Bioterrorism and Biological
The question is not if bio-terrorism will occur, but when and where.
U.S. Rep. Christopher Shays
Definition of Bio-terrorism
• Bio-terrorism is the threat or use of biological
agents by individuals or groups motivated by
political, religious, ecological, social, or for other
ideological objectives to instill fear or cause
illness or death in order to achieve their objective.
• Consists of either living organisms that can reproduce,
such as bacteria, or viruses, or toxic materials
produced by living organisms, such as toxins or
physiologically active proteins or peptides.
• Viruses – Venezuelan Equine Enchephalitis (Very
• Bacteria – Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax)
• Toxins – Staphylococcal Enterotoxin and Botulinum
• Early Symptoms Similar to Common Illnesses
• Take Time to Develop Their Full Potential
• Can Lead to Widespread Epidemics Before the
Problem, Agent or Source is Recognized.
Armies Have Used Biological
Warfare for Millennia
Biological Warfare – 6th Century BC
• Assyrians poisoned enemy wells with rye
ergot and hellebore in sieges in Krissa.
• Caused vomiting and diarrhea.
• Scythian archers used arrows dipped in
human feces to cause illness.
Battle of Tortona, Italy 1155
• Barbarossa put
human corpses in
Biological Warfare 14th Century
• During an Attack on Kaffa,
rats and fleas carried plague to
Tatar soldiers. The Tatar
armies lead by De Mussis,
catapulted corpses of plague
victims into the city causing an
• The city surrendered and the
defending Christian Genoese
sailors fled to Italy.
• Resulted in the European
Plague of Black Death
Battle of Carolstein 1422
• Czech Republic – Bodies of plague-stricken
soldiers plus 2000 cartloads of excrement are
hurled into the ranks of enemy troops causing
deadly fevers to quickly break out.
• The Spanish
with wine laced
Pizarro’s Conquest of South
America 15th Century
• Improved his chances of victory by
presenting to the natives, as gifts, clothing
laden with the smallpox virus.
Biological Warfare 1763
• French and Indian War (Indians greatly
outnumbered the British and were suspected of
being on the side of the French)
• Sir Jeffrey Amherst, Commander of British
Forces, directs that small-pox bearing blankets be
given to Indians in the Ohio River Valley.
• Smallpox decimated the Indians
• The Austrian fortress at
Mantua was of vital
strategic importance to
both sides during the
1796-1797 campaigns in
• Napoleon attempted to
force the surrender of
Mantua by infecting the
citizens with Swamp
US Civil War
• W.T. Sherman’s memoirs contain accounts of
invading forces often slaughtering animals and
dumped the rotting carcasses on water wells as
they passed through enemy territory.
• They obtained the idea from the Romans, who
used dead animals to foul the water supply of
Dr. Luke Blackburn
• During the American Civil War, Dr. Luke
Blackburn, who would later become Kentucky’s
governor, tried to infect Union troops by
providing them with clothing exposed to
smallpox and yellow fever.
• The Entente Powers, led by
France, Russia, the United
Kingdom and its colonies
and dominions, and later
Italy (from 1915) and the
United States (from 1917),
defeated the Central Powers,
led by the Austro-
Hungarian, German, and
• Russia withdrew from the
war after the revolution in
• During WWI, as the field of microbiology
developed, the causative organisms for many
diseases were identified, and many were capable
of growth in laboratories.
• During the war, most biological attacks were
directed at animals using anthrax and glanders.
Gas Mask on Soldier
and His Horse / WWI
Biological Warfare WWI
• Germany aims an
weapons project at its
(Romania, Italy, France,
• Anthrax is used to infect
food animals and
Glanders to infect horses
used by the Calvary.
Anthrax is often considered a good biological agent
because of its stability for decades in spore form and ease
Attempted to spread
• Cholera in Italy
• Plague in St.
• Biological Bombs
1915 Dr. Anton Dilger
• German-American, Dr. Anton Dilger, grows
cultures of Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) and
Pseudomonas mallei (glanders), supplied by
the German government, in his Washington
• The agents and an inoculation device are
given to sympathetic dockworkers in
Baltimore to infect 3000 head of horses,
mules, and cattle destined for the Allied
troops in Europe
It is alleged that several hundred troops were additionally infected.
U.S. Begins Preliminary Testing
• Castor Bean Toxin and Ricin
“These experiments show two important points:
(1) easily prepared preparations of ricin can be made in
adhere to shrapnel bullets
(2) there is no loss in toxicity of firing and even with the
crudest method of coating the bullets, not a very
considerable loss of the material itself…
It is not unreasonable to suppose that every wound
inflicted by a shrapnel bullet coated with ricin would
produce a serious casualty…Many wounds which would
otherwise be trivial would be fatal.”
• Both the United States and the new League
of Nations claim that BW is impracticable,
either because of inadequate delivery
systems or because of enhanced public
health and preventive medicine systems.
• BW was banned in the 1925 Geneva
Protocol signed by 28 nations.
• Prohibits use but not development.
• The Protocol was not ratified until 1979
Japan Studies the Impact of Disease
During War Time
• “Silent Enemy” took greater toll of lives than bullets
• Initiated preventive measures (creosote pills)
• Initiated elaborate sanitation methods (water testing)
• Initiated medical advances (field laboratories)
• Initially lost 3-4 men to disease vs 1 to bullets
• After new measures lost 1.2 disease vs 1.5 bullets
Biological Warfare Begins in
1930’s in Japan
“If we can stop the effects
of disease from killing our
own troops, why can’t we
harness disease to kill our
- Unit 731 / 3000 Scientists and Staff
- Experimentation / Manchuria / 10,000 die
- Began a series of horrific experiments on
human beings outside Harbin, Manchuria,
China, an area they
- The “Kenpeitai” served as a human materials
procurement arm for Unit 731
- “We tied them (prisoners) with ropes around
their waists,and their hands behind the backs.
They couldn’t move. We took them by train in
a closed car, then the Unit 731 truck would meet
us at the station. It was a strange truck – black
with no windows.”
• Ishii’s operations started out in Harbin an urban
city and also in Tokyo concentrating on vaccines
and other “proper” medical research.
• For human experiments, a more secluded location
was needed. The Japanese built a secret
laboratory and prison complex in Beiyinhe, a
small village some 100 km south of Harbin. They
cleared the town out and the army took over as a
restricted military zone and built brick buildings
veiled in secrecy.
• For two years they used humans like guinea pigs
for medical and biowarfare experiments,
shrouded in total secrecy.
• "to eliminate any chance of leaking out the
secret of construction of the 'Square
Buildings' by the laborers, they are all sent to
special prison and used as the first batch of
• At least 500 cubic
centimeters was drawn
at 2-3 day intervals.
