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Bioterrorism and Biological Warfare The question is not if bio-terrorism will occur, but when and where. U.S. Rep. Christopher Shays Definition of Bio-terrorism • Bio-terrorism is the threat or use of biological agents by individuals or groups motivated by political, religious, ecological, social, or for other ideological objectives to instill fear or cause illness or death in order to achieve their objective. Biological Weapons • Consists of either living organisms that can reproduce, such as bacteria, or viruses, or toxic materials produced by living organisms, such as toxins or physiologically active proteins or peptides. • Viruses – Venezuelan Equine Enchephalitis (Very Lethal) • Bacteria – Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax) • Toxins – Staphylococcal Enterotoxin and Botulinum Toxin Why Biologics? • Early Symptoms Similar to Common Illnesses • Take Time to Develop Their Full Potential • Can Lead to Widespread Epidemics Before the Problem, Agent or Source is Recognized. Armies Have Used Biological Warfare for Millennia Biological Warfare – 6th Century BC • Assyrians poisoned enemy wells with rye ergot and hellebore in sieges in Krissa. • Caused vomiting and diarrhea. • Scythian archers used arrows dipped in human feces to cause illness. Battle of Tortona, Italy 1155 • Barbarossa put human corpses in his enemy’s water supply, successfully contaminating it. Biological Warfare 14th Century • During an Attack on Kaffa, rats and fleas carried plague to Tatar soldiers. The Tatar armies lead by De Mussis, catapulted corpses of plague victims into the city causing an epidemic. • The city surrendered and the defending Christian Genoese sailors fled to Italy. • Resulted in the European Plague of Black Death Battle of Carolstein 1422 • Czech Republic – Bodies of plague-stricken soldiers plus 2000 cartloads of excrement are hurled into the ranks of enemy troops causing deadly fevers to quickly break out. 1485 Naples • The Spanish supplied their French enemies with wine laced with leprosy patients’ blood. Pizarro’s Conquest of South America 15th Century • Improved his chances of victory by presenting to the natives, as gifts, clothing laden with the smallpox virus. Biological Warfare 1763 • French and Indian War (Indians greatly outnumbered the British and were suspected of being on the side of the French) • Sir Jeffrey Amherst, Commander of British Forces, directs that small-pox bearing blankets be given to Indians in the Ohio River Valley. • Smallpox decimated the Indians 1797 Napoleon • The Austrian fortress at Mantua was of vital strategic importance to both sides during the 1796-1797 campaigns in Northern Italy. • Napoleon attempted to force the surrender of Mantua by infecting the citizens with Swamp Fever. Biological Warfare US Civil War • W.T. Sherman’s memoirs contain accounts of invading forces often slaughtering animals and dumped the rotting carcasses on water wells as they passed through enemy territory. • They obtained the idea from the Romans, who used dead animals to foul the water supply of their enemies. Dr. Luke Blackburn • During the American Civil War, Dr. Luke Blackburn, who would later become Kentucky’s governor, tried to infect Union troops by providing them with clothing exposed to smallpox and yellow fever. WWI • The Entente Powers, led by France, Russia, the United Kingdom and its colonies and dominions, and later Italy (from 1915) and the United States (from 1917), defeated the Central Powers, led by the Austro- Hungarian, German, and Ottoman Empires. • Russia withdrew from the war after the revolution in 1917. • During WWI, as the field of microbiology developed, the causative organisms for many diseases were identified, and many were capable of growth in laboratories. • During the war, most biological attacks were directed at animals using anthrax and glanders. Gas Mask on Soldier and His Horse / WWI Biological Warfare WWI • Germany aims an ambitious biological weapons project at its enemies’ livestock (Romania, Italy, France, Russia, Mesopotamia). • Anthrax is used to infect food animals and Glanders to infect horses used by the Calvary. Anthrax is often considered a good biological agent because of its stability for decades in spore form and ease of production. Germany WWI Attempted to spread • Cholera in Italy • Plague in St. Petersburg • Biological Bombs over Britain 1915 Dr. Anton Dilger • German-American, Dr. Anton Dilger, grows cultures of Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) and Pseudomonas mallei (glanders), supplied by the German government, in his Washington D.C. home. • The agents and an inoculation device are given to sympathetic dockworkers in Baltimore to infect 3000 head of horses, mules, and cattle destined for the Allied troops in Europe It is alleged that several hundred troops were additionally infected. U.S. Begins Preliminary Testing • Castor Bean Toxin and Ricin “These experiments show two important points: (1) easily prepared preparations of ricin can be made in adhere to shrapnel bullets (2) there is no loss in toxicity of firing and even with the crudest method of coating the bullets, not a very considerable loss of the material itself… It is not unreasonable to suppose that every wound inflicted by a shrapnel bullet coated with ricin would produce a serious casualty…Many wounds which would otherwise be trivial would be fatal.” Mid 1920’s • Both the United States and the new League of Nations claim that BW is impracticable, either because of inadequate delivery systems or because of enhanced public health and preventive medicine systems. • BW was banned in the 1925 Geneva Protocol signed by 28 nations. • Prohibits use but not development. • The Protocol was not ratified until 1979 Japan Studies the Impact of Disease During War Time • “Silent Enemy” took greater toll of lives than bullets • Initiated preventive measures (creosote pills) • Initiated elaborate sanitation methods (water testing) • Initiated medical advances (field laboratories) • Initially lost 3-4 men to disease vs 1 to bullets • After new measures lost 1.2 disease vs 1.5 bullets Biological Warfare Begins in 1930’s in Japan Ishii Shiro “If we can stop the effects of disease from killing our own troops, why can’t we harness disease to kill our enemies.” • Japan - Unit 731 / 3000 Scientists and Staff - Experimentation / Manchuria / 10,000 die - Began a series of horrific experiments on human beings outside Harbin, Manchuria, China, an area they occupied. - The “Kenpeitai” served as a human materials procurement arm for Unit 731 - “We tied them (prisoners) with ropes around their waists,and their hands behind the backs. They couldn’t move. We took them by train in a closed car, then the Unit 731 truck would meet us at the station. It was a strange truck – black with no windows.” • Ishii’s operations started out in Harbin an urban city and also in Tokyo concentrating on vaccines and other “proper” medical research. • For human experiments, a more secluded location was needed. The Japanese built a secret laboratory and prison complex in Beiyinhe, a small village some 100 km south of Harbin. They cleared the town out and the army took over as a restricted military zone and built brick buildings veiled in secrecy. • For two years they used humans like guinea pigs for medical and biowarfare experiments, shrouded in total secrecy. • "to eliminate any chance of leaking out the secret of construction of the 'Square Buildings' by the laborers, they are all sent to special prison and used as the first batch of test objects." Blood Drainage • At least 500 cubic centimeters was drawn at 2-3 day intervals. Some of the victims became progressively debilitated