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Cold War detente.ppt

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					Détente back
to Cold War
   1969-79
                  1969-75
   This period saw significant improvement in
    the relationship between the US and the
    USSR.
   This improvement was mostly brought
    about by President Nixon and his National
    Security Adviser, Henry Kissinger.
   America’s willingness to follow a policy of
    détente was met with approval by Leonid
    Brezhnev of the USSR
     Détente: early progress
 The first sign of this new thaw in
  relations was the beginning of
  Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
  (SALT) in 1969.
 Then in 1971 Nixon visited China –
  the world’s most populous nation.
 This was deliberately intended to
  provoke a response from the USSR.
  Why?
         Sino-Soviet Split
 In the early 1960s the world’s two
  greatest communist countries
  quarrelled with each other.
 The Chinese resented the refusal of
  the Russians to help them develop
  their nuclear weapons technology.
 The Russians believed that the
  Chinese might provoke war with the
  US and so couldn’t be trusted.
      From détente to Cold War
   Nixon decided to exploit this tension between the
    two by playing one off against the other to put
    pressure on the USSR to sign SALT.
   His visit to China worried the Soviet Union that
    China and the US might ‘gang up’ against them.
   The Russians decided to improve relations with
    the US to stop this happening.
   They quickly agreed to sign the 1972 SALT I
    Treaty and invited Nixon to Moscow to sign it.
    SALT I ‘froze’ the number of submarine and land-
    based missiles for 5 years.
Illustration from ‘The Cold War’ by Lawrence Freedman
                                                            An NDM Prod.
Nixon knew that détente
                        The USSR could not afford
was a vote-winner
                        its huge military expenditure
                        (20% of GNP)


    Why were
both superpowers
ready for détente?




 SALT started 1969
                                 Detente
                                 1969-75
   Nixon visited
    China 1971



  Nixon invited to           Brezhnev visited
   Moscow 1972                  USA 1973                Helsinki Agreement
                                                               1975
      SALT I                US withdrew from
    Treaty 1972            South Vietnam 1973
     Further progress to detente
    The one remaining obstacle to improve
    still further relations was the US role in
    Vietnam. In April 1973, the US withdrew
    its troops. This soon led to:
   The Helsinki Agreement, 1975:
   35 European nations agreed to accept
    Europe’s borders as permanent – this
    pleased the USSR.
   they also agreed to guarantee human
    rights (such as the right to protest) in
    their own countries- this pleased the US.
     Why did this period of détente
    give way to the ‘new’ Cold War?
   The USSR soon made it obvious that they
    had no intention of allowing any human
    rights by arresting dissidents (opponents
    of communism in USSR)
   In 1976 the Cubans (with Soviet backing)
    sent 40,000 troops to help communists in
    Angola’s civil war.
   The biggest setback was caused by the
    Soviet Union’s invasion of Afghanistan in
    1979.
                                                             An NDM Prod.
Nixon knew that détente
                        The USSR could not afford
was a vote-winner
                        its huge military expenditure
                        (20% of GNP)

                                   Soviet arrests
    Why were                       of leading           Why did this period
both superpowers                   dissidents              of détente
ready for détente?                                       come to an end?
                                 Cuban troops
                                 sent to Angola
                                 1976

 SALT started 1969
                             Détente to ‘new’           Soviet invasion of
                                Cold War                Afghanistan 1979
                                1969-79
   Nixon visited
    China 1971



  Nixon invited to           Brezhnev visited
   Moscow 1972                  USA 1973                Helsinki Agreement
                                                               1975
      SALT I                US withdrew from
    Treaty 1972            South Vietnam 1973

				
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posted:7/19/2012
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