Some of the victims
debilitated and wasted.
• Still, the blood drainage
• Careful records were kept to see how far a
human being can be squeezed of blood until
• When prisoners were too
weak to serve as lab
materials, they were
injected with poison or
killed with a blow to the
head with an axe.
• The brain might then be
used for further research.
• Life expectancy in the
camp was 1 month.
• "The fellow knew that it was over for him, and so
he didn't struggle." recalled the old former medical
assistant of a Japanese Army unit in China in
World War II, "But when I picked up the scalpel
that's when he began screaming. I cut him open
from the chest to the stomach, and he screamed
terribly, and his face was all twisted in agony.
He made this unimaginable sound, he was
screaming so horribly. But then finally he
The former medical assistant who insisted on
anonymity, explained the reason for the
vivisection. The Chinese prisoner had been
deliberately infected with the plague as part of a
Probably more than 6,000-10,000
prisoners were killed by Unit 731, mostly
Human experiments that were originally
conducted for basic medical research
quickly developed into research for the
development of biological weapons.
How Do We Know About Unit 731?
• A prison break occurred during a time of
• Prisoner Li attacked and killed a guard and
managed to get the keys to the cells.
• 40 Prisoners escaped in leg shackles
• A storm knocked out power and aided with
• 10 prisoners were gunned down.
• Li was killed helping others over a wall
• A few made it to a village and villagers hid them.
• They later joined resistance fighters in the area and
spread the word about the camp. So the camp
20 died from
exposure or were
• When the prisoners managed to escape and tell
the story to some local residents, the Japanese
army decided to build a new facility. This much
bigger and more secure death laboratory was
constructed in Ping Fan, some 20 km South of
• The key purpose of Ping Fan was the
development of biological weapons.
• This included deadly
humans, to test all
kinds of pathogens and
any newly developed
• But in addition to the
experimented to death
for other purposes, for
basic research on new
viruses or on frostbite
• The laboratory and prison complex in Ping Fan
was gigantic, with living quarters and amenities
for up to 3,000 Japanese staff members, 300-
500 of whom were medical doctors and
• An airport was built as well as a railway, which
was later used to transport the victims into the
• Ping Fan was built and operated by thousands
of forced Chinese laborers. their hand through
• The core of Ping Fan was the so-called
"Square Building", with the laboratories in
an outer ring and the prison in the center.
The only Chinese allowed to get even near
the Square Building were Ping Fan's
• Cells were either single or multiple
occupancy and were arranged side by side
with a window on the floor facing the
corridor (prisoners were too weak to stand
• As the massive Pingfang installation was under
construction, local people began to ask what it
was. The glib answer supplied was that the
Japanese were building a lumber mill.
Regarding this reply, one of the researchers
joked privately, “And the people are the logs.”
From then on the prisoners were referred to as
• "We called the victims 'logs," he said, "We
didn't want to think of them as people. We
didn't want to admit that we were taking lives.
So we convinced ourselves that what we were
doing was like cutting down a tree. When you see
someone in that state, you just can't move. Your
mind goes blank. The fear is overwhelming."
composed of 150
buildings, including 2
secret prisons and 3
large incinerators for
disposing of its
consumed human lab
“The bodies always burned up fast
because all the organs were gone; the
bodies were empty.”
Dead Bodies Waiting for Incineration
• The research methods allowed doctors to
induce diseases and examine their effects on
organs at the first stages.
• Anesthesia was optional.
• “As soon as the symptoms were observed, the
prisoner was taken from his cell and into the
dissection room. He was stripped and placed on the
table, screaming, trying to fight back. He was
strapped down, still screaming frightfully. One of
the doctors stuffed a towel into his mouth, then with
one quick slice of the scalpel he was opened up.”
• While Unit 731 was extremely careful to
keep the human experimentation a total
secret in China, many microbiologists in
Japan knew about the human experiments.
• Some results were even published in the
scientific literature, where humans used in
experiments were referred to "Manchurian
monkeys"– a rather simple code, as real
animal experiments were labeled with the
animal’s proper scientific name.
• “After infecting him, the researchers
decided to cut him open alive, tear him
apart, organ by organ, to see what the
disease does to a man’s inside. Often no
anesthetic was used… out of concern that it
might have an effect on the results.”
• The Other Holocaust: Nanjing Massacre, Unit 731, Unit 100, Unit 516,
• “Soldiers impaled babies on bayonets and tossed
them still alive into pots of boiling water… They
gang-raped women from the ages of 12 to 80 and
then killed them when they could no longer
satisfy sexual requirements.”
• (The Other Holocaust: Nanjing Massacre, Unit 731, Unit 100, Unit 516,)
Autopsy of a Rape Victim / 15 Years of Age
• There was a Chinese woman in there who had been used
in a frostbite experiment. She had several fingers missing
and her bones were black, with gangrene set in… He was
about to rape her anyway, then he saw that her sex organ
was festering, with pus oozing to the surface. He gave up
the idea, left, and locked the door, then later went on to
his experimental work.”
• The Other Holocaust: Nanjing Massacre,
Unit 731, Unit 100, Unit 516, http://www.
• Pathogens were injected into victims to determine
the minimal dose to cause a disease.
• Foodstuffs (chocolate, cookies, beer, milk,
coffee) were contaminated with pathogens and
given to prisoners to determine what types of
pathogens in what concentrations could be used
for this delivery mechanism.
• Bacterial Bombs filled with plague, anthrax or
typhus were exploded near prisoners who were
fastened to stakes in the ground.
Human Bomb Test Drawing
• A newly developed type of cholera vaccine was
tested by vaccinating prisoners with different
types of vaccines and infecting them some time
later with cholera.
• To determine the treatment of frostbite, prisoners
were taken outside in freezing weather and left
with exposed arms, periodically drenched with
water until frozen solid.
• The arm was later amputated, the doctors would
repeat the process on the victim's upper arm to
• After both arms were gone, the doctors moved on
to the legs until only a head and torso remained.
• The victim was then used for plague and
• To determine how
much pressure the
body can withstand,
some were put inside a
would suffer terrible
agony before their eyes
pop out from their
sockets and blood
forced out through
The Japanese Then Utilized the
Knowledge They had Gained.
Rat Farming and Flea Breeding
• Rats were trapped and then given to farmers
and schoolchildren to raise.
• It was a source of income.
• The rats were later used to spread disease.
• Men over the age of 50 were dressed in heavily
padded clothes, and they were housed together.
Their job was to raise fleas.
• Researchers would come in every day, make
the men take off their heavily padded pants and
upper wear, turn them inside out, and pick out
the fleas that were the largest.
