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					 Chapter 5. Functions

       Weiqi Luo (骆伟祺)
         School of Software
       Sun Yat-Sen University
Email:weiqi.luo@yahoo.com Office:A309
Chapter five: Functions
   5.1. Functions
   5.2. Functions for Computer Science
   5.3. Growth of Functions
   5.4. Permutation Functions




                          2     School of Software
5.1. Functions

 Function (mapping, transformation)
 Let A and B be nonempty sets. A function f from A to B,
 which is denoted f: AB, is a relation from A to B such
 that for all a in Dom(f), f(a), the f-relative set of a, contains
 just one element of B.
           f                            a: an argument of f

                                        f(a): the value of f for the
                        b=f(a)                argument a
 a
                                            or the image of a under f
     A                           B




                                 3       School of Software
5.1 Functions

 Example 1
  Let A={1, 2, 3, 4} and B={a, b, c, d}, and let
  f={(1,a), (2,a), (3,d), (4,c)}
 Then we have
            f(1)=a, f(2)=a, f(3)=d, f(4)=c

since each set f(n) is a single value, f is a function.

Note :a in B appears as the second element of two different
  ordered pairs in f. This does not conflict with the definition
  of a function.
                                4       School of Software
5.1 Functions

 Example 2
Let A={1,2,3} and B={x, y, z}. Consider the relations
R={(1,x),(2,x)} and S={(1,x),(1,y),(2,z),(3,y)}

 The relation S is not a function since S(1)={x, y}.
 The relation R is a function, and Dom(R)={1,2}, and
 Ran(R)={x}




                           5      School of Software
5.1 Functions

 Example 3
 Let P be a computer program that accepts an integer as input
 and produces an integer as output. Let A=B=Z. Then P
 determines a relation fp defined as follow:
  (m, n) in fp means that n is the output produced by program
 P where the input is m.
 It is clear that fp is a function, since any particular input
 corresponds to a unique output (we assume that the
 computer results are reproducible, that is, they are the same
 each time the program is run)
Note: Functions can be regarded as “input-output” relations

                              6       School of Software
5.1 Functions

 Example 5
   Labeled digraph is a digraph in which the vertices or the
  edges (or both) are labeled with information from a set.
  V: vertices , E: edges , L: labels
  f: VL
                                  Boston
  g: EL                         44
 e.g.                Worcester
                                       49
                                        51
                           64                      Providence
                    Hartford                 106
                               39

                                        New Haven

                                    7          School of Software
5.1 Functions

 Example 7
 Let A=Z and B={0,1}. Let f: AB be found by

                       1 if a is even
               f (a)  
                       0 if a is odd

 Example 8
 Let A be an arbitrary nonempty set. The identity
 function on A, denoted by 1A, is defined by
                        1A(a)=a

                             8           School of Software
5.1 Functions

 Composition
  Let f: AB and g: BC are functions. Then the
 composition of f and g, gof, is a relation from A to C.
                          g of
                  f                  g


        a                                     c=f(b)
                           b=f(a)
                               B              = gof (a)
            A
                                                C




                             9      School of Software
5.1 Functions

 Example 9
  Let A=B=Z, and C be the set of even integers.
  Let f: AB, and g: BC be defined by
             f(a)= a +1     f(b)= 2b
Find gof
Solution: we have
                (gof)(a)
             = g(f(a))
             = g(a+1)
              =2(a+1)
                           10      School of Software
5.1 Functions

 Let f be a function from A to B
 Everywhere defined :   Dom(f) = A
 Onto :                 Ran(f) = B
 One to one :           If f(a) = f(a’) then a=a’

 Bijection :
         Dom(f)  one to one        Ran(f)
 One-to-one correspondence between A and B
         Dom(f)  one to one  Ran(f)
      & Dom(f)=A and Ran(f)=B
                         11       School of Software
5.1 Functions

 Example 11
 Let A=B=Z and let f: AB be defined by
        f (a) = a+1 for all a in A

Everywhere defined? Yes, Dom(f) =A=Z

Onto? Yes, for all b in B, we have a=b-1

One to one? Yes, a+1 = a’+1, then we have a=a’


                         12      School of Software
5.1 Functions

 Invertible
  A function f: AB is said to be invertible if its inverse
  relation, f-1, is also a function.



Example 14
   Let f = {(1,a), (2,a), (3,d), (4,c)}
Then f-1 = {(a,1), (a,2), (d,3), (c,4)}
We see that f-1 is not a function, since f-1 (a)={1,2}


                              13       School of Software
5.1 Functions

 Theorem 1
  Let f: AB be a function
 (a) Then f-1 is a function from B to A if and only if f is
  one to one.

