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Bioterrorism and Biological Warfare.ppt

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					        Bioterrorism and Biological
                  Warfare




The question is not if bio-terrorism will occur, but when and where.
                                                   U.S. Rep. Christopher Shays
        Definition of Bio-terrorism
• Bio-terrorism is the threat or use of biological
  agents by individuals or groups motivated by
  political, religious, ecological, social, or for other
  ideological objectives to instill fear or cause
  illness or death in order to achieve their objective.
           Biological Weapons
• Consists of either living organisms that can reproduce,
  such as bacteria, or viruses, or toxic materials
  produced by living organisms, such as toxins or
  physiologically active proteins or peptides.

• Viruses – Venezuelan Equine Enchephalitis (Very
  Lethal)
• Bacteria – Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax)
• Toxins – Staphylococcal Enterotoxin and Botulinum
  Toxin
             Why Biologics?
• Early Symptoms Similar to Common Illnesses
• Take Time to Develop Their Full Potential
• Can Lead to Widespread Epidemics Before the
  Problem, Agent or Source is Recognized.
Armies Have Used Biological
  Warfare for Millennia
 Biological Warfare – 6th Century BC
• Assyrians poisoned enemy wells with rye
  ergot and hellebore in sieges in Krissa.
• Caused vomiting and diarrhea.
• Scythian archers used arrows dipped in
  human feces to cause illness.
 Battle of Tortona, Italy 1155

• Barbarossa put
  human corpses in
  his enemy’s
  water supply,
  successfully
  contaminating it.
     Biological Warfare              14th   Century
• During an Attack on Kaffa,
  rats and fleas carried plague to
  Tatar soldiers. The Tatar
  armies lead by De Mussis,
  catapulted corpses of plague
  victims into the city causing an
  epidemic.
• The city surrendered and the
  defending Christian Genoese
  sailors fled to Italy.
• Resulted in the European
  Plague of Black Death
      Battle of Carolstein 1422
• Czech Republic – Bodies of plague-stricken
  soldiers plus 2000 cartloads of excrement are
  hurled into the ranks of enemy troops causing
  deadly fevers to quickly break out.
              1485 Naples
• The Spanish
  supplied their
  French enemies
  with wine laced
  with leprosy
  patients’ blood.
     Pizarro’s Conquest of South
        America 15th Century

• Improved his chances of victory by
  presenting to the natives, as gifts, clothing
  laden with the smallpox virus.
       Biological Warfare 1763
• French and Indian War (Indians greatly
  outnumbered the British and were suspected of
  being on the side of the French)
• Sir Jeffrey Amherst, Commander of British
  Forces, directs that small-pox bearing blankets be
  given to Indians in the Ohio River Valley.
• Smallpox decimated the Indians
               1797 Napoleon

• The Austrian fortress at
  Mantua was of vital
  strategic importance to
  both sides during the
  1796-1797 campaigns in
  Northern Italy.
• Napoleon attempted to
  force the surrender of
  Mantua by infecting the
  citizens with Swamp
  Fever.
  Biological Warfare
    US Civil War


• W.T. Sherman’s memoirs contain accounts of
  invading forces often slaughtering animals and
  dumped the rotting carcasses on water wells as
  they passed through enemy territory.
• They obtained the idea from the Romans, who
  used dead animals to foul the water supply of
  their enemies.
        Dr. Luke Blackburn
• During the American Civil War, Dr. Luke
  Blackburn, who would later become Kentucky’s
  governor, tried to infect Union troops by
  providing them with clothing exposed to
  smallpox and yellow fever.
          WWI
• The Entente Powers, led by
  France, Russia, the United
  Kingdom and its colonies
  and dominions, and later
  Italy (from 1915) and the
  United States (from 1917),
  defeated the Central Powers,
  led by the Austro-
  Hungarian, German, and
  Ottoman Empires.
• Russia withdrew from the
  war after the revolution in
  1917.
• During WWI, as the field of microbiology
  developed, the causative organisms for many
  diseases were identified, and many were capable
  of growth in laboratories.
• During the war, most biological attacks were
  directed at animals using anthrax and glanders.
Gas Mask on Soldier
and His Horse / WWI
     Biological Warfare WWI
• Germany aims an
  ambitious biological
  weapons project at its
  enemies’ livestock
  (Romania, Italy, France,
  Russia, Mesopotamia).

• Anthrax is used to infect
  food animals and
  Glanders to infect horses
  used by the Calvary.
   Anthrax is often considered a good biological agent
because of its stability for decades in spore form and ease
                        of production.
             Germany WWI

Attempted to spread
• Cholera in Italy
• Plague in St.
  Petersburg
• Biological Bombs
  over Britain
       1915 Dr. Anton Dilger
• German-American, Dr. Anton Dilger, grows
  cultures of Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) and
  Pseudomonas mallei (glanders), supplied by
  the German government, in his Washington
  D.C. home.
• The agents and an inoculation device are
  given to sympathetic dockworkers in
  Baltimore to infect 3000 head of horses,
  mules, and cattle destined for the Allied
  troops in Europe
It is alleged that several hundred troops were additionally infected.
     U.S. Begins Preliminary Testing

• Castor Bean Toxin and Ricin
  “These experiments show two important points:
  (1) easily prepared preparations of ricin can be made in
  adhere to shrapnel bullets
  (2) there is no loss in toxicity of firing and even with the
  crudest method of coating the bullets, not a very
  considerable loss of the material itself…
  It is not unreasonable to suppose that every wound
  inflicted by a shrapnel bullet coated with ricin would
  produce a serious casualty…Many wounds which would
  otherwise be trivial would be fatal.”
              Mid 1920’s

• Both the United States and the new League
  of Nations claim that BW is impracticable,
  either because of inadequate delivery
  systems or because of enhanced public
  health and preventive medicine systems.
• BW was banned in the 1925 Geneva
  Protocol signed by 28 nations.
• Prohibits use but not development.
• The Protocol was not ratified until 1979
Japan Studies the Impact of Disease
         During War Time
• “Silent Enemy” took greater toll of lives than bullets
• Initiated preventive measures (creosote pills)
• Initiated elaborate sanitation methods (water testing)
• Initiated medical advances (field laboratories)


• Initially lost 3-4 men to disease vs 1 to bullets
• After new measures lost 1.2 disease vs 1.5 bullets
      Biological Warfare Begins in
            1930’s in Japan


         Ishii Shiro

“If we can stop the effects
of disease from killing our
own troops, why can’t we
harness disease to kill our
enemies.”
• Japan
  - Unit 731 / 3000 Scientists and Staff
  - Experimentation / Manchuria / 10,000 die
  - Began a series of horrific experiments on
    human beings outside Harbin, Manchuria,
    China, an area they
     occupied.
- The “Kenpeitai” served as a human materials
procurement arm for Unit 731
- “We tied them (prisoners) with ropes around
their waists,and their hands behind the backs.
They couldn’t move. We took them by train in
a closed car, then the Unit 731 truck would meet
us at the station. It was a strange truck – black
with no windows.”
• Ishii’s operations started out in Harbin an urban
  city and also in Tokyo concentrating on vaccines
  and other “proper” medical research.
• For human experiments, a more secluded location
  was needed. The Japanese built a secret
  laboratory and prison complex in Beiyinhe, a
  small village some 100 km south of Harbin. They
  cleared the town out and the army took over as a
  restricted military zone and built brick buildings
  veiled in secrecy.
• For two years they used humans like guinea pigs
  for medical and biowarfare experiments,
  shrouded in total secrecy.
• "to eliminate any chance of leaking out the
  secret of construction of the 'Square
  Buildings' by the laborers, they are all sent to
  special prison and used as the first batch of
  test objects."
  Blood Drainage

• At least 500 cubic
  centimeters was drawn
  at 2-3 day intervals.
  Some of the victims
  became progressively
  debilitated and wasted.
• Still, the blood drainage
  continued.
• Careful records were kept to see how far a
  human being can be squeezed of blood until
  death occurs.
• When prisoners were too
  weak to serve as lab
  materials, they were
  injected with poison or
  killed with a blow to the
  head with an axe.
• The brain might then be
  used for further research.
• Life expectancy in the
  camp was 1 month.
• "The fellow knew that it was over for him, and so
  he didn't struggle." recalled the old former medical
  assistant of a Japanese Army unit in China in
  World War II, "But when I picked up the scalpel
  that's when he began screaming. I cut him open
  from the chest to the stomach, and he screamed
  terribly, and his face was all twisted in agony.
  He made this unimaginable sound, he was
  screaming so horribly. But then finally he
  stopped."