• Then the men dressed and waited till the next
• They could harvest 800-1000 fleas per 10 men
• Dogs were fed cholera infected meat.
• Dogs would vomit and the vomit would be
eaten by other dogs, thus infecting them.
• Dogs would go back to their homes and
infect the people living their via diarrhea.
In June 1944, an assault
team of seventeen
officers from Unit 731 Japan
sailed for Saipan Island,
in the Pacific Ocean, in
an attempt to deny U.S.
forces access to the
airstrip by planting
containing millions of
plague-infected fleas. The
ship was torpedoed by a
U.S. submarine before it
reached its target.
Japan Dropped Biological Bombs
• “One day, a Japanese plane flew over and kept
circling. Then, it dropped something that looked
like smoke. It was wheat flour and corn and
feathers and other things. The next day there were
dead rats all around and the people started getting
sick. Three days later, the shop owner’s two
children were dead, and other people were getting
sick and dying. Nobody could understand what
had happened. My own family died, one after the
other. There was misery all around. Everyone
who died did so in pain and agony, going into
convulsions. At first the bodies turned red, then
after death they turned black.”
Bombing of Pearl Harbor
• In the wake of shock and anger following Pearl Harbor,
President Roosevelt pressed his military planners for a
strike against Tokyo. Intended as revenge for Pearl
Harbor, and an act of defiance in the face of a triumphant
Japanese military, such a raid presented acute problems
in execution. No working Allied air base was close
enough to Japan.
• Just few months after the Pearl Harbor on
April 18, 1942, U.S. shocked Japan with its
daring Tokyo Raid or the Doolittle Raid.
• A carrier would have to approach within three hundred
miles of the home islands for its planes to reach land.
• Sending surface ships so close to Japan at that time
would practically assure their destruction, if not from
Japan's own surface forces, then from her ground-based
planes or submarine forces.
• Led by Jimmy Doolittle, 16 B-25 bombers broke
through Japanese defenses and dropped bombs in
Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka-Kobe, and Nagoya. It
was a one-way mission.
• Short of the fuel, most of planes crashed or were
ditched over China. Local Chinese hid U.S.
survivors and escorted them to safety.
• Enraged Japanese army launched Operation Sei-
Go to secure airfields and punish Chinese villager
for helping US airmen.
• Operation Sei-Go or the Scorched Earth
Campaign destroying many villages along the
railway and used biological agents on a large
Exact figures are
impossible to come
by, but tens of
thousands - perhaps
as many as 250,000
- Chinese civilians
were murdered in
the Chekiang and
Rotting Leg Syndrome
• Victims of "rotten leg disease" in the village
of Xia Yi. More than 350 villagers (out of
700) became severely ill in 1942, directly
after the Japanese attack.
• Ruan Shufeng was 14 years old when the Japanese
attacked his village. Soon thereafter, a painful ulcer
developed on his leg. For 64 years, he has suffered
from a painful, festering wound on his right leg.
Plan to Attack
• During the last frenzied months
of World War II, Unit 731
prepared a large biological
warfare assault on the U.S.
involving special balloon
bombs planned to carry disease
across North America.
• An operation to use aircraft
carried by submarines to drop
plague-infected fleas over
southern California was
planned for September 1945.
• But the Japanese Emperor admitted defeat and
surrendered prior to the attack.
• The leadership of the Japanese bio-warfare
program was after the war granted immunity from
war crimes prosecution on the condition that they
disclosed information about their research.
• Nuremburg Trial lasted 10 months.
• The Tokyo War Crimes Trial lasted 2.5 years.
• The actions of Unit 731 in China were never
examined at the War Crimes Trials.
• The Unit 731 Investigation and Testimony lasted
• No compensation, or even a statement of
admission, was ever given.
• Basically Unit 731 was forgotten.
Then in 1989…
• 1989 an appalling discovery swept across Tokyo.
• A construction crew working at Shinjuku found
beneath a pavement, a massive cache of human
• The horrific news spread quickly around Tokyo
and the Japanese government decided to make
a statement which would lead to the revelation
of the most terrible secret of World War II.
• Some meters away from the construction site
lay the wartime laboratory of Lieutenant
General Shiro Ishii, father of Japan's top-
secret biological warfare program; Unit 731.
• During 1993 and 1994,
an exhibition based on
the activities of Unit 731
toured Japan, and a
handful of ex-Unit 731
personnel testified about
their actions and the
actions of others. It was
the first time the
had allowed evidence
that Unit 731 even
existed to be publicized.
A book was also
writen. Hal Gold's
book starts with a
history of Unit 731,
and then provides
transcriptions of many
of the testimonies
given during the
• The Chinese woman victim had regained her
consciousness while being vivisected alive.
" She opened her eyes. "
" And then ? "
" She hollered. "
" What did she say ? "
Kurumizawa could not answer, then began
weeping feebly and murmured,
" I don't want to think about it again. "
The interviewee apologized, waited a few seconds,
and tried again for an answer.
He gave it through sobs.
" She said, "It's all right to kill me, but please
spare my child's life."
When Asked How They Could
Perform Vivisection on Humans?
• "The 1st time, I was very hesitant to do
what I was told to do.
The 2nd time, you get used to it.
The 3rd time, you more or less
1931 Attempt to Poison the League
• In 1994, Prince Mikasa of Japan,
acknowledges that in 1931, Japanese
military officials attempted to poison the
League of Nations investigation
commission who was researching Japan’s
siege of Manchuria. They poisoned fruit
with cholera, however no one died.
• Today, a museum is operated in the former
Ping Fan administrative building. Before it
fled in 1945, the Japanese Army killed all
prisoners, set the (infected) experimental
animals free and destroyed the research
complex with explosives.
Others Were Involved in BW
• 1929 – Soviet Union opens a BW research facility
north of the Caspian Sea
• 1936 – France had a large BW research program
• 1936 – Britain had established a group to
investigate offensive an defensive BW issues
• 1941 – Canadian Sir Frederick Banting, the
discoverer or insulin, initiated Canada’s BW
• Nazi Germany built a
research facility at
Posen, in 1943. Hitler's
scientists worked with
dissemination of plague
and other germs, but
without great success.
• Great Britain 1942
- Anthrax / Animal Diseases
- Gruinard Island
A member of the
Ministry of Defense
near a warning sign in
Scotland, the site of
testing using anthrax
spores as a biological
weapon. The island has
been sealed off from the
public for almost 50
In 1986 an English company was paid half a million pounds to
decontaminate the 520-acre island by soaking the ground in 280 tonnes
of formaldehyde diluted in 2000 tonnes of seawater. Topsoil was also
removed in sealed containers. It’s present safety is still being debated.
