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					      ONTO PED IA
            The Identity of Everything




                  As We Really May Think
                          An Introduction to Topic Maps



                                                 Steve Pepper
                                                 pepper.steve@gmail.com
                                                 HUMIT1731, 2007-11-05




                                                                          www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt                       psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       Road map for this presentation

            “As We May Think”
               –    Vannevar Bush and MEMEX
               –    Engelbart, Nelson, Atkinson, Berners-Lee
               –    Is this really how we think?
            As We Really May Think
               –    Introduction to Topic Maps
               –    Understanding the TAO
               –    Browsing a topic map in the Omnigator
               –    What Topic Maps is used for
            Topic Maps as a paradigm shift
               –    Subject centric computing
               –    Computing “as we may think”
                                                               www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt            psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       Vannevar Bush and Hypertext



                                       Doug Engelbart
                                             1962                   Bill Atkinson
                                   Augmenting Human Intellect            1987
                                       NLS / AUGMENT                 HyperCard



              Vannevar Bush
                   1945
              As We May Think
                                                                                        Tim Berners-Lee
                  MEMEX
                                                                                              1989
                                                                                    Information Management:
                                                      Ted Nelson                           A Proposal
                                                         1965                            World Wide Web
                                                      “Hypertext”
                                                        Xanadu
                                                                                          www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt                                       psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       “As We May Think”

            Visionary article from 1945
               –    Intended to set the direction for research in the
                    post-war period
            Concerned with the problem of finding
             information
                                                                             Vannevar Bush
               –    Existing technology hopelessly out of date:                   1945
                                                                             As We May Think
                          The amount of information is being “expanded          MEMEX
                           at a prodigious rate”, but the means we use to
                           find it is “the same as was used in the days of
                           square-rigged ships”
               –    The solution is to get away from hierarchical
                    systems of organization and adopt new
                    techniques that reflect how the brain works
                                                                                www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt                             psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       Associative thinking

             “The human mind … operates by association. With
             one item in its grasp, it snaps instantly to the next
             that is suggested by the association of thoughts, in
             accordance with some intricate web of trails carried
             by the cells of the brain… The speed of action, the
             intricacy of trails, the detail of mental pictures, is
             awe-inspiring beyond all else in nature.”
                              Vannevar Bush: As We May Think (1945)


                                                                  www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt               psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       MEMEX (memory extender)

                                                      Consists of a desk containing
                                                        –   a very large set of documents stored on
                                                            microfilm
                                                        –   screens on which those documents are
                                                            projected
                                                        –   a device for photographing new documents
                                                        –   a mechanism for retrieving documents at the
                                                            push of a button
                                                        –   the ability to create links between documents
                                                        –   the ability to build trails, add comments,
                                                            insert new documents, etc.

                                                      Two things should be noted
                                                        –   It never occurred to Bush to use digital
                A “sort of mechanized private              technology rather than mechanical and
                                                            photographic technology
                 file and library”
                                                        –   Everything revolves around documents

                                                      The question, however, is...
                                                                                        www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt                                     psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       Is this how you think?

                                                          Is your head full of
                                                           little documents that
                                                           are all hyperlinked
                                                           together?
                                                          I don’t think so !
                                                          Mine certainly isn’t !
                                                          We don’t think in




                                             ?
                                                           terms of hyperlinked
                                                           documents; we think
                                                           in terms of concepts
                                                           and associations
                                                           between concepts
                                                                      www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt                   psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       How we really think
                                                        WWW



                                                   Berners-Lee   Engelbart
                                        Bush

                                                                                Hypertext
                                      As We May Think              AUGMENT
                                                        MEMEX

                                                    Nelson                   Xanadu

                                                        NLS




                                                    The subjects that documents are about exist as
                                                     concepts in our brains
                                                    They are connected by a network of associations
                                                    This is how we store knowledge
                                                    Documents are just a representation of some part
                                                     of that knowledge
                                                                                            www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt                                         psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       Barking up the wrong tree?