  The former medical assistant who insisted on
  anonymity, explained the reason for the
  vivisection. The Chinese prisoner had been
  deliberately infected with the plague as part of a
  research project.
Probably more than 6,000-10,000
prisoners were killed by Unit 731, mostly
during experiments.

Human experiments that were originally
conducted for basic medical research
quickly developed into research for the
development of biological weapons.
How Do We Know About Unit 731?

• A prison break occurred during a time of
  festivals.
• Prisoner Li attacked and killed a guard and
  managed to get the keys to the cells.
• 40 Prisoners escaped in leg shackles
• A storm knocked out power and aided with
  their escape.
•   10 prisoners were gunned down.
•   Li was killed helping others over a wall
•   A few made it to a village and villagers hid them.
•   They later joined resistance fighters in the area and
    spread the word about the camp. So the camp
    moved.
20 died from
exposure or were
recaptured
                  Ping Fan
• When the prisoners managed to escape and tell
  the story to some local residents, the Japanese
  army decided to build a new facility. This much
  bigger and more secure death laboratory was
  constructed in Ping Fan, some 20 km South of
  Harbin.
• The key purpose of Ping Fan was the
  development of biological weapons.
• This included deadly
  experiments with
  humans, to test all
  kinds of pathogens and
  any newly developed
  delivery system.
• But in addition to the
  bio-warfare
  experiments, humans
  were also
  experimented to death
  for other purposes, for
  basic research on new
  viruses or on frostbite
• The laboratory and prison complex in Ping Fan
  was gigantic, with living quarters and amenities
  for up to 3,000 Japanese staff members, 300-
  500 of whom were medical doctors and
  scientists.
• An airport was built as well as a railway, which
  was later used to transport the victims into the
  death laboratories.
• Ping Fan was built and operated by thousands
  of forced Chinese laborers. their hand through
  the window)
• The core of Ping Fan was the so-called
  "Square Building", with the laboratories in
  an outer ring and the prison in the center.
  The only Chinese allowed to get even near
  the Square Building were Ping Fan's
  victims.
• Cells were either single or multiple
  occupancy and were arranged side by side
  with a window on the floor facing the
  corridor (prisoners were too weak to stand
  and extend
• As the massive Pingfang installation was under
  construction, local people began to ask what it
  was. The glib answer supplied was that the
  Japanese were building a lumber mill.
  Regarding this reply, one of the researchers
  joked privately, “And the people are the logs.”
  From then on the prisoners were referred to as
  logs.
• "We called the victims 'logs," he said, "We
  didn't want to think of them as people. We
  didn't want to admit that we were taking lives.
  So we convinced ourselves that what we were
  doing was like cutting down a tree. When you see
  someone in that state, you just can't move. Your
  mind goes blank. The fear is overwhelming."
•Pingfang was
composed of 150
buildings, including 2
secret prisons and 3
large incinerators for
disposing of its
consumed human lab
materials.
“The bodies always burned up fast
because all the organs were gone; the
bodies were empty.”
Dead Bodies Waiting for Incineration
• The research methods allowed doctors to
  induce diseases and examine their effects on
  organs at the first stages.
• Anesthesia was optional.
• “As soon as the symptoms were observed, the
  prisoner was taken from his cell and into the
  dissection room. He was stripped and placed on the
  table, screaming, trying to fight back. He was
  strapped down, still screaming frightfully. One of
  the doctors stuffed a towel into his mouth, then with
  one quick slice of the scalpel he was opened up.”
• While Unit 731 was extremely careful to
  keep the human experimentation a total
  secret in China, many microbiologists in
  Japan knew about the human experiments.
• Some results were even published in the
  scientific literature, where humans used in
  experiments were referred to "Manchurian
  monkeys"– a rather simple code, as real
  animal experiments were labeled with the
  animal’s proper scientific name.
• “After infecting him, the researchers
  decided to cut him open alive, tear him
  apart, organ by organ, to see what the
  disease does to a man’s inside. Often no
  anesthetic was used… out of concern that it
  might have an effect on the results.”

• The Other Holocaust: Nanjing Massacre, Unit 731, Unit 100, Unit 516,
  http://www.skycitygallery.com/japan/japan.html, p.13)
• “Soldiers impaled babies on bayonets and tossed
  them still alive into pots of boiling water… They
  gang-raped women from the ages of 12 to 80 and
  then killed them when they could no longer
  satisfy sexual requirements.”
• (The Other Holocaust: Nanjing Massacre, Unit 731, Unit 100, Unit 516,)
Autopsy of a Rape Victim / 15 Years of Age
• There was a Chinese woman in there who had been used
  in a frostbite experiment. She had several fingers missing
  and her bones were black, with gangrene set in… He was
  about to rape her anyway, then he saw that her sex organ
  was festering, with pus oozing to the surface. He gave up
  the idea, left, and locked the door, then later went on to
  his experimental work.”