British Operation Foxley
• In 1944, the British also considered sending an
undercover agent to kill Hitler by impregnating his
clothing with anthrax, or hidding anthrax in objects
such as in a fountain pen, hollowed-out spectacles
or even a pair of false teeth.
Prototype of 'Operation Foxley' pneumatic cyanide weapon, equipped with
a safety pin with pull string attached to the ring of the firing rod
was rejected, partly
from fear of making
Hitler a martyr,
partly because he
was proving so inept
a military strategist
(probably due to
effects of syphilis)
that he was actually
helping the Allied
Biological Warfare Great Britain
• 1970’s Britain performed secret germ warfare tests
using “harmless” E. coli bacterium mixed with
“another” bacteria in aerial spraying of 150 miles
of coastline and 30 miles of inland. Over 1 million
• 1973 smallpox accidentally released in London.
• 1978 Britain accidentally released the smallpox
virus during research testing. One woman died.
• 1985 Smallpox ampoules were found lying in a
cookie tin in a lab refrigerator – dated 1952 but
Currently working on “super bug” of cancer genes and cold
viruses. Catching a cold would give you rapidly fatal cancer.
• United States
Only in 1941, when credible evidence arrived that the
Japanese were using BW against Chinese troops, did the
U.S. government appoint a committee to study BW.
By February 1942, the United States had established the
War Research Service to coordinate defensive efforts
against BW contamination of the nation’s food and
But we were sadly behind the rest of the world.
Then The War was Over.
Surrender the Pacific Islands
So What Did We Do With the
Japanese Scientists from Unit
We Brought Them to America!
• It is difficult to compare America in 1943 with
America today. At no other time in world history had
every continent been so dominated by armies in mortal
conflict as it was in 1943.
• The U.S. faced enemies on both shores and America
had mobilized in an all-out effort to crush Nazi
Germany, Mussolini's Italy, and the Empire of Japan.
• America supplied war
materials to every
• Millions of young men
and women were drafted
or volunteered to serve
in the Armed Services.
• American industry looked
to those at home,
including women for the
first time, to handle
industrial work building
airplanes, ships, and the
machinery of war.
• The U.S. feared the enemy
and rallied to protect itself
on every front.
• Potential invasion routes
were verified and defensive
measures taken, considering
possible German landings in
Central America, where its
troops could move rapidly
through Mexico into the
American Southwest and the
breadbasket of America.
• Because of concern over the Biological Warfare
(BW) capability of our enemies and lacking
adequate means to defend against biological
agents, the U.S. government started developing
an offensive Biological Warfare program with a
retaliatory capability to deter such enemy attacks.
U.S. BW development efforts were centered in the
then-remote town of Frederick, Maryland at what
later became Ft. Detrick.
“The value of biological warfare will be a
debatable question until it has been clearly
proven or disproved by experiences. The wide
assumption is that any method which appears to
offer advantages to a nation at war will be
vigorously employed by that nation. There is but
one logical course to pursue, namely, to study the
possibilities of such warfare from every angle,
make every preparation for reducing its
effectiveness, and thereby reduce the likelihood
of its use.”
Secretary of State Stinson
1943 Camp Detrick becomes operational as the
parent biological research and pilot plant center
with about 4000 personnel: 2800 were Army, about
1000 Navy and the remaining 100 civilian. Field
testing facilities were established in Mississippi.
Workers in Crops Division green house working with plants.
• 1944 Dugway Proving Grounds in Utah was
established as the field test center and replaced an
earlier facility in Mississippi.
The Black Maria was the first laboratory facility built to
accommodate top secret research. Scientists completed interior
• "We worked in these labs, making germs
stronger than they normally can be. We would
put the germs in with the petri dish and keep
taking what was like the food the germs
survived on out of the dish. If we took 10%
oxygen and 5% of another thing that made up
the petri dish out, the germ had to get stronger
to survive. The goal was to make a very
strong thing that would kill a lot of people if
Assigned to Ft. Detrick
Primitive Glove Boxes
First Facilities Learn As We Go Lack of Safe Enclosures
Incineration of agent and containers was
just one step in the decontamination process.
In 1949, an enclosed one
million liter test sphere was
built of steel at Camp
Detrick and BW explosive
munitions tests with
pathogens were started.
A unique test sphere, the
"Eight Ball," was
operated by the U.S. Army
Biological Laboratories at
Camp Detrick for the study
of infectious agent
The building housing the sphere was destroyed in a 1974 fire. The
sphere, which is on the National Register of Historic Places, has not
been used since 1969.
The round shape was used because the experiments
involved the use of explosives and the sphere was expected
to withstand stronger shocks than a rectangular building.
• Area B was established as a proving ground
in the former BW program.
• It was laid out in a circular grid, a series of
seven concentric circles with measurement
devices from 50 feet to 1,000 feet.
• It was designed to test the flow of materials
through the air. The remnants of monitoring
devices may still be seen in the area.
This aerial view of Area B shows clearly the circular grid used in the
biological research program. Site was also used for disposal of various
types of debris, each type disposed in separate locations.
1951 The first limited BW retaliatory capability was
achieved when an anticrop bomb was developed,
tested and placed in production for the Air Force.
“Agriculture is the perfect target as well as
perfect weapon of terrorism.”
Alibeck & Handelmann 1999
• The BW Program was expanded during the
Korean War Years.
• By 1954 we were also producing hardware
(cluster bombs) for delivering biologics.
of a BW
• United States
1956 Soviet Union accused the U.S. of using
biological weapons in Korea.
• Congress holds extensive hearings on the subject
of chemical and biologic weapons
• Concludes that there is no effective inspection
procedure available to insure violations of use are
• The Kennedy
Administration calls for a
thorough reassessment of
BW by the Joint Chiefs
of Staff, considering all
including its use as an
alternative to nuclear
• 1966 – Fully Operational
Stockpiles of Biologics
& Stockpiles of Delivery
• United States Warfare
President Richard 1969
Nixon ends the U.S.
Program and pledges
the nation will never
weapons under any
accidental release of
agents from Camp
• Entire arsenal is supposedly “destroyed” by 1973
with only seed stocks held for research purposes.
“The U.S. shall renounce the use of lethal
biological agents and weapons, and all
other methods of biological research to
defensive measures such as
immunization and safety measures.”
• Since President Nixon
did not specify “toxins”
in his announcement,
the scientists at Ft.
Detrick, rewrote their
changing the direction
of their research from
agents to “toxins”.
Started medical defensive program that continues
today as the U.S. Army Medical Research
Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRID).
• United States
Southeast Asia was being attacked
by planes and helicopters delivering
aerosols of several colors. After
being exposed, people and animals
became disoriented and ill and a
small percentage of those stricken
died. Attacks were commonly
called “Yellow Rain”.
