The Development of Soviet Foreign Policy.ppt

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					The Development of Soviet
     Foreign Policy
             Part II
  1958-89. The Age of Gromyko
              Why 1958?
• Sino-Soviet dispute comes out into open
  because of Great Leap Forward [catch up
  and overtake Britain by date?, leap directly
  into Communism by 1981]
• Khrushchev becomes P.M. as well as First
  Secretary of the Party. Gives him protocol
  position to meet overseas leaders. Starts
  to make his own foreign policy
         Who was Gromyko?
• Graduate of Institute of economics, USSR
  Academy of sciences
• Joined CPSU 1931
• Ambassador to USA 1943
• Involved in founding of UN. USSR rep from 1946
• Foreign Minister 1957-85
• Politburo 1973
• President 1985-88
   Who made foreign policy in this
• Gen./First Secretaries when they added wither
  Presidency or P.M. job to Party job: Stalin and
  Khrushchev P.M.s, Brezhnev and successors
• KGB head [Andropov after 1967]
• Military head
• Party Secretary for Defence
• Party secs for ruling and non-ruling parties
• Foreign Minister [but often an impementer]
• Ambassador to USA
       Foreign policy regions
• Ruling parties [Eastern Europe, then
  China, North Korea, North Vietnam
• Conflict areas: South East Asia
• Non-ruling parties: especially France, Italy,
• Progressive regimes: Egypt, India, Ghana
  in 1950s, then Cuba 1961, Somalia, then
  Ethiopia, Angola 1976, Afghanistan after
• Escape containment: break NATO,
• Up to Cuba create missile technology
• After Cuba create blue water navy
• Buy grain
• Buy technology
• Peaceful coexistence, but competition
  between capitalism and socialism
 World Rev or National Interest
• Survival of State remains paramount in
  both approaches
• USSR deserves leadership of World
  Communist Bloc because of superior
  experience in building socialism
• Therefore USSR must survive
• Therefore Eastern Europe vital as cordon
  sanitaire, because threat comes from
   World Rev or Nat interest ii
• After 1958, security challenge from China,
  but this also challenge to leadership of
  World Communist Movement
• Cuba then a new rev. challenge: a new
• Czechoslovakia 1968: another challenge
  to Soviet model
• The Iranian revolution threatens whole of
  Central Asia, which is Moslem
                  Timeline 1
•   Cuba 1958/9
•   Congo civil war 1960-68
•   Cuba crisis 1961
•   Guevara in Congo 1965
•   1966-9 Chinese Cultural Revolution
•   Six day war 1967
•   Year of revolutions 1968
•   Ping-pong diplomacy 1971-2
•   Vodka-cola
• Vietnamization 1969
• Kissinger playing China and the USSR off
  against each other
• Brandt and Ostpolitik
• 1972 Nixon visits Moscow
• SALT 1
• Brezhnev to Washington
• But nixon falls due to Watergate
Why did the Soviets want détente?
• Demographic crisis meant had to replace people
  with technology
• Planned obsolescence and the consumer
  demand crisis
• Cost of weapons spiralling out of control
• If US could be prevented from using force, might
  be more successful revolutions
• Had to respond to Kissinger’s overtures to China
• Actually a major plank of Sov FP from
  Khrushchev to Gorbachov
 Timeline 2 World Revolution?
• 1973 CIA-backed overthrow of elected
  [1970] Chilean government
• Portuguese Revolution 1974:
  independence for Guinea-Bissau, Cabo
  verde, Angola, Mozambique, east Timor.
  All elect Marxist-Leninist governments
• 1975 collapse of Cambodia and Laos
• 1976 collapse of South Vietnam
• 1976 Cubans arrive in Angola
    Timeline: collapse of “cuius regio
               eius religio”
• Dec 1978 Vietnam invades Kampuchea
• July 1979 Nicaraguan revolution
• Sept 1979 French depose Bokassa
• Dec 1979 Invasion of Afghanistan
• 1980 US failed attack on Iran to rescue
• 1983 US invades Grenada
    Eastern European and other
• 1948 Yugoslavia cast into outer darkness
• Togliatti in Italy and revisionism
• 1953 east German riots
• 1956 Secret speech
• 1956 Hungary and Poland. End of Stalinism.
  Where now?
• 1958 Great Leap Forward: Rumanian dissidence
  starts: allies with China in Sino-Soviet split
• 1961 Cuba “Marxist-Leninist”. New model of
  revolution and socialism available
            More on dissent
• 1968 Tet offensive; Paris and Prague Springs,
  Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia. Brezhnev
• 1970 Allende wins presidential election in Chile
• 1970 more riots in Poland. Trouble now right
  through to 1989. Solidarnosc
• 1976 South Vietnam, Laos, Kampuchea, Angola,
  Mozambique and smaller states offer further
  new models
• 1978 Ethiopian Derg joins Sov bloc. Strategy of
  support for progressive forces vindicated
     Morgenthau’s original points
•   Geography               •   National character
•   Natural Resources       •   National morale
•   Industrial capacity     •   Quality of Diplomacy
•   Military preparedness   •   Quality of
•   Population                  Government

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