• The Other Holocaust: Nanjing Massacre,
  Unit 731, Unit 100, Unit 516, http://www.
  skycitygallery.com/japan/japan.html p.165-166)
• Pathogens were injected into victims to determine
  the minimal dose to cause a disease.
• Foodstuffs (chocolate, cookies, beer, milk,
  coffee) were contaminated with pathogens and
  given to prisoners to determine what types of
  pathogens in what concentrations could be used
  for this delivery mechanism.
• Bacterial Bombs filled with plague, anthrax or
  typhus were exploded near prisoners who were
  fastened to stakes in the ground.
Human Bomb Test Drawing
• A newly developed type of cholera vaccine was
  tested by vaccinating prisoners with different
  types of vaccines and infecting them some time
  later with cholera.
• To determine the treatment of frostbite, prisoners
  were taken outside in freezing weather and left
  with exposed arms, periodically drenched with
  water until frozen solid.
• The arm was later amputated, the doctors would
  repeat the process on the victim's upper arm to
  the shoulder.
• After both arms were gone, the doctors moved on
  to the legs until only a head and torso remained.
• The victim was then used for plague and
  pathogens experiments.
• To determine how
  much pressure the
  body can withstand,
  some were put inside a
  pressure chamber
  would suffer terrible
  agony before their eyes
  pop out from their
  sockets and blood
  forced out through
  their skin.
The Japanese Then Utilized the
Knowledge They had Gained.
 Rat Farming and Flea Breeding
• Rats were trapped and then given to farmers
  and schoolchildren to raise.
• It was a source of income.
• The rats were later used to spread disease.
• Men over the age of 50 were dressed in heavily
  padded clothes, and they were housed together.
  Their job was to raise fleas.
• Researchers would come in every day, make
  the men take off their heavily padded pants and
  upper wear, turn them inside out, and pick out
  the fleas that were the largest.
• Then the men dressed and waited till the next
  day.
• They could harvest 800-1000 fleas per 10 men
  per day.
• Dogs were fed cholera infected meat.
• Dogs would vomit and the vomit would be
  eaten by other dogs, thus infecting them.
• Dogs would go back to their homes and
  infect the people living their via diarrhea.
In June 1944, an assault
team of seventeen
officers from Unit 731       Japan
sailed for Saipan Island,
in the Pacific Ocean, in
an attempt to deny U.S.
forces access to the
airstrip by planting
porcelain bombs
containing millions of
plague-infected fleas. The
ship was torpedoed by a
U.S. submarine before it
reached its target.
 Japan Dropped Biological Bombs
• “One day, a Japanese plane flew over and kept
  circling. Then, it dropped something that looked
  like smoke. It was wheat flour and corn and
  feathers and other things. The next day there were
  dead rats all around and the people started getting
  sick. Three days later, the shop owner’s two
  children were dead, and other people were getting
  sick and dying. Nobody could understand what
  had happened. My own family died, one after the
  other. There was misery all around. Everyone
  who died did so in pain and agony, going into
  convulsions. At first the bodies turned red, then
  after death they turned black.”
Bombing of Pearl Harbor
             American Response
• In the wake of shock and anger following Pearl Harbor,
  President Roosevelt pressed his military planners for a
  strike against Tokyo. Intended as revenge for Pearl
  Harbor, and an act of defiance in the face of a triumphant
  Japanese military, such a raid presented acute problems
  in execution. No working Allied air base was close
  enough to Japan.
             Doolittle Raid
• Just few months after the Pearl Harbor on
  April 18, 1942, U.S. shocked Japan with its
  daring Tokyo Raid or the Doolittle Raid.
• A carrier would have to approach within three hundred
  miles of the home islands for its planes to reach land.
• Sending surface ships so close to Japan at that time
  would practically assure their destruction, if not from
  Japan's own surface forces, then from her ground-based
  planes or submarine forces.
• Led by Jimmy Doolittle, 16 B-25 bombers broke
  through Japanese defenses and dropped bombs in
  Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka-Kobe, and Nagoya. It
  was a one-way mission.
• Short of the fuel, most of planes crashed or were
  ditched over China. Local Chinese hid U.S.
  survivors and escorted them to safety.
• Enraged Japanese army launched Operation Sei-
  Go to secure airfields and punish Chinese villager
  for helping US airmen.
• Operation Sei-Go or the Scorched Earth
  Campaign destroying many villages along the
  railway and used biological agents on a large
  scale.
Exact figures are
impossible to come
by, but tens of
thousands - perhaps
as many as 250,000
- Chinese civilians
were murdered in
the Chekiang and
Kiangsu provinces.
Rotting Leg Syndrome
• Victims of "rotten leg disease" in the village
  of Xia Yi. More than 350 villagers (out of
  700) became severely ill in 1942, directly
  after the Japanese attack.
• Ruan Shufeng was 14 years old when the Japanese
  attacked his village. Soon thereafter, a painful ulcer
  developed on his leg. For 64 years, he has suffered
  from a painful, festering wound on his right leg.
     Plan to Attack
       California
• During the last frenzied months
  of World War II, Unit 731
  prepared a large biological
  warfare assault on the U.S.
  involving special balloon
  bombs planned to carry disease
  across North America.
• An operation to use aircraft
  carried by submarines to drop
  plague-infected fleas over
  southern California was
  planned for September 1945.
• But the Japanese Emperor admitted defeat and
  surrendered prior to the attack.
• The leadership of the Japanese bio-warfare
  program was after the war granted immunity from
  war crimes prosecution on the condition that they
  disclosed information about their research.
               Comparison
• Nuremburg Trial lasted 10 months.
• The Tokyo War Crimes Trial lasted 2.5 years.
• The actions of Unit 731 in China were never
  examined at the War Crimes Trials.
• The Unit 731 Investigation and Testimony lasted
  5 days.
• No compensation, or even a statement of
  admission, was ever given.
• Basically Unit 731 was forgotten.
             Then in 1989…
• 1989 an appalling discovery swept across Tokyo.
• A construction crew working at Shinjuku found
  beneath a pavement, a massive cache of human
  remains.
• The horrific news spread quickly around Tokyo
  and the Japanese government decided to make
  a statement which would lead to the revelation
  of the most terrible secret of World War II.
• Some meters away from the construction site
  lay the wartime laboratory of Lieutenant
  General Shiro Ishii, father of Japan's top-
  secret biological warfare program; Unit 731.
• During 1993 and 1994,
  an exhibition based on
  the activities of Unit 731
  toured Japan, and a
  handful of ex-Unit 731
  personnel testified about
  their actions and the
  actions of others. It was
  the first time the
  Japanese government
  had allowed evidence
  that Unit 731 even
  existed to be publicized.
A book was also
writen. Hal Gold's
book starts with a
history of Unit 731,
and then provides
transcriptions of many
of the testimonies
given during the
exhibition.
                 Testimony
• The Chinese woman victim had regained her
  consciousness while being vivisected alive.
  " She opened her eyes. "
  " And then ? "
  " She hollered. "
  " What did she say ? "
  Kurumizawa could not answer, then began
  weeping feebly and murmured,
  " I don't want to think about it again. "
  The interviewee apologized, waited a few seconds,
  and tried again for an answer.
  He gave it through sobs.
  " She said, "It's all right to kill me, but please
  spare my child's life."
   When Asked How They Could
  Perform Vivisection on Humans?


• "The 1st time, I was very hesitant to do
  what I was told to do.
  The 2nd time, you get used to it.
  The 3rd time, you more or less
  volunteered."
 1931 Attempt to Poison the League
           of Nations
• In 1994, Prince Mikasa of Japan,
  acknowledges that in 1931, Japanese
  military officials attempted to poison the
  League of Nations investigation
  commission who was researching Japan’s
  siege of Manchuria. They poisoned fruit
  with cholera, however no one died.
• Today, a museum is operated in the former
  Ping Fan administrative building. Before it
  fled in 1945, the Japanese Army killed all
  prisoners, set the (infected) experimental
  animals free and destroyed the research
  complex with explosives.
  Others Were Involved in BW

• 1929 – Soviet Union opens a BW research facility
  north of the Caspian Sea
• 1936 – France had a large BW research program
• 1936 – Britain had established a group to
  investigate offensive an defensive BW issues
• 1941 – Canadian Sir Frederick Banting, the
  discoverer or insulin, initiated Canada’s BW
  research program
Hitler

  • Nazi Germany built a
    biological weapons
    research facility at
    Posen, in 1943. Hitler's
    scientists worked with
    aircraft spray-tank
    dissemination of plague
    and other germs, but
    without great success.
   Biological Warfare
• Great Britain 1942
    - Anthrax / Animal Diseases
    - Gruinard Island
A member of the
Ministry of Defense
Chemical Defense
Establishment stands
near a warning sign in
Gruinard Island,
Scotland, the site of
explosive munitions
testing using anthrax
spores as a biological
weapon. The island has
been sealed off from the
public for almost 50
years.
In 1986 an English company was paid half a million pounds to
decontaminate the 520-acre island by soaking the ground in 280 tonnes
of formaldehyde diluted in 2000 tonnes of seawater. Topsoil was also
removed in sealed containers. It’s present safety is still being debated.
             British Operation Foxley
• In 1944, the British also considered sending an
  undercover agent to kill Hitler by impregnating his
  clothing with anthrax, or hidding anthrax in objects
  such as in a fountain pen, hollowed-out spectacles
  or even a pair of false teeth.