U.S. argued that biologics were
being used by the North Vietnamese
and obtained from the Soviet
• The North Vietnamese argued that the clouds
were nothing more than urine and feces
produced by swarms of bees attracted to the
planes and helicopters.
Biological Warfare 1972
• The Convention on the Prohibition of the
Development, Production, and Stockpiling of
Bacteriological and Toxin Weapons and on
Their Destruction is signed by more than 100
countries, going into effect in 1975. Signatures
included Iraq, United States, and Soviet Union
as well as all members of the United Nations
1966 Dr. Mitsuru Suzuki
• A Japanese Physician infected health care
providers and patients with Salmonella typhi
• Reason – Revenge for unfair treatment he
received while a resident during medical
• 200 people developed typhoid and dysentery
Order of the Rising Sun 1972
• Members of the right-wing “Order of the Rising
Sun” are arrested in Chicago.
• They possess 30-40 Kg of typhoid cultures that
are to be used to poison the water supply in
Chicago, St. Louis, and other mid-west cities.
• The two arrested betray the others.
• Group is arrested.
Georgi Markov 1978
• Bulgarian exile Georgi Markov, in London, is
injected in the leg with a steel ball via a specially
constructed umbrella. The device injected a tiny
pellet filled with a toxin into the subcutaneous
tissue of his leg while he was waiting for a bus
• Markov was the Voice Against Communism on the
the BBC and Radio Free Europe.
• In early 1978, Georgi Markov began receiving
death threats over the telephone.
• It would be the last threat made to Georgi, in
August of 1978, that would leave him deeply
• "Not this time," said the cold, calculated voice on
the phone. "This time you will not become a
martyr. You will simply die of natural causes.
You will be killed by a poison that the West
cannot detect nor treat."
• Because Georgi told so many people, including
the authorities, about the phone call and about
the pimple -sized mark on his right thigh from a
strange umbrella incident at the bus stop at the
Waterloo Bridge, doctors knew to look further
during the autopsy.
• And a 2mm diameter block of tissue with the
puncture wound was extracted.
• The examiners found a tiny metal pinhead inside
the wound. When they attempted to extract the
"pin." A tiny >2 mm wide metal pellet fell on the
The pellet held roughly
one-fifth of a milligram
of whatever it was that
had killed Georgi
They also concluded
that to keep the
substance inside the
pellet, it may have been
coated with something
like a wax, that would
melt at human body
• Markov died.
• First example of
• Only 10 days before Markov was attacked, a
similar pellet had been pulled out of the back of
another exiled Bulgarian.
• Vladimir Kostov had reported being stung with
something, while waiting at a Paris Metro
• He survived.
• It is believed that two
factors saved Kostov's life.
• First the KGB had used a
modified case of some
sort that didn't have a
strong enough delivery
• Secondly, Kostov had
been protected at the time
of the attack by a heavy
sweater, he was wearing.
After the discovery found in Markov's death, scientists
and some members of the British Anti- Terror squad
learned of the Vladimir Kostov attempt and re-examined
his wound. A ricin pellet with a wax-coating was
discovered just under the skin.
• Previously signed the Biological Weapons
Convention in 1975 stating “the Soviet Union
does not possess any bacteriological agents
and toxins, weapons, equipment, or means of
• 1979 – Sverdlovsk, USSR accidental airborne leak of
10 kg of anthrax spores released over city when filters
were not used
• 1.2 million resided in city, 66 to 68 deaths – mostly
adults (may have been more)
• The Soviet government claimed the deaths were
caused by intestinal anthrax from tainted meat, a
story some influential American scientists found
• Only in 1992 did Russian
President Boris Yeltsin
admit that Russia had an
offensive BW research
• Subsequently, it has been
discovered that they also
were attempting to use
technology to produce
lethal venoms in common
Dark Harvest Commandos 1981
• An environmental extremist group deposited
packages containing anthrax contaminated soil
outside a chemical weapons research facility and
near a political party conference in Great Britain.
• Where did they get the soil?
Biological Warfare 1984
• Rajneeshee Religious Cult intentionally contaminates
salad bars in Oregon restaurants with Sallmonella causing
751 cases of enteritis. Forty-five of these people need
Reason – To Win a Local Election
• The Rajneeshe used a home made brew of poisonous
salmonella typhimurium and sprinkled it secretly on
the fruits and vegetables in salad bars, poured it in the
blue cheese dressing and on table-top coffee creamers
in ten restaurants in the Dalles in Oregon.
• They purchased the seed stock of salmonella from a
medical supply company
• A sex and religion cult, their leader fled
India because of tax fraud. By 1984 they
had taken over the city council of Antelope
and created an intimidating police force.
• They had a goal of winning the Wasco
• Brought in homeless by bus loads to vote
• Contaminated city to incapacitate non-cult voters.
• Many were hospitalized. Some with perforated
colons and colon abscesses.
• In the end, attacks took place in 10 area
restaurants and sickened 751 people, with 45
• In a trial run, they give water laced with
Salmonella to two county commissioners. Both
get sick, 1 hospitalized.
• The chief of staff for the Bhagwan Shree
Rajneesh serves 2.5 years and then is deported.
• Aum Shinrikyo
Cult or Supreme
Truth Doomsday Terrorism 1995
Cult attacks Tokyo
subways with the
nerve gas sarin,
killing 12 and
• Reason – Seize
control of Japan
murder causing fear
• The Madrid train bombings consisted of a series of
coordinated bombings against the commuter train system
of Madrid, Spain on the morning of 11 March 2004
(three days before Spain's general elections), killing 191
people and wounding 1,800.
• The bombings occurred three days before general
elections which resulted in the defeat of the incumbent
José María Aznar’s Partido Popular (PP), which had
obtained a small but narrowing lead in the opinion polls.
• The AUM Shrinkyo
was a “Supreme Truth
Doomsday Cult” of 40
• Skilled scientists and
• They used sarin gas.
The Tokyo subway
attack was carried out
by five two man teams
who planted toxic sarin
gas at several stations.
• Toxic fumes were reported beginning at
8:17 a.m. (Rush Hour)
• Nerve gas was concealed in lunch boxes, soft
drink containers and placed on subway train
• It was released when terrorists punctured the
containers with umbrellas before leaving the
• Day 1 – 641 victims/ 2 died
• Day 2 – 349 victims
1990 Outfitted a
car to disperse
through an exhaust
system and drove
the car around
• 1993 Attempted to disrupt
the wedding of Prince
Naruhito by spreading
botulinum in downtown
Tokyo via car.
• 1995 Planted 3 briefcases
designed to release
botulinum in a Tokyo
subway. The attack was
averted when a cult
member substituted a non-
toxic agent instead.
