSIONS FROM MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC CRASHES
Median Barrier (non-guardrail) - a longitudinal barrier (such as concrete) used to prevent an errant
vehicle from crossing the portion of a divided highway separating the traveled ways for traffic in Some injury or damage producing events involving motor vehicles in transport are motor vehicle crashes
opposite directions. by definition, but they are not classified as motor vehicle crashes, because transport is not deemed to be
the primary contributing factor to the injury or damage producing event excluded, while other parts are
Bridge rail - a barrier attached to a bridge deck or a bridge parapet (a low wall built along the edge of included in a motor vehicle crash classification. The following examples are illustrative of the application
a bridge deck) to restrain vehicles, pedestrians or other users. of the exclusion principle:
Overhead Part of Underpass - any part of an underpass that is over the reference or subject - A motor vehicle in transport was washed away with a trafficway bridge during a hurricane. This
roadway. For a bridge, this typically refers to the beams or other structural elements supporting the crash was due to a cataclysm rather than the action of a motor vehicle in transport. However, this
bridge deck. exclusion would not apply if the motor vehicle were driven into the water after the bridge had washed
away because transport would be the primary contributing factor.
Bridge Pier - a support for a bridge structure other than at the ends.
- A motor vehicle in transport was overwhelmed by a landslide or an avalanche which was a direct
Abutment (supporting wall) of underpass – a structure that supports the end of a bridge. result of a cataclysm such as an earthquake, torrential rain, etc. However, this exclusion would not
apply if a cataclysm were not in existence at the time of the event; nor would this exclusion apply if
Traffic Island – the cement or grassy area in the middle of a trafficway. the motor vehicle were driven against any fallen materials covering a trafficway as a result of any
landslide or avalanche.
Curb - a raised edge (typically less than 9 inches) or border to a roadway.
- A loaded firearm was being carried in a motor vehicle in transport and it accidentally fired causing
Culvert - an enclosed structure providing free passage of water under a roadway. injury or damage. In such an event, transport is not considered to be the primary contributing factor;
therefore, the event is not a motor vehicle crash.
Ditch – an open channel dug into the ground, usually paralleling the highway embankment and within
the limits of the highway right-of-way. - The driver of a motor vehicle in transport dies from a disease condition such as cerebral
hemorrhage, heart attack or diabetic coma, prior to involvement of the motor vehicle in a motor
Embankment – a mound of earth or stone above the original ground, built to hold back water or to vehicle crash. The death is due to the disease condition if it can be clearly established and not due
support a roadway. to transport. However, to other persons, vehicles, or other property, this event, if it involved more
than the death of the driver, would be a crash, and would be classified as a motor vehicle crash.
Construction Barrier – a traffic barrier designed to protect traffic from entering work areas, provide
protection for workers, separate two-way traffic, protect construction, and separate pedestrian and - The driver of a motor vehicle in transport suffers an epileptic seizure and the motor vehicle is
vehicular traffic. involved in a motor vehicle crash. The injury or death to the driver is due to epilepsy. However,
other injury or damage in the event would be classified as a motor vehicle crash.
Crash Cushion – a barrier at a spot location designed to prevent an errant vehicle from impacting a
fixed object hazard by gradually decelerating the vehicle to a safe stop or by redirecting the vehicle - A pregnant woman, occupying a motor vehicle in transport, gives birth to a stillborn fetus following
away from the hazard. the involvement of the motor vehicle in a motor vehicle crash. The death of the fetus is not classified
as a fatal injury resulting from a motor vehicle crash.
WHY AN OFFICER SUBMITS CRASH REPORTS
NORTH CAROLINA GENERAL STATUTE 20-166.1
After the investigation of a traffic crash is completed, North Carolina Statute 20-166.1 When an officer submits a North Carolina Crash Report Form DMV-349 to the DMV, he or
requires that the investigating agency submit the crash report (DMV-349) to the she provides valuable data to many different groups of people working to make North
Division of Motor Vehicles within 10 days. According to the statute, the crash report Carolina streets and highways safer. Some of these people the officer will know first-hand:
form must include the following information about a reportable crash: the county engineer planning to resurface a road, the city consultant developing safe school
routes, the high school driver education teacher planning a curriculum, or the public works
1. The cause of the crash director applying for a state grant for reconstructing a hazardous intersection. It is important
2. The conditions existing at the time of the crash that officers are also aware of some of the state level uses of this data, such as enforcement
3. The persons and vehicles involved of North Carolina’s financial responsibility law by the DMV.
The address of the Traffic Records Section is: Other users of crash data are a bit more removed, such as the university researcher studying
the problems of older drivers, the automobile manufacturer evaluating a design, or the people
Traffic Records Section at all levels of the public and private sectors who support law enforcement’s efforts to combat
North Carolina Division of Motor Vehicles drunk driving. Their progress in highway traffic safety reaches into each officer’s community.
