"Zimbabwe SWH institutional sector"
SOLAR ENERGY ZIMBABWE CONSERVATION OF THE BUSINESS CAPACITY FOR SOLAR WATER HEATER MANUFACTURING AND INSTALLATION IN ZIMBABWE FINAL REPORT ON THE SURVEY ON DEMAND OF SOLAR WATER HEATERS IN THE INSTITUTIONAL SECTOR Funded by the Austrian Development Agency Tawanda Hove1, Bonface Mubvakure2 and Anton Schwarzlmuller3 Do you know how solar water heating systems work Do you have solar water heating at your institution 52 80 70 51 60 Percentage of responses Percentage of responses 51 50 50 40 50 30 49 20 10 49 0 48 YES NO YES NO 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP167, Mount Pleasant, Harare 2 Development Technology Centre, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP167, Mount Pleasant, Harare 3 Anton Schwarzlmuller, Domestic Solar Heating P/L, P.O. Box MP 1125, Mount Pleasant, Harare ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 1 1. INTRODUCTION This is a final report on the work done under Work Package 3 of the ADA project “Solar Energy Zimbabwe” according to the contracts signed between Development Technology Centre (DTC) of the University of Zimbabwe and AEE INTEC-Gleisdorf on one side and Domestic Solar Heating P/L (DSH) and AEE INTEC- Gleisdorf on the other side. The objectives of Work Package 3 are: 1) to obtain a detailed knowledge about the demand for solar hot water systems in the institutional sector as well as about the technical, social and economic barriers, which hamper the installation of the systems, 2) to come up with recommendations which help to overcome the barriers and which will assist the stakeholders to develop a strategy which facilitates the installation of solar water heaters. This report presents the results of the survey to tackle objective (1). The findings from the survey will be useful in tackling objective (2) of the Work Package. The field work for the study and the reporting was carried out in joint collaboration between DTC and Domestic Solar Heating P/L. The Austrian Development Agency has been promoting the use of solar water heating in Zimbabwe since 1998. Since 2002 the economic climate has deteriorated to such an extent that most companies find manufacturing and installing solar hot water systems no longer viable. In it’s third phase the project is supporting the remaining manufacturers and installers of solar hot water systems to stay in business. To achieve this, the existing popular demand must be stimulated to generate orders for solar hot water systems. In times of frequent and long-lasting power cuts, the uninterrupted supply of hot water to institutions like hospitals, homes and boarding schools is of concern to the project funders. It is the calculation of the project that two goals can be achieved at one stroke, namely, boosting the demand for solar hot water systems and at the same time assisting essential institutions in investing in these expensive commodities. Even though it is not difficult to find applicants for the fifteen to twenty subsidised installations at hospitals and homes, the funders want to get a picture of the institutional demand for heated water across the whole country. Hospitals, clinics, homes for the disadvantaged and other social institutions were chosen, because these have in the past been major consumers of heated water besides the hospitality sector and manufacturing. To hospitals in particular and to some extent also to homes heated water is essential but the provision of this commodity becomes more and more difficult and costly. Zimbabwe is in short of foreign currency and the country can no longer afford to import electricity from the regional neighbours. Power cuts have become the rule of the day as the local capacity to generate electricity is only a fraction of what it was ten years ago. When there is no electricity, patients, little children and old people have to wash or shower in cold water. Some institutions have access to coal or firewood but the supply of these types of fuel is getting very unpredictable and expensive too. Logically, solar would be the best way out of this fuel bottleneck. The results of the survey throw light on the fuel situation at the institutions and to what extent solar technology is already in use or how soon they are planning to increase their water heating capacity. Interviewees were asked for what purposes they require the heated water and at what temperature levels and which day times. Another question put across to the representatives of the institutions is whether they can afford a change from conventional water heaters to solar. Assuming some institutions have the money to purchase a solar hot water system do they have the staff and financial means to maintain and repair the equipment. The awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of solar water heating systems amongst the interviewees is also of interest. The study report offers a list of real and perceived barriers hampering the institutions from using solar heated water and what intervention policies the interviewees would recommend to overcome the hurdles. This study report is not only of interest to people concerned with running and maintaining institutions in the educational, social welfare and health sector but also to companies looking for new markets for their solar water heating equipment. The findings should also call the attention of planning departments of central and regional governments to the serious energy problem the institutions are confronted with. ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 2 1.1 METHODOLOGY A comprehensive list of all institutions in Zimbabwe falling under in the category of interest was compiled to form part of this final report. The list of institutions was compiled from data sourced from National Association for Non-governmental Organisations (NANGO), (Annex 2) and Ministry of Education, Sports and Culture (Annex 3). List of private hospitals was obtained from Zimbabwe Association of Church Related Hospitals (ZACH), (Annex 4). However, the list of hospitals is not exhaustive since it does not include some government hospitals. Efforts to obtain a complete list of government hospitals from the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare were not fruitful. More interviews were conducted at schools and homes than at hospitals. With the exception of private hospitals, officials in the health sector were unwilling to release “confidential” information about their institutions if they didn’t see a written permission from their ministry. From the beginning to the end of the survey the interviewers endeavoured to get the authorisation from civil servants of the Ministry of Health - but to no avail. Nevertheless, a considerable fraction of the government hospitals was captured in the list (Annex 5), based on the general knowledge of the study team. It is estimated that this list captures over 50% of the government hospitals in the country that qualify in the category of District Hospital and larger (the size that may be expected to constitute reasonable demand for water heating). A few government hospitals could be interviewed after the persons in charge were assured that the names of the institution would not appear in the report. All together, the following institutions were identified over the whole of Zimbabwe. There are — 278 primary and secondary boarding schools; — 125 private hospitals and clinics; — 50 government hospitals of size District hospital and larger (estimate); — 42 Children’s homes; — 23 Old people’s homes; — 16 Rehabilitation and Aids/Orphan Centres. A survey was done by interviewing senior administrative staff at institutions, through an appropriately designed questionnaire (see Annex 1). The questionnaire addressed the following issues: • socio-geographic information of the institution (type of service and location) • existing and intended use of hot water at the institution (e.g. purpose for requiring hot water, • temperature levels required for each type of use, number of beds at institution, whether or not the institution needs or intends an expansion of its hot water supply, etc.) • hydraulic and other infrastructure at the institution, related to the feasibility of installing water heaters, type and service condition of existing water heating systems at the institution, availability of maintenance workshop, etc. • maintenance problems for water heaters, maintenance costs, energy costs related to water heating • awareness by institutions of the solar water heating technology and its capabilities as an effective alternative for most water heating requirements of the institutions; whether or not the institution owns and operates a solar water heater; capacities; service age; and source of finance for the SWH; perceived advantages/ disadvantages of use of SWHs; barriers encountered in the use or increased use of solar water heaters and suggested solutions. • Ability or willingness to pay for solar water heaters (how much the institutions are prepared and able to invest in SWH); and the degree of autonomy the different institutions have in purchasing the SWH if they decide that they want them. Due to some logistical constraints, the sample of institutions selected for interviewing was not randomly arrived at. Mainly those institutions that were easily accessible by Domestic-Solar-Heating vehicle and by public transport could be visited, limiting the sample to predominantly urban institutions and those near major roads. The remote institutions in the western provinces were visited and interviewed by the representative of Domestic Solar Heating. One hundred and seven (107) institutions were interviewed either by physical visit or through post. Of these, one hundred and six (106) of the interviews were successfully completed whereas one was not completed. The institution that did not complete the interview argued that their institution is located in an area that is always overcast, so they are not interested in this solar technology. The questionnaire was administered mainly through a physical guided interview by members of the ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 3 DTC research team together with representative of Domestic Solar Heating P/L, but in some cases, also through the post. However, of the 30 questionnaires administered by post, only 7 responses were obtained. The idea of sending special questionnaires out via E-mail was abandoned quickly. The decision for dropping this method altogether was based on the sobering experience from the low return of questionnaires administered by post. The reason for the low return of the posted questionnaires could be found in the unsureness of the respondents of how to answer the questions professionally without being guided through them. Even though the questions have been written in a fairly understandable manner the questionnaires still required the respondent to have a sound technical background. The questions also presume that the respondent or some other source of information has been working for the institutions for a long time and can give correct answers to questions which reach back several years. Many potential respondents might have found it difficult to meet both conditions. Government institutions are underrepresented in the study as the interviewing team failed to get an authorisation letter from the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare and the letter from the Ministry of Education, Sports and Culture came late. Fig.1 Figure 1.1 shows the spatial distribution of the institutions successfully interviewed together with information on their ownership of solar water heaters. The numbers in the maps indicate the exact number used for each institution in our SPSS database. Since anonymity was given as pre-condition to the interviews, the actual identities of the institutions are not revealed. However, if the actual identity of any institution(s) is specifically required, the information, which is available in our database, can be obtained from the authors subject to consultation and concurrence of the institution(s) in question. The social statistical package (SPSS) was used to package and analyse the responses. This package is more versatile in the analysis of multi-variable social data with various correlations. Microsoft Excel was also used in tandem to custom some of the SPSS outcomes in a more presentable way. In many cases the figures speak for themselves and the authors refrained from describing obvious facts. The cross tabulations of some responses to questions in the survey questionnaire are shown in the following sections. ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 4 2. FINDINGS FROM THE STUDY The findings from the survey are outlined in the following sections: 2.1. GEOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS 2.2. USE OF HOT WATER AT INSTITUTIONS 2.2.1. Number of beds at the institutions 2.2.2. Source of cold water for the institutions 2.2.3. Hot water storage capacities at institutions 2.2.4. Do the institutions have enough heated water 2.2.5. Purposes for which hospitals, schools and homes need heated water 2.2.6. Temperatures at which people want to use the heated water 2.2.7. Times at which people require heated water 2.3. EXPLORATION OF THE WATER HEATING SYSTEMS AS PRESENTLY USED AT THE INSTITUTIONS 2.3.1. Types of water heaters used 2.3.2. Storage tank capacities at institutions 2.3.3. State of the water heating systems and operating costs 2.3.4. Usage and performance of solar water heating systems 2.4. AWARENESS OF BENEFITS AND PROBLEMS OF SOLAR WATER HEATERS 2.4.1. Familiarity with solar hot water systems 2.4.2. Ranking of advantages and disadvantages of solar hot water systems 2.4.3. Obstacles to using solar heated water 2.5. ABILITY/WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR SOLAR WATER HEATERS 2.6. SOURCE OF FUNDING FOR INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENTS 2.6.1. Sources of funds for infrastructural development 2.6.2. Degree of autonomy of the institutions and ability to make quick decisions Most of the graphs and figures speak for themselves so descriptions will only be provided where necessary. For the purpose of analysis and presentation, and for usability of the results by market penetrators of different interests, the institutions can be divided into three categories, namely a) Educational providers (boarding schools and colleges); b) Health providers (hospitals, clinics, nursing homes); and c) Homes (children’s homes, old people’s homes, AIDS/orphanage homes and rehabilitation Total numbers of institutions and numbers visited VISITED TOTAL centres). 300 Figure 2 shows the ratio of institutions of the 250 various sectors visited by the team compared 200 to the total numbers identified. The sector of Count 150 educational providers is the largest but most uniform one. The group of health providers is 100 less homogenous and the homes differ even more 50 from one another. For this reason and because the homes soon turned out to be the institutions 0 EDUCATIONAL HEALTH HOMES where most of the solar hot water systems were Type of institution recorded this sector was given higher attention Fig.2 than the other ones. ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 5 2.1. GEOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS Before examining the technical aspects of the study attention has to be drawn to the institutions themselves, for example, where are they located - in rural or urban areas. The location of the institutions turns out to be major cost and time factor. With the enormous cost of transport, rural institutions have to pay disproportionally higher prices for infrastructural improvements, including solar installations. Telecommunication to these remote places is down most of the time and some of the institutions visited are difficult to access by road. In many cases, finding out about these remote and needy institutions is only possible through their head offices in town. Once the names and addresses of remote institutions have been established, direct contact to these institutions is often only attainable by travelling to the very place and by seeing oneself whether there is need for a water heating system and whether they have sufficient infrastructure already on the ground to justify this kind of investment. Attempts to communicate with these remote institutions by post, telephone or E-mail are extremely time-consuming or forlorn. Investigation of the geographical distribution of the institutions have come up with the following conclusions: • The boarding schools are mainly found in the rural areas whereas the homes are mostly located in towns. • Although the concentration of schools is highest in urban areas the rural schools are much stronger in absolute numbers. Almost every mission station in the rural areas can pride itself on a boarding school. Even town parents tend to send their children to schools far away from urban distractions. Many of the top-schools of the country are located deep in the bush. This was not a problem as long as transport was cheap and widely available. People began to rely more on telephone Type of institutions Education Health Homes communication but in these days telephone 35 lines are down for long times and teachers and service staff have to travel to the 30 Percentage of responses nearest business centre to collect mail and 25 to receive and send out messages. Even in 20 the years when transport was still available 15 and affordable it required a strong-willed 10 headmaster or Mission superior to bring 5 solar technology to the remote schools. 0 • Percentage-wise the number of hospitals rural urban in rural and urban areas is very similar, Location of institutions contrary to the schools and homes. Hospitals Fig.2.1 need to be within reach of the centres of population. To run a hospital efficiently, electricity, water, well-maintained roads and a reliable communications network must be taken for granted at all times. These prerequisites are more likely to exist in and around towns but have failed even town hospitals of late. • The homes offer accommodation to elderly people, orphans, abandoned children and homeless adults. Many people were made homeless by the farm expropriations and by the demolition of the so-called illegal structures by the security forces. The jobless and homeless flock to the urban areas, because they find more favorable conditions for hawking and begging there. • The AIDS pandemic has left many orphans to be looked after by the extended family. The number of orphans and abandoned children with no relatives keeps on growing and more often charity organisations have to pick them up from the street to offer them a bed and something to eat. • Even though twice as many homes are located in urban than in rural areas, church organisations and other charities are making efforts to open more care centres in the hinterland so that homeless children and adults can stay near their relatives and friends. 2.2. USE OF HOT WATER IN INSTITUTIONS Private households can hold out for some days without hot water. In many boarding schools the boys and girls never enjoy heated water for showering or laundry and yet they grow up and remain healthy. Things are very different in hospitals and homes of small children and old people where lack of warm and hot water can create huge sanitary problems. In these institutions heated water is a genuine necessity. Anyone who wants to sell water heating systems to homes, hospitals and even schools has to understand the habits of how the occupants of these institutions make use of the hot water available. Before making a proposal concerning the type and size of the water heating system, the salesperson has to investigate ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 6 1. How many beds the hospitals, schools and homes have in urban and rural areas, 2. Where do they get the cold water from, do they have piped water and are they connected to the electricity grid, 3. What are their current hot water storage capacities, 4. Do they have enough heated water, 5. For what purposes do occupants and staff of hospitals, schools and homes need the hot water, 6. To what temperatures do people want the water to be heated and 7. At what times do they require the heated water. All these variables will depend on the type, location and size of institution. 2.2.1. Number of beds at the institutions As can be seen in the diagram below, only a few institutions have been recorded with their number of beds between one and twenty. In the following paragraphs, therefore, this report will mainly focus on the institutions with more than 20 beds and these numbers will be compared with one another. • The boarding schools of the educational sector clearly exceed the hospitals and homes in the group with more than 200 beds. Number of beds at institutions 1-10 11-20 Types of institutions educational health homes 21-50 51-100 101-200 more 30 30 25 Percentage of respondents Percentage of respondents 25 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 1-10 11-20 21-50 51-100 101-200 more educational health homes Types of institutions Number of beds Fig.2.2.1a Fig.2.2.1b Institutions in rural areas educational health homes Institutions in urban areas educational health homes 30 18 16 25 14 Number of cases 20 Number of cases 12 10 15 8 10 6 4 5 2 0 0 1-10 11-20 21-50 51-100 101-200 more 1-10 11-20 21-50 51-100 101-200 more Number of beds Number of beds Fig.2.2.1c Fig.2.2.1d • Schools with more than 500 boarders are quite common. Boarding schools can pack more individuals into the same space and need less staff to supervise the dormitories than hospitals and homes require to manage the wards and living rooms respectively. • Around 20 percent of hospitals visited can provide beds for patients numbering between 51 and 100 and about 40 percent to up to 200 patients. The percentage of hospitals with more than 200 beds is negligible. • The homes are strongest represented in the range of 21 to 50 and 51 to 100 beds but some of them can have up to 200 beds. • When looking at the number of beds from the location point of view the data highlight that • The big boarding schools with more than 200 beds are located almost exclusively in the rural areas and that the same applies to hospitals with beds for up to 200 patients. Only a few homes of this size can be found in the hinterland. ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 7 • The homes for destitute and aged people and for orphans have mainly been built in or near the cities. 2.2.2. Source of cold water for the institutions and are they connected to the electricity grid All the institutions have a piped water system with house connections, which is a favourable condition for SWH installation. In some cases the pressure would be too low though to push the water up to a roof-mounted SWH. Cold water from... main source alternative source Source of water supply borehole dam/river municipal 80 35 70 30 60 Percentage of responses 25 50 20 Count 40 15 30 20 10 10 5 0 0 borehole dam/river municipal rural urban Sources of water supply Location of institutions Fig.2.2.2a Fig.2.2.2b Source of water supply borehole dam/river municipal Source of water supply borehole dam/river municipal 25 25 20 Percentage of responses 20 Percentage responses 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 central local local community donors institution- 0 government government generated educational health homes Where does funding come from Types of institutions Fig.2.2.2c Fig.2.2.2d The institutions interviewed by the team get their water almost equally from boreholes, dams or the municipality. • The most prevalent source of water at the visited institutions was borehole/deep well, followed by municipal. Since borehole water is usually associated with calcium hardness, only closed loop solar water-heating systems incorporating a heat exchanger might be suitable at these institutions, to avoid clogging of the solar collector pipe-work. • Only a third of the institutions use dam or river-sourced water. • Nearly 50% of the institutions have a dual source of water. • As to be expected, institutions in the rural areas cannot connect to a municipality and have to either sink a borehole or build a dam for their water supply. • In urban areas the institutions use municipal water whenever possible but quite a few also have a borehole as a backup supply. • When comparing the sectors of the institutions, the schools use mainly borehole and dam water which comes as no surprise as most of the schools are located in the rural areas where municipal water is usually not available. • For the health sector one would expect a similar distribution of water sources as found for the educational and homes sector but the hospitals don’t appear to have a clear preference for one of the water sources. Therefore, the results adduced above have to be treated with caution as the sample of hospitals interviewed is not big enough to be representative for the health sector. ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 8 • The homes are predominantly located in urban areas where boreholes and municipal are the most common water sources. • Institutions supported financially by donors or those with sufficient revenues through fees are most likely to receive their water from boreholes or from the municipality, especially the institutions belonging to the educational or homes’ sector. • If the institution has got a borehole one can assume that the funding comes from donors in the case of homes or from fees in the case of schools. • Local and central government play a negligible role in the funding of water services whereas the local communities contribute to some extent to water supply. The supply with electric power is of importance when the clients prefer the solar water heaters to be backed up by electric heater elements. Where the solar water heating system needs a pump for forced circulation continuous supply of electric power is a requisite. Without electricity to circulate the heat transfer fluid even on the hottest day the water in the storage tank would remain cold. • Only 4 out of 108 institutions visited were not connected to the electricity grid. Almost all of them are affected by power cuts though. Seventy percent of the solar water heaters recorded by the survey are of the stand-alone type and all of them work according to the thermosyphon principle, i.e., they use nothing but solar energy. During the chilly winter months without electric power the solar water heaters still make warm showers possible. 2.2.3. Hot water storage capacities at institutions Instead of asking the interviewees how many litres of heated water are needed every day the survey team decided to investigate the water heating capacities of the respective institutions. This quantity is easier to establish than the consumption of heated water in an institution. From the hot water storage capacity one can infer the hot water consumption assuming that the heating system was designed and sized to serve all in-patients, students or orphans respectively. • When looking at water heating capacities with respect to the location of the institution the rural areas have a preference for smaller tank volumes and the bigger heating capacities are found in towns. This can be explained by the distances to the rural institutions and by the complications involved with transporting big tank sizes and large tank quantities on bad roads to remote places. • Because of the dominance of the schools in the category of number of beds one would expect the schools to pride themselves with the biggest storage capacities for water heating but they get 50-210 300-400 Total hot water storage capacity 50-210 300-400 500-600 1000 Water heating capacities 500-600 1000 1200-1500 2000-3000 1200-1500 2000-3000 3600-5500 6000-7000 3600-5500 6000-7000 8000-100000 18000 8000-10000 18000 16 18 14 16 Percentage of responses Number of responses 12 14 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 0 0 rural urban educational health homes Location of institution Types of institutions Fig.2.2.3.a Fig.2.2.3.b 0-210 litres 300-400 litres Hot water storage capacity Water heating capacity in institutions with... 51-100 beds 500-1000 litres 1200-1500 litres 2000-3000 litres 3600-5500 litres 5 6000-10000 litres 18000 litres 5 4 Number of responses 4 3 Number of responses 3 2 2 1 0 1 1200-1500 2000-3000 0-210 litres 300-400 500-1000 3600-5500 10000 18000 6000- litres litres litres litres litres litres litres 0 21-50 beds 51-100 beds 101-200 beds more than 200 beds Number of beds Litres Fig.2.2.3.c Fig.2.2.3.d ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 9 Water heating capacity in institutions with.. more than 200 beds Water heating capacity in institutions with.. 101-200 beds 5 5 Number of responses Number of responses 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 0-210 300-400 500-1000 1200- 2000- 3600- 10000 18000 6000- 500-1000 1200-1500 2000-3000 3600-5500 10000 18000 0-210 300-400 1500 3000 5500 6000- litres litres litres litres litres litres litres litres litres litres litres litres litres litres litres litres Litres Litres Fig.2.2.3.e Fig.2.2.3.f outdone by the homes in almost all ranges. • Apparently, some institutions with more than 20 beds can do with less than two litres of heated water per bed which, in practice, means that the heated water is reserved for the kitchen and a few staff members while the pupils have to brave cold showers and wash their laundry in cold water throughout the whole year. • In the educational sector the water heating capacity peaks in the range of 2000 to 3000 litres which give each occupant about five to ten litres of heated water per day, provided the heating system is working fine. In some boarding schools like Makumbi Visitation High School the 250 girls are divided into groups which take turns collecting the water in buckets. Depending on the amount of solar radiation they get 5 litres of heated water every day or every second day, The bucket systems has been introduced to limit the consumption of heated water per child to a maximum of five litres. • The homes clearly dominate the range of storage capacities between 2000 and 3000 litres. They also own a number of small water heating systems which are most likely serving their staff members. • No firm statements can be made about the institutions of the health sector as only a few could be interviewed. The picture which has been obtained is that the hospitals tend to have heating capacities between 1000 and 3000 litres and that capacities between 50 and 210 litres can also be found there. 2.2.4. Do the institutions have enough heated water A large majority of the institutions needs more hot water. Most of the institutions visited were constructed several tens of years ago and had never undergone reconstruction or extension. As government health care and social welfare are on the brink of collapse more patients, orphans and old people have to be accepted by privately owned institutions. Like many other parts of the infrastructure, the water heating systems were not designed for these ever increasing numbers of patients, pupils and orphans. In some boarding schools like Makumbi Visitation High School the girls are divided into groups which take turns collecting the water in buckets. The bucket systems has been introduced to limit the consumption of heated water per child to a maximum of five litres. • On the need for up-rating the hot water supply at the institutions, 89% of the institutions require an increase in hot water supply. • Of these, 9% require the increase in supply to cater for present demand; 14% only to cater for future demand; and 77% to cater for both purposes- present and future demand. Does the institution require more heated water • However, when the institutions were asked 100 90 whether or not they were planning to 80 increase their hot water supply, a third of Percentage of responses 70 the respondents said they were not planning 60 so. Lack of capital could be named as one 50 of the reasons. Furthermore, the economic 40 and political circumstances do not embolden 30 them to invest into an uncertain future. 