 If f-1 is a function, then
 (b) the function f-1 is also one to one
 (c) f-1 is everywhere defined if and only if f is onto
 (d) f-1 is onto if and only if f is everywhere defined


                             14       School of Software
5.1 Functions

 Example 15
  Let A=B=Z and let f: AB be defined by
             f(a) = a + 1 for all a in A

 Since it is everywhere defined, one to one, and
 onto, f is a one-to-one correspondence between
 A and B.
 Thus f is invertible, and f-1 is a one-to-one
 correspondence between B and A.

                       15     School of Software
5.1 Functions

 Theorem 2
Let f: AB be any function. Then
   (a) 1B o f = f
   (b) f o 1A=f

If f is a one-to-one correspondence between A and B, then
    (c) f-1 o f = 1 A
    (d) f o f-1 =1 B



                           16      School of Software
5.1 Functions

 Theorem 3
 (a) Let f :AB and g: BA be functions such that
               g o f = 1A and f o g = 1 B.
 Then f is a one-to-one correspondence between A and B,
 g is a one-to-one correspondence between B and A, and
 each is the inverse of the other.

 (b) Let f : AB and g: BC be invertible. The g o f is
  invertible, and (g o f) -1 =f-1 o g-1


                           17      School of Software
5.1 Functions

 Theorem 4
 Let A and B be two finite sets with the same number of
 elements, and let f: AB be an everywhere defined
 function
 (a) If f is one to one, then f is onto
 (b) If f is onto, then f is one to one

(Refer to Section 3.3. Pigeonhole Principle)




                           18       School of Software
5.1 Functions

 Example 18




CKAJADPDGKJYEIDOT
JOHNHASALONGBEARD
                19   School of Software
5.1 Functions

 Homework
  Ex. 2, Ex. 10, Ex. 20, Ex. 32, Ex. 36, Ex.41




                         20     School of Software
5.2 Functions for Computer Science

 The characteristic function of A
  Let A be a subset of the universal set U={u1,u2,…un}.
  The characteristic function of A is defined as a function
  from U to {0,1} by the following:
                              1 if ui  A
                  f A (ui )  
                              0 if ui  A

 e.g. If A={4,7,9} and U={1,2,…,10} , then
       fA(2)=0, fA(4)=1, fA(7)=1, fA(12) is undefined.
It is everywhere defined and onto, but is not one to one

                            21      School of Software
5.2 Functions for Computer Science

 Boolean function
 A function from a set A to B, where B ={True, False}
 is called a Boolean function.
 Note: the predicates in Section 2.1 are examples of
 Boolean functions.
 For instance:
 Let P(x): x is even and Q(y): y is odd. Then P and Q are
 Boolean functions from Z to B.
 R(x, y): x is even or y is odd is a Boolean function of
 two variables from Z×Z to B

                           22      School of Software
5.2 Functions for Computer Science

 Floor Function
    f (q)  q 
               the largest integer less than or equal to q
     where q is rational numbers
f (1.5)  1.5  1, f (3)  3  3, f (2.7)  2.7  3
                                                    

 Ceiling Function
  f (q)  q  the smallest integer greater than or equal to q
           
     where q is rational numbers
 f (1.5)  1.5  2, f (3)  3  3, f (2.7)  2.7  2
                                                     

                              23       School of Software
5.2 Functions for Computer Science

 Polynomial function
       p ( x)  a0  a1 x  a2 x 2  ...  an x n
 Exponential function
                       f ( z)  2   z


 Logarithm function
                   f n ( x)  log n ( x)
 Factorial function
                       f (n)  n!

                           24           School of Software
5.2 Functions for Computer Science

 Example 7
 (a) l: A*Z as l(w) is the length of the string w


 (b) B is a finite subset of U
        pow(B) denotes the power set of B
 Note: pow is a function from V, the power set of U, to
 the power set of V

  (c) Let A=B=the set of all 2-by-2 martices with entries
 and let t(M)=MT, the transpose of M

                           25      School of Software
5.2 Functions for Computer Science

 Hash Functions
    Suppose that 10,000 customer account records must be stored
   and processed. The company’s computer is capable of
   searching a list of 100 items in an acceptable amount of time.
   We decide to create 101 liked lists for storage, because if the
   hashing function works well in randomly assigning records to
   lists, we would expect to see roughly 100 records per list. We
   define a hashing function from the set of set of seven-digit
   account numbers to the set {0,1,2,3,…,100} as follows
             h(n) = n (mod 101) h(2011) = 92
the record with account number 2011 will be assigned to 92.