and wasted. • Still, the blood drainage continued. • Careful records were kept to see how far a human being can be squeezed of blood until death occurs. • When prisoners were too weak to serve as lab materials, they were injected with poison or killed with a blow to the head with an axe. • The brain might then be used for further research. • Life expectancy in the camp was 1 month. • "The fellow knew that it was over for him, and so he didn't struggle." recalled the old former medical assistant of a Japanese Army unit in China in World War II, "But when I picked up the scalpel that's when he began screaming. I cut him open from the chest to the stomach, and he screamed terribly, and his face was all twisted in agony. He made this unimaginable sound, he was screaming so horribly. But then finally he stopped." The former medical assistant who insisted on anonymity, explained the reason for the vivisection. The Chinese prisoner had been deliberately infected with the plague as part of a research project. Probably more than 6,000-10,000 prisoners were killed by Unit 731, mostly during experiments. Human experiments that were originally conducted for basic medical research quickly developed into research for the development of biological weapons. How Do We Know About Unit 731? • A prison break occurred during a time of festivals. • Prisoner Li attacked and killed a guard and managed to get the keys to the cells. • 40 Prisoners escaped in leg shackles • A storm knocked out power and aided with their escape. • 10 prisoners were gunned down. • Li was killed helping others over a wall • A few made it to a village and villagers hid them. • They later joined resistance fighters in the area and spread the word about the camp. So the camp moved. 20 died from exposure or were recaptured Ping Fan • When the prisoners managed to escape and tell the story to some local residents, the Japanese army decided to build a new facility. This much bigger and more secure death laboratory was constructed in Ping Fan, some 20 km South of Harbin. • The key purpose of Ping Fan was the development of biological weapons. • This included deadly experiments with humans, to test all kinds of pathogens and any newly developed delivery system. • But in addition to the bio-warfare experiments, humans were also experimented to death for other purposes, for basic research on new viruses or on frostbite • The laboratory and prison complex in Ping Fan was gigantic, with living quarters and amenities for up to 3,000 Japanese staff members, 300- 500 of whom were medical doctors and scientists. • An airport was built as well as a railway, which was later used to transport the victims into the death laboratories. • Ping Fan was built and operated by thousands of forced Chinese laborers. their hand through the window) • The core of Ping Fan was the so-called "Square Building", with the laboratories in an outer ring and the prison in the center. The only Chinese allowed to get even near the Square Building were Ping Fan's victims. • Cells were either single or multiple occupancy and were arranged side by side with a window on the floor facing the corridor (prisoners were too weak to stand and extend • As the massive Pingfang installation was under construction, local people began to ask what it was. The glib answer supplied was that the Japanese were building a lumber mill. Regarding this reply, one of the researchers joked privately, “And the people are the logs.” From then on the prisoners were referred to as logs. • "We called the victims 'logs," he said, "We didn't want to think of them as people. We didn't want to admit that we were taking lives. So we convinced ourselves that what we were doing was like cutting down a tree. When you see someone in that state, you just can't move. Your mind goes blank. The fear is overwhelming." •Pingfang was composed of 150 buildings, including 2 secret prisons and 3 large incinerators for disposing of its consumed human lab materials. “The bodies always burned up fast because all the organs were gone; the bodies were empty.” Dead Bodies Waiting for Incineration • The research methods allowed doctors to induce diseases and examine their effects on organs at the first stages. • Anesthesia was optional. • “As soon as the symptoms were observed, the prisoner was taken from his cell and into the dissection room. He was stripped and placed on the table, screaming, trying to fight back. He was strapped down, still screaming frightfully. One of the doctors stuffed a towel into his mouth, then with one quick slice of the scalpel he was opened up.” • While Unit 731 was extremely careful to keep the human experimentation a total secret in China, many microbiologists in Japan knew about the human experiments. • Some results were even published in the scientific literature, where humans used in experiments were referred to "Manchurian monkeys"– a rather simple code, as real animal experiments were labeled with the animal’s proper scientific name. • “After infecting him, the researchers decided to cut him open alive, tear him apart, organ by organ, to see what the disease does to a man’s inside. Often no anesthetic was used… out of concern that it might have an effect on the results.” • The Other Holocaust: Nanjing Massacre, Unit 731, Unit 100, Unit 516, http://www.skycitygallery.com/japan/japan.html, p.13) • “Soldiers impaled babies on bayonets and tossed them still alive into pots of boiling water… They gang-raped women from the ages of 12 to 80 and then killed them when they could no longer satisfy sexual requirements.” • (The Other Holocaust: Nanjing Massacre, Unit 731, Unit 100, Unit 516,) Autopsy of a Rape Victim / 15 Years of Age • There was a Chinese woman in there who had been used in a frostbite experiment. She had several fingers missing and her bones were black, with gangrene set in… He was about to rape her anyway, then he saw that her sex organ was festering, with pus oozing to the surface. He gave up the idea, left, and locked the door, then later went on to his experimental work.” • The Other Holocaust: Nanjing Massacre, Unit 731, Unit 100, Unit 516, http://www. skycitygallery.com/japan/japan.html p.165-166) • Pathogens were injected into victims to determine the minimal dose to cause a disease. • Foodstuffs (chocolate, cookies, beer, milk, coffee) were contaminated with pathogens and given to prisoners to determine what types of pathogens in what concentrations could be used for this delivery mechanism. • Bacterial Bombs filled with plague, anthrax or typhus were exploded near prisoners who were fastened to stakes in the ground. Human Bomb Test Drawing • A newly developed type of cholera vaccine was tested by vaccinating prisoners with different types of vaccines and infecting them some time later with cholera. • To determine the treatment of frostbite, prisoners were taken outside in freezing weather and left with exposed arms, periodically drenched with water until frozen solid. • The arm was later amputated, the doctors would repeat the process on the victim's upper arm to the shoulder. • After both arms were gone, the doctors moved on to the legs until only a head and torso remained. • The victim was then used for plague and pathogens experiments. • To determine how much pressure the body can withstand, some were put inside a pressure chamber would suffer terrible agony before their eyes pop out from their sockets and blood forced out through their skin. The Japanese Then Utilized the Knowledge They had Gained. Rat Farming and Flea Breeding • Rats were trapped and then given to farmers and schoolchildren to raise. • It was a source of income. • The rats were later used to spread disease. • Men over the age of 50 were dressed in heavily padded