20 10 • One third of the institutions are planning 0 YES NO to up-rate their hot water supply almost immediately. This was said 18 months Fig.2.2.4.a ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 10 What would your institution require more hot water for Does the institution require more heated water YES NO 100 35 90 Weighted percentage of responses 30 80 25 Percentage of responses 70 60 20 50 15 40 10 30 5 20 10 0 1-10 11-20 21-50 51-100 101-200 more 0 for increased demand for present demand for both Number of beds Fig.2.2.4.b Fig.2.2.4.c Why do the institutions require an for increased demand Does your institution require more heated water YES NO increase in hot water supply for present demand 40 for both 35 40 Percentage of responses 30 35 Percentage of responses 25 30 20 25 15 20 10 15 5 10 0 5 almost immediately in the next 1 to 5 after 5 years don't want 0 years Educational Health Homes When are you planning to increase hot water supply Type of institution Fig.2.2.4.d Fig.2.2.4.e before writing the final version of the study report and in the meantime prices have gone up several thousand-fold. • In the light of the hyperinflation many of the optimistic respondents might have dampened their enthusiasm and joined the group of the last third which is aiming for an increase of water heating capacity in the next 1 to 5 years. • None of the institutions visited has such plans after five years. 2.2.5. Purposes for which hospitals, schools and homes need heated water Besides for cooking purposes, all institutions interviewed use heated water for different other socio- economic activities. 96% of the institutions use heated water everyday while 4% use hot water only sometimes. The uses of heated water at the institutions are bathing/showering, laundry, kitchen and sterilisation. The distributions of uses are shown in the figures below once with respect to the types of institutions and once with respect to the location of the institutions. • Sterilisation is of importance only to the health sector and to some homes. • All institutions use heated water for showering, laundry and dish washing, be they in urban or rural areas. • The use of heated water for laundry is less common at boarding schools in particular and in the Bathing Showering What do the institutions use bathing/ showering What do the institutions use Laundry the heated water for laundry the heated water for Sterilisation sterilisation Kitchen Dishwashing kitchen 45 25 40 Percentage of responses 35 Percentage of responses 20 30 25 15 20 10 15 10 5 5 0 0 rural urban Educational Health Homes Type of institution Location of institution Fig.2.2.5.a Fig.2.2.5.b ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 11 rural areas in general. 2.2.6. Temperatures at which people want to use the heated water The temperature at which water is required for different uses, as perceived by the respondents, varies amongst the institutions. Prevalently though, water for showering is wanted warm (37-45ºC); for laundry and kitchen hot (46-60ºC), and for sterilisation boiling water or steam is required. In order to cater for overcast periods, there is need for back-up systems to those institutions that require hot or boiling water for purposes like kitchen, laundry and sterilisation. • The boarding schools consider warm and hot a necessity for ablution blocks and for dish washing. There is virtually no need for scalding or boiling water except for cooking purposes. • Homes sometimes offer simple medical bathing For which purpose do you need.. laundry Water temperatures as needed in the EDUCATIONAL sector sterilisation 60 kitchen 100 50 90 Percentage of responses Percentage of responses 80 40 70 60 30 50 40 20 30 20 10 10 0 warm (37-45¼ C) hot (46-60¼ C) scalding (61- boiling (91- not sure 0 90¼ C) 100¼ C) 37-45 ¼ C 46-60 ¼ C 61-90 ¼ C 91-100 ¼ C not sure ... the water at which temperature Water temperatures Fig.2.2.6.a Fig.2.2.6.b Water temperatures as needed in the HEALTH sector Water temperatures as needed in the HOMES sector 45 50 45 40 40 35 Percentage of responses Percentage of responses 35 30 30 25 25 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 37-45 ¼ C 46-60 ¼ C 61-90 ¼ C 91-100 ¼ C not sure 37-45 ¼ C 46-60 ¼ C 61-90 ¼ C 91-100 ¼ C not sure Water temperatures Water temperatures Fig.2.2.6.c Fig.2.2.6.d treatment and, therefore, in some cases need boiling water for sterilisation. Otherwise, they need heated water at warm and hot temperatures, just like the boarding schools. • Hospitals have to do sterilisation on a daily basis and, accordingly, need quite a big volume of boiling water or steam. Compared to schools and homes their hot water consumption is higher than in schools or homes. 2.2.7. Times at which people require the heated water Requirements of heated water and habits of use differ from type to type of institution and even amongst the institutions of the same category. During the last couple of years though, the frequent power failures and the difficulties in obtaining coal, gas, petrol, diesel and firewood have changed the patterns from when people prefer to use the heated water to when the commodity is available. It’s become routine that schools and hospitals in the rural areas have to go without heated water for days if not weeks. In urban areas where fuel is easier to obtain some schools, hospitals and homes start their generators to keep the essential services going but the generators are usually too weak for supplying all the electric geysers. Those with powerful generators have realised that heating water through the diesel generator is very costly and not sustainable. • The figures illustrate that almost 90 percent of the institutions need heated water every day. • In educational institutions teachers and pupils would prefer heated water for bathing/showering throughout the whole year but can live with water at ambient temperatures during the summer ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 12 months. The same applies to the laundry. Kitchen staff on the other hand require heated water all the time. • As to be expected with health institutions, hot water is equally essential for all purposes. Hot water for laundry gets a slightly higher priority than in the other uses. Hospital laundry is a major consumer of heated water and, on top, hospitals need laundry water for the When is hot water a necessity for BATHING always purpose of disinfection to be heated to only on cold days higher temperatures than in schools or 35 homes. 30 Percentage of responses • Like with hospitals, warm and hot water 25 is important to homes for all three uses, 20 namely showering, laundry and dish 15 washing. Especially in establishments for 10 homeless and destitutes people stay there 5 for up to a few months and enjoy cooked meals and warm showers. They bring their 0 EDUCATIONAL HEALTH HOMES dirty washing and do their laundry using Type of institution the facilities of the home. The owners of Fig.2.2.7.a children’s homes in most cases make sure that the very small children have warm water for showering and bathing. Little and When is hot water a necessity for LAUNDRY always only on cold days sick children in orphanages suffer especially 40 in the cold winter months when no heated 35 water is available for bathing. Percentage of responses 30 There is another way of studying the showering 25 habits by looking at the number of beds and at 20 what daytimes people of the institutions visited 15 turn on the hot water tap. 10 5 • Bathing/showering takes place mostly in 0 the morning (5 am to 9 am), although some EDUCATIONAL HEALTH HOMES bathing also takes place during mid-day, Type of institution late afternoon and night times. Fig.2.2.7.b • As can be seen, there is not much difference in the draw-off of heated water between When is hot water a necessity always the summer and the winter months. for DISHWASHING only on cold days • Across the whole range of numbers of beds 45 the majority of people take a shower or 40 have a bath in the morning hours, be it in 35 Percentage of responses the hot or in the cold season. 30 25 • However, on a summer afternoon one will 20 find more people of the 100 - 200 beds group 15 taking a shower than on a winter afternoon. 10 Certainly, this can be attributed to pupils of 5 boarding schools showering after sports and 0 also to residents of homes and to hospital EDUCATIONAL HEALTH HOMES patients taking advantage of the not-so- Type of institutions chilly water coming out of cold water tap in Fig.2.2.7.c How many shower in SUMMER-MORNING 100% How many shower on WINTER-MORNING 100% 75% 75% 50% 50% 25% 25% 10% 10% 30 30 25 25 Percentage of responses Percentage of responses 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 1-10 11-20 21-50 51-100 101-200 more than 200 1-10 11-20 21-50 51-100 101-200 more than 200 Number of beds Number of beds Fig.2.2.7.d Fig.2.2.7.e ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 13 100% 100% How many shower in SUMMER-AFTERNOON How many shower in WINTER-AFTERNOON 75% 75% 50% 50% 25% 25% 10% 10% 20 25 18 16 20 Percentage of responses Percentage of responses 14 12 15 10 8 10 6 4 5 2 0 0 1-10 11-20 21-50 51-100 101-200 more than 1-10 11-20 21-50 51-100 101-200 more than 200 200 Number of beds Number of beds Fig.2.2.7.f Fig.2.2.7.g 100% How many shower in WINTER-NIGHT How many shower in SUMMER-NIGHT 100% 75% 75% 50% 50% 25% 25% 10% 10% 25 18 16 20 Percentage of responses Percentage of responses 14 12 15 10 10 8 6 5 4 2 0 0 1-10 11-20 21-50 51-100 101-200 more than 200 1-10 11-20 21-50 51-100 101-200 more than 200 Number of beds Number of beds Fig.2.2.7.h Fig.2.2.7.i the afternoon. • This distribution of people taking showers at different times of the year changes though when comparing summer and winter nights. For some reason, more people turn on the tap on a winter night than on a summer night. 2.3. EXPLORATION OF THE WATER HEATING SYSTEMS AS PRESENTLY USED AT THE INSTITUTIONS Historically, the first water heaters were using firewood. With the construction of roads and the introduction of heavy vehicles, coal became a significant source of fuel. To firewood and coal was added electric power which was very cheap and the supplies were reliable. Since the last ten years though wide areas of the country have been experiencing a reversion to the old firewood boilers and to water heating on open fire as the supply of electric power has become extremely erratic. In the rural areas, a high percentage of electric geysers can not be used anymore as the institutions have been deprived of electricity. 2.3.1. Types of water heaters used • Statistically, almost fifty percent of the schools, hospitals and homes use electricity for water heating. • In practice, many new power lines erected with foreign money remain cold and so do the electric geysers. • Coal is out of reach as the production has slumped and transport can no longer be organised. • Far-seeing missionaries introduced solar water heaters to some remote schools and hospitals. Countrywide solar water heating plays a slightly bigger role in urban than in rural areas. • Amongst the three groups of institutions the homes are the strongest users of solar water heating whereas in the educational sector the number of solar units installed is smaller than of any other type of water heaters. • In the health sector solar water heating is second only to the electric geysers but by a large margin. The survey does not include any government hospitals and, therefore, the health sector might be misrepresented in terms of water heating systems in use. If a comparable number of private and public hospitals had been interviewed the relative percentage of solar systems amongst the water ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 14 Fig.2.3.1.a Top left: Firewood water heater in Gokwe Top right: Residential solar hot water system at Brunapeg Mission Hospital Centre left: Coal and firewood boiler at Mater Dei Hospital/Bulawayo Centre right: Open-fire water heating at Driefontein Mission Hospital Bottom: Electric geyser at Mater Dei Hospital/Bulawayo electric geyser coal boiler Type of institution EDUCATIONAL Type of water heating system firewood boiler open fire heating hybrid solar 50 other 45 30 40 Percentage of responses 25 35 Percentage of responses 30 20 25 15 20 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 electric coal boiler firewood open fire hybrid solar other geyser boiler heating rural urban Location of institutions Type of water heating Fig.2.3.1b Fig.2.3.1c ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 15 Type of institution HEALTH Type of institution HOMES 70 60 60 50 Percentage of responses Percentage of responses 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 electric coal boiler firewood open fire hybrid solar other electric coal boiler firewood open fire hybrid solar other geyser boiler heating geyser boiler heating Type of water heating Type of water heating Fig.2.3.1d Fig.2.3.1e heaters would have come out lower. In this context it will be of interest how the various types of water heating systems in use reflect on the percentage of electricity consumption associated with water heating. 2.3.2. Storage tank capacities at the institutions One would expect the hot water storage capacities of the institutions to closely grow with the number of beds. • This is true of the ranges 3600-5500 litres, 6000-10000 litres and 18000 litres. • The 500-1000 litre volumes are mostly Hot water storage capacity 0-210 litres 300-400 litres found in institutions 500-1000 litres 1200-1500 litres with 51 to 100 beds, 2000-3000 litres 3600-5500 litres to a lesser extent in 6000-10000 litres 18000 litres 5 institutions with 101 to 200 beds and even fewer 4 in institutions with more Number of responses than 200 beds. 3 • The most common hot water storage volume 2 appears to be in the 2000-3000 litre range. 1 • Hot water storage capacities of 0-210 litres 0 21-50 beds 51-100 beds 101-200 beds more than 200 beds and 300-400 litres can be found in all institutions Number of beds with different numbers Fig.2.3.2a of beds. The question is now which 0-350 400-600 1000 types of heaters the Hot water storage capactity 1200-1500 2000-2100 2500-3000 institutions use to heat up 3600-5500 6000-10000 18000 water in small, medium-size 12 and large storage volumes. 10 Number of responses • Electric geysers can be found to heat all 8 storage volumes except 6 the extremely large one but most dominantly 4 the volumes up to 3000 2 litres. 0 • The coal boilers are electric coal boiler firewood open fire hybrid solar other frequently found in big geyser boiler heating rural boarding schools where substantial water Type of water heating system volumes have to be Fig.2.3.2b heated especially during ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 16 the cold season. • The same can be said of firewood boilers. • Open fire heating is not very common but institutions will have to resort to this type of heating more often if the supply of electricity and coal does not improve in future. • Solar heating has been used by a number of institutions for many years, in particular by the homes. • The solar-heated tank capacities the interviewers came across are between 1000 and 3000 litres. • The majority of the solar installations consist of one to five tanks of up to 300 litres capacity. 