英语语言学.ppt

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					    A Course on
  Linguistics for
Students of English
          Zhou Changming
Dept. of Foreign Languages, SHUPL
           The Goals for this Course

   To get a scientific view on language;
   To understand some basic theories on linguistics;
   To understand the applications of the linguistic
    theories, especially in the fields of language
    teaching & learning (SLA or TEFL), cross-cultural
    communication……;
   To prepare for the future research work.
       The Requirements for this course

   Class attendance
   Classroom discussion
   Fulfillment of the assignment
   Examination
                   Reference Books
   戴炜栋,何兆熊,(2002),《新编简明英语语言学教程》,上
    海外语教育出版社。

   胡壮麟,(2001),《语言学教程》,北京大学出版社。

   刘润清,(1995),《西方语言学流派》,外语教学与研究出版
    社。

   Fromkin,V. & R. Rodman, (1998), An Introduction to Language the
    sixth edition, Orlando, Florida: Holt, Ranehart & Winston, Inc.
Chapter 1. Introduction
          1. What is linguistics?
----Linguistics is the scientific study of language.

----A person who studies linguistics is known as
   a linguist.
    Four principles of linguistic studies

   Exhaustiveness/adequacy

   Consistency

   Economy

   Objectivity
     The scope or major branches of linguistics

    Theoretical linguistics
1.   Phonetics
2.   Phonology
3.   Morphology
4.   Syntax
5.   Semantics
    Use of linguistics
1.   Applied linguistics
2.   Sociolinguistics
3.   Psycholinguistics
     ……
           Theoretical linguistics

   Phonetics----speech sound (description, classification,
    transcription): articulatory phonetics, acoustic phonetics,
    auditory phonetics.
   Phonology----sound patterns of languages
   Morphology----the form of words
   Syntax----the rules governing the combination of words into
    sentence.
   Semantics----the meaning of language (when the meaning
    of language is conducted in the context of language use----
    Pragmatics)
              Use of linguistics
   Applied linguistics----linguistics and language
    teaching

   Sociolinguistics---- social factors (e.g. class,
    education) affect language use

   Psycholinguistics----linguistic behavior and
    psychological process

   Stylistics----linguistic and literature
        Some other applications

   Anthropological linguistics

   Neurolinguistics

   Computational linguistics (e.g. machine
    translation)
Some important distinctions in linguistics
         Descriptive vs prescriptive

   Descriptive ---- describe/analyze linguistic facts
    observed or language people actually use (modern
    linguistic)

   Prescriptive ----lay down rules for “correct”
    linguistic behavior in using language (traditional
    grammar)
          Synchronic vs diachronic
   Synchronic study----
    description of a
    language at some point
    of time (modern
    linguistics)
   Diachronic study----
    description of a
    language through time
    (historical development
    of language over a
    period of time)
               Speech vs writing

   Speech ---- primary medium of language

   Writing ---- later developed
       Langue vs parole (F. de Saussure)

   Langue ---- the abstract linguistic system shared by all
    members of the speech community.

   Parole ---- the realization of langue in actual use.

   Saussure takes a sociological view of language and his
    notion of langue is a matter of social conventions.
    Competence and performance (Chomsky)
   Competence ---- the ideal user’s knowledge of the
    rules of his language

   Performance ---- the actual realization of this
    knowledge in linguistic communication

   Chomsky looks at language from a psychological
    point of view and to him competence is a property of
    the mind of each individual.
    Traditional grammar vs modern linguistics

   Traditional grammar ---- prescriptive, written,
    Latin-based framework

   Modern linguistics ----- descriptive, spoken,
    not necessarily Latin-based framework
2. What is language?
       Language can mean
   what a person says (e.g. bad language, expressions)
   the way of speaking or writing (e.g. Shakespeare’s language,
    Luxun’s language)
   a particular variety or level of speech or writing (e.g.
    language for special purpose, colloquial language)
   the abstract system underlying the totality of the
    speech/writing behavior of a community (e.g. Chinese
    language, first language)
   the common features of all human languages (e.g. He
    studies language)
   a tool for human communication. (social function)
    a set of rules. (rule-governed)
           Sapir’s definition (1921)

   “Language is a purely human and non-instinctive
    method of communicating ideas, emotions and
    desires by means of voluntarily produced symbols.”
           Hall’s definition (1968)

   Language is “the institution whereby humans
    communicate and interact with each other by
    means of habitually used oral-auditory
    arbitrary symbols.”
        Chomsky’s definition (1957)

   “From now on I will consider language to be a set
    of (finite or infinite) sentences, each finite in
    length and constructed out of a finite set of
    elements.”
Language can be generally defined as

a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for
  human communication.
             Language is a system
   Systematic---- rule-governed, elements in it are
    arranged according to certain rules; can’t be
    combined at will. e.g. *bkli, *I apple eat.
          Language is arbitrary

   Arbitrary---- no intrinsic connection between the
    word and the thing it denotes, e.g. “pen” by any
    other name is the thing we use to write with.
     Language is symbolic in nature
   Symbolic---- words are associated with objects,
    actions ideas by convention. “A rose by any other
    name would smell as sweet”----Shakespeare
         Language is primarily vocal

   Vocal---- the primary medium is sound for all
    languages; writing system came much later
    than spoken form.
        Language is human-specific

   Human-specific---- different from the
    communication systems other forms of life
    possess, e.g. bird songs, bee dance, animal
    cries.
     The design/defining features of human
          language (Charles Hockett)

•   Arbitrariness
•   Productivity/Creativity
•   Duality
•   Displacement
•   Cultural transmission
                       Arbitrariness
    ----No logical (motivated or intrinsic) connection between
        sounds and meanings.

      Onomatopoeic words (which imitate natural sounds) are
       somewhat motivated ( English: rumble, crackle, bang, ….
       Chinese: putong, shasha, dingdang… )

      Some compound words are not entirely arbitrary, e.g.
       type-writer, shoe-maker, air-conditioner, photocopy…
              Productivity/creativity
    ----Peculiar to human languages,users of language can understand and
        produce sentences they have never heard before, e.g. we can
        understand sentence like “ A red-eyed elephant is dancing on the
        hotel bed”, though it does not describe a common happening in the
        world.

      A gibbon call system is not productive for gibbon draw all their
       calls from a fixed repertoire which is rapidly exhausted, making any
       novelty impossible.

      The bee dance does have a limited productivity, as it is used to
       communicate about food sources in any direction. But food sources
       are the only kind of messages that can be sent through the bee dance;
       bees do not “talk” about themselves, the hives, or wind, let alone
       about people, animals, hopes or desires
          Duality (double articulation)
   Lower level----sounds (meaningless)
   Higher level----meaning (larger units of meaning)
   A communication system with duality is considered more
    flexible than one without it, for a far greater number of
    messages can be sent. A small number of sounds can be
    grouped and regrouped into a large number of units of
    meaning (words), and the units of meaning can be arranged
    and rearranged into an infinite number of sentences. (we
    make dictionary of a language, but we cannot make a
    dictionary of sentences of that language.
          Displacement
 ----Language can be used to refer to things, which are not present: real
    or imagined matters in the past, present or future, or in far-away
    places.
 A gibbon never utters a call about something he ate last year

 There is something special about the bee dance though. Bees
    communicate with other bees about the food sources they have found
    when they are no longer in the presence of the food. In this sense, the
    bee dance has a component of displacement. But this component is
    very insignificant. For the bees must communicate about the food
    immediately on returning to the hive. They do not dance about the
    food they discovered last month nor do they speculate about future
    discoveries.
                 Cultural transmission
----Language is culturally transmitted (through teaching and learning;
   rather than by instinct).

   Animal call systems are genetically transmitted. All cats, gibbons and
    bees have systems which are almost identical to those of all other cats,
    gibbons and bees.

   A Chinese speaker and an English speaker are not mutually
    intelligible. This shows that language is culturally transmitted. That is,
    it is pass on from one generation to the next by teaching and learning,
    rather than by instinct.

   The story of a wolf child, a pig child shows that a human being
    brought up in isolation simply does not acquire human language.
               Functions of language
   Phatic: establishing an atmosphere or maintaining social
    contact.
   Directive: get the hearer to do something.
   Informative: give information about facts.
   Interrogative: get information from others.
   Expressive: express feelings and attitudes of the speaker.
   Evocative: create certain feelings in the hearer (amuse,
    startle, soothe, worry or please)
   Performative: language is used to do things, to perform
    actions.
              The origin of language

   The divine-origin theory---- Language is a gift of God
    to mankind.

   The invention theory---- imitative, cries of nature, the
    grunts of men working together.

   The evolutionary theory---- the result of physical and
    psychological development.
许国璋先生认为把语言定义成交际工具不够科学,至少不够严谨.
  他对语言的定义做了如下概括:语言是一种符号系统.


   当它作用于人与人之间的关系的时候,它是表达
    相互反应的中介;

   当它作用于人与客观世界的关系的时候,它是认
    知事物的工具;

   当它作用于文化的时候,它是文化的载体.
            Chapter 2 Phonology

   Language is primarily vocal. The primary
    medium of human language is sound. Linguists
    are not interested in all sounds, but in speech
    sounds----sounds that convey meaning in human
    communication.
                  Phonetics

----A branch of linguistics which studies the
characteristics of speech sounds and provides
methods for their description, classification and
transcription, e.g. [p] bilabial, stop.
        Three branches of phonetics
   Articulatory phonetics----from the speakers’ point of view,
    “how speakers produce speech sounds”

   Auditory phonetics----from the hearers’ point of view, “how
    sounds are perceived”

   Acoustic phonetics----from the physical way or means by
    which sounds are transmitted from one to another.
    Articulatory phonetics

■ It has the longest history. It studies the
sounds from the speaker’s point of view,
i.e. how a speaker uses his speech organ
to articulate the sounds.
        Acoustic phonetics

■ It tries to describe the physical
properties of the stream of sounds which
a speaker issues.