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5.2 Functions for Computer Science

 Collision
   Since the function in Ex. 10 is not one-to-one, different
  accounts may be assigned to the same list. In such a
  case, the collision occurred.         Around 100 per list

                                  List #0
                                               …
        2011
                                  List #1
                                   …
     193
           1001                   List #92 :2011193 1001…
                                   …
                                  List #100
  customer account records


                             27        School of Software
5.2 Functions for Computer Science

 Fuzzy set and Fuzzy logic
   Refer to
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuzzy_mathematics




                       28     School of Software
5.2 Functions for Computer Science

 Homework
  Ex. 4, Ex. 7, Ex. 8, Ex.18, Ex. 22, Ex. 24




                         29     School of Software
5.3 Growth of Functions

 Let f and g be functions whose domains are
  subsets of Z+. We say that f is O(g), read f is big-
  Oh of g, if there exist constants c and k such that
  |f(n)|<=c |g(n)| for all n >=k.

  If f is O(g), then f grows no faster than g does.
                     | f ( n) |
                lim              c, c  R
               n  | g ( n) |




                           30       School of Software
5.3 Growth of Functions

 Example 2
  The function f(n) = ½ n3 + ½ n2 is O(g) for
  g(n)=n3. To see this, consider
     1 3 1 2 1 3 1 3
       n  n  n  n  n , if n  1
                        3

     2    2   2   2

 Choosing 1 for c and 1 for k, we have shown that
 |f(n)| <=c |g(n)| for all n>=1 and f is O(g).


                        31      School of Software
5.3 Growth of Functions

 Let f and g be functions whose domains are
  subsets of Z+. We say that f and g have the same
  order if f is O(g) and g is O(f).

  f is O(g) : f grows no faster than g does
  g is O(f) : g grows no faster than f does

                    | f ( n) |
         c2  lim               c1 c1 , c2  R
              n  | g ( n) |



                          32       School of Software
5.3 Growth of Functions

 Example 3
  Let f(n) = 3n4-5n2 and g(n) = n4 be defined for
  positive integers n. Then f and g have the same
  order. First,
    3n 4  5n 2  3n 4  5n 2  3n 4  5n 4  8n 4 , if n  1
  Let c=8 and k=1, then |f(n)| <=c |g(n)| for all
  n>=k. Thus f is O(g). Conversely,
       n 4  3n 4  2n 4  3n 4  5n 2 , if n  2
  Let c=1 and k=2, we have g is O(f).

                               33        School of Software
5.3 Growth of Functions

 Let f and g be functions whose domains are
  subsets of Z+. We say that f is lower order than g
  or that f grows more slowly than g if
           f is O(g) but g is not O(f)

                     | f ( n) |
                lim             0
               n  | g ( n) |




                         34      School of Software
5.3 Growth of Functions

 Example 4
                   f(n) = n5, g(n) = n7
Clearly,
       f(n) is O(g), since n5<=n7 , n>=1
Support g(n) is O(f), then there exists c and k such that
                  n7 <=cn5 , for n>=k
Choose N so that N>k and N2>c, then
                N7 <=cN5 < N2 N5= N7
This is a contradiction.

                             35       School of Software
5.3 Growth of Functions

 We define a relation Θ, big-theta, on functions whose
  domain are subsets of Z+ as f Θ g if and only if f and g
  have the same order.

 Theorem 1: The relation Θ is an equivalence relation
  Proof:
  Reflexive: |f(n)| <= c |f(n)| , c=1 for all n>=1
  Symmetric: by the definition of the same order
  (g and f have the same order iff f is O(g) and g is O(f) )


                             36       School of Software
5.3 Growth of Functions

 Transitive:
support f and g have the same order
            |f(n)| <=c1|g(n)| for all n>=k1       (1)
            |g(n)| <=c2|f(n)| for all n>=k2       (2)
 support g and h have the same order
            |g(n)| <=c3|h(n)| for all n>=k3        (3)
            |h(n)| <=c4|g(n)| for all n>=k4        (4)
|f(n)| <= c1|g(n)| <=c1c3|h(n)| for all n>=max(k1,k3)
|h(n)| <=c4|g(n)| <=c2c4|f(n)| for all n>= max(k2,k4)
Thus, f and h has the same order
                             37       School of Software
5.3 Growth of Functions

 Example 5
  All functions that have the same order as g(n)=n3 are
  said to have order Θ(n3).
 The common orders in computer science applications are

 Θ(1), Θ(lg(n)), Θ(n), Θ(nlg(n)), Θ(n2), Θ(n3), and Θ(2n)