2.3.3. State of the water heating systems and operating costs Most institutions visited by the interviewers have been operating for the past 10 to 20 years; some of them even as long as 40 years. The coal and firewood boilers are probably as old as the institutions but might have been supplemented or replaced by electric geysers or solar systems at a later stage. In some way, wear and tear affects all parts of the water heaters but most of the time the portions which are exposed to the heat source. yes Is your water heating system working Is the water heating system working not all of it 60 no 30 50 Percentage of responses 25 Percentage of responses 40 20 30 15 20 10 5 10 0 0 EDUCATIONAL HEALTH HOMES YES NOT ALL OF IT NO Type of institution Fig.2.3.3a Fig.2.3.3b Does institutions spend enough yes Does your institution spend enough money on maintenance on maintenance per year not enough don't know 60 60 50 50 Percentage of responses Percentage of responses 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 educational health homes YES NOT ENOUGH DON'T KNOW Type of institution Fig.2.3.3c Fig.2.3.3d enough Do you spend enough on mainenance Do you have a mainenance workshop YES NO not enough 30 45 40 25 Percentage of responses 35 Percentage of responses 30 20 25 15 20 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 yes not all of it no yes not all of it no Is water heating system working Is water heating system working Fig.2.3.3e Fig.2.3.3f ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 17 70 Do you have a maintenance workshop YES NO with qualified staff 60 30 50 Percentage of responses 25 Percentage of responses 40 20 30 15 20 10 10 5 0 0 electric heater storage tank connecting pipework other EDUCATIONAL HEALTH HOMES element Parts that break most frequently Type or institution Fig.2.3.3g Fig.2.3.3h electrical heater element What is the source of cold BOREHOLE Which part of the water heating storage tank water at your institution DAM/RIVER system is broken connecting pipe work MUNICIPAL other 30 35 30 25 Percentage of responses Percentage of responses 25 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 yes not all of it no BOREHOLE DAM/RIVER MUNICIPAL Is the water heating system working Source of water supply Fig.2.3.3i Fig.2.3.3j It was learnt during the interviews that the grading of a water heating system as working or not working satisfactorilly can be quite unreasoned. When water heaters are not able to meet the hot water demand of the users then they blame it on the equipment. Most of the heaters were designed for a certain number of users but nowadays many heaters are operated far above their limit. Solar water heaters need the sunshine and boilers require firewood or coal which can all be in short supply from time to time. On top of this, one can only get hot water out of the heaters if cold water flows in. The problem of the heaters is quite often the problem of the cold water supply. All these local particulars have to be born in mind when reading the “treatise” on the state of water heating systems as in use at institutions visited in Zimbabwe. • Countrywide, more than half the water heaters are pronounced to be in working condition and 40% in part. • The educational sector has the best ratio of heaters working fine compared to the ones which are not fully operational. Besides the cost of heating water the expenses incurred by repair and maintenance have to be looked at. • A significant 53% of the institutions do not think they are spending enough money on maintenance and repairs to keep their water heating system working. • Amongst the homes visited only about 40% can pride themselves that they spend enough on maintenance in contrast to the hospitals where the respective percentage is well above 50%. The poor maintenance awareness is certainly a major factor why 40% of water heating systems are not functioning to satisfaction. The benefit of regularly servicing the equipment of the institutions manifests itself when putting the money spent on maintenance in comparison with the working condition of the water heating systems. • There is an evident and strong coupling between the state of the water heating equipment and resources spent on the upkeep of the equipment. • The electrical heating element is the most notorious cause of breakdown for the water heating systems. They are consumables, i.e., items to be used up and then to be replaced. • Storage tanks and connecting pipe work don’t seem to cause major repair and maintenance ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 18 costs. • The question whether the institution has a maintenance workshop or not does not appear to influence the working condition of the water heating system. This proves that merely employing technicians and running a maintenance workshop are no guarantees for well functioning water heaters, if the workers are not given enough money to buy the spare parts and the tools. • Comparing the various sectors of the institutions the educational sector is the best when it comes to workshop and maintenance staff whereas the homes lag far behind. • Correspondingly, the in boarding schools two thirds of the water heaters are working in contrast to the homes where just about a third of the water heating systems are in working condition. • As per Fig.2.2.1e, the large majority of institutions gets the cold water from the borehole. Therefore, one would have expected the calcium which is normally associated with borehole water to create more havoc in the water heaters and in the connecting pipework. In most parts of the country the source of the cold water cannot be blamed if the water heater is not functioning. 2.3.4. Contribution of water heating to monthly electricity bill As the majority of institutions uses electric geysers for heating water the average of the three last electricity bills was recorded as the operating costs. In the cases of coal and firewood heating it was difficult to work out the average monthly outlay and, therefore, these costs were not taken into Have you got solar water heating YES NO account. 300 • In the first half of 2006 the institutions Average monthly electricity bill [EURO] reported average monthly electricity bills 250 ranging from about Z$ 1 million to Z$ 500 200 million which converts to bills between EUR 4 and EUR 2000. 150 • Of course, the absolute sum grows with 100 the size, i.e. number of beds, of the institutions. 50 • The institutions with no solar water heating 0 systems installed pay EUR 249 on average whereas the owners of solar water heaters Fig.2.3.4a Percentage of electricity bill Fraction of electricity bill 80 50 due to water heating 25 10 40 less than 10 25 35 Percentage of responses 30 20 Percentage of responses 25 15 20 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 80% 50% 25% 10% less than 10% rural urban Percentage of bill Location of the institution Fig.2.3.4b Fig.2.3.4c 80% electric geyser coal/charcoal boiler 50% Type of water heater firewood boiler open fire heating Percentage of electricity bill attributed to water heating 25% 10% hybrid solar less than 10% 25 25 20 Percentage of responses Percentage of responses 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 educational health homes 80% 50% 25% 10% less than 10% Type of institution Percentage of electricity bill Fig.2.3.4d Fig.2.3.4e ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 19 can expect an average monthly bill of EUR 122, i.e., less than half of the ones without the solar heaters. The following graphs illustrate the institutions’ perception of the contribution of water heating to their electricity bill and have to be read with caution. They are estimates and are not supported by any measurements. • According to the study data almost 15 percent of the institutions visited think that water heating accounts for 80% of their electricity bill. In this set of institutions solar water heaters don’t play any role. The high electricity bills and the absence of solar water heaters in the educational sector demonstrate beyond doubt that the over-dependence on electric geysers may turn out very expensive. • Where electric geysers are employed for water heating the percentage of the total electricity bill is between 80 and 25 percent. • About a third of the institutions interviewed attribute 50% of their electricity bill to water heating. In this group the electric geyser clearly dominate the other types of water heaters. Even though quite a few institutions of the 50%-group own solar systems they still have to use half of the electric energy for water heating. Without the presence of solar water heaters some institutions might have been pushed up the ladder to the 80%-club. There are several explanations for the strong showing of the group with 10 and less than 10% of the bill associated with water heating. • The lower end of the range is shared between solar and hybrid systems which make use of whatever is available at certain times, i.e., electricity, coal and firewood. • Institutions in remote rural areas have to go without electricity for long periods which brings the bill down. • In some cases water heating contributes little to the electricity bill, because they have not been connected to the grid yet and mainly use coal and firewood. Yet their bills for coal might be even higher than what other institutions of the same type and of comparable number of beds have to pay to the electricity utility. • In the educational and health sector the percentages are fairly evenly distributed. • The homes are the chief players in the groups of institutions which attribute 50% and less than 10% to water heating. • When referring back to the illustrations (Fig.2.3.1c-e) where the various types of institutions are examined with respect to what apparatus they use for water heating, the explanation for the homes differing so clearly from the other institutions in terms water heating’s contributing to the electricity bill is their reliance on electric geysers on one hand and on the use of solar hot water systems on the other hand. Obviously, solar water heaters were purchased by the funders to bring the running costs in general and the electricity bill in particular down. 2.3.5. Usage and performance of solar water heating systems Most tank sizes of the solar hot water systems covered by the survey were below 300 litres. Due to their compact design an individual solar water heater can be given to each dormitory of the boarding schools, ward of the hospitals and unit of the homes. The graphs relating to the solar hot water systems illustrate that • About a third of the institutions visited do have solar water heaters. The percentage would certainly have come out lower had more government hospitals and schools participated in the survey. Do you have solar water heating at your institution yes Do you have SWH no 80 30 70 25 Percentage of responses 60 Percentage of responses 20 50 15 40 10 30 5 20 0 government government community donors institution- 10 generated central local local 0 YES NO Where does funding come from Fig.2.3.5a Fig.2.3.5b ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 20 YES YES Do you have a solar hot water Do you have solar water heating system at your institution NO NO 35 50 45 30 Percentage of responses 40 Percentage of responses 25 35 20 30 25 15 20 10 15 10 5 5 0 0 EDUCATION HEALTH HOMES rural urban Type of institution Location of institution Fig.2.3.5c Fig.2.3.5d all self YES 75% self - 25% donor Who paid for the solar installation 50% self - 50% donor NO 25% self - 75% donor Is your solar system working to satisfaction all donor NOT SURE 35 70 30 60 Percentage of institutions Percentage of responses 25 50 20 40 15 30 10 20 5 10 0 0 before 1980 1980-1989 1990-2000 after 2000 EDUCATIONAL HEALTH HOMES When was the solar system installed Type of institution Fig.2.3.5e Fig.2.3.5f all self 100 75% self - 25% donor Who paid for the SWH 50% self - 50% donor 90 25% self - 75% donor all donor 80 60 Percentage of responses 70 50 Percentage of responses 60 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 solar stand-alone with electric back-up 0 solar stand-alone with electric back-up What type of solar hot water system have you got What type of solar hot water system have you got Fig.2.3.5g Fig.2.3.5h all self 75% self - 25% donor When was SWH installed before 1980 1980-1989 Who paid for solar 50% self - 50% donor 25% self - 75% donor hot water system 1990-2000 after 2000 all donor 35 35 Percentage of institutions 30 30 25 Percentage of responses 25 20 20 15 10 15 5 10 0 all self 25% donor 50% donor 75% donor all donor 75% self - 50% self - 25% self - 5 0 YES NO NOT SURE Is the solar hot water system working to satisfaction Who paid for the solar water heaters Fig.2.3.5i Fig.2.3.5j ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 21 • A clear majority of the institutions in the rural areas in general and of the health and educational sector in particular has no solar heated water. • Solar water heaters have mainly been purchased by or donated to homes. • Since before 1980 the percentage of donated systems has been growing steadily while the number of solar systems fully paid by the institutions themselves has dwindled to zero. • Solar hot water systems normally don’t replace or substitute electric geysers but bring hot water to institutions where there was no water heating available before. • Understandably, the donors favour the installation of solar stand-alone systems as they expect the institutions to bring down their electricity bills. The recipient have to make do with the water heated by the sun. • When comparing the sectors of the institutions, the hospitals report the best ratio of solar hot water systems in working condition to the ones not functioning. • However, when talking of water heaters in general (Fig. 2.3.3b), the educational sector takes the lead. • In both fields, whether or not the water heaters in general and the solar systems in particular are working to satisfaction, the homes have the poorest results. • The working condition of the solar systems does not appear to depend on who paid for the equipment and the installation. • Institutions with full autonomy, when it comes to making decisions towards the purchase of a solar hot water systems, don’t manage their equipment better than the ones which have to ask various authorities. 2.4. AWARENESS OF BENEFITS AND PROBLEMS OF SOLAR WATER HEATERS In the southern African region Zimbabwe is second only to Botswana when it comes to solar awareness and use of solar technology. According to Fig.2.3.4b, about a third of the institutions use solar systems to heat their water for showering, laundry and dish washing. Assuming that better knowledge about the benefits of solar water heating translates into higher usage of the technology, the following chapter will try to explore where the representatives of the institutions got the information from. Later they will be asked how they rank the perceived advantages and disadvantages of solar water heaters. This study also looked into the questions what the respondents consider the major barriers which hinder them from buying a solar water heating system and what the interviewees think should be done to remove these barriers. 2.4.1. Familiarity with solar hot water systems • With independence in 1980 came the donors and the solar hot water systems for schools, hospitals and homes. • The main beneficiaries though have been the homes for aged people, AIDS-orphans and for the destitutes. The schools and hospitals have not been as successful as the homes in tapping donor funds for the solar hot water systems and had to generate the funds themselves. • Across the institutions visited a narrow 49% of the respondents admitted not to know how solar water heating systems work. • More interviewees who know how the solar water heating systems work live in the rural areas than in towns. • The educational sector is the only one where the percentage of YES exceeds the NO. The higher Do you know how solar water heating systems work know Do you know how SWHs work 52 don't know 35 51 30 Percentage of responses Percentage of responses 51 25 50 20 50 15 10 49 5 49 0 rural urban 48 YES NO Location of institution Fig.2.4.1a Fig.2.4.1b ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 22 know Are you are aware that solar hot water YES Do you know how SWHs work don't know systems can heat water to temperature levels adequate for most of the needs NO 30 60 25 50 Percentage of responses 20 Percentage of responses 40 15 30 10 20 5 10 0 EDUCATIONAL HEALTH HOMES 0 YES NO Type of institution Do you have solar water heating Fig.2.4.1c Fig.2.4.1d From whom have you heard about SWHs newsprint, radio, tv, exhibitions manufacturers, traders 40 From whom have you heard about SWHs public conversation school 35 personal experience 30 16 Percentage of responses 14 Percentage of responses 25 12 20 10 15 8 6 10 4 5 2 0 0 newsprint, radio, manufacturers, public school personal EDUCATIONAL HEALTH HOMES tv, exhibitions traders conversation experience Type of institution Fig.2.4.1e Fig.2.4.1f presence of schools in the countryside is Do you have a solar water heating YES the reason for the concentration of the system at your institution NO knowledge about the working of the solar 35 systems in the rural areas. The better 30 understanding of the mechanics of solar Percentage of responses hot water systems does not inevitably result 25 in increased use of the technology, as this 20 study will reveal later. 