1100 New Bern Avenue
Raleigh, NC 27697-0001 Traffic crash reports are subject to be viewed by lawyers, judges, insurance companies and
the general public. Crash prevention programs and successful prosecution in court are both
In the event that the officer should have specific questions about coding the dependent upon proper and complete crash investigation and report writing.
report, he or she should contact:
Subsequent levels of investigation will rely on the quality of the information contained on the
Supervisor DMV-349. The location of the crash, the road condition at the time of the crash, and the
Crash Reports Unit other evidence at the scene cannot be replaced or recreated, unless those things are
(919) 733-7250 documented by the officer during the initial investigation.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) defines a motor vehicle traffic
crash investigation as The thorough examination of all elements contributing to the
crash, resulting in a well-founded explanation of the series of events which occurred
CRASHES INVOLVING COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES (CMV) based upon the factual data.
The reporting of motor vehicle crashes involving CMV’s has been incorporated into the DMV-349.
All of the data requirements to meet the Office of Motor Carrier, Federal Highway Administration
requirements for SAFETYNET, and the seven motor carrier specific data elements recommended
COMPLETING SUPPLEMENTAL REPORTS
by the National Governor's Association have been addressed.
When completing a supplemental report note that:
The DMV-349 is designed to record information for a single CMV involved in a crash. Questions
concerning hazardous materials involvement may be found on the reverse side of the DMV-349.
It is not necessary to rewrite most of the information as listed on the original DMV-349 (report).
In rare instances where two or more CMV’s are involved in the same crash, a second DMV-349
must be submitted with the appropriate information for subsequent CMV’s. Supplemental reports must be reported on a separate DMV-349 from the original report.
The location must be completed in addition to the date, and time of the crash.
COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES List only the names of drivers (or owner, if no driver) as shown on the original report.
CARRIER IDENTIFICATION NAME, NUMBERS, AND ADDRESS List the additional information or correction to be made.
This information is provided as a quick reference to aid law enforcement in correctly identifying the If the original report included a hit and run driver and the driver has been apprehended the
carrier identification numbers for purposes of reporting crashes or inspections. When a supplement must include all information for that respective driver and vehicle on the front and
commercial motor vehicle crash report and/or inspection report is filled out, the correct motor back of the report.
carrier will receive credit (good and bad) for the crash and/or inspection.
Supplemental traffic crash reports must be submitted when:
The Federal Highway Administration and States use the crash and/or inspection reports in
determining safety fitness ratings of motor carriers and targeting unsafe motor carriers for in-depth 1. The original report was incomplete because of lack of information or an incomplete
investigations. To avoid improperly identifying the name and address of a motor carrier, the officer investigation.
should rely on more than a single document or item when identifying the motor carrier. The officer 2. A correction on the original report is necessary because of inaccurate information.
should review as many of the following items as possible to determine the name and address of 3. A person dies of injuries sustained in a traffic crash within one year of the crash.
the motor carrier.
Side of the Vehicle – The correct name, address and US DOT#/ICC# of the motor carrier may or OTHER IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS IN CRASH REPORTING
may not be marked on the side of the vehicle. If the marking on the side of the vehicle matches the
name on the other items, the correct motor carrier is probably identified. The US DOT# is required
if the vehicle is an interstate private carrier. The ICC MC# is required if the vehicle is an interstate Fatal Injury – Any injury that results in death within 12 months after the crash occurred.
for hire carrier. The State Exemption Numbers, also contained on the side of the vehicle, are
required for intrastate passenger carriers and/or carriers of household goods. A Type Injury (disabling) – An injury obviously serious enough to prevent the injured person
from performing his or her normal activities for at least one day beyond the day of the crash.
Driver Interview – The officer should ask questions, such as Massive loss of blood, broken bone, unconsciousness of more than momentary duration are
1. Is the vehicle leased or rented? examples.
2. Who is the motor carrier that is responsible for this load?
3. Who is directing and controlling the movement of this vehicle? B Type Injury (evident) – An obvious injury, other than a fatality or A Type injury, which is
4. Where is the motor carrier’s principal place of business? evident at the scene. Bruises, swelling, limping, soreness, are examples. This injury would
not necessarily prevent the person from carrying on his or her normal activities.
Lease Agreement – This document is excellent for identifying the name of the lessee.
C Type Injury (possible) – No visible injury, but person complains of pain, or has been
Driver’s Log – When logs are required, they will contain the name of the motor carrier and the city momentarily unconscious.
and state where the motor carrier’s principal place of business is located.
Derived Data Elements – These are data elements which are not necessarily collected at
Shipping Papers (Bill of Lading) – Generally this document will provide the officer with the name the scene by the police. Instead, they can be obtained by counting or recoding information
of the motor carrier who is responsible for the load. The shipping papers are the written that has already been collected on the DMV-349. Examples include:
transportation contract between the shipper and the carrier. They identify the freight, who is to
receive it, and the place of delivery and give the terms of the agreement. 1. Day of week
2. Number of motorists
Vehicle Registration – These documents are good for identifying the owner and/or registrant who 3. Number of non-motorist
may or may not be the responsible motor carrier. Even when the registration identifies the 4. Vehicle body type
responsible motor carrier, it may or may not show the address of the motor carrier’s principal place 5. Crash severity
of business because carriers with terminals in multiple states generally register their vehicles in the 6. Total persons injured
state of domicile. Therefore, the address may be a terminal address. 7. Total persons killed
The vehicle registration or “Cab Card” also contains the IFTA# (International Fuel Tax Agreement
Number) and the Fuel Tax Account #, which is comprised of the State, FEI# (Federal Employee
Identification Number) and Fleet Number.