   Prototype of 'Operation Foxley' pneumatic cyanide weapon, equipped with
   a safety pin with pull string attached to the ring of the firing rod
The so-called
"Operation Foxley"
was rejected, partly
from fear of making
Hitler a martyr,
partly because he
was proving so inept
a military strategist
(probably due to
effects of syphilis)
that he was actually
helping the Allied
cause.
  Biological Warfare Great Britain
• 1970’s Britain performed secret germ warfare tests
  using “harmless” E. coli bacterium mixed with
  “another” bacteria in aerial spraying of 150 miles
  of coastline and 30 miles of inland. Over 1 million
  people affected.
• 1973 smallpox accidentally released in London.
  Two died.
• 1978 Britain accidentally released the smallpox
  virus during research testing. One woman died.
• 1985 Smallpox ampoules were found lying in a
  cookie tin in a lab refrigerator – dated 1952 but
  still viable.
Currently working on “super bug” of cancer genes and cold
viruses. Catching a cold would give you rapidly fatal cancer.
              Biological Warfare
• United States
  Only in 1941, when credible evidence arrived that the
  Japanese were using BW against Chinese troops, did the
  U.S. government appoint a committee to study BW.

  By February 1942, the United States had established the
  War Research Service to coordinate defensive efforts
  against BW contamination of the nation’s food and
  water supply.

  But we were sadly behind the rest of the world.
Then The War was Over.
Surrender the Pacific Islands
So What Did We Do With the
Japanese Scientists from Unit
731?
We Brought Them to America!
• It is difficult to compare America in 1943 with
  America today. At no other time in world history had
  every continent been so dominated by armies in mortal
  conflict as it was in 1943.
• The U.S. faced enemies on both shores and America
  had mobilized in an all-out effort to crush Nazi
  Germany, Mussolini's Italy, and the Empire of Japan.
• America supplied war
  materials to every
  embattled country.
• Millions of young men
  and women were drafted
  or volunteered to serve
  in the Armed Services.
• American industry looked
  to those at home,
  including women for the
  first time, to handle
  industrial work building
  airplanes, ships, and the
  machinery of war.
• The U.S. feared the enemy
  and rallied to protect itself
  on every front.
• Potential invasion routes
  were verified and defensive
  measures taken, considering
  possible German landings in
  Central America, where its
  troops could move rapidly
  through Mexico into the
  American Southwest and the
  breadbasket of America.
• Because of concern over the Biological Warfare
  (BW) capability of our enemies and lacking
  adequate means to defend against biological
  agents, the U.S. government started developing
  an offensive Biological Warfare program with a
  retaliatory capability to deter such enemy attacks.
U.S. BW development efforts were centered in the
then-remote town of Frederick, Maryland at what
later became Ft. Detrick.
“The value of biological warfare will be a
debatable question until it has been clearly
proven or disproved by experiences. The wide
assumption is that any method which appears to
offer advantages to a nation at war will be
vigorously employed by that nation. There is but
one logical course to pursue, namely, to study the
possibilities of such warfare from every angle,
make every preparation for reducing its
effectiveness, and thereby reduce the likelihood
of its use.”
                      Secretary of State Stinson
 1943 Camp Detrick becomes operational as the
 parent biological research and pilot plant center
with about 4000 personnel: 2800 were Army, about
 1000 Navy and the remaining 100 civilian. Field
 testing facilities were established in Mississippi.
Workers in Crops Division green house working with plants.
• 1944 Dugway Proving Grounds in Utah was
  established as the field test center and replaced an
  earlier facility in Mississippi.
The Black Maria was the first laboratory facility built to
accommodate top secret research. Scientists completed interior
equipment installation.
• "We worked in these labs, making germs
  stronger than they normally can be. We would
  put the germs in with the petri dish and keep
  taking what was like the food the germs
  survived on out of the dish. If we took 10%
  oxygen and 5% of another thing that made up
  the petri dish out, the germ had to get stronger
  to survive. The goal was to make a very
  strong thing that would kill a lot of people if
  ever used."
                                  Eugene Rossman
                                  Assigned to Ft. Detrick
      Primitive Glove Boxes




First Facilities   Learn As We Go   Lack of Safe Enclosures
Incineration of agent and containers was
just one step in the decontamination process.
In 1949, an enclosed one
million liter test sphere was
built of steel at Camp
Detrick and BW explosive
munitions tests with
pathogens were started.


A unique test sphere, the
"Eight Ball," was
operated by the U.S. Army
Biological Laboratories at
Camp Detrick for the study
of infectious agent
aerosols.
The building housing the sphere was destroyed in a 1974 fire. The
sphere, which is on the National Register of Historic Places, has not
been used since 1969.
The round shape was used because the experiments
involved the use of explosives and the sphere was expected
to withstand stronger shocks than a rectangular building.
Field Experiments
                   Area B
• Area B was established as a proving ground
  in the former BW program.
• It was laid out in a circular grid, a series of
  seven concentric circles with measurement
  devices from 50 feet to 1,000 feet.
• It was designed to test the flow of materials
  through the air. The remnants of monitoring
  devices may still be seen in the area.
This aerial view of Area B shows clearly the circular grid used in the
biological research program. Site was also used for disposal of various
types of debris, each type disposed in separate locations.
1951 The first limited BW retaliatory capability was
achieved when an anticrop bomb was developed,
tested and placed in production for the Air Force.
“Agriculture is the perfect target as well as
perfect weapon of terrorism.”
                      Alibeck & Handelmann 1999
• The BW Program was expanded during the
  Korean War Years.
• By 1954 we were also producing hardware
  (cluster bombs) for delivering biologics.
Construction
of a BW
bacterial
production
facility was
started at
Pine Bluff
Arsenal
Arkansas.
        Biological Warfare
• United States
  1956 Soviet Union accused the U.S. of using
  biological weapons in Korea.
        1960



• Congress holds extensive hearings on the subject
  of chemical and biologic weapons
• Concludes that there is no effective inspection
  procedure available to insure violations of use are
  not occurring.
• The Kennedy
  Administration calls for a
                               1961
  thorough reassessment of
  BW by the Joint Chiefs
  of Staff, considering all
  possible applications
  including its use as an
  alternative to nuclear
  weapons.
• 1966 – Fully Operational
  Stockpiles of Biologics
  & Stockpiles of Delivery
  Systems
                          Biological
• United States            Warfare
  President Richard          1969
  Nixon ends the U.S.
  Biological Weapons
  Program and pledges
  the nation will never
  use biological
  weapons under any
  circumstances.
  (Following
  accidental release of
  agents from Camp
  Detrick)
• Entire arsenal is supposedly “destroyed” by 1973
  with only seed stocks held for research purposes.
“The U.S. shall renounce the use of lethal
 biological agents and weapons, and all
 other methods of biological research to
 defensive measures such as
 immunization and safety measures.”
       Loophole
• Since President Nixon
  did not specify “toxins”
  in his announcement,
  the scientists at Ft.
  Detrick, rewrote their
  research plans,
  changing the direction
  of their research from
  agents to “toxins”.
Started medical defensive program that continues
today as the U.S. Army Medical Research
Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRID).
      Biological Warfare
            1970’s
• United States
  Southeast Asia was being attacked
  by planes and helicopters delivering
  aerosols of several colors. After
  being exposed, people and animals
  became disoriented and ill and a
  small percentage of those stricken
  died. Attacks were commonly
  called “Yellow Rain”.