• Also in 1995, members of the far-right
Minnesota Patriots Council were found guilty
of producing the toxic agent ricin in a 1992
plot to assassinate U.S. Federal officials.
• Militia members reportedly manufactured
enough ricin from an Internet book recipe to kill
• It was then placed in the Dirksen Senate Office
Building in Washington DC. It forced the
decontamination of 16 employees and the
shutdown of several government buildings.
White supremacist radio broadcaster Hal Turner,
on The Hal Turner Show, February 3, 2004.
• “I hope it's potent ricin; I hope that a lot of U.S.
Senators inhaled it, ‘cause I'll tell you
something, ladies and gentlemen, in my opinion,
most of the United States Senate are
dishonorable scumbags who deserve to be killed
for the way they have trampled the U.S.
Constitution, ignored illegal immigration and
especially for sending countless billions of our
hard earned tax money to foreign countries,
• not the least of which, that murderous terroristic
country, Israel…I want to congratulate and
thank whoever did this. That person is a hero in
my book, and again, I sincerely hope that a lot
of U.S. Senators have inhaled the stuff and the
filthy sons-of-bitches will drop dead.”
The Threat Rises to a New Level
in the Early 1990’s
• On the morning of August 2,
1990 the mechanized
infantry, armor, and tank
units of the Iraqi Republican
Guard invaded Kuwait and
seized control of that
country. The invasion
triggered a defensive United
States response on August 7,
SHIELD, to deter any
invasion of Kuwait's oil rich
neighbor, Saudi Arabia.
Evaluation of Disease Risks
• U.S. Navy preventive-
medicine personnel and
evaluating disease risks
among deployed troops.
• Ultimately, 150,000
U.S. Troops in the
Persian Gulf area are
• On the 17th of January,
began with a
Tomahawk land attack
launched from cruisers,
battleships in the
Persian Gulf and Red
• The initial barrage of over 100 TLAMs took out
heavily defended targets in the vicinity of
Baghdad and made a critical contribution to
eliminating Iraqi air defenses and command and
• March 1, Cease-fire terms negotiated.
• Between Iraq's invasion of
Kuwait in August 1990,
and the commencement of
military action in January
1991, then President
George H.W. Bush raised
the specter of the Iraqi
pursuit of nuclear
weapons as one
justification for taking
decisive action against
• In the then-classified National Security Directive
54, signed on January 15, 1991, authorizing the
use of force to expel Iraq from Kuwait, he
identified Iraqi use of weapons of mass
destruction (WMD) against allied forces as an
action that would lead the U.S. to seek the
removal of Saddam Hussein from power.
United Nations Inspects Iraq 1991
• Reported the presence
of Anthrax, Botulism,
• Reported Aerial Bombs
• Reported Field Trials
Performed on Iraq
9-11 Attack of
World Trade Center
A Day To Be Remembered.
Biological Warfare 2001
• Washington DC 2001
• 9/11 Anthrax Scare
• 22 Cases of Anthrax / 11 Inhalation / 5 Deaths
• A letter containing
anthrax was received
by Tom Daschle, the
leader of the United
• 23 members of his
staff and 5 police
officers tested positive
with nasal swabs.
• Citizens begin
• This is the letter that
was sent to NBC
anchor Tom Brokaw
anthrax and that
September 18 from
Trenton, N.J. The
identical to the one
Dan Rathers coins new phrase: sent to the New York
“Weapons of Mass Disruption” postmarked on the
same date and sent
from the same place.
• NYC Mayor Rudolph
Giuliani sets an
example: Check mail
cleaners moved in
at Boca Raton
Public Reacts to Anthrax Scare
• A Continental
Airlines jet sits in a
parking area at the
after a flight
attendant found a
It turned out to be powered sugar from a donut!
Intentional or threatened use of biological agents
to cause fear in or actually inflict death or disease
upon a large population for political, religious, or
The intentional introduction of biological agents
into food or water or air to harm or kill a number
“With bio-terrorism, they don't
really need to succeed—all they
need to do is put doubt in people's
minds.” Melissa Newman UK College of Agriculture
1996 An unknown person leaves muffins
contaminated with a rare and dangerous
bacteria in a Texas hospital.
1997- 1998 FBI agents seize small amounts of a substance
reported to be anthrax from two men in Las
2000 A Texas man is indicted for
causing an anthrax scare,
becoming the first person in the
nation to face such charges. He left
a vial of what was alleged to be
anthrax , but which actually
contained water, in a bin at the
U.S. Postal Service mail
2000 Anthrax contamination threats are made
against numerous Planned Parenthood
clinics across the U.S. So far, none has
been carried out.
In the event of a terrorist
Creation of attack, natural disaster or
other large-scale emergency,
Department of the Department of Homeland
Homeland Security Security will provide a
federal response and mount
a swift and effective
The department assumes
primary responsibility for
ensuring that emergency
response professionals are
prepared for any situation.
Emergency preparedness means having the ability to
respond to threats of complex infectious diseases – to
identify the agent of illness and control its spread.
• The Department of
Homeland Security is
committed to helping
first responders nation-
wide by ensuring that
prepared, equipped and
trained for any situation,
and by bringing together
resources to prepare for
and respond to a terrorist
attack, natural disaster or
Who Has Biological Weapons?
• Algeria •Israel • S. Korea
• Canada •Italy •Sudan
• Egypt •Libya •Taiwan
• Ethiopia •Myanmar •U.K
• France •N. Korea •USA
•Pakistan •Viet Nam
• Iran •Former Soviet Union •Yugoslavia
• Iraq •South Africa
How Easy Is It To Get Biologics?
• In May 1995, Larry Wayne Harris, an anti-government
"Christian Patriot" and former member of the Aryan
Nation, a neo-Nazi organization, ordered samples of
Yersinia pestis, from the American Type Culture
• Mr. Harris, a microbiologist, said he feared
an "imminent invasion from Iraq of super-
germ-carrying mice", and planned to do
research for a "plague antidote" out of his
home in Lancaster, Ohio.
• Harris informed a person that he had plans to
attack the New York City subway system with
light bulbs filled with bubonic plague, using the
same method that the U.S. Army used in a test
with harmless bacteria in 1966.
• He forecasted hundreds of thousands of victims
and that the government of Iraq would be
blamed for the attack.
• After the story broke, the press reported the CDC
had tightened up requirements for shipping
special disease agents and toxins, such as bubonic
plague, tularemia and brucellosis.