■Spectrograph (频谱仪):to record
sound waves
    Speech organs: three important areas

•Pharyngeal cavity (咽腔)---- the throat;


•The oral cavity(口腔) ---- the mouth;


•Nasal cavity (鼻腔)---- the nose.
       The diagram of speech organs
1.    Lips
2.    Teeth
3.    Teeth ridge (alveolar)
4.    Hard palate
5.    Soft palate (velum)
6.    Uvula
7.    Tip of tongue
8.    Blade of tongue
9.    Back of tongue
10.   Vocal cords
11.   Pharyngeal cavity
12.   Nasal cavity
       Orthographic representation of speech sounds

---- A standardized and internationally accepted system of phonetic
   transcription is the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). The basic
   principle of the IPA is using one letter to represent one speech sound.

   Broad transcription ---- used in dictionary and textbook for general
    purpose, without diacritics, e.g. clear [ l ] [ pit ]

   Narrow transcription ---- used by phonetician for careful study, with
    diacritics, e.g. dark [ l ], aspirated [ p ]
     Some major articulatory variables

    ---- dimensions on which speech sounds may vary:

   Voicing---- voiced & voiceless

   Nasality ---- nasal & non-nasal

   Aspiration ----- aspirated & unaspirated
 Classification of English speech sounds
---- English speech sounds are generally classified into two
   large categories:
 Vowels

 Consonants



 Note: The essential difference between these two classes
 is that in the production of the former the airstream meets
 with no obstruction of any kind in the throat, the nose or
 the mouth, while in that of the latter it is somehow
 obstructed.
“Vowels are modifications of the voice-sound
that involve no closure, friction, or contact of
       the tongue or lips ( Bloomfield )

    A vowel is defined as a voiced sound in
 forming which the air issues in a continuous
stream through the pharynx and mouth, there
      being no audible friction.” (Jones)
       Classification of consonants

---- English consonants may be classified
   according to two dimensions:

   The manner of articulation

   The place of articulation
              The manner of articulation
   stops/plosives(闭塞音): [p], [b], [t], [d], [k], [g];

   Fricatives(摩擦音): [f] [v], [s], [z], [], [З], [], [ð], [h];

   Affricates(塞擦音): [t ], [d З];

   Liquids(流音): [l](lateral), [r];

   Nasals(鼻音): [m], [n], [];

   glides/semivowels(滑音): [w], [ j].
            The place of articulation
   Bilabial(双唇音): [p], [b], [m], [w];
   Labiodental(唇齿音): [f], [v];
   Dental(齿音): [], [ð],
   Alveolar(齿龈音): [t], [d], [s], [z], [n], [l], [r];
   Palatal(腭音): [], [З], [t ], [d З], [j];
   Velar(软腭音): [k], [g], [];
   Glottal(喉音): [h].
        The place of articulation
1.   Bilabial;
2.   Labiodental;
3.   Dental or
     interdental;
4.   Alveolar;
5.   Palatoalveolar;
6.   Palatal;
7.   Velar;
8.   Uvular;
9.   Glottal.
     The description of English consonants
 Place     Voic-   Bila-   Labio-            Alveo-
                                    Dental              Palatal   Velar   Glottal
manner      ing    bial    dental              lar

Stops or   VL      [p]                        [t]                 [k]
plosives   VD      [b]                        [d]                 [g]

 Frica-    VL               [f       []      [s]        [∫]               [h]
 tives     VD              [v]       [ð]      [z]       []
 Affri-    VL                                ([t∫] )     [t∫]
 cates     VD                                 (dЗ)      [dЗ]
Nasals     VD      [m]                         [n]                [   ]
Liquids    VD                                [l], [r]
Glides     VD      [w]                                   [j ]
         Classification of vowels

    ---- English vowels can be divided into two
    large categories:

   Monophthongs or pure/single vowels

   Diphthongs or gliding vowels
     Monophthongs or pure/single vowels
----According to which part of the tongue is held highest
   in the process of production, the vowels can be
   distinguished as:

   front vowels: [i: ], [i], [e] [æ] [a]

   central vowels: [     ], [     ], [     ];

   back vowels: [      ], [     ], [     ], [   ], [   ].
According to the openness of the mouth

   Close: [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ].

   Semi-close: [ ], [ ];

   Semi-open: [ ], [ ];

   Open: [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ];
The diagram of single vowel classification by
 applying the two criteria so far mentioned:
     According to the shape of the lips or
         the degree of lip rounding


   rounded: [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ];

   unrounded: [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ],
    [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ].
     According to the length of the vowels


   long: [ ], [    ], [   ], [ ], [ ]

   short: [ ], [    ], [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ],
    [ ], [ ].
        Diphthongs/gliding vowels

   [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ], [ ].
Exercises: underline the words that begin with a sound
                      as required.
   A bilabial consonant: mad sad bad cad pad had lad
   A velar consonant: nod god cod pod rod
   Labiodental consonant: rat fat sat mat chat vat pat
   An alveolar consonant: nick lick sick tick kick quick
   A palato-alveolar consonant: sip ship tip chip lip zip
   A dental consonant: lie buy thigh thy tie rye
   A glide: one war yolk rush
Underline the words that end with a sound as required:

 A fricative
  pay horse tough rice breath push sing wreathe hang
  cave message
 A nasal

  train bang leaf limb
 A stop

  drill pipe fit crab fog ride laugh rack through
  tip
 An affricate: rack such ridge booze
    Underline the words that contain the sound as
                     required:
 A central vowel:
  mad lot but boot word
 A front vowel:

  reed pad load fate bit bed cook
 A rounded vowel:

  who he bus her hit true boss bar walk
 A back vowel:

  paid reap fool top good father
 Describe the underlined consonants
   according to three dimensions:
          vd/vl   place   manner
Letter
Brother
Sunny
Hopper
Itching
Lodger
Calling
Singing
Robber
either
                  Phonology

   Phonology studies the patterning of speech
    sounds, that is, the ways in which speech
    sounds form systems and patterns in
    human languages.
                Phonetics & phonology

   Both are concerned with the same aspect of language----the speech
    sounds. But they differ in their approach and focus.

   Phonetics is of general nature; it is interested in all the speech sounds
    used in all human languages; it aims to answer questions like: how
    they are produced, how they differ from each other, what phonetic
    features they have, how they can be classified, etc.

   Phonology aims to discover how speech sounds in a language form
    patterns and how these sounds are used to convey meaning in
    linguistic communication.
Phone, phoneme, allophone
                        Phone

   A phone---- a phonetic unit or segment. The speech
    sounds we hear and produce during linguistic
    communication are all phones. Phones do not
    necessarily distinguish meaning, some do, some
    don’t, e.g. [ ] & [ ], [ ] & [ ].
                      Phoneme

   A phoneme---- is a phonological unit; it is a unit
    of distinctive value; an abstract unit, not a
    particular sound, but it is represented by a certain
    phone in certain phonetic context, e.g. the
    phoneme /p/ can be represented differently in [p
    t], [t p] and [sp t].
                      Allophone

   Allophones ---- the phones that can represent a phoneme
    in different phonetic environments.
Phonemic contrast, complementary
  distribution and minimal pair.
               Phonemic contrast

   Phonemic contrast----different or distinctive
    phonemes are in phonemic contrast, e.g.
    /b/ and /p/ in [ bIt ] and [pIt].
          Complementary distribution

   Complementary distribution----allophones of the same
    phoneme are in complementary distribution. They do not
    distinguish meaning. They occur in different phonetic
    contexts, e.g.
    dark [l] & clear [l], aspirated [p] & unaspirated [p].
                     Minimal pair

   Minimal pair----when two different forms are identical
    (the same) in every way except for one sound segment
    which occurs in the same place in the strings, the two
    sound combinations are said to form a minimal pair, e.g.
    beat, bit, bet, bat, boot, but, bait, bite, boat.
         Some rules of phonology

   Sequential rules

   Assimilation rule

   Deletion rule
                    Sequential rules

   Sequential rules ---- the rules that govern the
    combination of sounds in a particular language, e.g. in
    English, “k b i I” might possibly form blik, klib, bilk,
    kilb.