15 10 • No matter whether they have a solar water heater or not, most respondents are 5 aware that solar can heat their water to 0 newsprint, radio, manufacturers, public school personal temperatures adequate for most of their tv, exhibitions traders conversation experience needs. From whom have you heard about SWHs • From personal experience and from what Fig.2.4.1g they have heard about the solar technology a clear majority of the persons interviewed consider it wise to switch to solar water heating. • Even though the institutions of the homes sector are the keenest users of solar water heaters they also have a few representatives who are undecided about whether to switch to solar or not. • In general, newsprint, radio, tv and exhibitions are the most effective channels to raise people’s interest in solar water heating closely followed by public conversation. • It should not surprise anybody that persons in charge of running the schools hear about solar water heating mainly from the print and electronic media and from public conversation. Manufacturers and traders come third before information gained during their years at school. Personal experience comes last. • In the health sector knowledge about solar water heating is mainly passed on through public conversation, ahead of the media. • The representatives of the homes get their knowledge almost equally from the media, the manufacturers and public conversation. Apparently, the traders are targeting at this group for the better access to donor money. ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 23 • Around 50% of the institutions with solar hot water systems on the roofs get their first-hand information from the manufacturers and traders. This should motivate the traders even more to get as close to the potential customers as possible and to provide them with technical information. 2.4.2. Ranking of advantages and disadvantages of solar hot water systems When the sustainability and the economic/environmental advantages of using solar water heaters when compared to conventional water heaters was explained to the representatives of the institutions, the persons ranked these aspects in the order of importance to them. The ranking of each individual benefit is illustrated by two graphs, one showing the importance of the declared benefit as rated by all respondents and one distinguishing between institutions with solar water heaters and without. • The advantage of solar water heaters that “Solar energy is inexhaustible” and was ranked the most important (Rank 1) by the largest number of respondents. • “The sun does not send a bill” also received high ranking but the owners of SWHs awarded slightly lower marks. • The environmental benefit of “SWHs use clean energy was given the least ranking by the majority of the persons interviewed. The issue of “no emissions” is not relevant to the institutions without SWHs but the statistics show a moderately stronger feeling of responsibility for the environment amongst the owners. 40 YES NO Do you have SWH 35 30 30 Percentage of responses 25 Percentage of responses 25 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 Rank for "Solar energy is inexhaustible" Rank for "Solar energy is inexhaustible" Fig.2.4.2a Fig.2.4.2b 25 YES NO Do you have SWH 18 20 16 Percentage of responses Percentage of responses 14 15 12 10 10 8 6 5 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 Rank for "Sun does not send a bill" Rank for "Sun does not send a bill" Fig.2.4.2c Fig.2.4.2d 30 YES NO Do you have SWH 25 18 16 Percentage of responses 20 Percentage of responses 14 12 15 10 8 10 6 5 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 Rank for "SWHs have lower maintenance costs" Rank for "SWHs have lower maintenance costs" Fig.2.4.2e Fig.2.4.2f ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 24 25 YES NO Do you have SWH 20 20 18 Percentage of responses 16 Percentage of responses 15 14 12 10 10 8 6 5 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 Rank for "SWHs can not be switched off" Rank for "SWHs can not be switched off" Fig.2.4.2g Fig.2.4.2h 35 YES NO Do you have SWH 30 25 Percentage of responses 25 20 Percentage of responses 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 Rank for "SWHs use clean energy" Rank for "SWHs use clean energy" Fig.2.4.2i Fig.2.4.2j 30 Do you have SWH YES NO 25 25 Percentage of responses 20 20 Percentage of responses 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 Rank for "SWHs pay back quickly" Rank for "SWHs pay back quickly" Fig.2.4.2k Fig.2.4.2l • No matter whether the own a solar water heating system or not, people are not convinced by the 40 Do you have SWH YES NO 35 35 30 Percentage of responses 30 Percentage of responses 25 25 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 1 2 3 1 2 3 Rank for "Continuous cloud cover" Rank for "Continuous cloud cover" Fig.2.4.2m Fig.2.4.2n ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 25 60 Do you have SWH YES NO 50 50 45 Percentage of responses 40 40 Percentage of responses 35 30 30 25 20 20 15 10 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 1 2 3 Rank for "Needs more space" Rank for "High forward payment" Fig.2.4.2o Fig.2.4.2p 60 YES NO Do you have SWH 50 40 Percentage of responses 35 40 Percentage of responses 30 30 25 20 20 15 10 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 1 2 3 Rank for "Needs more space" Rank for "Needs more space" Fig.2.4.2q Fig.2.4.2r Location of institution rural urban Type of institution EDUCATION HEALTH HOMES 45 60 40 50 35 Percentage of responses Percentage of responses 30 40 25 30 20 20 15 10 10 5 0 0 YES NO undecided YES NO undecided Is it wise for your institution to switch to solar water heating Is it wise for your institution to switch to solar water heating Fig.2.4.2s Fig.2.4.2t statement that “In sunny countries (Zimbabwe) and if electricity tariffs are high, the SWHs pay themselves back quickly”. • With respect to the benefit “SWHs cannot be switched off”, the respondents have no clear opinion as to whether the solar water heaters are in the position to cushion the frequent and long-lasting power-cuts by the electricity supplier. • Concerning “SWHs have lower maintenance costs” , the owners of solar water heaters have a lower opinion than the ones without. Experience might have taught them a lesson. Some owners are disappointed by the frequent breakdowns and by the poor back-up services, that’s why they have their justified doubts about the lower maintenance costs as claimed by the proponents of solar water heating. The corresponding distribution of responses for ranking of disadvantages of SWHs is shown in the graphs below. Similarly to the advantages, the left side of the graphs refers to ranking given by all respondents combined whereas the right side breaks the institutions up into groups with SWHs and without. • The fact that high forward payment is required for the initial purchase of the SWHs is ranked as the most serious disadvantage. The owners of solar water heaters are a bit less worried about the ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 26 high forward payment than the institutions without. They have already gone through the process of discussions and opted for the investment despite the high cost. • The bulkiness of the tanks and collectors is considered the least disadvantage by all respondents. The country might be short of many things - but not of roof space. • The disadvantage that “For some few days in a year you might have no hot water supply because of continuous cloud cover” has received from the complete body of respondents almost the same number percentages for all ranks 1 to 3. When looking at this matter from the point of view of the owners then the issue of the weather becomes a more critical one. The owners disagree with the bulk of respondents in way that they see the cloudy periods as a disadvantage not to be ignored. Asked to weigh the given advantages and disadvantages of using solar water heating, and then to decide whether or not it would be wise for their institution to switch to (increased use of) solar water heating, the majority of the respondents thought it is wise to do so. There are just a few in the rural areas and some representatives of homes who are undecided. 2.4.3. Obstacles to using solar heated water The most serious barriers hampering institutions from using (increased use of) solar hot water systems are, according to the respondents, as shown in the graphs below. The respondents could chose amongst a list of five well-known barriers and were asked to formulate two intervention strategies to be employed to overcome these hurdles. • Most persons in charge of the institutions cited lack of capital to meet the high initial cost of purchasing solar hot water systems as the most serious barrier. The interviews were conducted in the first half of 2006 and one can assume that this problem of the want of capital has even become worse during the past eighteen months. What are the most serious barriers hampering your institution from using solar hot water systems? • They think that asking 70 for more donations is the most promising way 60 to receiving solar heated Percentage of responses water. 50 • Making finance available 40 would facilitate the acquisition of SWHs. 30 • Fund-raising and 20 approaching government for subsidies is seen 10 as the next auspicious strategy to adopt. 0 lack of lack of capital no local industry no faith in fear to change • At the bottom of the list awareness SWHs of proposed answers to the funding debate one Fig.2.4.3a 35 1 More donations 2 Awareness campaign 30 3 Make finance available 25 4 Don't know Percentage of responses 5 More education 20 6 Provide more information 7 Government to subsidise 15 8 Fundraising 10 9 Speak to decision makers 10 More marketing 5 11 Subsidy for schools 12 Generate funds 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 13 Manufacture locally Numbers of intervention strategies 14 Reduce costs 15 Provide back-up services 16 Wider stakeholdership Fig.2.4.3b 17 Government remove VAT and duty ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 27 finds “Generate fund”, “Reduce costs” and “Government remove VAT and duty”. • Lack of awareness comes second in the list of barriers. • Wide awareness campaigns and more education in the benefits and use of solar water heating are recommended. • The decision makers need to be made aware of the economical importance of solar water heating technology and they should involve all stakeholders (manufacturers, traders, installers, customers, environmental organisations) in the promotion of solar water heating. • No faith in SWHs and fear of change have little influence on whether people use of solar hot water or not. • However, a few respondents consider readily available back-up services a prerequisite for higher confidence in solar water heating. 2.5. ABILITY/WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR SOLAR WATER HEATERS The ability or willingness of the institutions to lay out money for purchasing solar hot water systems was probed. The respondents were put in the picture that the cost of buying and installing a solar hot water system at institutional level is estimated to be around USD 120 per capita. The interviewees were then asked for how many people (or number of beds) their institutions would be able to provide solar hot water at this price. After answering this question the same persons were invited to look at the issue of purchasing a solar hot water system once again, but this time subsidised to the tune of 50 percent of the total cost. The ensuing graphs illustrate the responses of the persons with the willingness/ability to pay the full amount juxtaposing the right column of figures which serve as an indicator whether the representatives of the institutions visited would be more willing or able to purchase a solar water heating system provided they are subsidised. • An overwhelming majority of 60% of the respondents would not buy a solar hot water system, if they had to pay the whole bill themselves. When offering them the same solar system at half the cost, the percentage of institutions who still cannot afford the investment decreases to 40. • The rural institutions with more than 200 beds are the most keen ones on the subsidised solar waters. • Amongst the various types of institutions the educational sector with 100 and more boarders responds most favorably to the plan of subsidised installations. Institutions willing to pay 100 % of total cost of solar hot Institutions willing to pay 50 % of total cost of solar hot water water system... system... 70 70 60 60 Percentage of responses Percentage of responses 50 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 none 1 to 20 20 to 50 50 to 100 100 to 200 above 200 none 1 to 20 20 to 50 50 to 100 100 to 200 above 200 É for how many persons É for how many persons Fig.2.5a Fig.2.5b Location of institutions Location of institutions rural urban rural urban 35 35 30 30 Percentage of responses Percentage of responses 25 25 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 none 1 to 20 20 to 50 50 to 100 100 to 200 above 200 none 1 to 20 20 to 50 50 to 100 100 to 200 above 200 Institutions willing to pay 100 % of total cost of solar hot water system for Institutions willing to pay 50 % of total cost of solar hot water system for how many persons... how many persons.. Fig.2.5c Fig.2.5d ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 28 Type of institution EDUCATIONAL HEALTH HOMES Type of institution EDUCATIONAL HEALTH HOMES 30 30 25 25 Percentage of responses Percentage of responses 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 none 1 to 20 20 to 50 50 to 100 100 to 200 above 200 none 1 to 20 20 to 50 50 to 100 100 to 200 above 200 Institutions willing to pay 100 % of total cost of solar hot water system for how Institutions willing to pay 50 % of total cost of solar hot water system for how many persons many persons Fig.2.5e Fig.2.5f none 1 to 20 none 1 to 20 Number of beds 20 to 50 50 to 100 Number of beds 20 to 50 50 to 100 100 to 200 above 200 100 to 200 above 200 20 20 18 18 16 16 14 14 Frequency Frequency 12 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 0 0 1-10 11-20 21-50 51-100 101-200 more 1-10 11-20 21-50 51-100 101-200 more Institutions willing to pay 100 % of total cost of solar hot water system for how many Institutions willing to pay 50 % of total cost of solar hot water system for how many people people Fig.2.5g Fig.2.5h 85% 85% 50% 50% Fraction of electricity bill due to water heating 25% Fraction of electricity bill due to water heating 25% 10% 10% less than 10 % less than 10 % 25 25 20 20 Percentage of responses Percentage of responses 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 none 1 to 20 20 to 50 50 to 100 100 to 200 above 200 none 1 to 20 20 to 50 50 to 100 100 to 200 above 200 Institutions willing to pay 100 % of total cost of solar hot water system for Institutions willing to pay 50 % of total cost of solar hot water system for how many persons how many persons Fig.2.5i Fig.2.5j Do you have solar water heating at your institution YES NO Do you have solar water heating at your institution YES NO 45 45 40 40 Percentage of responses 35 35 Percentage of responses 30 30 25 25 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 none 1 to 20 20 to 50 50 to 100 100 to 200 above 200 