clothes, and they were housed together. Their job was to raise fleas. • Researchers would come in every day, make the men take off their heavily padded pants and upper wear, turn them inside out, and pick out the fleas that were the largest. • Then the men dressed and waited till the next day. • They could harvest 800-1000 fleas per 10 men per day. • Dogs were fed cholera infected meat. • Dogs would vomit and the vomit would be eaten by other dogs, thus infecting them. • Dogs would go back to their homes and infect the people living their via diarrhea. In June 1944, an assault team of seventeen officers from Unit 731 Japan sailed for Saipan Island, in the Pacific Ocean, in an attempt to deny U.S. forces access to the airstrip by planting porcelain bombs containing millions of plague-infected fleas. The ship was torpedoed by a U.S. submarine before it reached its target. Japan Dropped Biological Bombs • “One day, a Japanese plane flew over and kept circling. Then, it dropped something that looked like smoke. It was wheat flour and corn and feathers and other things. The next day there were dead rats all around and the people started getting sick. Three days later, the shop owner’s two children were dead, and other people were getting sick and dying. Nobody could understand what had happened. My own family died, one after the other. There was misery all around. Everyone who died did so in pain and agony, going into convulsions. At first the bodies turned red, then after death they turned black.” Bombing of Pearl Harbor American Response • In the wake of shock and anger following Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt pressed his military planners for a strike against Tokyo. Intended as revenge for Pearl Harbor, and an act of defiance in the face of a triumphant Japanese military, such a raid presented acute problems in execution. No working Allied air base was close enough to Japan. Doolittle Raid • Just few months after the Pearl Harbor on April 18, 1942, U.S. shocked Japan with its daring Tokyo Raid or the Doolittle Raid. • A carrier would have to approach within three hundred miles of the home islands for its planes to reach land. • Sending surface ships so close to Japan at that time would practically assure their destruction, if not from Japan's own surface forces, then from her ground-based planes or submarine forces. • Led by Jimmy Doolittle, 16 B-25 bombers broke through Japanese defenses and dropped bombs in Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka-Kobe, and Nagoya. It was a one-way mission. • Short of the fuel, most of planes crashed or were ditched over China. Local Chinese hid U.S. survivors and escorted them to safety. • Enraged Japanese army launched Operation Sei- Go to secure airfields and punish Chinese villager for helping US airmen. • Operation Sei-Go or the Scorched Earth Campaign destroying many villages along the railway and used biological agents on a large scale. Exact figures are impossible to come by, but tens of thousands - perhaps as many as 250,000 - Chinese civilians were murdered in the Chekiang and Kiangsu provinces. Rotting Leg Syndrome • Victims of "rotten leg disease" in the village of Xia Yi. More than 350 villagers (out of 700) became severely ill in 1942, directly after the Japanese attack. • Ruan Shufeng was 14 years old when the Japanese attacked his village. Soon thereafter, a painful ulcer developed on his leg. For 64 years, he has suffered from a painful, festering wound on his right leg. Plan to Attack California • During the last frenzied months of World War II, Unit 731 prepared a large biological warfare assault on the U.S. involving special balloon bombs planned to carry disease across North America. • An operation to use aircraft carried by submarines to drop plague-infected fleas over southern California was planned for September 1945. • But the Japanese Emperor admitted defeat and surrendered prior to the attack. • The leadership of the Japanese bio-warfare program was after the war granted immunity from war crimes prosecution on the condition that they disclosed information about their research. Comparison • Nuremburg Trial lasted 10 months. • The Tokyo War Crimes Trial lasted 2.5 years. • The actions of Unit 731 in China were never examined at the War Crimes Trials. • The Unit 731 Investigation and Testimony lasted 5 days. • No compensation, or even a statement of admission, was ever given. • Basically Unit 731 was forgotten. Then in 1989… • 1989 an appalling discovery swept across Tokyo. • A construction crew working at Shinjuku found beneath a pavement, a massive cache of human remains. • The horrific news spread quickly around Tokyo and the Japanese government decided to make a statement which would lead to the revelation of the most terrible secret of World War II. • Some meters away from the construction site lay the wartime laboratory of Lieutenant General Shiro Ishii, father of Japan's top- secret biological warfare program; Unit 731. • During 1993 and 1994, an exhibition based on the activities of Unit 731 toured Japan, and a handful of ex-Unit 731 personnel testified about their actions and the actions of others. It was the first time the Japanese government had allowed evidence that Unit 731 even existed to be publicized. A book was also writen. Hal Gold's book starts with a history of Unit 731, and then provides transcriptions of many of the testimonies given during the exhibition. Testimony • The Chinese woman victim had regained her consciousness while being vivisected alive. " She opened her eyes. " " And then ? " " She hollered. " " What did she say ? " Kurumizawa could not answer, then began weeping feebly and murmured, " I don't want to think about it again. " The interviewee apologized, waited a few seconds, and tried again for an answer. He gave it through sobs. " She said, "It's all right to kill me, but please spare my child's life." When Asked How They Could Perform Vivisection on Humans? • "The 1st time, I was very hesitant to do what I was told to do. The 2nd time, you get used to it. The 3rd time, you more or less volunteered." 1931 Attempt to Poison the League of Nations • In 1994, Prince Mikasa of Japan, acknowledges that in 1931, Japanese military officials attempted to poison the League of Nations investigation commission who was researching Japan’s siege of Manchuria. They poisoned fruit with cholera, however no one died. • Today, a museum is operated in the former Ping Fan administrative building. Before it fled in 1945, the Japanese Army killed all prisoners, set the (infected) experimental animals free and destroyed the research complex with explosives. Others Were Involved in BW • 1929 – Soviet Union opens a BW research facility north of the Caspian Sea • 1936 – France had a large BW research program • 1936 – Britain had established a group to investigate offensive an defensive BW issues • 1941 – Canadian Sir Frederick Banting, the discoverer or insulin, initiated Canada’s BW research program Hitler • Nazi Germany built a biological weapons research facility at Posen, in 1943. Hitler's scientists worked with aircraft spray-tank dissemination of plague and other germs, but without great success. Biological Warfare • Great Britain 1942 - Anthrax / Animal Diseases - Gruinard Island A member of the Ministry of Defense Chemical Defense Establishment stands near a warning sign in Gruinard Island, Scotland, the site of explosive munitions testing using anthrax spores as a biological weapon. The island has been sealed off from the public for almost 50 years. In 1986 an English company was paid half a million pounds to decontaminate the 520-acre island by soaking the ground in 280 tonnes of formaldehyde diluted in 2000 tonnes of