   If a word begins with a [l] or a [r], then the next sound
    must be a vowel.
                    Sequential rules

   If three consonants should cluster together at the beginning
    of a word, the combination should obey the following three
    rules, e.g. spring, strict, square, splendid, scream.
    a) the first phoneme must be /s/,
    b) the second phoneme must be /p/ or /t/ or /k/,
    c) the third phoneme must be /l/ or /r/ or /w/.
    * [ N ] never occurs in initial position in English and
    standard Chinese,but it does occur in some dialects, e.g. in
    Cantonese: “牛肉,我, 俄语……”
                Assimilation rule

   Assimilation rule----assimilates one sound to
    another by “copying” a feature of a sequential
    phoneme, thus making the two phones similar, e.g.
    the prefix in is pronounced differently when in
    different phonetic contexts:
   indiscreet           alveolar [In]
   inconceivable        velar [IN ]
   input                bilabial [Im]
        Assimilation in Mandarin

 好啊   hao wa
 海啊   hai ya
 看啊   kan na
 唱啊   chang Na
 跳啊   tiao wa
  ……
                    Deletion rule

   Deletion rule---- it tells us when a sound is to be
    deleted although it is orthographically represented,
    e.g. design, paradigm, there is no [g] sound; but the
    [g] sound is pronounced in their corresponding
    forms signature, designation, paradigmatic.
             Suprasegmental features

   Suprasegmental features----the phonemic features
    that occur above the level of the segments ( larger
    than phoneme):

   stress

   tone

   intonation
        Syllable (what is syllable?)
   Ancient Greek: a unit of speech sound consisting of a vowel
    or a vowel with one or more than one consonant.
   Dictionary: word or part of a word which contains a vowel
    sound or consonant acting as a vowel.
   a combination or set of one or more units of sound in a
    language that must consist of a sonorous(响亮的)element (a
    sonant (浊音的; 成(音)节的) or vowel) and may or may not
    contain less sonorous elements (consonants or semivowels)
    flanking it on either or both sides: for example ``paper'' has
    two syllables See open See closed ”.
                  Stress

   Word stress

   Sentence stress
                    Word stress
   The location of stress in English distinguishes meaning,
    e.g. a shift in stress in English may change the part of
    speech of a word:
    verb: im5port; in5crease; re5bel; re5cord …
    noun: 5import; 5increase; 5rebel; 5record …
                     Word stress
   Similar alteration of stress also occurs between a compound
    noun and a phrase consisting of the same elements:
    compound: 5blackbird; 5greenhouse; 5hotdog…
    noun phrase: black 5bird; green 5house; hot 5dog…
                     Word stress
   The meaning-distinctive role played by word stress is also
    manifested in the combinations of -ing forms and nouns:

modifier: 5dining-room; 5readingroom; 5sleepingbag…
doer: sleeping 5baby; swimming 5fish; flying 5plane…
                   Sentence stress

 Sentence stress----the relative force given to the
  components of a sentence. Generally, nouns, main verbs,
  adjectives, adverbs, numerals and demonstrative pronouns
  are stressed. Other categories like articles, person pronouns,
  auxiliary verbs prepositions and conjunctions are usually
  not stressed.
 Note: for pragmatic reason, this rule is not always right, e.g.
  we may stress any part in the following sentences.
  He is driving my car.
  My mother bought me a new skirt yesterday.
                       Tone

 Tones are pitch variations,which are caused by
  the differing rates of vibration of the vocal
  cords.
 English is not a tone language, but Chinese is.

  ma 妈 (level)
  ma 麻 (the second rise)
  ma 马 (the third rise)
  ma 骂 (the fourth fall)
                        Intonation

   When pitch, stress and length variations are tied to the
    sentence rather than to the word, they are collectively
    known as intonation.

 English has three types of intonation that are most
  frequently used:
 falling tone (matter of fact statement)

 rising tone (doubts or question)

 the fall-rise tone (implied message)

  For instance, “That’s not the book he wants.”
  Grammatical functions of intonations
  ----Intonation plays an important role in the conveyance of
   meaning in almost every language, esp. in English.
a) It may indicate different sentence types by pitch direction.
  Grammatical functions of intonations
b) It may impose different structures on the sentence by dividing it into
   different intonation units, e.g. “John didn’t come because of Marry”
   Within one intonation unit, it means: John came, but it had nothing to
   do with Marry.
   With two intonation units, it means: Marry was the reason why John
   didn’t come.

  Exercises: Think of the utterance in different intonations:
   “Those who bought quickly made a profit.”
Grammatical functions of intonations
c) It can make a certain part of a sentence
  especially prominent by placing nucleus on it,
  e.g.
  Jack came yesterday by train.
  Grammatical functions of intonations
d) Its attitudinal functions.
     Falling tone ---- matter-of-fact statement,
                        downright assertion, commands.
     Rising tone ----politeness, encouragement,
                       pleading.
  Note: these can only be very general indications. The
   specific attitudinal meaning of an intonation pattern must be
   interpreted within a context.
           Chapter 3 Morphology


   Morphology refers to the study of the internal
    structure of words and the rules by which words
    are formed.
    Open class word and closed class word
   Open class words----content words of a language
    to which we can regularly add new words, such as
    nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs, e.g. beatnik(a
    member of the Beat Generation), hacker, email,
    internet, “做秀,时装秀…” in Chinese.

   Closed class words----grammatical or functional
    words, such as conjunction, articles, preposition
    and pronouns.
 Morpheme--the minimal unit of meaning
---Words are composed of morphemes. Words may consist of
   one morpheme or more morphemes, e.g.
 1-morpheme     boy, desire
 2-morpheme     boy+ish, desir(e)+ble
 3-morpheme     boy+ish+ness, desir(e)+bl(e)+ity
 4-morpheme     gentle+man+li+ness,
                 un+desir(e)+abl(e)+ity
 5-morpheme     un+gentle+man+li+ness
 6-morpheme anti+dis+establish+ment+ari+an+ism
                      Affix

 Prefix ---- morphemes that occur only before
  others, e.g.
  un-, dis, anti-, ir-, etc.
 Suffix ---- morphemes that occur only after

  others, e.g.
  -ful, -er, -ish, -ness, -able, -tive, tion, etc.
    Free morpheme & bound morpheme
   Free morpheme(自由词素)is one that may constitute
    a word (free form) by itself, such as bed, tree, sing,
    dance, etc.

   Bound morpheme(黏着词素)----is one that may
    appear with at least one other morpheme. They can
    not stand by themselves, such as “-s” in “dogs”, “al”
    in “national”, “dis-” in “disclose”, “ed” in “recorded”,
    etc.
                   Allomorph(词素变体 )
   Some morphemes have a single form in all contexts, such as “dog,
    bark, cat”,etc. In other instances, there may be some variation, that is,
    a morpheme may have alternate shapes or phonetic forms. They are
    said to be the allomorphs of the morpheme, the plural morpheme may
    be represented by:
   map----maps [s]
   dog----dogs [z]
   watch----watches [iz]
   mouse----mice [ai]
   ox----oxen [n]
   tooth----teeth
   sheep----sheep
   Each of the underlined part is called an allomorph of plural morpheme.
     Derivational morpheme & inflectional morpheme

   Derivational morphemes(派生词素)---- the morphemes which
    change the category, or grammatical class of words, e.g. modern---
    modernize, length---lengthen, fool---foolish, etc.
   Inflectional morphemes(屈折词素)---- the morphemes which are
    for the most part purely grammatical markers, signifying such
    concepts as tense, number, case and so on; they never change their
    syntactic category, never add any lexical meaning, e.g.
    a) number: tables apples cars
    b) person, finiteness and aspect: talk/talks/talking/talked
    c) case: John/John’s
           Some other terms

   Root

   Stem

   Base
                           Root

   A root is that part of the word left when all the
    affixes (inflectional & derivational) are removed, e.g.
    “desire” in “desirable”, “care” in “carefully”, “nation”
    in        “internationalism”,        “believe”        in
    “unbeliev(e)able”…
                         Stem

   A stem is part of a word-form which remains
    when all inflectional affixes have been removed,
    e.g. “undesiralbe” in undesirables
                      Base

   A base is any form to which affixes of any kind
    can be added. This means any stem and root can be
    termed as a base.
      The difference between root, stem & base

   A base can be added by both inflectional & derivational
    affixes while a stem can be added only by inflectional
    affixes;
   A base is derivationally analyzable (e.g. undesire in
    undesirable) while a root cannot be further analyzed, e.g.
    desire in undesirable;
   Root, stem and base can be the same form, e.g. desire in
    desired;
   Undesirable in undesirables is either a stem or a base;
   Desirable in undesirable is only a base.
         Morphological rules

 The rules that govern the formation of words,
  e.g. the “un- + ----” rule.
  unfair unthinkable unacceptable…
 Compounding is another way to form new

  words, e.g.
  landlady rainbow undertake…
              Compounds
  Noun compounds
  daybreak (N+V) playboy (V+N) haircut (N+V)
  callgirl (V+N) windmill (N+N)
 Verb compounds

  brainwash (N+V) lipread (N+V) babysit(N+V)
 Adjective compounds

  maneating (N+Ving) heartfelt (N+Ved)
  dutyfree (N+adj.)
 Preposition compounds

  into (P+P)
  throughout (P+P)
       Some points about compounds
   When the two words are in the same grammatical category,
    the compound will be in this category, e.g. postbox,
    landlady, icy-cold, blue-black…
   When the two words fall into different categories, the class
    of the second or final word will be the grammatical category
    of the compound, e.g. head-strong, pickpocket…
   Compounds have different stress patterns from the non-
    compounded word sequence, e.g. red coat, green house…
   The meaning of a compound is not always the sum of the
    meanings of its parts.
Chapter 4 Syntax
               What is syntax?
   ----a branch of linguistics that studies how
    words are combined to form sentences and the
    rules that govern the formation of sentences.
Transformational Generative Grammar
                (TG)
   Norm. Chomsky, the most influential linguist in 20th
    century, some important works:
   (1957) Syntactic Structure;
   (1965) Aspects of the Theory of Syntax;
   (1981) Lectures on Government and Binding;
   (1986) Barriers
   (1993) A Minimalist Program for Linguistic Theory;
   (1995) The Minimalist (极简主义) Program;
   (1998) The Minimalist Inquiry……
       Criteria on good grammar
   Observational adequacy (观察的充分性)
   Descriptive adequacy (描述的充分性)
   Explanatory adequacy(解释的充分性 )
   The ultimate goal for any theory is to explain.
   TG differs from traditional grammar in that it
    not only aims at language description, but also
    its explanation.
          Chomsky is much more interested in the
         similarities (language universals) between
           languages rather than their differences.
   Linguists should attempt to find a grammatical framework
    which will be suitable for all languages;
   Linguists should concentrate on the elements and
    constructions that are available to all languages rather than
    on elements that actually occur in all languages.
   There are likely to be universal constraints on the ways
    linguistic elements are combined
   Chomsky proposed that the grammars of all human
    languages share a common framework (Universal
    Grammar).
                      Categories