  U.S. argued that biologics were
  being used by the North Vietnamese
  and obtained from the Soviet
  Union.
• The North Vietnamese argued that the clouds
  were nothing more than urine and feces
  produced by swarms of bees attracted to the
  planes and helicopters.
        Biological Warfare 1972
• The Convention on the Prohibition of the
  Development, Production, and Stockpiling of
  Bacteriological and Toxin Weapons and on
  Their Destruction is signed by more than 100
  countries, going into effect in 1975. Signatures
  included Iraq, United States, and Soviet Union
  as well as all members of the United Nations
  Security Council.
 Evidence of
  Biological
Terrorism Only
  Increased
1966 Dr. Mitsuru Suzuki

• A Japanese Physician infected health care
  providers and patients with Salmonella typhi
• Reason – Revenge for unfair treatment he
  received while a resident during medical
  training.
• 200 people developed typhoid and dysentery
     Order of the Rising Sun 1972
• Members of the right-wing “Order of the Rising
  Sun” are arrested in Chicago.
• They possess 30-40 Kg of typhoid cultures that
  are to be used to poison the water supply in
  Chicago, St. Louis, and other mid-west cities.
• The two arrested betray the others.
• Group is arrested.
           Georgi Markov 1978
• Bulgarian exile Georgi Markov, in London, is
  injected in the leg with a steel ball via a specially
  constructed umbrella. The device injected a tiny
  pellet filled with a toxin into the subcutaneous
  tissue of his leg while he was waiting for a bus
• Markov was the Voice Against Communism on the
  the BBC and Radio Free Europe.
• In early 1978, Georgi Markov began receiving
  death threats over the telephone.
• It would be the last threat made to Georgi, in
  August of 1978, that would leave him deeply
  bothered.
• "Not this time," said the cold, calculated voice on
  the phone. "This time you will not become a
  martyr. You will simply die of natural causes.
  You will be killed by a poison that the West
  cannot detect nor treat."
• Because Georgi told so many people, including
  the authorities, about the phone call and about
  the pimple -sized mark on his right thigh from a
  strange umbrella incident at the bus stop at the
  Waterloo Bridge, doctors knew to look further
  during the autopsy.
• And a 2mm diameter block of tissue with the
  puncture wound was extracted.
• The examiners found a tiny metal pinhead inside
  the wound. When they attempted to extract the
  "pin." A tiny >2 mm wide metal pellet fell on the
  table.
The pellet held roughly
one-fifth of a milligram
of whatever it was that
had killed Georgi
Markov.
They also concluded
that to keep the
substance inside the
pellet, it may have been
coated with something
like a wax, that would
melt at human body
temperature.
• Markov died.
• First example of
  state-supported bio-
  terrorism.
• Only 10 days before Markov was attacked, a
  similar pellet had been pulled out of the back of
  another exiled Bulgarian.
• Vladimir Kostov had reported being stung with
  something, while waiting at a Paris Metro
  Station.
• He survived.
• It is believed that two
  factors saved Kostov's life.
• First the KGB had used a
  modified case of some
  sort that didn't have a
  strong enough delivery
  system.
• Secondly, Kostov had
  been protected at the time
  of the attack by a heavy
  sweater, he was wearing.
After the discovery found in Markov's death, scientists
and some members of the British Anti- Terror squad
learned of the Vladimir Kostov attempt and re-examined
his wound. A ricin pellet with a wax-coating was
discovered just under the skin.




                                           Castor Beans
         Soviet Union1979


• Previously signed the Biological Weapons
  Convention in 1975 stating “the Soviet Union
  does not possess any bacteriological agents
  and toxins, weapons, equipment, or means of
  delivery.”
• 1979 – Sverdlovsk, USSR accidental airborne leak of
  10 kg of anthrax spores released over city when filters
  were not used
• 1.2 million resided in city, 66 to 68 deaths – mostly
  adults (may have been more)
• The Soviet government claimed the deaths were
  caused by intestinal anthrax from tainted meat, a
  story some influential American scientists found
  unbelievable.
• Only in 1992 did Russian
  President Boris Yeltsin
  admit that Russia had an
  offensive BW research
  program.
• Subsequently, it has been
  discovered that they also
  were attempting to use
  recombinant DNA
  technology to produce
  lethal venoms in common
  bacteria.
   Dark Harvest Commandos 1981
• An environmental extremist group deposited
  packages containing anthrax contaminated soil
  outside a chemical weapons research facility and
  near a political party conference in Great Britain.



• Where did they get the soil?
         Biological Warfare 1984
• Rajneeshee Religious Cult intentionally contaminates
  salad bars in Oregon restaurants with Sallmonella causing
  751 cases of enteritis. Forty-five of these people need
  hospitalization.
      Religious Terrorism
Reason – To Win a Local Election
• The Rajneeshe used a home made brew of poisonous
  salmonella typhimurium and sprinkled it secretly on
  the fruits and vegetables in salad bars, poured it in the
  blue cheese dressing and on table-top coffee creamers
  in ten restaurants in the Dalles in Oregon.
• They purchased the seed stock of salmonella from a
  medical supply company
• A sex and religion cult, their leader fled
  India because of tax fraud. By 1984 they
  had taken over the city council of Antelope
  and created an intimidating police force.
• They had a goal of winning the Wasco
  County elections.
• Brought in homeless by bus loads to vote
• Contaminated city to incapacitate non-cult voters.
• Many were hospitalized. Some with perforated
  colons and colon abscesses.
• In the end, attacks took place in 10 area
  restaurants and sickened 751 people, with 45
  being hospitalized.
• In a trial run, they give water laced with
  Salmonella to two county commissioners. Both
  get sick, 1 hospitalized.
• The chief of staff for the Bhagwan Shree
  Rajneesh serves 2.5 years and then is deported.
• Aum Shinrikyo
  Cult or Supreme
  Truth Doomsday        Terrorism 1995
  Cult attacks Tokyo
  subways with the
  nerve gas sarin,
  killing 12 and
  injuring >5000.
• Reason – Seize
  control of Japan
  through mass
  murder causing fear
  and apprehension
                     Spain 2004
• The Madrid train bombings consisted of a series of
  coordinated bombings against the commuter train system
  of Madrid, Spain on the morning of 11 March 2004
  (three days before Spain's general elections), killing 191
  people and wounding 1,800.
• The bombings occurred three days before general
  elections which resulted in the defeat of the incumbent
  José María Aznar’s Partido Popular (PP), which had
  obtained a small but narrowing lead in the opinion polls.
• The AUM Shrinkyo
  was a “Supreme Truth
  Doomsday Cult” of 40
  members.
• Skilled scientists and
  technicians with
  training in
  microbiology.
• They used sarin gas.
  The Tokyo subway
  attack was carried out
  by five two man teams
  who planted toxic sarin
  gas at several stations.
• Toxic fumes were reported beginning at
  8:17 a.m. (Rush Hour)
• Nerve gas was concealed in lunch boxes, soft
  drink containers and placed on subway train
  floors.
• It was released when terrorists punctured the
  containers with umbrellas before leaving the
  trains.
• Day 1 – 641 victims/ 2 died
• Day 2 – 349 victims
1990 Outfitted a
car to disperse
botulinum toxin
through an exhaust
system and drove
the car around
Parliament.
• 1993 Attempted to disrupt
  the wedding of Prince
  Naruhito by spreading
  botulinum in downtown
  Tokyo via car.
• 1995 Planted 3 briefcases
  designed to release
  botulinum in a Tokyo
  subway. The attack was
  averted when a cult
  member substituted a non-
  toxic agent instead.
• Also in 1995, members of the far-right
  Minnesota Patriots Council were found guilty
  of producing the toxic agent ricin in a 1992
  plot to assassinate U.S. Federal officials.
• Militia members reportedly manufactured
  enough ricin from an Internet book recipe to kill
  125 people.
• It was then placed in the Dirksen Senate Office
  Building in Washington DC. It forced the
  decontamination of 16 employees and the
  shutdown of several government buildings.
  White supremacist radio broadcaster Hal Turner,
  on The Hal Turner Show, February 3, 2004.

