Effects of the Industrial Revolution.ppt by handongqp

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									Effects of
   the
Industrial
Revolution
 Negative Effects of
Industrial Revolution
 The  cottage industry
  replaced by factory system
 Factory conditions were harsh—men
  competed against women & children
 Slave trade competed against free
  workers; Eli Whitney’s cotton gin
  increased demand for cotton, slave
  labor
           Negative Effects of
          Industrial Revolution
 Owners had complete control
  over workers
 Women, children
  provided cheap
  labor
 Children were
  assets on farm,
  liability in cities
       Health and Living Conditions
 Lower-class   workers lived in
  Tenement homes near
  the factory; many
  families lived on 1 floor
  or same apartment
 Areas around
  tenements were known
  as slums because of
  high crime, dirty streets,
  poor workers
     Health and Living Conditions
 Company   towns—company owner
 would build apartment, own grocery,
 own schools, everything—workers got
 paid by owners,
 but had to buy
 all necessities
 in the owner’s
 stores
       Health and Living Conditions
 By 1850, working conditions were so
  bad that an uprising became possible
 Led to improvements in cities
  –Public Health Act 1875 forced towns
   to pave, light, and clean roads;
   appoint Medical Officer of Health
  –Problems with sewage, water
   supply, disease, food, housing were
   examined
      Health and Living Conditions
 Urban conditions improved
 dramatically:
 –Filters used to purify water
 –Sewers, public baths built
 –Sale of harmful food prohibited
 –Soup kitchens set up to feed
   unemployed workers
 –Established police force
   to make slums safer
           Medical Improvements
 Edward  Jenner—
  created first vaccine
 Louis Pasteur—
  discovered bacteria
  & proved that they
  caused diseases
 Marie and Pierre Curie—discovered
  radium and proved it emits energy.
  Used to develop x-rays
                  Child Labor
 1832—committee      set up to investigate
  child labor in factories; Shocking results
 1833—limited 9 hour workday for ages
  9-13; 12 hour workday for ages 13-18
 1842—kids under 10 years cannot work
  in underground mines
 Later acts limited working hours for
  women and children, made school
  mandatory, & forced owners to improve
  safety on machines
                   Unions
 As  urbanization increased (moving to
  cities), people discussed & identified
  similar problems
 1700s—unions (clubs with members
  from same profession) were first
  formed for several reasons:
   –Get better pay
   –Work shorter hours
   –Better & safer working conditions
          Growth of Democracy
 Labor unions began to grow & gain
  power; By 1770s, nearly every trade
  had union & won better conditions
   –1871—290,000 workers in unions
   –1914—4,000,000 workers in unions
 In 1884, Fabian Society formed—
  promoted good working conditions for
  workers through education & new
  laws
               Unions
 1870s—workers     won right to
  strike (protest & not work) without
  being blamed for financial losses
  to company
 Small unions joined together to
  form large unions; Eventually
  included all workers, not just
  skilled craftsmen
           Class Struggles
 Inequalitiesof capitalism led to
  other ideas about economy;
  Socialism—government controls
  businesses; no wealthy or poor
  classes in society
 Robert Owen—set up
  “utopian” socialist
  community based on
  cooperation
         Class Struggles
 Karl  Marx outraged by
  inequalities of wealth &
  poor treatment of
  workers
 Wrote Communist Manifesto—
  workers will rise up against owners &
  wealthy; Set up communism—
  economic system in which everyone
  is treated equally, all wealth shared,
  no need for any government

								
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