   Category refers to a group of linguistic items which
    fulfill the same or similar functions in a particular
    language such as a sentence, a noun phrase or a verb.
    The most central categories to the syntactic study
    are the word-level categories (traditionally, parts of
    speech)
           Word-level categories

   Major lexical categories: N, V, Adj, Prep.
   Minor Lexical categories: determiner (Det限
    定词), degree words (Deg 程度词), qualifier
    (Qual 修饰词), Auxiliary (Aux 助动词 ) ,
    conjunction (Conj.连词)
The criteria on which categories are
             determined
   Meaning(意义)
   Inflection (屈折变化)
   Distribution (分布)
   Note: The most reliable criterion of
    determining a word’s category is its
    distribution.
     Phrase categories and their structures
   Phrase categories----the syntactic units that are built
    around a certain word category are called phrase categories,
    such as NP(N), VP(V), AP(A), PP(P).
   The structure: specifier + head + complement
   Head(中心词)---- the word around which a phrase is
    formed
   Specifier(标志语)---- the words on the left side of the
    heads
   Complement(补语)---- the words on the right side of the
    heads
             Phrase structure rules
   The grammatical mechanism that regulates the arrangement
    of elements that make up a phrase is called a phrase
    structure rule, such as:
   NP  (Det) + N +(PP)……e.g. those people, the fish on the
    plate, pretty girls.
   VP  (Qual) + V + (NP)……e.g. always play games, finish
    assignments.
   AP  (Deg) + A + (PP)……very handsome, very
    pessimistic, familiar with, very close to
   PP  (Deg) + P + (NP)……on the shelf, in the boat, quite
    near the station.
        The XP rule
                   XP



    Specifier       X       Complement
                  Head


Note: The phrase structure rules can be summed up
as XP rule shown in the diagram, in which X stands
for N, V, A or P.
                    X’ Theory

   XP  (Specifier)X’
   X’  X(complement)

            XP(Phrase level)
                               X’

        specifier
                    X(head)         complement
                 Coordination rule
  Coordination structures-----the structures that are formed by
   joining two or more elements of the same type with the help
   of a conjunction such as and, or, etc.
----Coordination has four important properties:
 no limit on the number of coordinated categories before the
   conjunction;
 a category at any level can be coordinated;

 the categories must be of the same type;

 the category type of the coordinate phrase is identical to the
   category type of the elements being conjoined.
      Phrase elements


   Specifiers (标志语)
   Head(中心词)
   Complement(补语)
                    Specifiers


   ---- Semantically, specifiers make more precise
    the meaning of the head; syntactically, they
    typically mark a phrase boundary. Specifiers can
    be determiners as in NP, qualifiers as in VP and
    degree words as in AP.
                      Complements
   ---- Complements themselves can be a phrase, they provide
    information abut entities (实体) and locations(位置)
    whose existence is implied by the meaning of the head, e.g.
    a story about a sentimental girl; There can be no
    complement, one complement, or more than one
    complement in a phrase, e.g. appear, break, put…; a
    sentence-like construction may also function as a
    complement such as in “I believed that she was innocent. I
    doubt if she will come. They are keen for you to show up.”
    That/if /for are complementizers(补语化成份), the clauses
    introduced by complementizers are complement clause.
                 Modifiers (修饰语)


   ---- Modifiers specify optionally expressible
    properties of heads.
             Sentences (the S rule)

   S  NP VP
                    S
                                VP
         NP                           NP

       Det     N          V     Det          N
       A      boy       found   the        evidence
    Sentences (the S rule)
   S  NP infl VP
                       InflP(=S)


             NP                         VP
                          Infl
   Many linguists believe that sentences, like other
    phrases, also have their own heads. Infl is an
    abstract category inflection (dubbed ‘Infl’) as
    their heads, which indicates the sentence’s tense
    and agreement.
Infl realized by a tense label

        InflP ( =S )
 NP                     VP
                                NP

Det    N Infl   V            Det         N
A     boy Pst   found         the    evidence
 Infl realized by an auxiliary

        InflP ( =S )
 NP                     VP
                                    NP

Det    N Infl     V           Det         N
A     boy will   find        the     evidence
                 Transformations

   Auxiliary movement (inversion)
   Do insertion
   Deep structure & surface structure
   Wh-movement
   Move α and constraints on transformations
    Auxiliary movement (inversion)
   Inversion Move Infl to the left of the subject NP.
   Inversion (revised) Move Infl to C.

                   CP
                                S
        C           NP


             Det           N Infl           V
             the         train will       arrive
Auxiliary movement (inversion)


           CP
                     S
 C         NP


Infl Det          N Infl     V
Will the        train e    arrive
                        Do insertion
   Do insertion---- Insert interrogative do into an empty Infl
    position.
                           CP
                                 S
                    C
                         NP   Infl     VP
                        Birds          fly
                           Figure-1
        CP                               CP
              S                                S
C                                 C
      NP    Infl      VP         Infl NP  Infl       VP
      Birds do       fly         Do birds e          fly

        Figure-2                         Figure-3
      Deep structure & surface structure
   Consider the following pair of sentences:
    John is easy to please.(约翰很容易满足)
    John is eager to please.(约翰急于讨好他人)

   Structurally similar sentences might be very
    different in their meanings, for they have quite
    different deep structures.
     Deep structure & surface structure
   Consider one more sentence:            Flying
    planes can be dangerous.

   It can mean either that if you fly planes you are
    engaged in a dangerous activity or Planes that are
    flying are dangerous.
      Deep structure & surface structure
   Deep structure----formed by the XP rule in accordance with
    the head’s sub-categorization properties; it contains all the
    units and relationships that are necessary for interpreting the
    meaning of the sentence.

   Surface structure----corresponding to the final syntactic
    form of the sentence which results from appropriate
    transformations; it is that of the sentence as it is
    pronounced or written.
The organization of the syntactic component

The XP rule

                    Subcategorization restricts
Deep structure      choice of complements


transformations


Surface structure
                   Wh-movement

   Consider the derivation of the following sentences:
    What languages can you speak?
    What can you talk about?

   These sentences may originate as:
    You can speak what languages.
    You can talk about what.
                   Wh-movement

   Wh-movement---- Move a wh phrase to the
    beginning of the sentence.
   What language can you      speak  ?



   What can you    talk about   ?
                   Wh-movement
   Wh-movement---- Move a wh phrase to the specifier
    position under CP. (Revised)
         CP
                   S
NP       C                           VP
Who           NP   Infl
              e     Pst        V        NP
                               won   the game
       Move α(包含性术语) and constraints on
               transformations
   Inversion can move an auxiliary from the Infl to the
    nearest C position, but not to a more distant C
    position.
   No element may be removed from a coordinate
    structure.
             Chapter 5 Semantics

   Semantics----the study of language meaning.

   Meaning is central to the study of communication.

   What is meaning?---- Scholars under different
    scientific backgrounds have different understandings
    of language meaning.
    Some views concerning the study of meaning

   Naming theory (Plato) (命名论)
   The conceptualist view (概念论)
   Contextualism (Bloomfield) (语境论)
   Behaviorism (行为主义论)
            Naming theory (Plato)

 Words are names or labels for things.
 Limitations:

  1) Applicable to nouns only.
  2) There are nouns which denote things that do not
  exist in the real world, e.g. ghost, dragon, unicorn
  (麒麟), pheonix…
  3) There are nouns that do not refer to physical
  objects but abstract notions, e.g. joy, impulse,
  hatred…
            The conceptualist view

   The conceptualist view holds that there is no
    direct link between a linguistic form and what
    it refers to (i.e. between language and the real
    world); rather, in the interpretation of meaning
    they are linked through the mediation of
    concepts (思维的概念)in the mind.
   Ogden and Richards: semantic triangle

           Thought/reference/concept




Symbol/form                     Referent/object in the
word/phrase/sentence            world of experience
   Charles Kay Ogden (1889-1957)奥格登
    美国作家、教育家和语言心理学家。毕业于剑桥大学并留
    校,创立《剑桥杂志》。
    20世纪20年代,出版《意义之意义(The Meaning of
    Meaning),提出著名的语义三角(semantic triangle)。
    该书是20世纪最重要的著作之一。
    1930年他创立基本英语,作为一门国际辅助语;而哈佛大
    学的理查兹(I. A. Richards)则是基本英语的重要宣传
    者。
    1925年,出版(心理学的意义)(The Meaning of
    Psychology),提出了他的语言心理学思想。
    1927年,成立语言正字研究所,总部设在英国剑桥。
   Ivor Amstrong Richards (1893-1979)理查兹
    英国心理学家、教育家、评论家和诗人。毕业于剑桥大学
    并留校任教。
    1923年,与奥格登合著《 意义之意义》,《文学批评原
    理》。
    1944年,任哈佛大学教授,是基本英语的倡导者。
    Ogden and Richards: semantic triangle
   The symbol or form refers to the linguistic
    elements (words and phrases);
   The referent refers to the object in the world of
    experience;
   Thought or reference refers to concept.
   The symbol or a word signifies things by virtue of
    the concept associated with the form of the word
    in the minds of the speaker; and the concept
    looked at from this point of view is the meaning of
    the word.
       The Contextualism (语境论)