• Past Weaponized Agents • -melioidodis
-Venezuelean equine -plague
encephalitis -yellow fever
-Q fever -psittacosis
-anthrax -dengue fever
-wheat rust -Rift Valley fever
-rice blast -Chikungunya virus
-late blight of potato
• Research -rinderpest
-brucellosis -Newcastle disease
-smallpox -fowl plague
-Eastern and Western -staph enterotoxin B
equine encephalitis -botulinum toxin
-Argentinian hemorrhagic -ricin
-Korean hemorrhagic fever
-Bolivian hemorrhagic fever
What Do We Worry About?
• Ali Mao Maalin, was a cook in
Merca, Somalia. In 1977 Ali
contracted smallpox, a deadly
virus that has claimed millions of
lives throughout human history.
But Ali's infection was different.
According to the World Health
Organization, Ali was the last
known case of smallpox on planet
Earth. Ali's immune system
successfully eradicated the last
strain of this horribly infectious
disease on 26th October 1977,
forever ridding the world of this
virus... Or did it?
• Do We? Or Don’t We?
• Why Vaccinate? With the risk of bio-terror,
smallpox is a threat to our military capabilities.
• Vaccination is the only way to prevent
contracting smallpox. It can reliably protect you
for up to ten years.
• Administering the vaccination now, before an
outbreak, is the best way of protecting our
• However it is not considered to be one of the
• Safety of Vaccination
• In the past, about 1,000 people for every 1 million people
vaccinated for the first time experienced reactions that, while not
life-threatening, were serious. These reactions include a vigorous
reaction at the site of the vaccination and spread of the vaccinia
virus (the live virus in the smallpox vaccine) to other parts of the
body and to other people. These reactions typically do not require
• Between 14 and 52 people per 1 million vaccinated experienced
potentially life-threatening reactions.
• Between 1 and 2 people out of every 1 million people vaccinated
will die. Careful screening of potential vaccine recipients is
essential to ensure that those at increased risk do not receive the
What We Know
• We have reports that Iraq, North Korea, and
Russia have stockpiled the smallpox virus for BW
• In 1992, a Soviet defector revealed to Western
intelligence that he had overseen an extensive,
illegal program to develop smallpox into a highly
effective biological weapon.
• Vladimir Pasechnik asserted that far from
abandoning its bio-weapons program, the Soviet
Union had intensified it.
• He revealed that the civilian pharmaceutical
company, 'Biopreparat', which the Soviets had
established in 1973, was in fact a front for a
massive offensive bio-weapons program.
• Ken Alibek was Chief Scientist at
Biopreparat from 1987 to 1992.
• Alibek defected to America in
October 1992 and spent much of
the next year being debriefed by
• His most startling revelation
concerned smallpox. He told
them how, during the global
campaign to eradicate the disease,
samples of smallpox taken by
Russian doctors had been turned
into weapons by the Soviet
• According to Alibek, one particularly virulent
strain, India 67 or India 1, was chosen by the
Russians to be weaponized.
• They perfected techniques for mass producing
smallpox and maintained a rolling annual
stockpile of hundreds of tons.
• They also developed ways to disseminate the
virus in aerial bombs and ballistic missile
• Additional work was done to enhance the
virulence of the virus and to combine it with
• Alibek believes that,
following the collapse of
the Soviet Union in
1991, unemployed or
badly-paid scientists are
likely to have sold
samples of smallpox
clandestinely and gone
to work in rogue states
engaged in illicit
• Basic Reproductive Rate Ro = 3-5 or 5-7
• U.S. Fully Susceptible / No Herd Immunity
• Unsure as to Length of Immunity of Those
Why Use Biological Weapons?
• Effective and Cheap
- 1 gram Botulism can kill 10 million people
- Purified Botulism is 3 million times more
potent than our best chemical weapon
- SCUB Missile filled with Bolulism Toxin
would affect an area 16 times greater than
our best chemical weapon.
• To Affect 1 Square Kilometer of Area
- Conventional Weapons $2000
- Nuclear Weapons $ 800
- Chemical Weapons $ 600
- Biological Weapons $ 1
Biologics are the “Poor Man’s Atomic Bomb”
Not Easily Detectable
• They cannot be detected by x-rays, dogs, and
most devices, making them easy to transport.
• Infected humans can serve as transport devices.
• Onset can be from a few hours to a few
weeks after exposure.
• Perpetrators can have escaped by then and
have protected themselves with vaccines.
Difficulties • Often mimic other things
• Often requires large
Recognizing numbers of infected
a BW Attack before an alarm is issued
Only Affects Organisms
• Infrastructure is left intact
How Do Biological Agents Differ
From Chemical Agents?
• Biological Agents Chemical Agents
• 1. Natural 1. Man-made
• 2. Non volatile 2. Volatile
• 3. More Toxic 3. Less Toxic
• 4. Replicates 4. Does not Replicate
• 5. Not Dermally Active 5. Dermally Active
• 6. Legitimate Medical Use 6. No Use Other than as a Weapon
• 7. Odorless and Tasteless 7. Odor or Taste when Contaminated
• 8. Diverse Effects 8. Few Effects
• 9. Effective Immunogens 9. Poor Immunogens
• 10. Aerosol Delivery 10. Mist/Droplet/Aerosol Delivery
• 11. Delayed Onset 11. Rapid Onset
• 12. Contagious 12. Not Contagious
Advantages to Biological Weapons
• Low Cost
• Easy to Grow
• Easy to Distribute
• Easy to Hide Production
• Little is Required
Agent Respiratory Dose for Man (μg)
Q Fever 0.0000021
Nerve Agent VX 8000.0
Dr. William C. Patrick III spent over three decades at Fort Detrick, Maryland, the U.S.
Army's base for biological weapons research.
• “… what concerns me are graduate students
and professors in microbiology and
chemical engineering who have a better
appreciation of the finer points of detail (of
microbiology). If they were to get
disgruntled, I think they could, with a little
trial and error, come up with a reasonably
acceptable BW agent.”
Why Now? Why Us?
“Our American military superiority presents
a paradox…because our potential
adversaries know they can’t win in a
conventional challenge to the U.S. forces,
they’re much more likely to try
unconventional or asymmetrical methods,
such as biological or chemical agents.”
Secretary of Defense William Cohen
March 1998 Heritage Foundation
Disadvantages • Long Lifespan
• Stigma Associated with Use
CDC Category A Threat Classification
• Agents that pose a threat to National
• Easily disseminated or transmitted from
person to person
• Cause high mortality
• High public panic and social disruption
• Require special action for PH preparedness.
Name some Category A Agents
• Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax)
• Franciella tularensis (Tularemia)
• Variola major (Smallpox)
• Botulinum toxin (Botulism)
• Yersinia pestis (Plague)
• Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
CDC Category B Threat Classification
• Moderately easy to disseminate
• Moderate morbidity and low mortality
• Require specific enhancement of CDC and
CDC Category C Threat Classification
• Easily Available
• Easy to Produce and Disseminate
• Potential for high morbidity and mortality
rates and major health impacts
• Includes most EIDs such as Hantavirus
How Is It We Know So Much?