seawater. Topsoil was also removed in sealed containers. It’s present safety is still being debated. British Operation Foxley • In 1944, the British also considered sending an undercover agent to kill Hitler by impregnating his clothing with anthrax, or hidding anthrax in objects such as in a fountain pen, hollowed-out spectacles or even a pair of false teeth. Prototype of 'Operation Foxley' pneumatic cyanide weapon, equipped with a safety pin with pull string attached to the ring of the firing rod The so-called "Operation Foxley" was rejected, partly from fear of making Hitler a martyr, partly because he was proving so inept a military strategist (probably due to effects of syphilis) that he was actually helping the Allied cause. Biological Warfare Great Britain • 1970’s Britain performed secret germ warfare tests using “harmless” E. coli bacterium mixed with “another” bacteria in aerial spraying of 150 miles of coastline and 30 miles of inland. Over 1 million people affected. • 1973 smallpox accidentally released in London. Two died. • 1978 Britain accidentally released the smallpox virus during research testing. One woman died. • 1985 Smallpox ampoules were found lying in a cookie tin in a lab refrigerator – dated 1952 but still viable. Currently working on “super bug” of cancer genes and cold viruses. Catching a cold would give you rapidly fatal cancer. Biological Warfare • United States Only in 1941, when credible evidence arrived that the Japanese were using BW against Chinese troops, did the U.S. government appoint a committee to study BW. By February 1942, the United States had established the War Research Service to coordinate defensive efforts against BW contamination of the nation’s food and water supply. But we were sadly behind the rest of the world. Then The War was Over. Surrender the Pacific Islands So What Did We Do With the Japanese Scientists from Unit 731? We Brought Them to America! • It is difficult to compare America in 1943 with America today. At no other time in world history had every continent been so dominated by armies in mortal conflict as it was in 1943. • The U.S. faced enemies on both shores and America had mobilized in an all-out effort to crush Nazi Germany, Mussolini's Italy, and the Empire of Japan. • America supplied war materials to every embattled country. • Millions of young men and women were drafted or volunteered to serve in the Armed Services. • American industry looked to those at home, including women for the first time, to handle industrial work building airplanes, ships, and the machinery of war. • The U.S. feared the enemy and rallied to protect itself on every front. • Potential invasion routes were verified and defensive measures taken, considering possible German landings in Central America, where its troops could move rapidly through Mexico into the American Southwest and the breadbasket of America. • Because of concern over the Biological Warfare (BW) capability of our enemies and lacking adequate means to defend against biological agents, the U.S. government started developing an offensive Biological Warfare program with a retaliatory capability to deter such enemy attacks. U.S. BW development efforts were centered in the then-remote town of Frederick, Maryland at what later became Ft. Detrick. “The value of biological warfare will be a debatable question until it has been clearly proven or disproved by experiences. The wide assumption is that any method which appears to offer advantages to a nation at war will be vigorously employed by that nation. There is but one logical course to pursue, namely, to study the possibilities of such warfare from every angle, make every preparation for reducing its effectiveness, and thereby reduce the likelihood of its use.” Secretary of State Stinson 1943 Camp Detrick becomes operational as the parent biological research and pilot plant center with about 4000 personnel: 2800 were Army, about 1000 Navy and the remaining 100 civilian. Field testing facilities were established in Mississippi. Workers in Crops Division green house working with plants. • 1944 Dugway Proving Grounds in Utah was established as the field test center and replaced an earlier facility in Mississippi. The Black Maria was the first laboratory facility built to accommodate top secret research. Scientists completed interior equipment installation. • "We worked in these labs, making germs stronger than they normally can be. We would put the germs in with the petri dish and keep taking what was like the food the germs survived on out of the dish. If we took 10% oxygen and 5% of another thing that made up the petri dish out, the germ had to get stronger to survive. The goal was to make a very strong thing that would kill a lot of people if ever used." Eugene Rossman Assigned to Ft. Detrick Primitive Glove Boxes First Facilities Learn As We Go Lack of Safe Enclosures Incineration of agent and containers was just one step in the decontamination process. In 1949, an enclosed one million liter test sphere was built of steel at Camp Detrick and BW explosive munitions tests with pathogens were started. A unique test sphere, the "Eight Ball," was operated by the U.S. Army Biological Laboratories at Camp Detrick for the study of infectious agent aerosols. The building housing the sphere was destroyed in a 1974 fire. The sphere, which is on the National Register of Historic Places, has not been used since 1969. The round shape was used because the experiments involved the use of explosives and the sphere was expected to withstand stronger shocks than a rectangular building. Field Experiments Area B • Area B was established as a proving ground in the former BW program. • It was laid out in a circular grid, a series of seven concentric circles with measurement devices from 50 feet to 1,000 feet. • It was designed to test the flow of materials through the air. The remnants of monitoring devices may still be seen in the area. This aerial view of Area B shows clearly the circular grid used in the biological research program. Site was also used for disposal of various types of debris, each type disposed in separate locations. 1951 The first limited BW retaliatory capability was achieved when an anticrop bomb was developed, tested and placed in production for the Air Force. “Agriculture is the perfect target as well as perfect weapon of terrorism.” Alibeck & Handelmann 1999 • The BW Program was expanded during the Korean War Years. • By 1954 we were also producing hardware (cluster bombs) for delivering biologics. Construction of a BW bacterial production facility was started at Pine Bluff Arsenal Arkansas. Biological Warfare • United States 1956 Soviet Union accused the U.S. of using biological weapons in Korea. 