SEGREGATION in the United States.ppt

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					SEGREGATION
    in the
 United States
Baltimore, MD
          Bethlehem-Fairfield
           shipyards. May 1943

          Arthur Siegal,
           photographer

          “White drinking
           fountain.”
                   Durham, NC
   May 1940

   Jack Delano,
    photographer

   White ladies
    room at the bus
    station
Durham, NC

                May 1940

                Jack Delano,
                 photographer
“On the way from Louisville, KY
       to Nashville, TN”
   September 1943

   Esther Bubley,
    photographer

   “A rest stop for
    Greyhound bus
    passengers with
    separate
    accommodations for
    colored passengers.”
Rome, GA
          September 1943

          Esther Bubley,
           photographer

          “Colored
           Waiting Room
           at a Greyhound
           Bus Station.”
                     Durham, NC
   May 1940

   Jack Delano,
    photographer

   Separate doors
    for white and
    colored.
Belle Glade (vicinity), FL
                      January 1939

                      Marion Post
                       Wolcott,
                       photographer

                      “White &
                       Colored
                       Served.”
                   Halifax, NC
   April 1938

   John Vachon,
    photographer

   “A colored
    drinking fountain
    on the county
    courthouse lawn.”
Leland, Mississippi
              November 1939

              Marion Post
               Wolcott,
               photographer

              “The Rex theater for
               Negro People.”
                    Sisseton, SD
   September 1939

   John Vachon,
    photographer

   “No Beer Sold
    to Indians.”
Birney, Montana
                August 1941

                Marion Post
                 Wolcott,
                 photographer

                “Positively no
                 beer sold to
                 Indians.”
 Segregation sought to separate
   and prevent the races from
 intermarrying (C. Van Woodward
               12).

 Segregation sought to maintain
the “doctrine of white superiority
  and negro inferiority” (C. Van
          Woodward 22).
Some effects of 200 years of
       segregation:
Interracial Married Couples from
           1960-Present
 In 1998 55,305 couples were married. Of
  that only 1,348 were marriages between
  blacks and whites.
 In 1991 53,227 couples were married. Of
  that only 994 were marriages between
  blacks and whites.
 In 1983 50,665 couples were married. Of
  that only 719 were between blacks and
  whites.
 In 1981 49,896 couples were married.
  Of that only 639 were between blacks
  and whites.
 In 1970 44,598 couples were married,
  and 310 of those marriages were
  between blacks and whites.
 In 1960 40,491 couples were married,
  and 149 of those marriages were
  between blacks and whites.
Race and Education
            United States Totals
   In 1997, 35.8% of 19,072 of blacks 25 years and
    older had graduated from High School.
    – About 6,828 of 19,072
   This same year 25.8% of 19,072 blacks had
    attended some college, or had received an
    associate degree.
    – About 4,921 of 19,072
   In 1997, 13.3% of 19,072 blacks 25 years and
    older had received a Bachelor’s degree or more.
    – About 2,537 of 19,072
   In 1997, 34.8% of 29,299 whites 25 years and
    older had graduated from High School.
    – About 10,196 of 29,299 (relatively equal to blacks
      percentage-wise)
   This same year 25.2% of 29,299 whites 25 and
    older had gone to some college, or had received an
    associate degree.
    – About 7,383 of 29,299 (relatively equal to blacks
      percentage-wise)
   In 1997, 26.2% of 29,299 whites 25 years and
    older had received a Bachelor’s degree or more.
    – About 7,676 of 29,299 (twice as many degrees awarded
      to whites)
Violence against American
         Citizens
A Time Line of African-American
      History; 1901-1925
                    1901-1905
   1901: 105 blacks known to have been lynched.
    – Last Black Congressman for 28 years.
   1902: 85 blacks lynched
   1903: 84 blacks lynched
   1904: 76 blacks lynched
   1905: 57 blacks lynched
    – The Niagara Movement
Total deaths: 407
                   1906-1910
   1906: 62 blacks lynched
    – 10 blacks and 2 whites killed in a race riot in
      Atlanta, GA
   1908: 89 blacks lynched
    – Springfield, IL race riot kills many and wounds
      more
 1909: 69 blacks lynched
 1910: 67 blacks lynched
Total deaths to date: 706
                    1911-1915
   1911: 60 blacks lynched
    – National Urban League begins
   1912: 61 blacks lynched
    – Woodrow Wilson president
   1913: 51 blacks lynched
    – Wilson begins federal segregation
   1914: 51 blacks lynched
    – WWI begins in Europe
   1915: 56 blacks lynched
    – Booker T. Washington dies
Total deaths to date: 985
                  1916-1917

 1916: 50 blacks lynched
 1917: 36 blacks lynched
    – America enters WWI with 370,000 blacks in
      military service
    – Race riot in East St.Louis, IL where 40-200
      people were killed
    – A race riot in Houston kills 2 blacks and 11
      whites. 18 black soldiers were hanged for
      participating in the riot.
    – Supreme Court rules against a Louisville, KY
      ordinance mandating segregated neighborhoods
                     1918-1920
   1918: 60 blacks lynched
    – Race riot in Chester, PA kills 3 blacks and 2 whites
    – Race riot in Philadelphia, PA kills 3 blacks and 1 white
    – WWI ends
   1919: 76 blacks lynched
    – 26 race riots occur between April and October
   1920: 53 blacks lynched
    – Harding elected president
    – Harlem Renaissance begins.
Total deaths to date: 1,386
                      1921-1925
   1921: 59 blacks lynched
    – Race riot in Tulsa, OK kills 21 whites and 60 blacks
   1922: 51 blacks lynched
    – Federal anti-lynching bill killed by a filibuster in the
      U.S. Senate.
   1923: 29 blacks lynched
    – Harding dies, Coolidge succeeds him
   1924: 16 blacks lynched
   1925: 17 blacks lynched
    – Malcolm X born.
Total deaths due to racial violence from 1901-1925:
  1,639
             Resources Used
U.S. Bureau of the Census. “Interracial Married
  Couples: 1960 to Present.” Jan. 7, 1999. Located
  at http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/ms-
  la/tabms-3.txt
Library of Congress. “Time Line of African
  American History, 1901-1925. Located at
  http://lcweb2.oc.gov/ammem/aap/timelin3/html
U.S. Bureau of the Census. “Educational Attainment
  of Persons 25 Years Old and Over, by Sex,
  Region, and Race: March 1997.” July 30, 1998.
  Located at
  http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/race/b
  lack/tabs97/tab07.txt
Woodward, C. Vann. The Strange Career of Jim
  Crow. New York: Oxford UP, 1974.

				
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