   Meaning should be studied in terms of situation, use,
    context—elements closely linked with language behavior.
    Two types of contexts are recognized:
   Situational context: spatiotemporal situation
   Linguistic context: the probability of a word’s co-occurrence
    or collocation.
   For example, “black” in black hair & black coffee, or black
    sheep differs in meaning; “The president of the United
    States” can mean either the president or presidency in
    different situation.
   J. R. Firth 弗斯(1890-1960)
        英国语言学家,伦敦学派的奠基人。毕业里兹大学,
    曾任教于伦敦大学语言系,后在伦敦大学设立普通语言学
    讲座。曾与马林诺夫斯基(B。 Malinowski)共事多年。
        弗斯对语言学贡献有两点:1、发展了马林诺夫斯基
    的意义语境理论(或情境的上下文理论)。2、提出语言
    学中的韵律分析(亦称超音段分析)。
        主要专著:《言语 Speech》,《人的语言The Tongue
    of Men》和《语言学论文集 Papers in Linguistics》。
   Bronislow Malinowski (1889-1942)马林诺夫斯
    基
        波兰著名人类学家。毕业于牛津大学人类学系,一直
    从事文化人类学研究。
        他对语言学的贡献:1、“提供了一种普遍的理论,特
    别是他使用了语境和语言功能的概念”。2、“在行动中
    的语言”和“语义就是使用”。
       主要著作:《原始语言的意义问题The Problem of
    Meaning in Primitive Languages》和《珊瑚岛Corral Garden
    and Their Magic和其魔力》
Wittgenstein Ludwig 维特根斯坦(1889-1951)
 奥地利人,旅居英国。20世纪英语世界中哲学界的重要人
 物,主要贡献:《哲学研究》和《逻辑哲学论》。第一本
 书揭示概念怎样同行为和反应相联系,怎样同人们的生活
 方式,而不是根据模糊的精神领域来展示概念的作用和意
 义。第二本书的中心问题是“语言是怎样发生的”。
                  Behaviorism

   Behaviorists attempted to define meaning as “the
    situation in which the speaker utters it and the
    response it calls forth in the hearer”.
   The story of Jack and Jill:

        Jill              Jack
    S_________r--------s_________R
                    Lexical meaning
   Sense (意义)and reference(指称) are both concerned
    with the study of word meaning. They are two related but
    different aspects of meaning.
   Sense---- is concerned with the inherent meaning of the
    linguistic form. It is the collection of all the features of the
    linguistic form; it is abstract and de-contextualized. It is the
    aspect of meaning dictionary compilers are interested in.
   Reference----what a linguistic form refers to in the real,
    physical world; it deals with the relationship between the
    linguistic element and the non-linguistic world of
    experience.
                        Note:

   Linguistic forms having the same sense may have
    different references in different situations; on the
    other hand, there are also occasions, when
    linguistic forms with the same reference might
    differ in sense, e.g. the morning star (晨星) and
    the evening star(昏星), rising sun in the
    morning and the sunset at dusk.
        Major sense relations

   Synonymy (同义现象)
   Antonymy (反义词)
   Polysemy (多义现象)
   Homonymy (同音异义)
   Hyponymy (下义关系)
            Synonymy
 Synonymy refers to the sameness or close
  similarity of meaning. Words that are close in
  meaning are called synonyms.
1) Dialectal synonyms(方言同义)---- synonyms used
  in different regional dialects, e.g. autumn - fall,
  biscuit - cracker, petrol – gasoline…
2) Stylistic synonyms(文体同义)----synonyms
  differing in style, e.g. kid, child, offspring; start,
  begin, commence;…
                 Synonymy
3) Synonyms that differ in their emotive or evaluative
  meaning,(情感或评价意义不同的同义)
  e.g.collaborator- accomplice,…
4) Collocational synonyms(搭配同义), e.g. accuse…of,
  charge…with, rebuke…for; …
5) Semantically different synonyms(语义不同的同义词),
  e.g. amaze, astound,…
                        Antonymy

   Gradable antonyms(等级反义词)----there are often
    intermediate forms between the two members of a pair, e.g.
    old-young, hot-cold, tall-short, …
   Complementary antonyms (互不反义词) ----the denial of
    one member of the pair implies the assertion of the other,
    e.g. alive-dead, male-female, …
   Relational opposites (关系反义词) ----exhibits the reversal
    of the relationship between the two items, e.g. husband-wife,
    father-son, doctor-patient, buy-sell, let-rent, employer-
    employee, give-receive, above-below, …
     Gradable antonyms(等级反义)

   Gradable antonyms ----
    there are often
    intermediate forms
    between the two
    members of a pair, e.g.
    old-young, hot-cold, tall-
    short, …
           Complementary antonyms


   Complementary antonyms ----
    the denial of one member of the
    pair implies the assertion of the
    other, e.g. alive-dead, male-
    female, …
                  Polysemy

 Polysemy----the same one word may have more than
  one meaning, e.g. “table” may mean:
 A piece of furniture

 All the people seated at a table

 The food that is put on a table

 A thin flat piece of stone, metal wood, etc.

 Orderly arrangement of facts, figures, etc.

  ……
                       Homonymy

   Homonymy (同音异义词) ---- the phenomenon that words
    having different meanings have the same form, e.g. different
    words are identical in sound or spelling, or in both.
   Homophone (同音异义词) ---- when two words are
    identical in sound, e.g. rain-reign, night/knight, …
   Homogragh (同形异义词) ---- when two words are
    identical in spelling, e.g. tear(n.)-tear(v.), lead(n.)-
    lead(v.), …
   Complete homonym (完全同音异义词) ---- when two
    words are identical in both sound and spelling, e.g. ball,
    bank, watch, scale, fast, …
                    Note:

   A polysemic word is the result of the
    evolution of the primary meaning of the
    word (the etymology (词源学) of the word);
    while complete homonyms are often brought
    into being by coincidence.
                   Hyponymy

   Hyponymy (下义关系) ----the sense relation
    between a more general, more inclusive word and a
    more specific word.
   Superordinate (上坐标词) : the word which is more
    general in meaning.
   Hyponyms (下义词) : the word which is more
    specific in meaning.
   Co-hyponyms (并列下义词) : hyponyms of the
    same superordinate.
                     Hyponymy

   Superordinate: flower
   Hyponyms: rose, tulip, lily, chrysanthemum, peony,
    narcissus, …

   Superordinate: furniture
   Hyponyms: bed, table, desk, dresser, wardrobe,
    sofa, …
    Sense relations between sentences
   (1)   X is synonymous with Y (同义)
   (2)   X is inconsistent with Y (不一致)
   (3)   X entails Y (蕴含)
   (4)   X presupposes Y (预设)
   (5)   X is a contradiction (自我矛盾)
   (6)   X is semantically anomalous (语义反常)
            X is synonymous with Y

   X: He was a bachelor all his life.
    Y: He never got married all his life.

   X: The boy killed the cat.
    Y: The cat was killed by the boy.

   If X is true, Y is true; if X is false, Y is false.
              X is inconsistent with Y

   X: He is single.
   Y: He has a wife.

   X: This is my first visit to Beijing.
   Y: I have been to Beijing twice.

   If X is true, Y is false; if X is false, Y is true.
                         X entails Y

   X: John married a blond heiress.
   Y: John married a blond.

   X: Marry has been to Beijing.
   Y: Marry has been to China.

   Entailment is a relation of inclusion. If X entails Y, then the
    meaning of X is included in Y.
   If X is true, Y is necessarily true; if X is false, Y may be
    true or false.
                   X presupposes Y

   X: His bike needs repairing.
   Y: He has a bike.

   Paul has given up smoking.
   Paul once smoked.

   If X is true, Y must be true; If X is false, Y is still
    true.
               X is a contradiction

   *My unmarried sister is married to a bachelor.

   *The orphan’s parents are pretty well-off.
          X is semantically anomalous

   *The man is pregnant.

   *The table has bad intentions.

   *Sincerity shakes hands with the black apple.
          Analysis of meaning

   Componential analysis (成分分析法)
   Predication analysis (述谓结构分析法)
             Componential analysis

   Componential analysis---- a way to analyze lexical meaning.
    The approach is based on the belief that the meaning of a
    word can be dissected into meaning components, called
    semantic features. For example,
   Man: [+HUMAN, +ADULT, +ANIMATE, +MALE]
   Boy: [+HUMAN, -ADULT, +ANIMATE, +MALE]
   Woman: [+HUMAN, +ADULT, +ANIMATE, -MALE]
   Girl: [+HUMAN, -ADULT, +ANIMATE, -MALE]
                 Predication analysis

   1) The meaning of a sentence is not to be worked out by
    adding up all the meanings of its component words, e.g “The
    dog bites the man” is semantically different from “The man
    bites the dog” though their components are exactly the same.
   2) There are two aspects to sentence meaning: grammatical
    meaning and semantic meaning, e.g.
   *Green clouds are sleeping furiously.
   *Sincerity shook hands with the black apple.
   Whether a sentence is semantically meaningful is governed
    by rules called selectional restrictions.
                 Predication analysis

   Predication analysis---- a way to analyze sentence meaning
    (British G. Leech).
   Predication----the abstraction of the meaning of a sentence.
    A predication consists of argument(s) and predicate.
   An argument is a logical participant in a predication,
    largely identical with the nominal elements in a sentence.
   A predicate is something said about an argument or it states
    the logical relation linking the arguments in a sentence.
               Predication analysis
   According to the number of arguments contained in
    a predication, we may classify the predications into
    the following types:
   One-place predication: smoke, grow, rise, run, …
   Two-place predication: like, love, save, bite, beat,…
   Three-place predication: give, sent, promise,
    call, …
   No-place predication: It is hot.
              Predication analysis

   Tom smokes.  TOM (SMOKE)
   The tree grows well.  TREE (GROW)
   The kids like apples.  KIDS (LIKE) APPLE
   I sent him a letter.  I (SEND) HIM LETTER
    Chapter 6 Pragmatics (语用学)
   ---- the study of language in use or language
    communication; the study of the use of context
    to make inference about meaning.
   ---- the study of how speakers of a language
    use sentences to effect successful
    communication.
     Some basic notions in Pragmatics

   Context

   Pragmatics vs. semantics

   Sentence meaning vs. utterance meaning

   Correctness vs. appropriateness
                        Context

   Context---- a basic concept in the study of
    pragmatics. It is generally considered as constituted
    knowledge shared by the speaker and the hearer,
    such as cultural background, situation(time, place,
    manner, etc.), the relationship between the speaker
    and the hearer, etc.….
             Pragmatics vs. semantics

   Semantics---- is the study of the literal meaning of a
    sentence (without taking context into consideration).
   Pragmatics---- the study of the intended meaning of a
    speaker (taking context into consideration), e.g.
   “Today is Sunday”, semantically, it means that today is the
    first day of the week; pragmatically, you can mean a lot by
    saying this, all depending on the context and the intention of
    the speaker, say, making a suggestion or giving an
    invitation…
  Sentence meaning vs. utterance meaning

---- Sentence meaning:
 Abstract and context-independent meaning;

 literal meaning of a sentence;

 having a dyadic relation as in: What does X mean?