1960 • Congress holds extensive hearings on the subject of chemical and biologic weapons • Concludes that there is no effective inspection procedure available to insure violations of use are not occurring. • The Kennedy Administration calls for a 1961 thorough reassessment of BW by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, considering all possible applications including its use as an alternative to nuclear weapons. • 1966 – Fully Operational Stockpiles of Biologics & Stockpiles of Delivery Systems Biological • United States Warfare President Richard 1969 Nixon ends the U.S. Biological Weapons Program and pledges the nation will never use biological weapons under any circumstances. (Following accidental release of agents from Camp Detrick) • Entire arsenal is supposedly “destroyed” by 1973 with only seed stocks held for research purposes. “The U.S. shall renounce the use of lethal biological agents and weapons, and all other methods of biological research to defensive measures such as immunization and safety measures.” Loophole • Since President Nixon did not specify “toxins” in his announcement, the scientists at Ft. Detrick, rewrote their research plans, changing the direction of their research from agents to “toxins”. Started medical defensive program that continues today as the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRID). Biological Warfare 1970’s • United States Southeast Asia was being attacked by planes and helicopters delivering aerosols of several colors. After being exposed, people and animals became disoriented and ill and a small percentage of those stricken died. Attacks were commonly called “Yellow Rain”. U.S. argued that biologics were being used by the North Vietnamese and obtained from the Soviet Union. • The North Vietnamese argued that the clouds were nothing more than urine and feces produced by swarms of bees attracted to the planes and helicopters. Biological Warfare 1972 • The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, and Stockpiling of Bacteriological and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction is signed by more than 100 countries, going into effect in 1975. Signatures included Iraq, United States, and Soviet Union as well as all members of the United Nations Security Council. Evidence of Biological Terrorism Only Increased 1966 Dr. Mitsuru Suzuki • A Japanese Physician infected health care providers and patients with Salmonella typhi • Reason – Revenge for unfair treatment he received while a resident during medical training. • 200 people developed typhoid and dysentery Order of the Rising Sun 1972 • Members of the right-wing “Order of the Rising Sun” are arrested in Chicago. • They possess 30-40 Kg of typhoid cultures that are to be used to poison the water supply in Chicago, St. Louis, and other mid-west cities. • The two arrested betray the others. • Group is arrested. Georgi Markov 1978 • Bulgarian exile Georgi Markov, in London, is injected in the leg with a steel ball via a specially constructed umbrella. The device injected a tiny pellet filled with a toxin into the subcutaneous tissue of his leg while he was waiting for a bus • Markov was the Voice Against Communism on the the BBC and Radio Free Europe. • In early 1978, Georgi Markov began receiving death threats over the telephone. • It would be the last threat made to Georgi, in August of 1978, that would leave him deeply bothered. • "Not this time," said the cold, calculated voice on the phone. "This time you will not become a martyr. You will simply die of natural causes. You will be killed by a poison that the West cannot detect nor treat." • Because Georgi told so many people, including the authorities, about the phone call and about the pimple -sized mark on his right thigh from a strange umbrella incident at the bus stop at the Waterloo Bridge, doctors knew to look further during the autopsy. • And a 2mm diameter block of tissue with the puncture wound was extracted. • The examiners found a tiny metal pinhead inside the wound. When they attempted to extract the "pin." A tiny >2 mm wide metal pellet fell on the table. The pellet held roughly one-fifth of a milligram of whatever it was that had killed Georgi Markov. They also concluded that to keep the substance inside the pellet, it may have been coated with something like a wax, that would melt at human body temperature. • Markov died. • First example of state-supported bio- terrorism. • Only 10 days before Markov was attacked, a similar pellet had been pulled out of the back of another exiled Bulgarian. • Vladimir Kostov had reported being stung with something, while waiting at a Paris Metro Station. • He survived. • It is believed that two factors saved Kostov's life. • First the KGB had used a modified case of some sort that didn't have a strong enough delivery system. • Secondly, Kostov had been protected at the time of the attack by a heavy sweater, he was wearing. After the discovery found in Markov's death, scientists and some members of the British Anti- Terror squad learned of the Vladimir Kostov attempt and re-examined his wound. A ricin pellet with a wax-coating was discovered just under the skin. Castor Beans Soviet Union1979 • Previously signed the Biological Weapons Convention in 1975 stating “the Soviet Union does not possess any bacteriological agents and toxins, weapons, equipment, or means of delivery.” • 1979 – Sverdlovsk, USSR accidental airborne leak of 10 kg of anthrax spores released over city when filters were not used • 1.2 million resided in city, 66 to 68 deaths – mostly adults (may have been more) • The Soviet government claimed the deaths were caused by intestinal anthrax from tainted meat, a story some influential American scientists found unbelievable. • Only in 1992 did Russian President Boris Yeltsin admit that Russia had an offensive BW research program. • Subsequently, it has been discovered that they also were attempting to use recombinant DNA technology to produce lethal venoms in common bacteria. Dark Harvest Commandos 1981 • An environmental extremist group deposited packages containing anthrax contaminated soil outside a chemical weapons research facility and near a political party conference in Great Britain. • Where did they get the soil? Biological Warfare 1984 • Rajneeshee Religious Cult intentionally contaminates salad bars in Oregon restaurants with Sallmonella causing 751 cases of enteritis. Forty-five of these people need hospitalization. Religious Terrorism Reason – To Win a Local Election • The Rajneeshe used a home made brew of poisonous salmonella typhimurium and sprinkled it secretly on the fruits and vegetables in salad bars, poured it in the blue cheese dressing and on table-top coffee creamers in ten restaurants in the Dalles in Oregon. • They purchased the seed stock of salmonella from a medical supply company • A sex and religion cult, their leader fled India because of tax fraud. By 1984 they had taken over the city council of Antelope and created an intimidating police force. • They had a goal of winning the Wasco County elections. • Brought in homeless by bus loads to vote • Contaminated city to incapacitate non-cult voters. • Many were hospitalized. Some with perforated colons and colon abscesses. • In the end, attacks took place in 10 area restaurants and sickened 751 people, with 45 being hospitalized. • In a trial run, they give water laced with Salmonella to two county commissioners. Both get sick, 1 hospitalized. • The chief of staff for the Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh serves 2.5 years and then is deported. • Aum Shinrikyo Cult or Supreme Truth Doomsday Terrorism 1995 Cult attacks Tokyo subways with the nerve gas sarin, killing 12 and injuring >5000. • Reason – Seize control of Japan through mass murder causing fear and apprehension Spain 2004 • The Madrid train bombings consisted of a series of coordinated bombings against the commuter train system of Madrid, Spain on the morning of 11 March 2004 (three days before Spain's general elections), killing 191 people and wounding 1,800. • The bombings occurred three days before general elections which resulted in the defeat of the incumbent José María Aznar’s Partido Popular (PP), which had obtained a small but narrowing lead in the opinion polls. • The AUM Shrinkyo was a “Supreme Truth Doomsday Cult” of 40 members. • Skilled scientists and technicians with training in microbiology. • They used sarin gas. The Tokyo subway attack was carried out by five two man teams who planted toxic sarin gas at several stations. • Toxic fumes were reported beginning at 8:17 a.m. (Rush Hour) • Nerve gas was concealed in lunch boxes, soft drink containers and placed on subway train floors. • It was released when terrorists