• “I hope it's potent ricin; I hope that a lot of U.S.
  Senators inhaled it, ‘cause I'll tell you
  something, ladies and gentlemen, in my opinion,
  most of the United States Senate are
  dishonorable scumbags who deserve to be killed
  for the way they have trampled the U.S.
  Constitution, ignored illegal immigration and
  especially for sending countless billions of our
  hard earned tax money to foreign countries,
• not the least of which, that murderous terroristic
  country, Israel…I want to congratulate and
  thank whoever did this. That person is a hero in
  my book, and again, I sincerely hope that a lot
  of U.S. Senators have inhaled the stuff and the
  filthy sons-of-bitches will drop dead.”
The Threat Rises to a New Level
      in the Early 1990’s
• On the morning of August 2,
  1990 the mechanized
  infantry, armor, and tank
  units of the Iraqi Republican
  Guard invaded Kuwait and
  seized control of that
  country. The invasion
  triggered a defensive United
  States response on August 7,
  Operation DESERT
  SHIELD, to deter any
  invasion of Kuwait's oil rich
  neighbor, Saudi Arabia.
     Evaluation of Disease Risks
• U.S. Navy preventive-
  medicine personnel and
  scientists began
  evaluating disease risks
  among deployed troops.
• Ultimately, 150,000
  U.S. Troops in the
  Persian Gulf area are
  vaccinated against
  anthrax.
• On the 17th of January,
  DESERT STORM
  began with a
  coordinated attack
  which included
  Tomahawk land attack
  missiles (TLAMs)
  launched from cruisers,
  destroyers and
  battleships in the
  Persian Gulf and Red
  Sea.
• The initial barrage of over 100 TLAMs took out
  heavily defended targets in the vicinity of
  Baghdad and made a critical contribution to
  eliminating Iraqi air defenses and command and
  control capabilities.
• March 1, Cease-fire terms negotiated.
• Between Iraq's invasion of
  Kuwait in August 1990,
  and the commencement of
  military action in January
  1991, then President
  George H.W. Bush raised
  the specter of the Iraqi
  pursuit of nuclear
  weapons as one
  justification for taking
  decisive action against
  Iraq.
• In the then-classified National Security Directive
  54, signed on January 15, 1991, authorizing the
  use of force to expel Iraq from Kuwait, he
  identified Iraqi use of weapons of mass
  destruction (WMD) against allied forces as an
  action that would lead the U.S. to seek the
  removal of Saddam Hussein from power.
United Nations Inspects Iraq 1991
               • Reported the presence
                 of Anthrax, Botulism,
                 Brucellosis, Tularemia,
                 Gas Gangrene
               • Reported Aerial Bombs
                 / Surface-to-Air
                 Missiles
               • Reported Field Trials
                 Performed on Iraq
                 Citizens
 9-11 Attack of
World Trade Center
A Day To Be Remembered.
       Biological Warfare 2001
• Washington DC 2001
• 9/11 Anthrax Scare
• 22 Cases of Anthrax / 11 Inhalation / 5 Deaths
• A letter containing
  anthrax was received
  by Tom Daschle, the
  leader of the United
  States Senate.
• 23 members of his
  staff and 5 police
  officers tested positive
  with nasal swabs.
• Citizens begin
  stockpiling Cipro.
                                • This is the letter that
                                  was sent to NBC
                                  anchor Tom Brokaw
                                  with cutaneous
                                  anthrax and that
                                  infected Brokaw's
                                  assistant, Erin
                                  O'Connor. The
                                  envelope is
                                  postmarked
                                  September 18 from
                                  Trenton, N.J. The
                                  handwriting is
                                  identical to the one
Dan Rathers coins new phrase:     sent to the New York
                                  Post below
“Weapons of Mass Disruption”      postmarked on the
                                  same date and sent
                                  from the same place.
• NYC Mayor Rudolph
  Giuliani sets an
  example: Check mail
  carefully
• Biological
  cleaners moved in
  at Boca Raton
  post office
Public Reacts to Anthrax Scare
                  • A Continental
                    Airlines jet sits in a
                    parking area at the
                    airport in
                    Cleveland, Ohio,
                    after a flight
                    attendant found a
                    white, powdery
                    substance
                    onboard.
It turned out to be powered sugar from a donut!
                  Definitions
• Bio-terrorism
  Intentional or threatened use of biological agents
  to cause fear in or actually inflict death or disease
  upon a large population for political, religious, or
  ideological reasons.
• Bio-crime
  The intentional introduction of biological agents
  into food or water or air to harm or kill a number
  of individuals.
 “With  bio-terrorism, they don't
 really need to succeed—all they
 need to do is put doubt in people's
 minds.”                  Melissa Newman UK College of Agriculture