none 1 to 20 20 to 50 50 to 100 100 to 200 above 200 Institutions willing to pay 100 % of total cost of solar hot water system for Institutions willing to pay 50 % of total cost of solar hot water system for how many persons... how many persons... Fig.2.5k Fig.2.5l ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 29 • The electricity bill does not appear to have any influence on the decision. The distributions are very similar. • The representatives of institutions with and without solar water heaters are similarly weakly inclined to capitalise on the opportunity of a subsidised installation. Nevertheless, one would have expected the institutions with solar experience to be more positive towards the subsidy offer than the ones without a solar record. This shows that the ones with solar heaters on the roof were just fortunate enough to get the systems installed before the days of hyperinflation. Now they are all more or less in the same boat and far fewer than before are able to raise the capital to pay 50% of the total cost. all self all self Who paid for the solar 75% self - 25% donor Who paid for the solar 75% self - 25% donor 50% self - 50% donor water heating system 50% self - 50% donor water heating system 25% self - 75% donor 25% self - 75% donor all donor all donor 50 50 45 45 40 Percentage of responses 40 Percentage of responses 35 35 30 30 25 25 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 none 1 to 20 20 to 50 50 to 100 100 to 200 above 200 none 1 to 20 20 to 50 50 to 100 100 to 200 above 200 For how many people is your institution able/prepared to pay the full price of a For how many persons is your Institutions able/willing to pay 50 % of total solar water heating system cost of solar hot water system Fig.2.5m Fig.2.5n Does your SWH work to satisfaction YES NO NOT SURE Does your SWH work to satisfaction YES NO NOT SURE 35 35 30 30 Percentage of responses Percentage of responses 25 25 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 none 1 to 20 20 to 50 50 to 100 100 to 200 above 200 none 1 to 20 20 to 50 50 to 100 100 to 200 above 200 For how many people is your institution able/prepared to pay the full price of a solar water heating syste For how many persons is your Institutions able/willing to pay 50 % of total cost of solar hot water system Fig.2.5o Fig.2.5p Do you know how solar water heating systems work YES NO Do you know how solar water heating systems work YES NO 35 35 30 30 Percentage of responses Percentage of responses 25 25 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 none 1 to 20 20 to 50 50 to 100 100 to 200 above 200 none 1 to 20 20 to 50 50 to 100 100 to 200 above 200 For how many people is your institution able/prepared to pay the full price of For how many persons is your Institutions able/willing to pay 50 % of total solar water heating cost of solar hot water system Fig.2.5q Fig.2.5r • Almost half the institutions that have been given the solar systems for free in the past are not interested in more units, if they have to pay themselves this time. The offer of the investment cost being shared between them and a donor reduces the percentage of uninterested respondents to about a third. • There is an evident split within the group of owners of solar hot water systems. Where the existing ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 30 system is working to satisfaction the readiness to invest in subsidised solar water heaters is freer and easier than amongst the owners of malfunctioning solar units. • Knowing how the solar hot water systems work combined with the financial assistance from some donors raises the appetite for solar heated water. 2.6. SOURCE OF FUNDING FOR INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENTS The majority of headmasters of boarding schools, superintendents of hospitals and superiors of homes generally blame the decay of buildings and roads and the collapse of health and social services on lack of funds. In the past these institutions could call upon companies and farmers whenever they intended to renovate or add buildings. The same funders generously helped with money when the homes, hospitals or schools decided to upgrade their water heating equipment. The new farmers are far less generous. 2.6.1. Sources of funds for infrastructural development a) Institution-generated funds: Like schools, hospitals continuously receive part of their income through fees charged to pupils and patients. This used to be a reliable source of income the institutions could budget with. In the days of hyper-inflation when food prices can go up by one hundred percent in one week the fees have to be constantly raised - topped up - to cover the most urgent expenditures. As a consequence, there is little or no money left for maintenance or for new investments. This source of income is less available to the homes as they can not invoice the orphans, Where does funding come from destitutes and old people who only receive a paltry pension or no pension at all. The homes 45 are trying hard to promote income-generating 40 projects yet their main revenues come from local 35 Percentage of responses and foreign benefactors. 30 25 b) Central and local government: Rural 20 institutions tend to receive more funds from 15 central government than urban ones. At the most, 10 central and local government play a negligible 5 role in the funding of all three categories of 0 institutions. Even though most hospital staff and central government local government local community donors institution- generated teachers still get their salaries from the central Fig.2.6.1a government there are practically no resources available for acquiring a new water heating system or up-grading and maintaining an existing Where does funding come from central government local government one. local community donors c) Local community: According to the institution-generated study records, this is a body of people only the 25 educational sector in the rural areas can reckon Percentage of responses 20 on. Parents committees may decide to add an 15 extra percentage to the school fees in order to raise money for infrastructural improvements. In 10 days when many parents find themselves unable 5 to raise the base fee this option is reserved for 0 the better off schools. EDUCATIONAL HEALTH HOMES d) Donors: Both urban and rural institutions Type of institutions of all categories rely heavily on donations. Fig.2.6.1b Mission schools and homes have always counted on sponsors and benefactors. The majority of the Funding for institutions in rural and urban areas homes would not exist without donor funding as 25 they cannot expect any support from government 20 or from a local community. Also hospitals have to Percentage of responses increasingly turn to donors nowadays to be able to 15 give basic help to the patients. 10 To support this endeavour as shown by the charities, solar companies need to contact their 5 head offices and discuss ways of financing the purchase of solar water heaters for their old and 0 rural urban new projects. In many cases staff working in the central government local government local community donor-offices have very limited knowledge about donors institution-generated how solar water heaters work and what they can Fig. 2.6.1c be used for. A mix-up with solar lighting is quite ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 31 common. Donors are usually sympathetic towards long-term solutions to the water heating problem. This dependence makes short-term investments very difficult. Sales people will have to learn the vocabulary of the charity activists and accept the fact that there is virtually no sustained human aid in Zimbabwe except from religious groups. Faith-based groups plan more long-term and feel attached to their institutions and the people living there. Secular funders tend to jump from development programme to programme and quickly abandon failed projects. Reliance on the generosity of benefactors requires the institutions to have a good reputation for responsible spending of the money entrusted to them. 2.6.2. Degree of autonomy of the institutions and ability to make quick decisions When contemplating trips to distant institutions they have to give hope of substantial orders, because the contractors do not want to waste time and fuel. This issue is not only of enormous importance to traders and installers of solar water heating systems but also to donors. Some institutions take a very long time to consult all stakeholders and to make up their mind whether they want and whether they can afford a new water heating system. Many institutions are run by so-called Trusts and Boards which are constituted by persons from legal, financial, political and manufacturing sector. Even though these bodies meet regularly, it needs a chairman resolved to the acquisition of a solar hot water system to receive a quick decision of the board members. The following graphs provide some insight into how autonomous the institutions are - or claim to be - when it comes to deciding about an infrastructural improvement. Almost two thirds of all institutions interviewed consider themselves autonomous decision Time needed to get permission to use funds makers, most noticeably the homes. Reaching 70 a decision about the funding of a new water heating system would in most cases not take 60 longer than one month. This can be explained by Percentage of responses 50 the attitude of some well-organised owners and of their financial supporters that no valuable time 40 should be wasted on lengthy discussions. Funding 30 organisations quite often choose the recipients of 20 their donations by the capability of the institution to quickly and efficiently carry out aid projects 10 0 Less than 1 month 1 to 3 months 3 to 6 months 6 to 12 months Needs Central Government approval Degree of autonomy Needs Tender Board authority Need Local District Council authority Fig.2.6.2a Autonomous Other special authority 60 before they commit themselves to the fund- raising exercise. Quite often the founders and 50 owners of the homes are also the fund-raisers Percentage of responses 40 which helps to avoid conflicts of jurisdiction but 30 can create conflicts of interest. 20 Although considering itself to a high extent autonomous, the educational sector turns out 10 to be a very bureaucratic one. They have the 0 highest percentage of institutions where the Needs Central Government approval Degree of autonomy Needs Tender Board authority Fig.2.6.2b Need Local District Council authority Autonomous Other special authority decision making process may take up to one 50 year. Concerning the question of investments 45 Percentage of responses into infrastructure the large majority of the 40 35 schools regard themselves as self-governing, 30 i.e., free from interference by central or by local 25 20 government. Even if they wished to consult the 15 central or district administration, they would 10 not be able to do so due to frequent problems 5 0 with the telephone line. However, their freedom less than 1 month 1 to 3 months 3 to 6 months 6 to 12 months of making quick decisions is limited by the How long does it take to make decisions obligation to consult the parents committee or Fig.2.6.2c local authorities/communities. These bodies can ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 32 less than 1 month How long does it take How long does it take to invoke less than 1 month 1 to 3 months to make a decision the authority for use of funds 1 to 3 months 3 to 6 months 3 to 6 months 6 to 12 months 6 to 12 months 30 35 25 30 Percentage of responses Percentage of responses 20 25 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 EDUCATIONAL HEALTH HOMES 0 rural urban Type of institution Location of institution Fig.2.6.2d Fig.2.6.2e cause long holdups, because in many cases the parents committees only meet once per school term, i.e., every four months. A clear hierarchy and the ability to make swift decisions distinguishes the private hospitals from the health institutions run by the public sector. Were it not for the private hospitals the health sector would perform worse than the boarding schools in the “6 to 12 months” category. The public hospitals don’t appear in the study as no questionnaires were filled in by them. Being public institutions with a cumbersome command chain, these hospitals are not likely to excel as fast decision makers. ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 33 3. SUMMARY & RECOMMENDATIONS The team of interviewers went out to explore the hot water situation on the ground of the hospitals, homes and boarding schools. Long distances were travelled and many days, if not weeks, were spent talking to headmasters, deputies, workshop staff, principals, matrons, administrators, chairmen and chairwomen to get 107 questionnaires filled in. After entering the data into the computer the software package generated a vast amount of frequencies and cross-tabulations. The summary leads to the following conclusions: • Zimbabwe has over 500 institutions with an average of 120 beds/institution. The institutional sector in Zimbabwe has a potentially large market for solar water heating systems. • At 40 litres/bed and assuming that under optimal conditions 25% of the institutions will purchase SWHS, the total hot water storage installation required is 600,000 litres. • The corresponding area of solar collector can be estimated to be 12,000 m2 (9.4 MW) at 0.02 m2 collector area/litre of storage. • With an insolation level of 2000 kWh/m2/annum, and assuming an overall efficiency of 40%, and a solar fraction of 75%, an electricity saving of 7.7 GWh/annum is possible - equivalent to the continuous output of a 800 kW power station just in this small sector. • Due to increased demand, the majority of institutions need more heated water between instantly and the next five years. • Coal-fired and wood-fired boilers remain cold, because the fuel is difficult to come by. • Cold water for the heaters comes mainly from institution-owned boreholes and from water utilities. • More than 90 percent of the places visited are connected to electricity grid which facilitates the use of electric backup. The installation of forced-circulation solar systems is not advisable due to unreliable electricity supply unless the pump and control unit are backed up with a battery. • Most of the institutions use electric geyser for water heating which in many cases are useless in times of lengthy power failures. • Maintenance of water heating systems only practised at a few places. • Many electric geysers are out of order due to old age, or lack of spare parts or shortfall of money to buy the spare parts. • Knowledge about how solar systems work is quite wide spread in the country but grasp is rarely followed by implementation. • It has become apparent during the interviews that some respondents have unrealistically high expectations of solar water heaters. • Others have a very bad opinion due to their own or third party experience with low-efficiency and cheap installations. • The main source of information are the print and electronic media, followed by public conversation and advice provided by traders and manufacturers of solar components. • People value highest that “Solar energy is inexhaustible” and that “The sun does not send a bill”. The respondents are indifferent to the claim that “SWHs use clean energy” and don’t believe that “SWHs pay back quickly”. • Amongst the few disadvantages of solar water heating systems the high forward payment needed for the initial purchase is considered the most serious drawback. • A large majority regards the increased use of solar water heaters as wise but cannot afford the investment. • About 20 percent of the institutions can pride themselves on using solar water heaters even though not all units are in working condition. • The breakup of supply of electricity and combustible fuel will leave more institutions with no other choice but installing solar systems, if they want to carry on using hot water. ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 34 • The solar water heating systems were either donated to the institutions or paid with institution- generated funds. RECOMMENDATIONS The global use of SWHs is driven by the socio-economic need for job creation, environmental concerns, energy security, national economy and peak demand reduction. Good solar conditions on their own do not necessarily lead to a SWH market penetration or lower prices. For the sake of the highest national benefit, cost reduction and market penetration it is recommended that arguments of this nature should be put forward insistently to government, in order a) to remind them of their responsibility in the field of national energy security, b) to make clear that the main barriers of lacking awareness and higher initial costs are more readily overcome where national governments legislate supportive policies, such as -> removal of import duty for solar equipment; -> long-term budgets for subsidising the installation of SWHs in the institutional and residential, public and private sector; -> appeals to international finance or donor organisations for capital where public and private funds do not suffice, -> mandatory regulations in favour of solar water heating on all government buildings, in public and private houses, hospitals, schools and homes. Other recommended steps include: • Continuous training of local installation and maintenance companies in order to improve the quality of new installations and to set up the missing infrastructure for product back-up and maintenance. • The institutions themselves need to be educated about the financial and strategic benefits of using SHWS in place of grid electricity for hot water supply. This can be done through organising a workshop(s) for institution representatives, where the benefits of SHWS are discussed together with strategies for raising finance for SHWS. • Exhibitions of SHWS should be organised to showcase their applicability and potential for energy savings and reliable supply of hot water. • As it will become more and more difficult for the institutions to generate their own funds, they will have to increase their efforts and attract new donors willing to sponsor the installation of solar technology. • The traders and manufacturers will have to assist the institutions with technical advise and, in some cases, with connections to funding organisations. ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 35 ANNEX 1: SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE SOLAR ENERGY ZIMBABWE Conservation of the Business Capacity for Solar Water Heater Manufacturing and Installation in Zimbabwe Funded by the Austrian Development Agency Work Package Number 3: Targeted Market Development and Business Co- operation Survey Questionnaire Introduction Good morning/ afternoon. I am __________________________ a Researcher from the Development Technology Centre (DTC) of the University of Zimbabwe. We are in the process of conducting a study to obtain detailed knowledge about the demand of solar hot water systems in the institutional sector as well as about the economic, social and technical barriers, which hamper the installation of the systems. Your sincere response to this interview will contribute greatly to the success of this study and will enable the researchers to make representative inference of the study problem in question. Your answers to this interview will be kept confidential and you need not provide your name to the interviewer. The interview will take approximately 30 minutes. Thank you in advance for committing your time to participate in this interview. Interview Identification Date of interview _____/ ______/ ______ Day Month Year Interviewer Name ___________________________________ Interview Results (please circle number) 1 Completed 2 Incomplete 3 Refused Checked by Supervisor __________________________________________________ SECTION 1: SOCIO- DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION 101. Name and address of institution ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ 102. Location of institution: 1. Rural 2. Urban 103. Type of institution 1. Educational provider (boarding school, college etc) 2. Healthy provider (clinic, hospital, maternity home) 3. Rehabilitation Centre 4. Children Old people’s home 5. AIDS/ Orphan home 6. Other (specify)__________________________________________ SECTION 2: EXISTING AND INTENDED USAGE OF HOT WATER AT INSTITUION 201. Besides for cooking purpose, do you use hot water for any other socio-economic activities at the institution? 1. Yes everyday 2. Yes, sometimes 3. Never 202. For what purposes do you use (or would you use) hot/warm water at the institution? 1. bathing / showering 2. laundry 3. sterilization 4. Kitchen (dish washing) 5. Other purposes (specify)__________________________________ ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 36 203. How hot do you / would you prefer your water to be for different purposes? (Type an ’x’ in appropriate cell) Purpose Temperature Level at Which Water is Required Warm(37-45ºC) Hot(46-60ºC) Scalding (61-90ºC) Boiling(90-100ºC) Not Sure Bathing Laundry Sterilisation Kitchen(dish washing) 204. In which situations do you consider hot water a necessity at your institution? (type an “x “ in appropriate cell) Purpose Always Only on cold days Bathing and showering for everybody Laundry Sterilization Kitchen (dish washing) Bathing for old people, children or the sick 205 Number of beds in your institution 1. 1 to 10 2. 11 to 20 3. 21 to 50 4. 51 t0 100 5. 101 to 200 6. More 206 When does bathing mostly take place at your institution and how many percent have their bath within the given time intervals? Time of day % of people at your institution taking bath during this time Winter Summer 207. Would your institution require more hot water? 1. Yes 2. No 208. For what purpose would your institution need hot water? 1. To cater for increased demand in the future 2. To satisfy present demand 3. For both purposes 209. Are you planning to increase the hot water supply at your institution, and when? 1. Yes, almost immediately 2. Yes, in the next 1-5yrs 3. Yes after 5 years 4. No SECTION 3: HYDRAULIC AND OTHER INFRASTRUCTURE AT THE INSTITUTION 301. What is the source of water at your institution? 1. Borehole / deep well 2. Dam or river 3. Other specify____________________________ 302. Do you have a piped water system at your institution? 1. Yes 2. No 303. Are you connected to the electricity grid? 1. Yes 2 No ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 37 304. What type of water heating system do you have? 1. Electric geyser 2. Coal/ charcoal boilers 3. Firewood boilers 4. Open fire heating 5. Hybrid (combination of two or more systems) 6. Solar 7. Other (specify)____________________________ 305. What is the capacity (in litres) of your hot water storage tank (s)? 1. _____________________ 2. don’t know 306. Is your water heating system working? 1. Yes 2. Not all of it 3. No 307. If not, what are the reasons? 1. Broken down 2. Discontinued because of high fuel/ electricity cost 3. Discontinued because of high maintenance cost 4. Other reasons (specify) ______________________ 308. Do you have a maintenance workshop with qualified and experienced staff at your institution? 1. Yes 2. No SECTION 4: WATER HEATING OPERATING COSTS INCURRED BY INSTITUTION 401. Does your institution spend enough money per year on maintenance and repairs to keep the water heating system functioning? 1. Yes 2. Not enough 402. Which part of your water heating system experiences most frequent breakdowns? 1. Electrical heating element 2. Storage tank 3. Connecting pipe work 4. Other (specify)___________________________ 403. What was your electricity bill for the last month? $_____________________ per month 404. What fraction of the electricity do you think is due to water heating? 1 2 3 4 5 6 More than 80% 80% 50% 25% 10% Less than 10% SECTION 5: AWARENESS, USAGE, BENEFITS, PROBLEMS OF THE SOLAR HEATERS 501. Do you know how solar water heating systems work? 1. Yes 2. No 502. From whom have you heard about solar water heaters? 1. Newsprint, radio, TV, exhibitions, etc 2. Solar water heater manufactures, traders, etc 3. Public conversation 4. Other sources (specify)______________________ ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 38 503. Are you aware that solar water heaters can heat water to temperature levels, which you require at your institution? 1. Yes 2. No 504. Do you have a solar water heating system at your institution? 1. Yes 2. No 505. What type of solar water heating system? 1. Solar stand-alone (solar only) 2. Hybrid system (solar with electric back-up) 506. How many SWH units of the sizes listed have you got installed? 1. Up to 300 litres……………. 2. 300 to 500 litres…………… 3. 500 to 1000 litres………….. 4. 1000 to 2000 litres…………. 507. When were the SWHs installed? 1. Before 1980 2. 1980- 1989 3. 1990-2000 4. After 2000 508. Who paid for the SWH? 1. all self 2. 75% self – 25% donor 3. 50% self –50% donor 4. 25% self- 75% donor 5. all donor 509. Is the solar hot water system working to your satisfaction? 1. Yes 2. No 3. Not sure 510. Some of the advantages of solar water heaters when compared to electricity geysers or coal- fired boilers are listed in the table below. If you had to win over your boss to purchase a solar water heating system, which of the statements below would be most helpful and which less important? With your institution in mind, rank the advantages from 1 to 6(with 1 as the most preferred rank and 6 the lowest rank). Advantages Rank • solar energy is inexhaustible- the sun rises everyday • The sun does not send a bill • Solar water heaters have lower maintenance costs • Their energy source cannot be switched off under your nose by the power utility (ZESA say) • They use clean energy with no emissions to the environment • In sunny countries (like Zimbabwe) and electricity tariffs are high, they pay themselves back quickly 511. Some of the disadvantages of water solar water heaters are listed below. Assuming a sales person wants to talk you into purchasing a SWH, which of the statements below would describe your doubts about the benefits of SWHs best? With your institution in mind, rank the disadvantages from 1 to 3 (Rank 1 is the most serious disadvantage) Disadvantage Rank • For some few days in a year you might have no hot water supply because of continuous cloud cover • You need a high forward payment for the initial purchase of the solar water heating system • They need more space and surface area than the conventional electric geysers 512. Weighing the above advantages and disadvantages, do you think it is wise for your institution to switch to solar water heaters.? 1. yes 2. no 3. undecided ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 39 513. Which is the most serious barrier hampering your institution from using (increased use of) solar water heaters? 1. Lack of awareness of the financial and environmental benefits of using solar water heaters 2. Lack of capital to meet the high initial cost of solar water heaters 3. Unavailability of a local industry to manufacture and provide back up services 4. Lack of faith in the reliability of solar water heaters in delivering a consistent hot water supply given the intermittent nature of solar energy 5. Fear to change from the traditional and time- proven methods of heating water 514. What should be done at your institution or on a broader base that you can get the solar water heaters? 1. ………….. 2. ………….. SECTION 6 ABILITY/ WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR SOLAR WATER HEATER 601. Assuming the power cuts are getting longer and more frequent and the management of your institution is contemplating the acquisition of solar water heaters, for how many people (of number of beds, etc) is your institution prepared and able to pay for solar hot water ? The cost of purchasing and installing a solar water heater system at institutional level is estimated at $Z 20 million / capita. 1. None 2. 0 to 20 3. 20 to 50 4. 50 to 100 5. 100 to 200 6. Above 200 602. If the solar water heating systems are subsided to the tune of 50%, how many people will you be prepared to provide with solar heated water? 1. 0 2. 0 to 20 people 3. 20 to 50 people 4. 50 to 100 people 5. 100 to 200 people 6. Above 200 people 603. Where does funding for infrastructure development at your institution come from? 1. Central Government (e.g. PSIP) 2. Local government (e.g. district council) 3. Local community (e.g. school development committee) 4. Donors 5. Institution generated funds 6. Other (specify) _____________________________ 604. If your institution decides to switch to solar water heating, what degree of autonomy does it have in using funds to purchase the solar water heaters? 1. Needs Central Government approval through PSIP BIDS 2. Needs Tender Board authority 3. Needs local District Council Authority or parents board authority 4. Institution has autonomous authority to use funds 5. Needs other special authority (specify) ________________________ 605. Approximately how long does it take to invoke the authority for the use of funds? 1. Less than 1 month 2. 1 to 3 months 3. 3 to 6 months 4. 6 to 12 months ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 40 ANNEX 2: LIST OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL SOCIAL CARE INSTITUTIONS IN ZIMBABWE (SOURCE: NANGO - NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF NON- GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS) CHILDREN’S HOMES Name Location 1. Abandoned babies committee Harare 2. Africa Child in Hand Harare 3. All Souls mission children’s home Mutoko 4. Anna Bartono Centre Chinhoyi 5. Batsirai Group Beitbridge 6. Bezer Children’s Home Harare 7. Cheshire Children’s Home Harare 8. Children’s House Association Bulawayo 9. Chinhoyi Orphanage (Good Shepherd Centre) Chinhoyi 10. Chinyaradzo Children’s Home Harare 11. Chirinda Orphanage Chipinge 12. Chitenderano Homes Harare 13. Emerald Hill Children’s Home Harare 14. Fairfield Children’s Home Mutare 15. Forward in Faith Children’s Home Mutare 16. George Fleming House Harare 17. Harare Children’s Home Harare 18. Jairos Jiri Mukuwapasi Rusape 19. John Smale Bulawayo 20. Khayelihle Bulawayo 21. Makumbi Harare 22. Marist Camp Norton 23. Mathew Rusike Children’s Home Harare 24. Midlands Training Centre Gweru 25. Mother of Peace Orphanage Community Mutoko 26. Mt. Mulleray Mission Orphanage Nyanga 27. New Dawn Children’s Care Trust Harare 28. Pied Piper Chinhoyi 29. Queen Elizabeth Adventist Bulawayo 30. Robert Mugabe Children’s Home Mutare 31. Sacred Heart Convent Orphanage Rusape 32. Sharon Cohen Chitungwiza 33. Shearly Cripps Murewa 34. Shingirayi Trust Chinhoyi 35. SOS Children’s Village Harare 36. St Joseph House For Boys Harare 37. Thembiso Bulawayo 38. Tinotenda Help Centre Harare/ Bulawayo 39. Vimbai Nesu Zvimba 40. Westwood Cheshire Home for Disabled Harare 41. Zimbabwe Child Survival and Development Foundation Harare 42. Zimbabwe Children’s Home Harare OLD PEOPLE’S HOMES Name Location 1. Batanayi Gweru 2. Boggies Trust Gweru 3. Borradail Trust/Training Centre Marondera 4. Bulawayo Society for the adult blind Bulawayo 5. Chirinda Orphanage Harare 6. Chitenderano Homes Rusape 7. Darby and Joan Centre for the Aged Harare 8. Eastern Highlands Trust Mutare 9. Edith Duly Nursing Home Bulawayo 10. Ekhuphumuleni Geriatric Nursing Home Bulawayo 11. Entembeni Homes Society Bulawayo 12. Fairways Homes for Aged Persons Harare ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 41 13. Helpage Zimbabwe Harare 14. Ida Wekwako Old Aged Home Marondera 15. Jairos Jiri Association Masvingo 16. Jairos Jiri Association Bulawayo 17. Jairos Jiri Association Harare 18. Mt Pleasant Senior Citizen’s Trust Harare 19. Mutikizizi Old People’s Home Masvingo 20. National Organisation For Development of the Disadvantaged Harare 21. Society For The Destitute Aged Harare 22. The B.S Leon Trust Harare 23. Zororai Homes Society Mutare Rehabilitation Centres Name Location 1. Bulawayo Society for the Adult Blind Bulawayo 2. Dorothy Duncan Centre Harare 3. Jairos Jiri Association