punctured the containers with umbrellas before leaving the trains. • Day 1 – 641 victims/ 2 died • Day 2 – 349 victims 1990 Outfitted a car to disperse botulinum toxin through an exhaust system and drove the car around Parliament. • 1993 Attempted to disrupt the wedding of Prince Naruhito by spreading botulinum in downtown Tokyo via car. • 1995 Planted 3 briefcases designed to release botulinum in a Tokyo subway. The attack was averted when a cult member substituted a non- toxic agent instead. • Also in 1995, members of the far-right Minnesota Patriots Council were found guilty of producing the toxic agent ricin in a 1992 plot to assassinate U.S. Federal officials. • Militia members reportedly manufactured enough ricin from an Internet book recipe to kill 125 people. • It was then placed in the Dirksen Senate Office Building in Washington DC. It forced the decontamination of 16 employees and the shutdown of several government buildings. White supremacist radio broadcaster Hal Turner, on The Hal Turner Show, February 3, 2004. • “I hope it's potent ricin; I hope that a lot of U.S. Senators inhaled it, ‘cause I'll tell you something, ladies and gentlemen, in my opinion, most of the United States Senate are dishonorable scumbags who deserve to be killed for the way they have trampled the U.S. Constitution, ignored illegal immigration and especially for sending countless billions of our hard earned tax money to foreign countries, • not the least of which, that murderous terroristic country, Israel…I want to congratulate and thank whoever did this. That person is a hero in my book, and again, I sincerely hope that a lot of U.S. Senators have inhaled the stuff and the filthy sons-of-bitches will drop dead.” The Threat Rises to a New Level in the Early 1990’s • On the morning of August 2, 1990 the mechanized infantry, armor, and tank units of the Iraqi Republican Guard invaded Kuwait and seized control of that country. The invasion triggered a defensive United States response on August 7, Operation DESERT SHIELD, to deter any invasion of Kuwait's oil rich neighbor, Saudi Arabia. Evaluation of Disease Risks • U.S. Navy preventive- medicine personnel and scientists began evaluating disease risks among deployed troops. • Ultimately, 150,000 U.S. Troops in the Persian Gulf area are vaccinated against anthrax. • On the 17th of January, DESERT STORM began with a coordinated attack which included Tomahawk land attack missiles (TLAMs) launched from cruisers, destroyers and battleships in the Persian Gulf and Red Sea. • The initial barrage of over 100 TLAMs took out heavily defended targets in the vicinity of Baghdad and made a critical contribution to eliminating Iraqi air defenses and command and control capabilities. • March 1, Cease-fire terms negotiated. • Between Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in August 1990, and the commencement of military action in January 1991, then President George H.W. Bush raised the specter of the Iraqi pursuit of nuclear weapons as one justification for taking decisive action against Iraq. • In the then-classified National Security Directive 54, signed on January 15, 1991, authorizing the use of force to expel Iraq from Kuwait, he identified Iraqi use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against allied forces as an action that would lead the U.S. to seek the removal of Saddam Hussein from power. United Nations Inspects Iraq 1991 • Reported the presence of Anthrax, Botulism, Brucellosis, Tularemia, Gas Gangrene • Reported Aerial Bombs / Surface-to-Air Missiles • Reported Field Trials Performed on Iraq Citizens 9-11 Attack of World Trade Center A Day To Be Remembered. Biological Warfare 2001 • Washington DC 2001 • 9/11 Anthrax Scare • 22 Cases of Anthrax / 11 Inhalation / 5 Deaths • A letter containing anthrax was received by Tom Daschle, the leader of the United States Senate. • 23 members of his staff and 5 police officers tested positive with nasal swabs. • Citizens begin stockpiling Cipro. • This is the letter that was sent to NBC anchor Tom Brokaw with cutaneous anthrax and that infected Brokaw's assistant, Erin O'Connor. The envelope is postmarked September 18 from Trenton, N.J. The handwriting is identical to the one Dan Rathers coins new phrase: sent to the New York Post below “Weapons of Mass Disruption” postmarked on the same date and sent from the same place. • NYC Mayor Rudolph Giuliani sets an example: Check mail carefully • Biological cleaners moved in at Boca Raton post office Public Reacts to Anthrax Scare • A Continental Airlines jet sits in a parking area at the airport in Cleveland, Ohio, after a flight attendant found a white, powdery substance onboard. It turned out to be powered sugar from a donut! Definitions • Bio-terrorism Intentional or threatened use of biological agents to cause fear in or actually inflict death or disease upon a large population for political, religious, or ideological reasons. • Bio-crime The intentional introduction of biological agents into food or water or air to harm or kill a number of individuals. “With bio-terrorism, they don't really need to succeed—all they need to do is put doubt in people's minds.” Melissa Newman UK College of Agriculture 1996 An unknown person leaves muffins contaminated with a rare and dangerous bacteria in a Texas hospital. 1997- 1998 FBI agents seize small amounts of a substance reported to be anthrax from two men in Las Vegas. 2000 A Texas man is indicted for causing an anthrax scare, becoming the first person in the nation to face such charges. He left a vial of what was alleged to be anthrax , but which actually contained water, in a bin at the U.S. Postal Service mail center. 2000 Anthrax contamination threats are made against numerous Planned Parenthood clinics across the U.S. So far, none has been carried out. In the event of a terrorist Creation of attack, natural disaster or other large-scale emergency, Department of the Department of Homeland Homeland Security Security will provide a coordinated, comprehensive federal response and mount a swift and effective recovery effort. The department assumes primary responsibility for ensuring that emergency response professionals are prepared for any situation. Emergency preparedness means having the ability to respond to threats of complex infectious diseases – to identify the agent of illness and control its spread. • The Department of Homeland Security is committed to helping first responders nation- wide by ensuring that emergency response professionals are prepared, equipped and trained for any situation, and by bringing together information and resources to prepare for and respond to a terrorist attack, natural disaster or other large-scale emergency. Who Has Biological Weapons? • Algeria •Israel • S. Korea • Canada •Italy •Sudan • China •Japan •Syria • Cuba • Egypt •Libya •Taiwan • Ethiopia •Myanmar •U.K • France •N. Korea •USA • Germany •Pakistan •Viet Nam • India • Iran •Former Soviet Union •Yugoslavia • Iraq •South Africa How Easy Is It To Get Biologics? • In May 1995, Larry Wayne Harris, an anti-government "Christian Patriot" and former member of the Aryan Nation, a neo-Nazi organization, ordered samples of Yersinia pestis, from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). • Mr. Harris, a microbiologist, said he feared an "imminent invasion from Iraq of super- germ-carrying mice", and planned to do research for a "plague antidote" out of his home in Lancaster, Ohio. • Harris informed a person that he had plans to attack the New York City subway system with light bulbs filled with bubonic plague, using the same method that the U.S. Army used in a test with harmless bacteria in 1966. • He forecasted hundreds of thousands of victims and that the