1996         An unknown person leaves muffins
             contaminated with a rare and dangerous
             bacteria in a Texas hospital.
1997- 1998   FBI agents seize small amounts of a substance
             reported to be anthrax from two men in Las
             Vegas.
2000   A Texas man is indicted for
       causing an anthrax scare,
       becoming the first person in the
       nation to face such charges. He left
       a vial of what was alleged to be
       anthrax , but which actually
       contained water, in a bin at the
       U.S. Postal Service mail
       center.
2000   Anthrax contamination threats are made
       against numerous Planned Parenthood
       clinics across the U.S. So far, none has
       been carried out.
                    In the event of a terrorist
   Creation of      attack, natural disaster or
                    other large-scale emergency,
  Department of     the Department of Homeland
Homeland Security   Security will provide a
                    coordinated, comprehensive
                    federal response and mount
                    a swift and effective
                    recovery effort.
                    The department assumes
                    primary responsibility for
                    ensuring that emergency
                    response professionals are
                    prepared for any situation.
Emergency preparedness means having the ability to
respond to threats of complex infectious diseases – to
identify the agent of illness and control its spread.
• The Department of
  Homeland Security is
  committed to helping
  first responders nation-
  wide by ensuring that
  emergency response
  professionals are
  prepared, equipped and
  trained for any situation,
  and by bringing together
  information and
  resources to prepare for
  and respond to a terrorist
  attack, natural disaster or
  other large-scale
  emergency.
    Who Has Biological Weapons?
•   Algeria    •Israel                • S. Korea
•   Canada     •Italy                 •Sudan
•   China
               •Japan                 •Syria
•   Cuba
•   Egypt      •Libya                 •Taiwan
•   Ethiopia   •Myanmar               •U.K
•   France     •N. Korea              •USA
•   Germany
               •Pakistan              •Viet Nam
•   India
•   Iran       •Former Soviet Union   •Yugoslavia
•   Iraq       •South Africa
  How Easy Is It To Get Biologics?
• In May 1995, Larry Wayne Harris, an anti-government
  "Christian Patriot" and former member of the Aryan
  Nation, a neo-Nazi organization, ordered samples of
  Yersinia pestis, from the American Type Culture
  Collection (ATCC).
• Mr. Harris, a microbiologist, said he feared
  an "imminent invasion from Iraq of super-
  germ-carrying mice", and planned to do
  research for a "plague antidote" out of his
  home in Lancaster, Ohio.
• Harris informed a person that he had plans to
  attack the New York City subway system with
  light bulbs filled with bubonic plague, using the
  same method that the U.S. Army used in a test
  with harmless bacteria in 1966.
• He forecasted hundreds of thousands of victims
  and that the government of Iraq would be
  blamed for the attack.
• After the story broke, the press reported the CDC
  had tightened up requirements for shipping
  special disease agents and toxins, such as bubonic
  plague, tularemia and brucellosis.
                  USA Research
• Past Weaponized Agents        • -melioidodis
  -Venezuelean equine             -plague
  encephalitis                    -yellow fever
  -Q fever                        -psittacosis
  -tularemia                      -typhus
  -anthrax                        -dengue fever
  -wheat rust                     -Rift Valley fever
  -rice blast                     -Chikungunya virus
                                  -late blight of potato
• Research                        -rinderpest
  -brucellosis                    -Newcastle disease
  -smallpox                       -fowl plague
  -Eastern and Western            -staph enterotoxin B
  equine encephalitis             -botulinum toxin
  -Argentinian hemorrhagic        -ricin
  fever
  -Korean hemorrhagic fever
  -Bolivian hemorrhagic fever
  -Lassa fever
  -glanders
What Do We Worry About?
• Ali Mao Maalin, was a cook in
  Merca, Somalia. In 1977 Ali
  contracted smallpox, a deadly
  virus that has claimed millions of
  lives throughout human history.
  But Ali's infection was different.
  According to the World Health
  Organization, Ali was the last
  known case of smallpox on planet
  Earth. Ali's immune system
  successfully eradicated the last
  strain of this horribly infectious
  disease on 26th October 1977,
  forever ridding the world of this
  virus... Or did it?
          Smallpox Vaccination
• Do We? Or Don’t We?
• Why Vaccinate? With the risk of bio-terror,
  smallpox is a threat to our military capabilities.
• Vaccination is the only way to prevent
  contracting smallpox. It can reliably protect you
  for up to ten years.
• Administering the vaccination now, before an
  outbreak, is the best way of protecting our
  troops.
• However it is not considered to be one of the
  “safer” vaccines.
             Smallpox Vaccination
• Safety of Vaccination
• In the past, about 1,000 people for every 1 million people
  vaccinated for the first time experienced reactions that, while not
  life-threatening, were serious. These reactions include a vigorous
  reaction at the site of the vaccination and spread of the vaccinia
  virus (the live virus in the smallpox vaccine) to other parts of the
  body and to other people. These reactions typically do not require
  medical attention.
• Between 14 and 52 people per 1 million vaccinated experienced
  potentially life-threatening reactions.
• Between 1 and 2 people out of every 1 million people vaccinated
  will die. Careful screening of potential vaccine recipients is
  essential to ensure that those at increased risk do not receive the
  vaccine.
             What We Know
• We have reports that Iraq, North Korea, and
  Russia have stockpiled the smallpox virus for BW
  use.
• In 1992, a Soviet defector revealed to Western
  intelligence that he had overseen an extensive,
  illegal program to develop smallpox into a highly
  effective biological weapon.
• Vladimir Pasechnik asserted that far from
  abandoning its bio-weapons program, the Soviet
  Union had intensified it.
• He revealed that the civilian pharmaceutical
  company, 'Biopreparat', which the Soviets had
  established in 1973, was in fact a front for a
  massive offensive bio-weapons program.
• Ken Alibek was Chief Scientist at
  Biopreparat from 1987 to 1992.
• Alibek defected to America in
  October 1992 and spent much of
  the next year being debriefed by
  CIA officers.
• His most startling revelation
  concerned smallpox. He told
  them how, during the global
  campaign to eradicate the disease,
  samples of smallpox taken by
  Russian doctors had been turned
  into weapons by the Soviet
  military.
• According to Alibek, one particularly virulent
  strain, India 67 or India 1, was chosen by the
  Russians to be weaponized.
• They perfected techniques for mass producing
  smallpox and maintained a rolling annual
  stockpile of hundreds of tons.
• They also developed ways to disseminate the
  virus in aerial bombs and ballistic missile
  warheads.
• Additional work was done to enhance the
  virulence of the virus and to combine it with
  other viruses.
• Alibek believes that,
  following the collapse of
  the Soviet Union in
  1991, unemployed or
  badly-paid scientists are
  likely to have sold
  samples of smallpox
  clandestinely and gone
  to work in rogue states
  engaged in illicit
  biological weapons
  development.
               Smallpox
• Basic Reproductive Rate Ro = 3-5 or 5-7
• U.S. Fully Susceptible / No Herd Immunity
• Unsure as to Length of Immunity of Those
  Previously Vaccinated
 Why Use Biological Weapons?
• Effective and Cheap
  - 1 gram Botulism can kill 10 million people
  - Purified Botulism is 3 million times more
    potent than our best chemical weapon
  - SCUB Missile filled with Bolulism Toxin
    would affect an area 16 times greater than
    our best chemical weapon.
           Cost Comparison
• To Affect 1 Square Kilometer of Area

 -   Conventional Weapons      $2000
 -   Nuclear Weapons           $ 800
 -   Chemical Weapons          $ 600
 -   Biological Weapons        $ 1

Biologics are the “Poor Man’s Atomic Bomb”
         Not Easily Detectable
• They cannot be detected by x-rays, dogs, and
  most devices, making them easy to transport.
• Infected humans can serve as transport devices.
            Delayed Onset

• Onset can be from a few hours to a few
  weeks after exposure.
• Perpetrators can have escaped by then and
  have protected themselves with vaccines.
 Difficulties   • Often mimic other things
                • Often requires large
Recognizing       numbers of infected
a BW Attack       before an alarm is issued
       Only Affects Organisms
• Infrastructure is left intact
    How Do Biological Agents Differ
       From Chemical Agents?
•   Biological Agents           Chemical Agents
•   1. Natural                  1. Man-made
•   2. Non volatile             2. Volatile
•   3. More Toxic               3. Less Toxic
•   4. Replicates               4. Does not Replicate
•   5. Not Dermally Active      5. Dermally Active
•   6. Legitimate Medical Use   6. No Use Other than as a Weapon
•   7. Odorless and Tasteless   7. Odor or Taste when Contaminated
•   8. Diverse Effects          8. Few Effects
•   9. Effective Immunogens     9. Poor Immunogens
•   10. Aerosol Delivery        10. Mist/Droplet/Aerosol Delivery
•   11. Delayed Onset           11. Rapid Onset
•   12. Contagious              12. Not Contagious
    Advantages to Biological Weapons

•   Low Cost
•   Easy to Grow
•   Easy to Distribute
•   Easy to Hide Production
•   Little is Required
•   Natural
       Bill Patrick’s
      Relative Aerosol
       Potency Chart
 Agent        Respiratory Dose for Man (μg)
 Q Fever                0.0000021
 Tularemia              0.0001
 Anthrax                0.008
 Botulism               4.5
 Nerve Agent VX     8000.0
Dr. William C. Patrick III spent over three decades at Fort Detrick, Maryland, the U.S.
Army's base for biological weapons research.
• “… what concerns me are graduate students
  and professors in microbiology and
  chemical engineering who have a better
  appreciation of the finer points of detail (of
  microbiology). If they were to get
  disgruntled, I think they could, with a little
  trial and error, come up with a reasonably
  acceptable BW agent.”
                                   Bill Patrick
      Why Now? Why Us?
“Our American military superiority presents
 a paradox…because our potential
 adversaries know they can’t win in a
 conventional challenge to the U.S. forces,
 they’re much more likely to try
 unconventional or asymmetrical methods,
 such as biological or chemical agents.”