            Vannevar Bush was right that             But the MEMEX sent them all
             people think associately                  off in the wrong direction!
            He was right that organizing             Hypertext has been barking
             information in this way would             up the wrong tree ever since
             make it easier to find
            But he was wrong in adopting
             a data or document centric
             approach to the problem
            His basic idea – “organize
             information the way we think”
             – was a great inspiration to
             Engelbart, Nelson, Atkinson,
             Berners-Lee, and others...
                                                                          www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt                       psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       Which brings us to Topic Maps

            So what is Topic Maps?
               –    An open international standard for representing knowledge
                    and using it to organize information
               –    ISO/IEC 13250 (and also ISO/IEC 18048, ISO/IEC 19756)
            What is it for?
               –    Making it easier to find information
               –    Making it easier to share knowledge
            How is it used?
               –    To structure web sites and portals
               –    To help manage information
               –    To represent and connect knowledge
                                                                          www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt                       psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       The TAO of Topic Maps
                                                             Callas, Maria …………………… 42
                                                             Cavalleria Rusticana … 71, 203-204
                                                             Mascagni, Pietro
                                                               Cavalleria Rusticana . 71, 203-204
                                                             Pavarotti, Luciano ……………… 45
            Core concepts based on the                      Puccini, Giacomo ………. 23, 26-31
                                                               Tosca ………………. 65, 201-202
             back-of-book index                              Rustic Chivalry, see Cavalleria
                                                               Rusticana
            Extended and generalized for                    singers ………………………. 39-52
                                                               baritone ………………………. 46
                                                               bass ……………………….. 46-47
             use with digital information                      soprano ……………… 41-42, 337
                                                               tenor ………………………. 44-45
            Consider a two-layer model                        see also Callas, Pavarotti
                                                             Tosca ………………… 65, 201-202

             consisting of
               –    a set of information resources (below)
               –    a “knowledge map” (above)                (index)
            This is like the division of a                                  knowledge layer
             book into content and index
                                                                          information layer

                                                             (content)

                                                                                           www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt                                        psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       (1) The information layer

            The lower layer contains the content
               –    usually digital, but need not be
               –    can be in any format or notation or location
               –    can be text, graphics, video, audio, etc.
            This is like the content of the book to which the
             back-of-book index belongs


                                                                   information layer




                                                                   www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt                psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       (2) The knowledge layer

            The upper layer consists of topics and associations
               –    Topics represent the subjects that the information is about
                          Like the list of topics that forms a back-of-book index
               –    Associations represent relationships between those subjects
                          Like “see also” relationships in a back-of-book index

                                                  composed by



                                          composed by
                                                           Tosca
                             Puccini        born in                      Madame
                                                                         Butterfly

                                                Lucca                       knowledge layer
                                                                                              www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt                                           psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       Occurrences link the layers

            The two layers are                                    composed by
             linked together
                                                            composed by
               –    Occurrences are
                    relationships with
                    information resources that                            Tosca
                    are pertinent to a given      Puccini
                    subject                                  born in                 Madame
                                                                                     Butterfly
               –    The links (or locators) are
                    like page numbers in a                       Lucca              knowledge layer
                    back-of-book index                                             information layer




                                                                                  www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt                               psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
         The Identity of Everything




          Summary of core concepts
                                                                       Let’s look at some TAOs
                                                                         in the Omnigator…

            A pool of information or data, and
            a knowledge layer consisting of
     •      Topics
                                                                          composed by
              –    a set of topics representing the key
                   subjects of the domain in question               composed by

     •      Associations
              –    representing relationships between                             Tosca

                   subjects                               Puccini
                                                                     born in                 Madame
                                                                                             Butterfly
     •      Occurrences
              –    links to information that is somehow
                                                                          Lucca
                   relevant to a given subject                                                    knowledge
                                                                                                 information
              = The TAO of Topic Maps



                                                                                    www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt                                 psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       Omnigator interface

                        current topic                  (multiple) types




                   multiple names
                                                                          multiple
                                                                          typed
                                                                          occurrences



                        multiple
                        typed
                                        Demo
                        associations




                                                                   www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt                psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       What you can do with Topic Maps

            Represent subjects explicitly
            Capture relationships between subjects
            Pose queries that would make Google boggle
               –    “Give me all composers that composed operas that were
                    based on plays that were written by Shakespeare”
            Represent multiple world views in one map
            Merge arbitrary maps together into a single map
               –    (This is perhaps the most powerful aspect of Topic Maps)
               –    (It cannot be done with other data structures)
            Make information findable...