government of Iraq would be blamed for the attack. • After the story broke, the press reported the CDC had tightened up requirements for shipping special disease agents and toxins, such as bubonic plague, tularemia and brucellosis. USA Research • Past Weaponized Agents • -melioidodis -Venezuelean equine -plague encephalitis -yellow fever -Q fever -psittacosis -tularemia -typhus -anthrax -dengue fever -wheat rust -Rift Valley fever -rice blast -Chikungunya virus -late blight of potato • Research -rinderpest -brucellosis -Newcastle disease -smallpox -fowl plague -Eastern and Western -staph enterotoxin B equine encephalitis -botulinum toxin -Argentinian hemorrhagic -ricin fever -Korean hemorrhagic fever -Bolivian hemorrhagic fever -Lassa fever -glanders What Do We Worry About? • Ali Mao Maalin, was a cook in Merca, Somalia. In 1977 Ali contracted smallpox, a deadly virus that has claimed millions of lives throughout human history. But Ali's infection was different. According to the World Health Organization, Ali was the last known case of smallpox on planet Earth. Ali's immune system successfully eradicated the last strain of this horribly infectious disease on 26th October 1977, forever ridding the world of this virus... Or did it? Smallpox Vaccination • Do We? Or Don’t We? • Why Vaccinate? With the risk of bio-terror, smallpox is a threat to our military capabilities. • Vaccination is the only way to prevent contracting smallpox. It can reliably protect you for up to ten years. • Administering the vaccination now, before an outbreak, is the best way of protecting our troops. • However it is not considered to be one of the “safer” vaccines. Smallpox Vaccination • Safety of Vaccination • In the past, about 1,000 people for every 1 million people vaccinated for the first time experienced reactions that, while not life-threatening, were serious. These reactions include a vigorous reaction at the site of the vaccination and spread of the vaccinia virus (the live virus in the smallpox vaccine) to other parts of the body and to other people. These reactions typically do not require medical attention. • Between 14 and 52 people per 1 million vaccinated experienced potentially life-threatening reactions. • Between 1 and 2 people out of every 1 million people vaccinated will die. Careful screening of potential vaccine recipients is essential to ensure that those at increased risk do not receive the vaccine. What We Know • We have reports that Iraq, North Korea, and Russia have stockpiled the smallpox virus for BW use. • In 1992, a Soviet defector revealed to Western intelligence that he had overseen an extensive, illegal program to develop smallpox into a highly effective biological weapon. • Vladimir Pasechnik asserted that far from abandoning its bio-weapons program, the Soviet Union had intensified it. • He revealed that the civilian pharmaceutical company, 'Biopreparat', which the Soviets had established in 1973, was in fact a front for a massive offensive bio-weapons program. • Ken Alibek was Chief Scientist at Biopreparat from 1987 to 1992. • Alibek defected to America in October 1992 and spent much of the next year being debriefed by CIA officers. • His most startling revelation concerned smallpox. He told them how, during the global campaign to eradicate the disease, samples of smallpox taken by Russian doctors had been turned into weapons by the Soviet military. • According to Alibek, one particularly virulent strain, India 67 or India 1, was chosen by the Russians to be weaponized. • They perfected techniques for mass producing smallpox and maintained a rolling annual stockpile of hundreds of tons. • They also developed ways to disseminate the virus in aerial bombs and ballistic missile warheads. • Additional work was done to enhance the virulence of the virus and to combine it with other viruses. • Alibek believes that, following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, unemployed or badly-paid scientists are likely to have sold samples of smallpox clandestinely and gone to work in rogue states engaged in illicit biological weapons development. Smallpox • Basic Reproductive Rate Ro = 3-5 or 5-7 • U.S. Fully Susceptible / No Herd Immunity • Unsure as to Length of Immunity of Those Previously Vaccinated Why Use Biological Weapons? • Effective and Cheap - 1 gram Botulism can kill 10 million people - Purified Botulism is 3 million times more potent than our best chemical weapon - SCUB Missile filled with Bolulism Toxin would affect an area 16 times greater than our best chemical weapon. Cost Comparison • To Affect 1 Square Kilometer of Area - Conventional Weapons $2000 - Nuclear Weapons $ 800 - Chemical Weapons $ 600 - Biological Weapons $ 1 Biologics are the “Poor Man’s Atomic Bomb” Not Easily Detectable • They cannot be detected by x-rays, dogs, and most devices, making them easy to transport. • Infected humans can serve as transport devices. Delayed Onset • Onset can be from a few hours to a few weeks after exposure. • Perpetrators can have escaped by then and have protected themselves with vaccines. Difficulties • Often mimic other things • Often requires large Recognizing numbers of infected a BW Attack before an alarm is issued Only Affects Organisms • Infrastructure is left intact How Do Biological Agents Differ From Chemical Agents? • Biological Agents Chemical Agents • 1. Natural 1. Man-made • 2. Non volatile 2. Volatile • 3. More Toxic 3. Less Toxic • 4. Replicates 4. Does not Replicate • 5. Not Dermally Active 5. Dermally Active • 6. Legitimate Medical Use 6. No Use Other than as a Weapon • 7. Odorless and Tasteless 7. Odor or Taste when Contaminated • 8. Diverse Effects 8. Few Effects • 9. Effective Immunogens 9. Poor Immunogens • 10. Aerosol Delivery 10. Mist/Droplet/Aerosol Delivery • 11. Delayed Onset 11. Rapid Onset • 12. Contagious 12. Not Contagious Advantages to Biological Weapons • Low Cost • Easy to Grow • Easy to Distribute • Easy to Hide Production • Little is Required • Natural Bill Patrick’s Relative Aerosol Potency Chart Agent Respiratory Dose for Man (μg) Q Fever 0.0000021 Tularemia 0.0001 Anthrax 0.008 Botulism 4.5 Nerve Agent VX 8000.0 Dr. William C. Patrick III spent over three decades at Fort Detrick, Maryland, the U.S. Army's base for biological weapons research. • “… what concerns me are graduate students and professors in microbiology and chemical engineering who have a better appreciation of the finer points of detail (of microbiology). If they were to get disgruntled, I think they could, with a little trial and error, come up with a reasonably acceptable BW agent.” Bill Patrick Why Now? Why Us? “Our American military superiority presents a paradox…because our potential adversaries know they can’t win in a conventional challenge to the U.S. forces, they’re much more likely to try unconventional or asymmetrical methods, such as biological or chemical agents.” Secretary of Defense William Cohen March 1998 Heritage Foundation • Unpredictability Disadvantages • Long Lifespan • Stigma Associated with Use CDC Category A Threat Classification • Agents that pose a threat to National Security • Easily disseminated or transmitted from person to person • Cause high mortality • High public panic and social disruption • Require special action for PH preparedness. Name some Category A Agents • Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax) • Franciella tularensis (Tularemia) • Variola major (Smallpox) • Botulinum toxin (Botulism) • Yersinia pestis (Plague) • Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers CDC Category B Threat Classification • Moderately easy to disseminate • Moderate morbidity and low mortality • Require specific enhancement of CDC and PH surveillance CDC Category C Threat