Harare 4. Jairos Jiri Association Bulawayo 5. Jairos Jiri Association Rusape 6. Jairos Jiri Association Masvingo 7. Masvingo Organisation For the rehabilitation of street children Masvingo 8. National Organisation for Development of the Disadvantaged Harare 9. Rukariro Rehabilitation Programme Mutare 10. St Giles Rehabilitation Centre Harare 11. Streets Ahead Harare 1.1.2. AIDS/ Orphan Homes Name Location 1. Child Protection Society Harare 2. Chitenderano Homes Rusape 3. Fairfield Children’s Homes Mutare 4. New Dawn Children’s Homes Harare 5. SOS Children’s Village Harare ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 42 ANNEX 3: LIST OF BOARDING SCHOOLS (SOURCE- MINISTRY OF EDUCATION SPORTS AND CULTURE.) Primary Boarding schools Region Prim_sec Opmode Name Phone 1. Harare 1 3 ST. CATHERINE SPEC. 746734 2. Harare 1 3 HIGHLANDS 496444-6 3. Harare 1 3 MOFFAT 771175 4. Harare 1 3 SELBORNE ROUTLEDGE 796438 5. Harare 1 3 ST. GILES 791139 6. Harare 1 3 CHISIPITE JUNIOR 495950 7. Harare 1 3 BISHOPSLEA 740523 8. Harare 1 3 LILFORDIA 9. Manicaland 1 3 CHENGETAI 020-67694 10. Manicaland 1 3 CHANCELLOR 020-61462 11. Manicaland 1 3 CHIPINGE 027-2229 12. Manicaland 1 3 MUTAMBARA CENTRAL 026-2751 13. Manicaland 1 3 HARTZELL 020-64733 14. Manicaland 1 3 NYAZURA 02583-3773 15. Manicaland 1 3 JOHN COWIE 025-2648 16. Manicaland 1 3 CHIMANIMANI 026-2230 17. Manicaland 1 3 MANZINDE NIL 18. Manicaland 1 3 HILLCREST PREPARATORY 020-63120 19. Manicaland 1 3 MVURACHENA 027-237424 20. Manicaland 1 3 HIGHVELD 025-3291 21. Mash 1 3 BINDURA 071-6655 Central 22. Mash 1 3 UMVUKWES 077-2402 Central 23. Mash 1 3 AMANDAS 075-62381/2 Central 24. Mash 1 3 TSAMVI 076-24585 Central 25. Mash 1 3 BARWICK 0756-225829 Central 26. Mash East 1 3 NHOWE C.P.S 078-2464 27. Mash East 1 3 BEATRICE GOVERNMENT 065 309 28. Mash East 1 3 MUREWA CENTRAL 078-22113/4 29. Mash East 1 3 NYADIRE 072-2802 30. Mash East 1 3 GODFREY HUGGINS 31. Mash East 1 3 CHEMHANZA 022-2274 32. Mash East 1 3 WADDILOVE 079-20261 ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 43 33. Mash East 1 3 MACHEKE GOVT. 079 341 34. Mash East 1 3 SPRINGVALE HOUSE 079-23598 35. Mash East 1 3 MAKUNDE 078 2273 36. Mash East 1 3 HOME PARK 0798-338 37. Mash East 1 3 TONGOGARA 38. Mash West 1 3 BANKET 2303-066 39. Mash West 1 3 DARWENDALE 069-351 40. Mash West 1 3 RUBATSIRO 068 23233 41. Mash West 1 3 DUDLEY HALL PRIMARY 062-2201-4 42. Mash West 1 3 HARTLEY 1 PRIMARY 053-2201 43. Mash West 1 3 KAROI PRIMARY 064-6369 44. Mash West 1 3 SINOIA 067-22308 45. Mash West 1 3 SIR JOHN KENEDY PRIMARY 068-22352 46. Mash West 1 3 RYDINGS 6329 (064) 47. Mash West 1 3 LOMAGUNDI COLLEGE 067-23223 48. Mash West 1 3 BRYDEN COUNTRY 0532301/2395 49. Masvingo 1 3 RATIDZO ZIMCARE 63579 50. Masvingo 1 3 VICTORIA PRIMARY 62833 51. Masvingo 1 3 BONDOLFI PRIMARY 7696 52. Masvingo 1 3 GOKOMERE C.P.S. 62319 53. Masvingo 1 3 EBENHAEZER PRIMARY 54. Masvingo 1 3 MURRAY MACDOUGALL 6234 55. Masvingo 1 3 MUTENDI 2409 56. Masvingo 1 3 HIPPO VALLEY 5151 OR 4146 57. Masvingo 1 3 KYLE PREPARATORY 64198 58. Mat North 1 3 SIR HUMPHREY GIBBS 09-70963 59. Mat North 1 3 ST FRANCIS 09-63411 60. Mat North 1 3 HILLSIDE 09-44179 61. Mat North 1 3 JOHN SLAVEN 09-44319 62. Mat North 1 3 KING GEORGE VI 09-60624 63. Mat North 1 3 WHITESTONE 09-44041 64. Mat South 1 3 USHER 083-367 65. Mat South 1 3 ST CHRISTOPHER’S 084-22421 66. Mat South 1 3 SACRED HEART 088-274 67. Mat South 1 3 PORTLAND 68. Midlands 1 3 JAIROS JIRI CENTRE 054-23741/2 69. Midlands 1 3 MUDAVANHU ZIMCARE 054 50457 ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 44 70. Midlands 1 3 MNENE 0518-3202 71. Midlands 1 3 DRIEFONTEIN 032-3004 72. Midlands 1 3 LOWER GWELO 154 24243 73. Midlands 1 3 MVUMA 032-523 74. Midlands 1 3 KWEKWE PRIMARY 055 22510 75. Midlands 1 3 SELUKWE 052-6343 76. Midlands 1 3 SOMABHULA 054 24594 77. Midlands 1 3 STANLEY 054 22423 78. Midlands 1 3 ANDERSON 054-21864 79. Midlands 1 3 MIDLANDS CHRISTIAN 054 24930 80. Midlands 1 3 GOLDRIDGE PRIMARY 055-23561 Prim_sec Name Phone Opmode 81. Harare 2 NYATSIME COLLEGE 070-24971 2 82. Harare 2 ARUNDEL HIGH 04 335654/7 3 83. Harare 2 EAGLESVALE SEC SCHOOL 664488/0 3 84. Harare 2 CHISIPITE SENIOR SCH. 04 490714/5 3 85. Harare 2 ST. GEORGES’ COLLEGE 724650 3 86. Harare 2 DANHIKO SEC SCHOOL 492382 3 87. Harare 2 EMERALD HILL FOR THE DEAF 339282 2 88. Harare 2 ALLAN WILSON HIGH 708080 3 89. Harare 2 CHURCHILL BOYS HIGH 747088/94 3 90. Harare 2 ELLIS ROBINS BOYS HIGH 302627/8 3 91. Harare 2 GIRLS HIGH 720546 3 92. Harare 2 MABELREIGN GIRLS HIGH 305171 3 93. Harare 2 MARLBOROUGH HG 309088/9 3 94. Harare 2 PRINCE EDWARD HIGH 792240 3 95. Harare 2 QUEEN ELIZABETH GIRLS 796430 3 96. Harare 2 F.D. ROOSEVELT GIRLS 747371 3 97. Manicaland 2 CHIKORE HIGH 027-233419 3 98. Manicaland 2 ST AUGUSTINE’S 020/222117 2 99. Manicaland 2 MUTAMBARA HIGH 026-2717 2 100. Manicaland 2 HARTZELL 020-64762 2 101. Manicaland 2 ST PATRICKS 026-2498 3 102. Manicaland 2 RATELSHOEK 027-2724 2 103. Manicaland 2 NYANGA HIGH 029-8-524 2 104. Manicaland 2 ST DAVID’S BONDA 029-2311 2 105. Manicaland 2 JERSEY 027-2592 2 106. Manicaland 2 MT SELINDA 027-4403 3 107. Manicaland 2 KRISTE MAMBO 029-2379 3 ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 45 108. Manicaland 2 REGINA COELI 0298-565 3 109. Manicaland 2 ST KILLIAN’S 02583-2793 3 110. Manicaland 2 ST BENEDICTS 02582-22861 3 111. Manicaland 2 EMMANUEL 0298-636 3 112. Manicaland 2 ST FAITH’S 025-3732 3 113. Manicaland 2 ST MARY MAGADALENE’S 0298-518 2 114. Manicaland 2 MAKUMBE 021-23501 3 115. Manicaland 2 NYAZURA 02583-581 2 116. Manicaland 2 RUSITU 026-25533 3 117. Manicaland 2 GIDEON MHLANGA 024-433 3 118. Manicaland 2 MARANGE HIGH 0204-23711 3 119. Manicaland 2 NYASHANU 021-2234 3 120. Manicaland 2 LYDIA CHIMONYO HIGH 026-2799 2 121. Manicaland 2 BIRIRI HIGH 026/2438 3 122. Manicaland 2 CHIBUWE 024-315 3 123. Manicaland 2 MUNYORO 020-82104 3 124. Manicaland 2 HILLCREST COLLEGE 020 61053 3 125. Manicaland 2 MUKAMBIRWA NIL 3 126. Manicaland 2 CHARLES LLWANGA 0262753 3 127. Manicaland 2 ST MATTHIAS TSONZO 028- 25881 3 128. Manicaland 2 MAVHUDZI 02583-344 3 129. Manicaland 2 MUTARE BOYS HIGH 020/62301 3 130. Manicaland 2 MUTARE GIRLS HIGH 020-62673 3 131. Mash 2 BRADLEY 076-2757/251 3 Central 132. Mash 2 MAVHURADONHA 076-2320 3 Central 133. Mash 2 RUYA ADVENTIST 076-2654 3 Central 134. Mash 2 MAZOWE HIGH 075-25603 2 Central 135. Mash 2 ST.ALBERTS 057-258 3 Central 136. Mash 2 HOWARD 0758-2517 3 Central 137. Mash 2 NYAMATIKITI 076-2693 3 Central 138. Mash 2 LANGHAM 077-2237 3 Central 139. Mash 2 ST.PHILIPS MAGWENYA 058-23157 3 Central 140. Mash 2 CHINDUNDUMA 076-2710 3 Central 141. Mash 2 CHIPINDURA 071-6856 3 Central 142. Mash 2 MUSHUMBI 058-295 3 Central 143. Mash 2 CHINDUNDUMA II 076-2727 3 Central 144. Mash East 2 ST PAULS MUSAMI 078-2051 3 145. Mash East 2 BERNARD MIZEKI 079/21181 2 146. Mash East 2 MONTE CASSINO GIRLS’ 07798-240 2 147. Mash East 2 ST IGNATIUS COLLEGE 04-499403-6 2 ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 46 148. Mash East 2 CHRIST THE KING DARAMOMBE 056-27402 3 149. Mash East 2 MUREWA HIGH 078-2113/4 3 150. Mash East 2 NYAMUZUWE HIGH 072-2700 3 151. Mash East 2 ST FRANCIS OF ASSISI 056-27603 2 152. Mash East 2 VISITATION MAKUMBI 04 883914 3 153. Mash East 2 ST ANNE’S GOTO 022 2947 3 154. Mash East 2 WADDILOVE HIGH 079-23611 2 155. Mash East 2 MT ST MARY’S NIL 3 156. Mash East 2 ST DOMINICS 04-499148 2 157. Mash East 2 NHOWE 078/2464 3 158. Mash East 2 KWENDA 022-422 2 159. Mash East 2 NAGLE HOUSE 079-23370 3 160. Mash East 2 PETERHOUSE 079-24951 3 161. Mash East 2 ST JOHNS 074-2758 3 162. Mash East 2 UZUMBA 078-2323 2 163. Mash East 2 MANDEDZA 070-21647 3 164. Mash East 2 NYADIRE 072-2490 3 165. Mash East 2 MUTOKO HIGH 072-2484 3 166. Mash East 2 ALL SOULS 2526 2 167. Mash East 2 NYAHUNI (MAKUNDE) 078-2276 3 168. Mash East 2 KUSHINGA NIL 2 169. Mash East 2 WATERSHED 079 23172 3 170. Mash East 2 BIMHA NIL 3 171. Mash East 2 CHEMHANZA 022 279 3 172. Mash East 2 GOROMONZI HIGH 074 2661/3 3 173. Mash East 2 MARONDERA HIGH 079-23680 3 174. Mash East 2 RUSUNUNGUKO SEC 073 22792 3 175. Mash west 2 KUTAMA COLLEGE 069 325 3 176. Mash west 2 SANDRINGHAM sec 062--3551 3 177. Mash west 2 NGEZI HIGH 056 24306 3 178. Mash west 2 MOLELI SEC 0628-44290 2 179. Mash west 2 SANYATI BAPTIST HIGH 068 346/6 3 180. Mash west 2 PRESBYTERIAN 065 3064 3 181. Mash west 2 ST MARK’S DIOCESAN SEC 053--27868 3 182. Mash west 2 NORTHCOT 04-308238 3 183. Mash west 2 CHIKANGWE 064 6532 3 184. Mash west 2 ST MICHAELS SEC 065 3360 3 185. Mash west 2 JAMESON HIGH 068 2331\6 3 186. Mash west 2 MSENGEZI SEC 0628--44259 2 187. Mash west 2 CHINHOYI HIGH 067 22372 3 188. Masvingo 2 ZIMUTO 039 7277 2 ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 47 189. Masvingo 2 GOKOMERE 63235 3 190. Masvingo 2 MUKARO 030/2709 3 191. Masvingo 2 CHINGOMBE II 030-25504 3 192. Masvingo 2 JICHIDZA 034 22453 3 193. Masvingo 2 CHIBI HIGH NIL 2 194. Masvingo 2 BEREJENA 036 464/2154 3 195. Masvingo 2 MARGARETHA HUGO 7263 2 196. Masvingo 2 LUNDI 036-412 3 197. Masvingo 2 GUTU HIGH 030-2444 3 198. Masvingo 2 DEWURE 030-2519 3 199. Masvingo 2 MASHOKO 034-22704 3 200. Masvingo 2 SILVEIRA 038-63057 2 201. Masvingo 2 ST ANTHONY’S HIGH 22358 2 202. Masvingo 2 PAMUSHANA 038-361 2 203. Masvingo 2 SERIMA 030- 8 252 3 204. Masvingo 2 MUTERO 030-2696 3 205. Masvingo 2 HEBRON PAMBE SEC NIL 3 206. Masvingo 2 SOUTH EASTERN COLLE 031/3187 3 207. Masvingo 2 MUTENDI 038 2400 3 208. Masvingo 2 SHAZHAUME(BUDIRIRAI) NIL 3 209. Masvingo 2 VICTORIA HIGH 62549 2 210. Masvingo 2 MWENEZI GOVT NIL 3 211. Masvingo 2 MALIPATI 014/2151 3 212. Masvingo 2 RIVERTON ACADEMY 63266 2 213. Mat north 2 INYATHI HIGH 085-217 3 214. Mat north 2 JOHN TALLACH SEC 085-343 3 215. Mat north 2 GLOAG SEC 085-2003 3 216. Mat north 2 REGINA MUNDI SEC 089-8-372 2 217. Mat north 2 ST.JAMES SEC 087-354 2 218. Mat north 2 D. LIVINGSTONE SEC 03611 3 219. Mat north 2 MARIST BROTHERS SEC 018-2701 2 220. Mat north 2 KING GEORGE VI SEC 09-60624 3 221. Mat north 2 T/HLABANGANA SEC 09-43487 3 222. Mat north 2 HLANGABEZA SEC 055-8-321 3 223. Mat north 2 TSHOLOTSHO HIGH 087-8-208 2 224. Mat north 2 GIRLS COLLEGE HIGH 09-78118 3 225. Mat north 2 BINGA SEC 015-330 3 226. Mat north 2 GEORGE SILUNDIKA SEC 087-389 2 227. Mat north 2 EVELINE HIGH 09-60562 3 228. Mat north 2 FATIMA HIGH 089-244 3 229. Mat north 2 FOUNDERS HIGH 09-463012 3 ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 48 230. Mat north 2 GIFFORD HIGH 09-68244 3 231. Mat north 2 LUVEVE SEC 09-531124 3 232. Mat north 2 MILTON HIGH 09-251582/3 3 233. Mat north 2 NORTHLEA HIGH 09-69241 3 234. Mat north 2 TOWNSEND HIGH 09-43375 3 235. Mat south 2 MATOPO 0838 274/279 3 236. Mat south 2 THEKWANI HIGH 019-2456 3 237. Mat south 2 CYRENE 083-336/214 3 238. Mat south 2 WANEZI 017-432 3 239. Mat south 2 USHER 083-353 3 240. Mat south 2 DOMBODEMA NIL 3 241. Mat south 2 MANAMA HIGH 084 / 3264 3 242. Mat south 2 SOLUSI ADVENTIST 083-305/264 3 243. Mat south 2 FALCON COLLEGE 088-331/2 2 244. Mat south 2 EKUSILENI NIL 3 245. Mat south 2 MINDA SECONDARY 082-234 3 246. Mat south 2 ZEZANI 016-3506 3 247. Mat south 2 J Z MOYO HIGH NIL 2 248. Mat south 2 MZINGWANE 088-352 3 249. Mat south 2 PLUMTREE HIGH 019-2484 3 250. Mat south 2 TONGWE GOVT 086-2281 3 251. Midlands 2 CHEGATO 151-7-2302 3 252. Midlands 2 DADAYA 051-2303 2 253. Midlands 2 HAMA 130-8-213 3 254. Midlands 2 CHIKWINGWIZHA 054-27121 2 255. Midlands 2 LOWER GWELO 54-24243 3 256. Midlands 2 RIO TINTO ZHOMBE 055-20068 3 257. Midlands 2 LORETO 558-381/2302 3 258. Midlands 2 MASASE 016 - 4601 3 259. Midlands 2 MUSUME 151-364 3 260. Midlands 2 ST PATRICKS 54-32806 3 261. Midlands 2 ANDERSON SEC 54-23424 3 262. Midlands 2 HANKE 052-642515 3 263. Midlands 2 SHUNGU 055-30112 2 264. Midlands 2 PAKAME 052-64116 2 265. Midlands 2 MIDLANDS CHRISTIAN COLLEG 054-23153/24 3 266. Midlands 2 MNENE 051-3204 3 267. Midlands 2 KUBATANA NIL 3 268. Midlands 2 CHAPLIN 54-22050 3 269. Midlands 2 FLETCHER 054-60034 3 270. Midlands 2 NASHVILLE 54-24330 3 ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 49 271. Midlands 2 NKULULEKO 55-34006 3 272. Midlands 2 KWEKWE 055-23301 3 273. Midlands 2 THORNHILL 54-23961/2 3 274. Midlands 2 TONGOGARA 052-6295 3 275. Midlands 2 ZHOMBA NIL 3 276. Midlands 2 GUINEA FOWL 23992,25893, 3 277. Midlands 2 DAMBUDZO 051-255321 3 278. Midlands 2 GOLDRIDGE COLLEGE 21353/63 3 ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 50 ANNEX 4: LIST OF PRIVATE HOSPITALS AS PRESENTED BY ZIMBABWE ASSOCIATION OF CHURCH RELATED HOSPITALS (ZACH) Name Location 1. Adventist Dental Practice(SDA) Bulawayo 2. Adventist Orthodontic Clinic(SDA) Highlands 3. Arnordine 4. Arnoldine Clinic Headlands 5. Avilia Hospital Nyanga 6. Bazha Clinic Figtree 7. Berejena Masvingo 8. Bonda Mutare 9. Bondolfi Masvingo 10. Bumhudzo Chitungwiza 11. Chibi Nyaningwe 12. Chidamoyo Karoi 13. Chikombedzi Chiredzi 14. Chikore Chipinge 15. Chikwariro Mutare 16. Chikwingwizha Gwere 17. Chikwizo Mutoko 18. Chindenga Rusape 19. Chinyadza Gokwe 20. Chireya Gokwe 21. Chitora Mutare 22. Chitsungo Guruve 23. Damarakanaka Nyika 24. Daramombe Chivhu 25. Denda Kadoma 26. Dendera Mutoko 27. Dindi Mutoko 28. Driefontein Sanatorium mvuma 29. Elim Nyanga 30. Embakwe Nyanga 31. Empandeni Plumtree 32. Gandachibvura Chivhu 33. Epworth Harare 34. Gatsi Hauna 35. Gokomere Masvingo 36. Goredema Kadoma 37. Gutu Gutu 38. Gwenzi Selinda 39. Hanke Shurugwi 40. Holy Cross Mvuma 41. Honde Clinic Mutare 42. Howard Howard 43. Hwange Hwange 44. Jichidza Masvingo 45. Kamativi Jichidza ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 51 46. Kamativi Masvingo 47. Karanda Mt Darwin 48. Kariyangwe Binga 49. Lower Gweru Gweru 50. Luisa Guidotti Mutoko 51. Lukunkuli Hwange 52. Lundi Masvingo 53. Makonde Mhangura 54. Manama Gwanda 55. Manyoni Kadoma 56. Maranda Mwenezi 57. Mary Mount Mt Darwin 58. Masase Mberengwa 59. Mashoko Nyika 60. Mateme Gweru 61. Mater Dei Bulawayo 62. Matibi Masvingo 63. Matopo Bulawayo 64. Mbuma Bulawayo 65. Mnene Mberengwa 66. Morgenster Masvingo 67. Mt Melleray Nyanga 68. Mt St Mary’s Wedza 69. Mt Selinda Chipinge 70. Mtanke Kadoma 71. Mtora Nembudziya 72. Mtshabezi Gwanda 73. Mukaro Gutu 74. Murambinda Murambinda 75. Musiso Jerera 76. Musume Mataga 77. Mutambara Nhedziwa 78. Mutero Gutu 79. Mavonde Mvuma 80. Mwerahari Chivhu 81. Nenguva Kadoma 82. Nhowe Macheke 83. Nyadire Mutoko 84. Nyahuku Mutare 85. Nyangombe Mutare 86. Nyashanu Buhera 87. Nyazura Nyazura 88. Fr O’Hea Mem. Murombedzi 89. Old Mutare Mutare 90. Pakame Shurugwi 91. Phumula Bulawayo 92. Regina Coeli Juliasdale 93. Rusitu Rusitu 94. St Albert Centenary 95. St Andrews Avondale ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 52 96. St Anne Harare 97. St Anne Bulawayo 98. St Augustine Mutare 99. St Babra Rusape 100. St James Nyamandlovu 100. St Joseph Maphisa 101. St Joseph Kezi 102. St Joseph Harare 103. St Luke Bulawayo 104. St Michael Beatrice 105. St Michael Rusape 106. St Patrick Gweru 107. St Patrick Hwange 108. St Paul (Musami) Harare 109. St Peters (Chisu) Checheche 110. St Peters (Mandea) Mutare 111. St Rupert Chinhoyi 112. St Theresa (Chiru) Charandura 113. St Therese (Chiduku) Rusape 114. Sanyati Kadoma 115. Serima Chatsworth 116. Sessami Gokwe 117. Shonganiso Masvingo 118. Silveria Nyika 119. Solusi Bulawayo 120. Triashill Rusape 121. Tshelanyemba Maphisa 122. United Methodist Dent Harare 123. Wanezi Bulawayo 124. Zhombe Kwekwe 125. Zimuto Masvingo ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 53 ANNEX 5: GOVERNEMENT HOSPITALS GOVERNEMENT DISTRICT HOSPITALS 1. Kwekwe 2. Gokwe 3. Zvishavane 4. Shurugwi 5. Mberengwa 6. Concession 7. Guruve 8. Plumtree 9. Beitbridge 10. Victoria Falls 11. Tsholotho 12. Chivi 13. Chiredzi 14. Mwenezi 15. Gutu 16. Chipinge 17. Rusape 18. Murehwa 19. Kotwa 20. Chihota 21. Karoi 22. Chegutu 23. Kadoma CENTRAL HOSPITALS 24. Harare Central Harare 25. Parerenyatwa Harare 26. Chitungwiza Chitungwiza 27. Mpilo Bulawayo 28. United Bulawayo Bulawayo 29. Bulawayo Central Bulawayo PROVINCIAL HOSPITAL 30. Gweru Hospital Gweru 31. Bindura Bindura 32. Mutare Mutare 33. Marondera Marondera 34. Chinhoyi Chinhoyi 35. Gwanda Gwanda 36. Masvingo Masvingo ZimSun Market Survey (2006 - 2007) - Page 54