                                                                          www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt                       psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       Making information findable

            “As we may think” interface for humans
               –    The topic/association layer mirrors the associative way
                    people think
            Powerful semantic queries for applications
               –    Based on a formal data model
            Customized views based on individual needs
               –    Personalized information delivery using scope
            Information aggregation across systems
               –    Topic Maps can be merged automatically



                                                                              www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt                           psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       Applications of Topic Maps

            Taxonomy Management
            Metadata Management
            Semantic Portals
            Information Integration
            eLearning
            Business Process Modelling
            Product Configuration
            Business Rules Management
            IT Asset Management
            Asset Management (Manufacturing)
                                                       www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt    psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       Topic Maps and semantic portals

            Provides a ready-made information architecture
               –    Perfect for web publishing (web sites, portals, intranets, etc.)
            Site structure is defined as a topic map
               –    Each page devoted to a single subject
               –    User-friendly navigation paths defined by associations
               –    Content objects classified by linking to topics
            Offers the potential for connecting web sites
               –    Merging capability allows this to be done automatically
            Many such sites now exist in Norway
               –    forskning.no, Forbrukerportalen, Skolenettet, Matportalen,
                    høyre.no, etc. etc.
                                                                               www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt                            psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       My HUMIT1731 project

            A conference web site based on Topic Maps
               –    Tools: OKS Samplers and Navigator Framework from Ontopia
            (1) Create an ontology
               –    This is like a data model
               –    Describes what kinds of things (topics) the domain consists of
                    and what kind of relationships (associations) I’m interested in
            (2) Populate the topic map with data
               –    Create topics for all subjects of interest
               –    Assign names, identifiers, occurrences to them
               –    Create associations between them
            (3) Write a JSP application
               –    Automatically generates hyperlinked XHTML pages
                                                                            www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt                         psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       Topic Maps as paradigm shift

            Topic Maps started out as a way to merge indexes
            It developed into a full knowledge representation
             formalism
            Now it is being seen as something even more
             significant...
            It could represent a fundamental paradigm shift in
             how we use computers
            There is an interesting parallel here with object-
             oriented programming...
               –    (and with Copernicus)


                                                          www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt       psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       Object oriented programming

            A response to the “software crisis” of the 1960’s
               –    Programs were becoming more and more complex
               –    It was proving difficult to maintain software quality
            Modularity and reusability were seen as the answer
               –    The key concept was to structure programs “as we may think”:
                          Objects represent real-world concepts (like topics)
                          They are grouped into classes (like topic types)
                          Data structures capture relationships between objects (like associations)
            Basic concepts were developed at UiO in the 1960s
               –    Generalized as “object oriented programming” in the 1970s (Smalltalk)
               –    Represented a paradigm shift in the programming of computers
               –    Object oriented languages like Java now near universal


                                                                                              www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt                                           psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       The Copernican revolution

            For 1,000s of years people                                 Sun
             thought that the sun revolved
             around the earth
               –    Actually some Greek, Indian and
                    Muslim scholars knew better, but the
                    view of Aristotle, Ptolemy and the
                    Christian Church was dominant                                     Earth
            In 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus
             changed all that
               –    He proved that the sun is at the centre,   Earth
                    and that the earth and the planets
                    revolve around the sun
            His heliocentric theory turned
             our understanding of the                             Sun
             universe inside out.
               –    This was another paradigm shift
                                                                          www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt                       psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       The Topic Maps revolution

            Today we face a similar
             situation in computing and
             information management
               –    Our computing universe has
                    machines, applications, and then
                    documents at the centre
            This is wrong, because it does
             not reflect how humans think
               –    Humans think in terms of subjects,
                    concepts, ideas
               –    We must put subjects at the centre,
                    because that's what we’re really
                    interested in
            This is the essence of
             subject-centric computing
               –    and Topic Maps is showing the way
                                                          www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt       psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       Computing “as we may think”

            Today we face a similar
             situation in computing and
             information management
               –    Our computing universe has
                    machines, applications, and then
                    documents at the centre
            This is wrong, because it does
             not reflect how humans think
               –    Humans think in terms of subjects,
                    concepts, ideas
               –    We must put subjects at the centre,
                    because that's what we’re really
                    interested in
            This is the essence of
             subject-centric computing
               –    and Topic Maps is showing the way
                                                          www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt       psi.ontopedia.net
  O NTO PE D IA
      The Identity of Everything




       Where to learn more

            Read “The TAO of Topic Maps”
               –    A simple introduction to the basic concepts
               –    http://www.ontopia.net/topicmaps/materials/tao.html
            Download the free OKS Samplers
               –    Omnigator (Topic Maps browser) + Ontopoly (Topic Maps editor)
               –    http://www.ontopia.net/download/freedownload.html
            Join the Topic Maps group in DND
               –    KM Forum / Emnekartgruppen
               –    http://www.dnd.no
            Come to Topic Maps 2008
               –    The 2nd International Topic Maps User Conference
               –    Hotel Bristol, Oslo, April 2-4 2008
               –    http://www.topicmaps.com

                                                                               www.ontopedia.net
http://www.ontopedia.net/pepper/slides/HUMIT1731.ppt                            psi.ontopedia.net

				
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