Classification • Easily Available • Easy to Produce and Disseminate • Potential for high morbidity and mortality rates and major health impacts • Includes most EIDs such as Hantavirus How Is It We Know So Much? Conscientious Objectors • Over a 20-year period, beginning in the 1950s, the U.S. Army used Seventh Day Adventists to test vaccines against biological weapons. • The Army convoy rumbled across the vast Utah desert just before twilight, as the July heat waned and the searing wind settled across the barren salt flats. Deep inside Dugway Proving Ground, a desolate 800,000-acre government weapons range, 30 young draftees dressed in olive-drab fatigues dismounted from 21/2-ton trucks and took their positions. • Just breathe normally, Merlin Neff remembers his commanding officer saying. Sitting on crude wooden benches jutting from the sand, and surrounded by caged rhesus monkeys and guinea pigs, the soldiers sat still and waited. • Then the whir of air-sampling devices indicated that the air they were breathing had been intentionally contaminated by the release of microbes that cause Q fever, a debilitating illness that could lay an army low for days. Within days, Neff and his fellow volunteers were racked with fever, chills and bone-shaking aches. • "You were really miserable for two, three days," said Neff, who was 23 then and now is a 70-year- old doctor living in California. "I really have never been any sicker than that." • It was July 1955, and Operation Whitecoat was underway. Operation WHITECOAT a program where members of a Protestant denomination -- Seventh Day Adventists -- served as volunteers in research experiments. The Adventists were conscientious objectors -- but unlike many other conscientious objectors, they were willing to join the military -- just not to bear arms. For the Army, Project Whitecoat was a way to learn more about biological warfare. • Most Whitecoats fought their war at Fort Detrick, Maryland. The enemies were dangerous and deadly viruses and bacteria, administered by their own government. The purpose of the program was to help develop and test vaccines. • Largest and longest informed consent human biological experimental program. • Conducted between 1954 and 1973 (although some subjects began being tested in 1953 prior to the official name) • 2,300 Seventh-day Adventist draftees volunteered to participate in the preventive/protective medical experiments at Ft. Detrick, Maryland. • The aim of the program was to discover protective defenses against airborne infectious diseases or chemical weapons. • The program was instituted as a response to post-WWII information that other nations were developing chemical and or biological weapons against which the Untied States had little or no protection. • Richard Stenbakken was an army chaplain for almost 24 years, and is now director of the church's chaplain ministries throughout the world. He says the church approved the plan because it was mutually beneficial, and allowed members to worship on Saturday, their Sabbath. Chaplain RICHARD STENBAKKEN • “Sabbaths were free; they (Adventist Chaplaincy Ministries) were making a contribution to humanity; they were in a non-killing situation; it seemed to be, and, I think, was a very good fit.” • SEVERSON: There was one other unusual aspect to Operation Whitecoat. The volunteers were informed about the risks involved and required to sign a consent form. They could also leave the program whenever they wanted. And hardly anyone left, even those faced with exposure to the deadly tularemia bacterial, like Ed Lamb, who has no regrets. • ED LAMB (served 1963-65): They briefed us so thoroughly, they were really careful about the preparation, and we sat through meetings and they were spelled out in detail. And I really had no qualms about it. • KEN JONES (served 1954-56): I was the first Whitecoat to arrive in Fort Detrick and go through the Eight Ball. I'm proud of that opportunity. • The Whitecoaters have much to be grateful for. None died, at least not during the testing period, which began in 1954 and ended in 1973. • What happened after is unclear, although the military recently (1990’s) sent out questionnaires to 1,000 volunteers, and received responses from 522. • But the overwhelming sentiment here is that the testing, their sacrifices, made the U.S. a safer place. • We now have inoculations against many of the diseases and viruses tested here. We have much more effective protective gear, and a model of how to conduct human experiments with informed consent. The Golden Years 1959-1969 • Substantial Scientific Advances Were Made • Provided the Foundation of Scientific Information for BW • Concluded that BW was Eminently Feasible • Technology was Developed • Large Scale Fermentation/Growth Plants • Testing on People Began Now we have a problem. The U.S.A. is suppose to be one of the good guys…so who do we test on? Three Choices • Test on the enemy. • Test on our friends. • Test on our own people. Biological Warfare U.S. 1950’s 1960’s Secret aerial sprayings over San Francisco. Used Serratia marcescens due to red/pink color. 5000 particles/minute sprayed. People died. For the next 10 years, there were 5-10 times the normal rate of infections noted in the population. 1950’s • In the early 1950's the U.S. Military released bacteria from a boat outside San Francisco. • The next day 11 people were admitted to the Stanford Medical Center with the same bacteria infection, one man died. • The U.S. Military claimed the infections were unrelated. Biological Warfare U.S. 1950’s 1960’s Minneapolis had BW tests disguised as “smoke screen tests”. 1966 Bacillus subtilis Biological Warfare was released into the subway system of New U.S. 1950’s 1960’s York City to determine its vulnerability to attack. Bacteria were released by dropping light bulbs when the doors opened. These tests occurred from 1949 until 1969. Experiments were also conducted in St. Louis, Missouri, Fort Wayne, Indiana and other cities. Operation Autumn Gold 1960’s • Thousands of U.S. sailors may have been unaware that they were exposed during secret germ-warfare experiments. Nine times within a month jets sprayed clouds of a biological weapons simulant in front of the ships. “ The purpose of the Autumn Gold test program was to examine shipboard vulnerabilities and capabilities during a chemical or biological warfare agent attack. The test’s primary objective was to determine the efficiency of shipboard protection systems such as detectors and decontaminants. The Autumn Gold test used a biological tracer. “ FACT SHEET Office of the Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel and Readiness) for Gulf War Illnesses, Medical Readiness and Military Deployments • A similar operation off Newfoundland was called Copper Head. June 1990 Experimental Measles Vaccine • In June 1990, babies in Los Angeles California were used as human guinea pigs with a experimental measles vaccine called Edmonston Zagreb measles vaccine ( E-Z ). • From 1989 to 1991, Kaiser Permanente along with the L.A. County Department of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), injected over 700 "mostly minority" babies with unlicensed experimental vaccines with fraudulently-obtained consent from the parents. “Wars can no longer contain the population, so biological terrorism will become the weapon of choice.” David Icke 2010 I’m So Glad Nothing Like This Could Ever Happen Here in Oklahoma. Right? Oklahoma 2003 • The government dropped “powder” over the Goldsby/Norman area to test the possibility of using weather radar to detect biological attacks from aircraft. • And the rate of respiratory infections in the area tripled over the next few years.
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