ADAMS AS PRESIDENT
- John Adams was elected to the presidency despite closed-door efforts by
Alexander Hamilton to undermine his campaign:
I I J
Jefterson Adams Hamilton
- too moderate for Hamilton
- too "federalist" for the Republicans
- had the endorsement of Washington- won him the election
- Adams made the mistake of retaining Washington's cabinet, who were more loyal to
Hamilton than to him.
ADAMS AND FRANCE:
- Franco-American relations were strained at this time (1798) due to:
- the dispute over the validity of the Treaty of 1778
- The Proclamation of Neutrality (1793)
- The Jay Treaty (1794)
- France begins attacking U.S. ships on the high seas and impounding the ships in
French harbors, taking American sailors captive.
- Adams sends John Marshall, C.C. Pinkney, and Elbridge
Gerry to France to negotiate with French Minister Charles
- American delegation confronted by unknown agents of the French
govt. (X;Y;Z) and issued an ultimatum to;
1) pay a $250,000 bribe
2)arrainge a $3 million loan to France -
demonstrated a complete lack of respect for the U.S. govt.
- American Response: disso1vement of the Treaty of 1778, undeclared war on high
seas, raising of taxes to pay for large military build-up.
* Federalists wanted an official declaration of war, but Adams smartly
*Federalists saw this as an opportunity to destroy the Republican Party.
- 1799: a second delegation is sent to Paris to meet with the country's new leader,
Napoleon Bonaparte, who quickly agrees to a settlement- why?
- Alien and Sedition Acts (1798): designed to erode Republican power
- Alien Enemies Act: internment of immigrants during wartime
... Naturalization Act: increased requirements for citizenship
- Alien Friends Act: deportation of dangerous immigrants
- Sedition Act: could be jailed for speaking out against the govt.
- would expire on March 3, 1801- why?
- Virginia Resolution (Madison): states can declare a federal law
- Kentucky Resolution (Jefferson): unconstitutional laws are "null and void"
THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 1800:
- Adams is defeated by the combination of Jefferson and Aaron Burr, who both
receive 73 electoral votes:
- House of Reps. will decide the presidency
... loser will become Vice President
- Jefferson wins an incredibly close vote with the help of a suprise
supporter- who was this and why did he help Jefferson?
- Note: the 12th Amendment will be enacted in 1804 to create separate elections for
President and Vice President.
- Adams attempts to preserve some form of federalist power at the national level by
appointing 16 new judges to federal positions in the last hours of his presidency;
... become known as "The Midnight Judges".
- among them, John Marshall becomes the new Chief Justice of the
- The Election of 1800 is known as a "revolution" because we witness the first
transition of executive power from one political party to the other.