----utterance meaning:
 concrete and context-dependent meaning;

 intended meaning of a speaker;

 having a triadic relation as in: What did you mean by X?
     For example, “The bag is heavy” can mean
   a bag being heavy (sentence meaning);
   an indirect, polite request, asking the hearer to help him
    carry the bag;
   the speaker is declining someone’s request for help.
   Note: The meaning of an utterance is based on the sentence
    meaning; it is the realization of the abstract meaning of a
    sentence in a real situation of communication, or simply in a
    context; utterance meaning is richer than sentence meaning;
    it is identical with the purpose for which the speaker utters
    the sentence.
        Correctness vs. appropriateness
   *“John play golf”---- grammatically incorrect;
   ?“Golf played John” ---- logically incorrect; but it
    might be appropriate pragmatically in certain context.

   Note: Pragmatics can make sense out of nonsense, given a
    suitable context. Appropriateness is very important in
    linguistic communication, especially in cross-cultural
    communication. If you say something grammatically
    incorrect, you are at worse condemned as “speaking badly”,
    but, if you say something inappropriately, you will be
    judged as “behaving badly”, such as insincere, untruthful, or
    deceitful. (Thomas, 1983)
                 Speech act theory

   Speech acts is a term derived from the work of the
    philosopher J. L. Austin (1962) and now used to
    refer to a theory which analyzes the role of
    utterances in relation to the behavior of the speaker
    and the hearer in interpersonal communication. It
    aims to answer the question “What do we do when
    using language?”
              Two types of utterances

   Constatives (叙述句) ---- statements that either state or
    describe, and are thus verifiable;
   Performatives (施为句) ---- sentences that do not state a fact
    or describe a state, and are not verifiable.
   Note: Sometimes they are easy to get confused, e.g.“It is
    raining outside” can be a constative, and also a performative,
    for by uttering such a sentence, we may not only state a fact,
    but involve in the act of informing someone about the rain.
      Some Examples of Performatives
   “I do”
   “I name this ship Elizabeth.”
   “I give and bequeath my watch to my brother.”
   “I bet you sixpence it will rain tomorrow.”
   “I declare the meeting open.”
  Austin’s new model of speech acts
----According to Austin’s new model, a speaker might be
   performing three acts simultaneously when speaking:
   locutionary act, illocutionary act and perlocutionary act.
 The locutionary act----an act of saying something, i.e. an
   act of making a meaningful utterance (literal meaning of an
   utterance);
 The illocutionary act----an act performed in saying
   something: in saying X, I was doing Y (the intention of the
   speaker while speaking).
 The perlocutionary act----an act performed as a result of
   saying something: by saying X and doing Y, I did Z.
       For example,“It is cold in here.”
  Its locutionary act is the saying of it with its literal meaning
   the weather is clod in here;
 Its illocutionary act can be a request of the hear to shut the
   window;
 Its perlocutionary act can be the hearer’s shutting the
   window or his refusal to comply with the request.
----Analyze one more example: “You have left the door wide
   open.”
Note: Of the three acts, what speech act theory is most
   concerned with is the illocutionary act. It attempts to
   account for the ways by which speakers can mean more
   than what they say.
  Analyze the illocutionary acts of the following conversation between a
   couple:
----(the telephone rings)
----H: That’ the phone. (1)
----W: I’m in the bathroom. (2)
----H: Okay. (3)
 This seemingly incoherent conversation goes on successfully because

   the speakers understand each other’s illocutionary acts:
 (1) Making a request of his wife to go and answer the phone.

 (2) A refusal to comply with the request; issuing a request of her
   husband to answer the phone instead.
 (3) Accepting the wife’s refusal and accepting her request, meaning

   “all right, I’ll answer it.”
     Searle’s classification of speech acts (1969)

   Assertives/representatives(陈述)
   Directives(指令)
   Commissives(承诺)
   Expressives(表达)
   Declarations(宣布)
         Assertives/representatives

---- Stating or describing, saying what the speaker
   believes to be true, e.g.
 I think the film is moving.

 I’m certain I have never seen the man before.

 I solemnly swear that he had got it.

  …
                   Directives

---- Trying to get the hearer to do something,
   e.g.
 I order you to leave right now.

 Open the window, please.

 Your money or your life!

  …
    Commissives

---- Committing the speaker himself to some
   future course of action, e.g.
 I promise to come.

 I will bring you the book tomorrow without
   fail.
  …
                Expressives
----Expressing the speaker’s psychological state
   about something, e.g.
 I’m sorry for being late.

 I apologize for the sufferings that the war has

   caused to your people.
  …
               Declarations

----Bringing about an immediate change in the
   existing state or affairs, e.g.
 I now appoint you chairman of the committee.

 You are fired.

 I now declare the meeting open.

  …
 Note: (1) All the acts that belong to the same
  category share the same purpose but differ in their
  strength or force, e.g.
  I guess / am sure / swear he is the murderer.
 Note: (2) In order to get someone open the door, we
  can choose one from a variety of the forms in below:
  Could you open the door, please!
  Can you open the door!
  Do you mind opening the door?
  Open the door!
  The door please!
    Principle of conversation (Paul Grice)
   Cooperative principle (CP)---- According to Grice,
    in making conversation, there is a general principle
    which all participants are expected to observe. It
    goes as follows:
   Make your conversational contribution such as
    required at the stage at which it occurs by the
    accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange
    in which you are engaged.
     Four maxims of CP
  The maxim of quality
----Do not say what you believe to be false.
----Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence.
 The maxim of quantity

----Make your contribution as informative as required for the current
   purpose of the exchange.
----Do not make your contribution more informative than is required.
 The maxim of relation

----Be relevant ( make your contribution relevant).
 The maxim of manner

----Avoid obscurity of expression.
----Avoid ambiguity.
----Be brief.
----Be orderly.
         Conversational implicature

   In real communication, however, speakers do not
    always observe these maxims strictly. These
    maxims can be violated for various reasons. When
    any of the maxims is blantantly violated, i.e. both
    the speaker and the hearer are aware of the
    violation, our language becomes indirect, then
    conversational implicature arises.
       Violation of Maxim of quality

----A: Would you like to go movie with me tonight?
----B: The final exam is approaching. I’m afraid I have to
   prepare for it.

----A: would you like to come to our party tonight?
----B: I’m afraid I’m not feeling so well tonight.

----A: Who was that lady I saw you with last night?
----B: That was no lady, that was my wife.
       Violation of maxim of quantity

   At a party a young man introduces himself by
    saying “I’m Robert Sampson from Leeds, 28,
    unmarried…”
   “War is war.”
   “Girls are girls.”

----A:When is Susan’s farewell party?
----B:Sometime next month.
      Violation of maxim of relation
----A: How did the math exam go today, Jonnie?
----B: We had a basketball match with class 2 and we
   beat them.

----A: The hostess is an awful bore.
----B: The roses in the garden are beautiful, aren’t
   they?

----A: What time is it?
----B: The postman has just arrived.
  Violation of maxim of manner

----A: Shall we get something for the
  kids?
----B: Yes. But I veto I-C-E-C-R-E-A-M.
Politeness principle (Leech)
       Chapter 7 Language change

   Sound change
   Morphological and syntactic change
   Vocabulary change
    Morphological and syntactic change

   Change in “agreement” rule
   Change in negation rule
   Process of simplification
   Loss of inflections
             Vocabulary change

   Addition of new words
   Loss of words
   Changes in the meaning of words
       Addition of new words

   coinage(创新词)
   clipped words(缩略词)
   blending(紧缩法)
   acronyms(词首字母缩略词)
   back-formation(逆构词法)
   functional shift
   borrowing
                  Coinage

----A new word can be coined outright to fit some
   purpose, e.g.
 walkman

 Kodak

 Xerox

 Ford

 Benz

 Toyota
          Clipped words

----The abbreviation of longer words or
  phrases, e.g.
 gym—gymnasium

 memo—memorandum

 disco—discotheque

 fridge—refrigerator
              Blending

----A blend is a word formed by
  combining parts of other words, e.g.
 smog—smoke + fog

 motel—motor + hotel

 camcorder—camera + recorder
              Acronyms

----Acronyms are words derived from the
  initials of several words, e.g.
 CBS---- Columbia Broad casting system

 ISBN----International Standard Book
  Number
 WTO WHO PLA AIDS UNESCO
  APEC OPEC CAD SARS
             Back-formation

----New words may be coined from already
  existing words by “subtracting” an affix
  thought to be part of the old word.
 edit  editor

 hawk  hawker

 beg  beggar

 baby-sit  baby-sitter
                   Functional shift

----Words may shift from one part of speech to another
   without the addition of affixes, e.g.