• Over a 20-year
period, beginning in
the 1950s, the U.S.
Army used Seventh
Day Adventists to test
• The Army convoy rumbled across the vast Utah
desert just before twilight, as the July heat waned
and the searing wind settled across the barren salt
flats. Deep inside Dugway Proving Ground, a
desolate 800,000-acre government weapons range,
30 young draftees dressed in olive-drab fatigues
dismounted from 21/2-ton trucks and took their
• Just breathe normally, Merlin Neff remembers his
commanding officer saying. Sitting on crude
wooden benches jutting from the sand, and
surrounded by caged rhesus monkeys and guinea
pigs, the soldiers sat still and waited.
• Then the whir of air-sampling devices indicated
that the air they were breathing had been
intentionally contaminated by the release of
microbes that cause Q fever, a debilitating illness
that could lay an army low for days. Within days,
Neff and his fellow volunteers were racked with
fever, chills and bone-shaking aches.
• "You were really miserable for two, three days,"
said Neff, who was 23 then and now is a 70-year-
old doctor living in California. "I really have never
been any sicker than that."
• It was July 1955, and Operation Whitecoat was
Operation WHITECOAT a
program where members of
a Protestant denomination --
Seventh Day Adventists --
served as volunteers in
research experiments. The
conscientious objectors --
but unlike many other
they were willing to join the
military -- just not to bear
arms. For the Army, Project
Whitecoat was a way to
learn more about biological
• Most Whitecoats fought their war at Fort Detrick,
Maryland. The enemies were dangerous and
deadly viruses and bacteria, administered by their
own government. The purpose of the program
was to help develop and test vaccines.
• Largest and longest informed consent human biological
• Conducted between 1954 and 1973 (although some
subjects began being tested in 1953 prior to the official
• 2,300 Seventh-day Adventist draftees volunteered to
participate in the preventive/protective medical
experiments at Ft. Detrick, Maryland.
• The aim of the program was to discover protective
defenses against airborne infectious diseases or chemical
• The program was instituted as a response to post-WWII
information that other nations were developing chemical
and or biological weapons against which the Untied
States had little or no protection.
• Richard Stenbakken was an
army chaplain for almost 24
years, and is now director of
the church's chaplain
ministries throughout the
world. He says the church
approved the plan because it
was mutually beneficial, and
allowed members to worship
on Saturday, their Sabbath.
Chaplain RICHARD STENBAKKEN
• “Sabbaths were free; they
(Adventist Chaplaincy Ministries) were making a contribution
to humanity; they were in a
non-killing situation; it
seemed to be, and, I think,
was a very good fit.”
• SEVERSON: There was one other unusual aspect
to Operation Whitecoat. The volunteers were
informed about the risks involved and required to
sign a consent form. They could also leave the
program whenever they wanted. And hardly
anyone left, even those faced with exposure to the
deadly tularemia bacterial, like Ed Lamb, who has
• ED LAMB (served 1963-65): They briefed us so
thoroughly, they were really careful about the
preparation, and we sat through meetings and they
were spelled out in detail. And I really had no
qualms about it.
• KEN JONES (served 1954-56): I was the
first Whitecoat to arrive in Fort Detrick and
go through the Eight Ball. I'm proud of that
• The Whitecoaters have much to be grateful
for. None died, at least not during the
testing period, which began in 1954 and
ended in 1973.
• What happened after is unclear, although
the military recently (1990’s) sent out
questionnaires to 1,000 volunteers, and
received responses from 522.
• But the overwhelming sentiment here is that
the testing, their sacrifices, made the U.S. a
• We now have inoculations against many of
the diseases and viruses tested here. We have
much more effective protective gear, and a
model of how to conduct human experiments
with informed consent.
The Golden Years
• Substantial Scientific Advances Were Made
• Provided the Foundation of Scientific
Information for BW
• Concluded that BW was Eminently Feasible
• Technology was Developed
• Large Scale Fermentation/Growth Plants
• Testing on People Began
Now we have a problem. The
U.S.A. is suppose to be one of
the good guys…so who do we
• Test on the enemy.
• Test on our friends.
• Test on our own people.
U.S. 1950’s 1960’s
Secret aerial sprayings over San Francisco.
Used Serratia marcescens due to red/pink color.
5000 particles/minute sprayed. People died.
For the next 10 years, there were 5-10 times the normal
rate of infections noted in the population.
• In the early 1950's the U.S. Military
released bacteria from a boat outside San
• The next day 11 people were admitted to
the Stanford Medical Center with the same
bacteria infection, one man died.
• The U.S. Military claimed the infections
U.S. 1950’s 1960’s
BW tests disguised
as “smoke screen
1966 Bacillus subtilis Biological Warfare
was released into the
subway system of New U.S. 1950’s 1960’s
York City to determine
its vulnerability to
attack. Bacteria were
released by dropping
light bulbs when the
These tests occurred
from 1949 until 1969.
Experiments were also
conducted in St. Louis,
Missouri, Fort Wayne,
Indiana and other cities.
Operation Autumn Gold 1960’s
• Thousands of U.S. sailors may have been
unaware that they were exposed during secret
germ-warfare experiments. Nine times within a
month jets sprayed clouds of a biological
weapons simulant in front of the ships.
“ The purpose of the Autumn Gold test
program was to examine shipboard
vulnerabilities and capabilities during a
chemical or biological warfare agent attack.
The test’s primary objective was to
determine the efficiency of shipboard
protection systems such as detectors and
decontaminants. The Autumn Gold test
used a biological tracer. “
Office of the Special Assistant to the
Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel and
for Gulf War Illnesses, Medical Readiness
and Military Deployments
• A similar operation off Newfoundland was
called Copper Head.
• In June 1990, babies in Los Angeles California
were used as human guinea pigs with a
experimental measles vaccine called Edmonston
Zagreb measles vaccine ( E-Z ).
• From 1989 to 1991, Kaiser Permanente along
with the L.A. County Department of Health and
the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC), injected over 700 "mostly minority"
babies with unlicensed experimental vaccines
with fraudulently-obtained consent from the
“Wars can no longer contain the
population, so biological terrorism
will become the weapon of
David Icke 2010
I’m So Glad Nothing Like This Could Ever
Happen Here in Oklahoma.
• The government dropped “powder” over the
Goldsby/Norman area to test the possibility of
using weather radar to detect biological attacks
• And the rate of respiratory infections in the area
tripled over the next few years.