               Secretary of Defense William Cohen
               March 1998 Heritage Foundation
                • Unpredictability
Disadvantages   • Long Lifespan
                • Stigma Associated with Use
CDC Category A Threat Classification

• Agents that pose a threat to National
  Security
• Easily disseminated or transmitted from
  person to person
• Cause high mortality
• High public panic and social disruption
• Require special action for PH preparedness.
     Name some Category A Agents

•   Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax)
•   Franciella tularensis (Tularemia)
•   Variola major (Smallpox)
•   Botulinum toxin (Botulism)
•   Yersinia pestis (Plague)
•   Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
CDC Category B Threat Classification

•   Moderately easy to disseminate
•   Moderate morbidity and low mortality
•   Require specific enhancement of CDC and
    PH surveillance
CDC Category C Threat Classification

•   Easily Available
•   Easy to Produce and Disseminate
•   Potential for high morbidity and mortality
    rates and major health impacts
•   Includes most EIDs such as Hantavirus
How Is It We Know So Much?
   Conscientious
    Objectors

• Over a 20-year
  period, beginning in
  the 1950s, the U.S.
  Army used Seventh
  Day Adventists to test
  vaccines against
  biological weapons.
• The Army convoy rumbled across the vast Utah
  desert just before twilight, as the July heat waned
  and the searing wind settled across the barren salt
  flats. Deep inside Dugway Proving Ground, a
  desolate 800,000-acre government weapons range,
  30 young draftees dressed in olive-drab fatigues
  dismounted from 21/2-ton trucks and took their
  positions.
• Just breathe normally, Merlin Neff remembers his
  commanding officer saying. Sitting on crude
  wooden benches jutting from the sand, and
  surrounded by caged rhesus monkeys and guinea
  pigs, the soldiers sat still and waited.
• Then the whir of air-sampling devices indicated
  that the air they were breathing had been
  intentionally contaminated by the release of
  microbes that cause Q fever, a debilitating illness
  that could lay an army low for days. Within days,
  Neff and his fellow volunteers were racked with
  fever, chills and bone-shaking aches.
• "You were really miserable for two, three days,"
  said Neff, who was 23 then and now is a 70-year-
  old doctor living in California. "I really have never
  been any sicker than that."
• It was July 1955, and Operation Whitecoat was
  underway.
Operation WHITECOAT a
program where members of
a Protestant denomination --
Seventh Day Adventists --
served as volunteers in
research experiments. The
Adventists were
conscientious objectors --
but unlike many other
conscientious objectors,
they were willing to join the
military -- just not to bear
arms. For the Army, Project
Whitecoat was a way to
learn more about biological
warfare.
• Most Whitecoats fought their war at Fort Detrick,
  Maryland. The enemies were dangerous and
  deadly viruses and bacteria, administered by their
  own government. The purpose of the program
  was to help develop and test vaccines.
• Largest and longest informed consent human biological
  experimental program.
• Conducted between 1954 and 1973 (although some
  subjects began being tested in 1953 prior to the official
  name)
• 2,300 Seventh-day Adventist draftees volunteered to
  participate in the preventive/protective medical
  experiments at Ft. Detrick, Maryland.
• The aim of the program was to discover protective
  defenses against airborne infectious diseases or chemical
  weapons.
• The program was instituted as a response to post-WWII
  information that other nations were developing chemical
  and or biological weapons against which the Untied
  States had little or no protection.
                                    • Richard Stenbakken was an
                                      army chaplain for almost 24
                                      years, and is now director of
                                      the church's chaplain
                                      ministries throughout the
                                      world. He says the church
                                      approved the plan because it
                                      was mutually beneficial, and
                                      allowed members to worship
                                      on Saturday, their Sabbath.
Chaplain RICHARD STENBAKKEN
                                    • “Sabbaths were free; they
(Adventist Chaplaincy Ministries)     were making a contribution
                                      to humanity; they were in a
                                      non-killing situation; it
                                      seemed to be, and, I think,
                                      was a very good fit.”
• SEVERSON: There was one other unusual aspect
  to Operation Whitecoat. The volunteers were
  informed about the risks involved and required to
  sign a consent form. They could also leave the
  program whenever they wanted. And hardly
  anyone left, even those faced with exposure to the
  deadly tularemia bacterial, like Ed Lamb, who has
  no regrets.

• ED LAMB (served 1963-65): They briefed us so
  thoroughly, they were really careful about the
  preparation, and we sat through meetings and they
  were spelled out in detail. And I really had no
  qualms about it.
• KEN JONES (served 1954-56): I was the
  first Whitecoat to arrive in Fort Detrick and
  go through the Eight Ball. I'm proud of that
  opportunity.

• The Whitecoaters have much to be grateful
  for. None died, at least not during the
  testing period, which began in 1954 and
  ended in 1973.
• What happened after is unclear, although
  the military recently (1990’s) sent out
  questionnaires to 1,000 volunteers, and
  received responses from 522.
• But the overwhelming sentiment here is that
  the testing, their sacrifices, made the U.S. a
  safer place.
• We now have inoculations against many of
  the diseases and viruses tested here. We have
  much more effective protective gear, and a
  model of how to conduct human experiments
  with informed consent.
         The Golden Years
            1959-1969
• Substantial Scientific Advances Were Made
• Provided the Foundation of Scientific
  Information for BW
• Concluded that BW was Eminently Feasible
• Technology was Developed
• Large Scale Fermentation/Growth Plants
• Testing on People Began
Now we have a problem. The
U.S.A. is suppose to be one of
the good guys…so who do we
           test on?
            Three Choices
• Test on the enemy.
• Test on our friends.
• Test on our own people.
            Biological Warfare
            U.S. 1950’s 1960’s
Secret aerial sprayings over San Francisco.
Used Serratia marcescens due to red/pink color.
5000 particles/minute sprayed. People died.
For the next 10 years, there were 5-10 times the normal
rate of infections noted in the population.
                 1950’s
• In the early 1950's the U.S. Military
  released bacteria from a boat outside San
  Francisco.
• The next day 11 people were admitted to
  the Stanford Medical Center with the same
  bacteria infection, one man died.
• The U.S. Military claimed the infections
  were unrelated.
         Biological Warfare
         U.S. 1950’s 1960’s



Minneapolis had
BW tests disguised
as “smoke screen
tests”.
1966 Bacillus subtilis      Biological Warfare
was released into the
subway system of New        U.S. 1950’s 1960’s
York City to determine
its vulnerability to
attack. Bacteria were
released by dropping
light bulbs when the
doors opened.
These tests occurred
from 1949 until 1969.
Experiments were also
conducted in St. Louis,
Missouri, Fort Wayne,
Indiana and other cities.
  Operation Autumn Gold 1960’s
• Thousands of U.S. sailors may have been
  unaware that they were exposed during secret
  germ-warfare experiments. Nine times within a
  month jets sprayed clouds of a biological
  weapons simulant in front of the ships.
“ The purpose of the Autumn Gold test
  program was to examine shipboard
  vulnerabilities and capabilities during a
  chemical or biological warfare agent attack.
  The test’s primary objective was to
  determine the efficiency of shipboard
  protection systems such as detectors and
  decontaminants. The Autumn Gold test
  used a biological tracer. “

                 FACT SHEET
      Office of the Special Assistant to the
   Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel and
                   Readiness)
   for Gulf War Illnesses, Medical Readiness
           and Military Deployments
• A similar operation off Newfoundland was
  called Copper Head.
 June 1990
Experimental
  Measles
  Vaccine
• In June 1990, babies in Los Angeles California
  were used as human guinea pigs with a
  experimental measles vaccine called Edmonston
  Zagreb measles vaccine ( E-Z ).
• From 1989 to 1991, Kaiser Permanente along
  with the L.A. County Department of Health and
  the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  (CDC), injected over 700 "mostly minority"
  babies with unlicensed experimental vaccines
  with fraudulently-obtained consent from the
  parents.
“Wars can no longer contain the
population, so biological terrorism
will become the weapon of
choice.”
                David Icke 2010
I’m So Glad Nothing Like This Could Ever
Happen Here in Oklahoma.

Right?
               Oklahoma 2003
• The government dropped “powder” over the
  Goldsby/Norman area to test the possibility of
  using weather radar to detect biological attacks
  from aircraft.
• And the rate of respiratory infections in the area
  tripled over the next few years.

				
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