   Noun verb: to knee, to bug, to tape, to brake…
   Verb noun: a hold, a flyby, a reject, a retreat…
   Adj. verb: to cool, to narrow, to dim, to slow…
   Adj. noun: a daily, a Christian, the rich, the impossible…
                       Borrowing

   ----When different cultures come into contact, words are
    often borrowed from one language to another. The
    following are some of the loan words in English (see more
    in P100-101).
   Latin      bonus education        exit
   German beer         waltz          quartz
   Chinese tea         kowtow        sampan
   Russian sputnik commissar vodka
   Arabic     zero     algebra      alcohol
                 Loss of words

   Words can be lost from a language as time goes by.
    The following words, taken from Romeo and Juliet,
    have faded out of the English language.
   Beseem  to be suitable
   Wot         to know
   Gyve        a fetter
   Wherefore  why
Changes in the meaning of words

   Widening of meaning
   Narrowing of meaning
   Meaning shift
            Widening of meaning

   Holiday: [+specific] holy day
             [+general] any rest day

   Tail:     [+specific] tail of a horse
              [+general] tail of any animal
           Narrowing of meaning
   hound: any dog
            a special kind of dog
   girl:  young person of either sex
           young people of female sex
   deer: any animal
           a particular kind of animal
   meat: food
           edible part of an animal
   corn: grain
           a particular grain
                Meaning shift

   inn: a small, old hotel or pub
           well-known, nice hotel
   nice: ignorant (1000 years ago)
           good, fine
   lust: pleasure
           with negative and sexual overtones
   silly: happy
           naïve, foolish
             Some recent trends

   Moving towards greater informality

   The influence of American English

   The influence of science and technology
The influence of science and technology

    Space travel
    Computer and internet language
    Ecology
       Causes of the language change

   The rapid development of science and technology;
   More and more women have taken up activities formerly
    reserved for men, more neutral job titles have been created;
   “ Economy of memory” results in grammar simplification;
   Regularization of exceptional plural forms provides
    another example for analogical change.
      Chapter 8 Language and society

   Sociolinguistics ---- a sub-field of linguists that
    studies the relation between language and society,
    between the uses of language and the social
    structures in which the users of language live.
 The relatedness between language and society
----There are many indications of the inter-relationship
   between language and society.
 Language is often used to establish and maintain social
   relationships. (e.g. greeting)
 The use of language is in part determined by the user’s
   social background. (social class, age, sex, education level,
   etc.)
 Language, especially the structure of its lexicon, reflects
   both the physical and the social environments of a society.
   (“snow” for Eskimo)
 As a social phenomenon language is closely related to the
   structure of the society in which it is used, the evaluation of
   a linguistic form is entirely social ( the postvocalic [r] ).
     Speech community and speech variety

   Speech community----- the social group that is
    singled out for any special sociolinguistic study is
    called the speech community.
   Speech variety or language variety---- any
    distinguishable form of speech used by a speaker or
    a group of speakers. In sociolinguistic study three
    types of speech variety are of special interest, i.e.
    regional dialects, sociolects and registers.
Two approaches to sociolinguistic studies

   Macro sociolinguistics, i.e. a bird’s-eye
    view of the languages used in society;
   Micro sociolinguistics, i.e. a worm’s-eye
    view of language in use.
          Varieties of language
   Dialectal varieties
   Register
   Degree of formality
       Dialectal varieties
   Regional dialect is a linguistic variety used by people living in the same
    geographical region(e.g. Br.E. & Am.E.).
   Sociolect is a linguistic variety characteristic of a particular social class.
    (e.g. Received Pronunciation)
    Language and gender (e.g. intonation, lexicon)
    Language and age (Lexical difference: icebox---- fridge, wireless----
    boombox)
   Idiolect---- a personal dialect of an individual speaker that combines
    elements regarding regional, social, gender, and age variations(e.g.
    Hemingway, Luxun).
   Ethnic dialect----a social dialect of a language that cuts across regional
    differences; it is mainly spoken by a less privileged population that has
    experienced some form of social isolation such as racial discrimination
    or segregation (e.g. Black English).
             Register
   Register, in a restricted sense, refers to the variety of
    language related to one’s occupation.
   In a broader sense, according to Halliday, “language
    varies as its function varies; it differs in different
    situations.” The type of language which is selected as
    appropriate to the type of situation is a register.
   Halliday further distinguishes three social variables
    that determine the register: field of discourse, tenor o
    discourse, mode of discourse.
            Three social variables
   Field of discourse: what is going on: to the area of operation
    of the language activity. It is concerned with the purpose
    (why) and subject matter (about what) of communication. It
    can be either technical or non-technical.)
   Tenor of discourse: the role of relationship in the situation
    in question: who are the participants in the communication
    and in what relationship they stand to each other.
    (customer-shop-assistant, teacher-student, etc.)
   Mode of discourse: the means of communication. It is
    concerned with how communication is carried out. (oral,
    written, on the line…)
                Degree of formality

----Five stages of formality (Martin Joos)
 Intimate: Up you go, chaps!

 Casual: Time you all went upstairs now.

 Consultative: Would you mind going upstairs right away,
   please?
 Formal: Visitors should go up the stairs at once.

 Frozen: Visitors would make their way at once to the upper
   floor by way of the staircase.
----Note: Different styles of the same language can be
   characterized through differences at three levels: syntactic,
   lexical and phonological(P121).
                  Standard dialect

   The standard variety is a superimposed, socially
    prestigious dialect of a language. It is the language
    employed by the government and the judiciary
    system, used by the mass media, and taught in
    educational institutions, including school settings
    where the language is taught as a foreign or second
    language.
                 Pidgin and Creole
   A pidgin is a special language variety that mixes or
    blends languages and it is used by people who speak
    different languages for restricted purposes such as
    trading.
   When a pidgin has become the primary language of
    a speech community, and is acquired by the children
    of that speech community as their native language, it
    is said to have become a Creole.
            Bilingualism and Diglossia

   In some speech communities, two languages are used side
    by side with each having a different role to play; and
    language switching occurs when the situation changes. This
    constitutes the situation of Bilingualism.

   According to Ferguson (1959), diglossia refers to a
    sociolinguistic situation similar to bilingualism. But in stead
    of two different languages, in a diglossia situation two
    varieties of a language exist side by side throughout the
    community, with each having a definite role to play.
Chapter 9 Language and culture
                    What is culture?

   In a broad sense, culture means the total way of life of a
    people, including the patterns of belief, customs, objects,
    institutions, techniques, and language that characterizes the
    life of the human community.
   In a narrow sense, culture may refer to local or specific
    practice, beliefs or customs, which can be mostly found in
    folk culture, enterprise culture or food culture, etc.
   There are generally two types of culture: material and
    spiritual.
      The relationship between language and culture
   The same word may stir up different associations in people under
    different cultural background, e.g. the word “dog”.
   Language expresses cultural reality, reflects the people’s attitudes,
    beliefs, world outlooks, etc.
   The culture both emancipates and constrains people socially,
    historically and metaphorically.
   Culture also affects its people’s imagination or common dreams which
    are mediated through the language and reflected in their life.
   On the one hand, language as an integral part of human being,
    permeates in his thinking and way of viewing the world, language
    both expresses and embodies cultural reality; on the other, language,
    as a product of culture, helps perpetuate the culture, and the changes
    in language uses reflect the cultural changes in return.
              Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

   Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf, proclaimed that the
    structure of the language people habitually use influences
    the ways they think and behave, i.e. different languages
    offer people different ways of expressing the world around,
    they think and speak differently, this is also known as
    linguistic relativity.
   Sapir and Whorf believe that language filters people’s
    perception and the way they categorize experiences. This
    interdependence of language and thought is now known as
    Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis.
     Strong version & weak version
  Strong version believes that the language patterns determine
   people’s thinking and behavior;
 Weak version holds that the former influence the latter.

----The study of the linguistic relativity or SWH has shed two
   important insights:
 There is nowadays a recognition that language, as code,
   reflects cultural preoccupations and constrains the way
   people think.
 More than in Whorf’s days, however, we recognize how
   important context is in complementing the meanings
   encoded in the language.
     Linguistic evidence of cultural differences

   Denotative meaning ---- a meaning that can be
    found in a dictionary.
   Connotative meaning ---- a meaning or idea
    suggested by a word or thing in addition to the
    formal meaning or nature of the word or thing.
   Iconic meaning ---- the image or icon invoked in
    mind by a word.
   For example, “rose”.
     Some cultural differences in language use

   Greetings and terms of address
   Thanks and compliments
   Color words
   Privacy and taboos
   Rounding off numbers
   Words and cultural-specific connotations
   Cultural-related idioms, proverbs and metaphor
    The significance of cultural teaching and learning

   Learning a foreign language is inseparable from
    learning its culture.

   We need to learn enough about the language’s
    culture so that we can communicate in the target
    language properly to achieve not only the linguistic
    competence but also the pragmatic or
    communicative competence as well.
                   Cultural overlap

    Cultural overlap refers to the identical part of culture
     between two societies owing to some similarities in the
     natural environment and psychology of human beings.
     For example, the superior tends to refer to himself or
     herself by means of kinship terms, such as
    “Have daddy/mummy/teacher told you that?”
                  Cultural diffusion
   Through communication, some elements of culture A enter
    culture B and become part of culture B, this phenomenon is
    known as cultural diffusion.
   One typical example of cultural diffusion is the appearance
    of loan words.
   The practice of observing holidays of foreign origins and
    accepting concepts from other cultures.
   The attitude towards cultural diffusion (esp. cultural
    imperialism owing to linguistic imperialism)
          Intercultural communication

   Intercultural or cross-cultural communication is
    communication between people from different cultures
    (their cultural perceptions and symbols systems are distinct
    enough to alter the communication event.)
   In cross-cultural communication, we need to pay special
    attention to the significant differences regarding social
    relations and concept of universe from different
    perspectives such as language, food, dress, attitude towards
    time, work habits, social behavior and religious belief that
    can cause frustrations in communications and contacts.
    Chapter 10 Language acquisition
   Language acquisition----refers to the child’s
    acquisition of his mother tongue, i.e. how the
    child comes to understand and speak the language
    of his community.
     Theories of child language acquisition

   A behaviorist view of language acquisition
    (Skinners)
   An innatist view of language acquisition (Chomsky)
   An interactionist view of language acquisition
   Cognitive factors in child language development
    A behaviorist view of language acquisition

 Traditional behaviorists view language as behavior
  and believe that language learning is simply a matter
  of imitation and habit formation.
  Imitation  Recognition  Reinforcement
 The inadequacy of behaviorist view lies in
  explaining how children acquire complex language
  system. (See examples in P144)
    An innatist view of language acquisition

   According to the innatist view of language
    acquisition, human beings are biologically
    programmed for language and that the language
    develops in the child just as other biological
    functions such as walking.
    An interactionist view of language acquisition

   The interactionist view holds that language develops
    as a result of the complex interplay between the
    human characteristics of the child and the
    environment in which the child develops. Integrated
    with the innatist view, the interactionist further
    claims that the modified language which is suitable
    for the child’s capability is crucial in his language
    acquisition. (motherese)
     Cognitive factors in child language development

   1)     Language development is dependent on both the
    concepts children form about the world and what they feel
    stimulated to communicate at the early and later stages of
    their language development. (the acquisition of perfect tense
    and the concept of present relevance)
   2)     The cognitive factors determine how the child makes
    sense of the linguistic system himself instead of what
    meanings the child perceives and expresses. (the acquisition
    of negative form)
                 Language environment
             & the critical period hypothesis
   Two important factors: the linguistic environment children are
    exposed to and the age they start to learn the language.
   In behaviorist approach, language environment plays a major role in
    providing both language models to be imitated and necessary
    feedbacks.
   The innatist view emphasizes more on children’s internal processing
    of the language items to be learnt. The environment functions as a
    stimulus that triggers and activates the pre-equipped UG to process
    the materials provided by the linguistic environment around the
    children.
   The interactionist view calls for the quality of the language samples
    available in the linguistic environment, only when the language is
    modified and adjusted to the level of children’s comprehension, do
    they process and internalize the language items.
      Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH)
   ---- Eric Lenneberg argues that the LAD, like other
    biological functions, works successfully only when it is
    stimulated at the right time ---- a specific and limited time
    period for language acquisition.
   The strong version of CPH suggests that children must
    acquire their first language by puberty or they will never be
    able to learn from subsequent exposure.
   The weak version holds that language learning will be
    more difficult and incomplete after puberty. (Support in
    Victor’s and Genie’s cases)
    Stages in child language development
 Phonological development
 Vocabulary development

 1) Under-extension
 2) Over-extension
 3) Prototype theory
 Grammatical development

 1) Telegraphic speech (2)
 2) Sentences of three main elements (2.5)
 Pragmatic development
             Atypical development

   Atypical or abnormal language development occurs due
    to trauma or injury. Atypical language development
    includes:
   Hearing impairment
   Mental retardation
   autism
   stuttering
   Aphasia
   Dyslexia and dysgraphia
     Chapter 11 Second Language Acquisition

   Second Language Acquisition ---- formally
    established itself as a discipline around the 1970s,
    refers to the systematic study of how one person
    acquires a second language subsequent to his native
    language.
   Distinguish second language & foreign language
Connections between first language acquisition
      and second language acquisition
   The first language study has served as a backcloth
    for perceiving and understanding new facts about
    second language learning (Littlewood, 1986).
   SLA is different from first language acquisition.
   Interlanguage
     Contrastive analysis (CA) (1960s)
   Positive transfer----facilitate target language learning
   Negative transfer----interfere or hinder target language
    learning
   It is believed that differences between the native language
    and the target language would pose difficulties in
    second/foreign language learning and teaching, e.g.
   *To touch the society .
   *There are more people come to study in the states.
   *I wait you at the gate of the school.
                 Shortcomings of CA

   The CA was soon found problematic, for many of the
    predictions of the target language learning difficulty
    formulated on the basis of contrastive analysis turned out to
    be either uninformative or inaccurate. Predicted errors did
    not materialize in learner language while errors did show up
    that the contrastive analysis had not predicted. “differences”
    and “difficulties” are not identical concepts.
                Error analysis (EA)

   The contrastive approach to learners’ errors has shed
    new light on people’s attitudes: the errors are
    significant in telling the teacher what needs to be
    taught, in telling the researcher how learning
    proceeds and those errors are a means whereby
    learners test their hypotheses about the language to
    be learnt.
   Two main sorts of errors: Interlingual errors &
    intralingual errors
               Interlingual errors

----Interlingual errors mainly result from cross-
   linguistic interference at different levels such as
   phonological, lexical, grammatical or discoursal etc.
   For examples,
  a. Substitution of [t] for [W] and [d] for [T]:
   threetree, thisdis.
  b. Shortening of long vowels: sheepship,
   meetmit
                Intralingual errors

----The intralingual errors mainly from faulty or partial
   learning of the target language, independent of the
   native language.

   Two types of errors have been well exploited:
    overgeneralization & cross-association
              Overgeneralization

Overgeneralization ---- the use of previously available
  strategies in new situations.
 Walked, watched, washed…

  *rided, *goed, *doed, *eated…
 Jane advise me to give up smoking.

  Jane told me to give up smoking.
  *Jane hoped me to give up smoking.
  *Jane suggested me to give up smoking.
                 Cross-association

 Cross-association refers to the phenomenon that the close
  association of the two similar words often leads to
  confusion, e.g.
 Other/another, much/many, stalagmite/stalactite…

 It may also occurs at all levels of language from
  phonological to syntactic, e.g.
  The coffee is too hot to drink.
  *The apricot is too sour to eat it.
                Errors & mistakes

   Errors ---- unintentionally deviant from the target
    language and not self-corrigible by the learner
    (failure in competence);
   Mistakes ---- either intentionally or unintentionally
    deviant forms and self-corrigible (failure in
    performance).
      Interlanguage (S. Pit Corder & Larry Selinker)

   Interlangauge ---- learners’ independent system of
    the second language which is of neither the native
    language nor the second language, but a continuum
    or approximation from his native language to the
    target language.
   What learners produce, correct or wrong, are
    evidence or the approximation from their first
    language to the target language.
        Characteristics of interlanguage
   Interlanguage has three important characteristics:
    systematicity, permeability and fossilization.
   Fossilization---- a process occurring from time to
    time in which incorrect linguistic features become a
    permanent part of the way a person speaks or writes
    a language.
           The role of native language
            in 2nd language learning

 Language transfer: positive & negative (behaviorism)
 Mentalists argued that few errors were caused by language
  transfer; transfer is not transfer, but a kind of mental process.
 Three interacting factors in determining language transfer:

  A learner’s psychology
  Perception of native-target language distance
  Actual knowledge of the target language
    2nd language learning models and input hypothesis

   Behaviorism model emphasizes the role of imitation and
    positive reinforcement, a “nurture” position;
   The mentalists or the innativists shift to a “nature” position
    by stressing that human beings equipped innately with
    language acquisition device, are capable of language
    learning provided with adequate language input.
   The social interactionists argue that language and social
    interaction cannot be separated.
           Krashen’s Input Hypothesis

   Krashen make a distinction between acquisition & learning.
   He put forward that learners advance their language
    learning gradually by receiving comprehensible input.
   He defined comprehensible input as “i + 1” :
    “i” represents learners’ current state of knowledge, the next
    stage is an “i + 1”.
   Krashen mistook input and intake, thus receive criticism.
             Individual differences

   Language aptitude
   Motivation
   Learning strategies
   Age of acquisition
   Personality
               Language aptitude

   Language aptitude refers to a natural ability for
    learning a second language. It is believed to be
    related to a learner’s general intelligence. John
    Carroll identified some components of language
    aptitude:
   Phonemic coding ability
   Grammatical sensitivity
   Inductive language learning ability
   Rote learning ability
                     Motivation

   Motivation can be defined as the learner’s attitudes
    and affective state or learning drive. It has a strong
    impact on his efforts in learning a second language.
    Generally four types of motivations have been
    identified:
   Instrumental motivation
   Integrative motivation
   Resultative motivation
   Intrinsic motivation
                 Learning strategies
   Learning strategies are learners’ conscious, goal-oriented
    and problem-solving based efforts to achieve learning
    efficiency. According to Chamot (1986) & Oxford (1990),
    three types of strategies have been identified:
   Cognitive strategies ---- analyzing,synthesis and
    internalizing what has been learned.
   Metacognitive strategies ---- planning, monitoring and
    evaluating one’s learning.
   Affect/social strategies ---- the ways learners interact with
    other speakers.
   Cohen (1998) further distinguishes language learning
    strategies and language using strategies.
                Age of acquisition

   The Critical Period Hypothesis

   Recent studies support the hypothesis that in terms
    of learning achievement and grammaticality the
    younger learners outperform the adults.
                   Personality

   In terms of communicative ability rather than
    grammatical accuracy or knowledge of
    grammatical rules, the personality traits such
    as extroversion, talkative, self-esteem, self-
    confidence can be found in successful second
    language learners ( as in the case of Liyang:
    Crazy English).
SLA & its pedagogical implications
Chapter 12 Language and Brain

				
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