Note:
Θ(1): the classes of constant functions
lg is the base 2 log function
                            38       School of Software
5.3 Growth of Functions

 Example 6
  Every logarthmic function f(n)=logb(n) has the same
 order as g(n)=lg(n). There is a logarithmic change-of-
 base identity             log a ( x)
                    log b ( x) 
                                   log a (b)
 in which loga(b) is a constant. Thus
                               1
           | log b ( x) |           | lg(n) |,"  " holds
                           | lg(b) |
 and, conversely,
          | lg(n) | lg(b) | log b ( n) |,"  " holds
Therefore g is O(f) and f is O(g).
                                   39          School of Software
5.3 Growth of Functions

Rules for determining the Θ-Class of a Function
1. Θ(1) functions are constant and have zero growth, the
   slowest growth possible.
2. Θ(lg(n)) is lower than Θ(nk) if k>0
3. Θ(na) is lower than Θ(nb) iff b>a>0
4. Θ(an) is lower than Θ(bn) iff b>a>0
5. Θ(nk) is lower than Θ(an) for any power nk and any a>1
6. If r is a not zero, and Θ(rf)= Θ(f) for any function f
7. If h is a nonzero function and Θ(f) is lower than (or the
   same as) Θ(g), then Θ(fh) is lower than (or the same as
   Θ(gh) )
8. If Θ(f) is lower than Θ(g), then Θ(f+g) = Θ(g)
                               40       School of Software
5.3 Growth of Functions

 Example 7
 Determine the Θ-class of each of the following
(a)f(n) = 4n4-6n7+24n3
(b)g(n) = lg(n) -3n
(c)h(n) = 1.1n+n15

(a) Θ(f) = Θ(n7)  (Rules 3,6 and 8)
(b) Θ(g)= Θ(n)    (Rules 2,6 and 8)
(c) Θ(h)= Θ(1.1n) (Rules 5 and 8)
                        41     School of Software
5.3 Growth of Functions

 Example 8
  Using the rules for ordering Θ-classes, arrange the
  following in order from lowest to highest
  Θ(nlg(n)) Θ(100n2-n) Θ(n0.2)         Θ(1,000,000)
  Θ(1.3n)    Θ(n+107)

Θ(1,000,000) , Θ(n0.2), Θ(n+107) , Θ(nlg(n)),
Θ(100n2-n) Θ(1.3n)

Θ(n1.2) ?
                            42      School of Software
5.3 Growth of Functions

 Homework
  Ex. 6, Ex. 10, Ex. 12, Ex. 25, Ex. 29




                        43      School of Software
5.4 Permutation Functions

 Permutation
  A bijection from a set A to itself is called a
  permutation of A.

For instance,
 Let A=R and let f: AA be defined by f(a)=2a+1.
 Since f is one to one and onto, it follows that f is a
  permutation of A.




                             44       School of Software
5.4 Permutation Functions

 If A ={a1,a2,…an} is a finite set and p is a bijection on
  A, we list the elements of A and the corresponding
  function values p(a1), p(a2), …, p(an) in the following
  form:

              a1 ,    a2 , ..., an        
           p                             
              p(a1 ), p(a2 ), ..., p(an ) 

  P is a permutation of a finite set A= {a1,a2,…an} , then
  the sequence p(a1) , p(a2), …, p(an) is just a
  rearrangement of the elements of A.
                             45       School of Software
5.4 Permutation Functions

 Example 2
  Let A={1,2,3}. Then all the permutations of A are

     1 2 3          1 2 3            1 2 3 
1A            p1              p2        
     1 2 3          1 3 2             2 1 3
     1 2 3         1 2 3             1 2 3 
p3           p4               p5        
      2 3 1        3 1 2              3 2 1


                           46      School of Software
5.4 Permutation Functions

 Example 3
  Using the permutations of Example 2, compute (a) p4-1
  (b) p3o p2

(a) Viewing p4 as a function, we have
       1 2 3 
  p4          P4={(1,3), (2,1), (3,2)}
       3 1 2

then P4-1 ={(3,1), (1,2), (2,3)}         1 2 3 
                                   1
                                   p
                                   4            p3
                                          2 3 1
                             47         School of Software
5.4 Permutation Functions

(b)


                1 2 3  1 2 3 
      p3   p2                
                 2 3 1  2 1 3 

               1 2 3 
                    
                3 2 1

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5.4 Permutation Functions

 Theorem 1
  If A={a1,a2,…,an} is a set containing n elements, then
  there are n!=n× (n-1) × …2 × 1 permutations of A
         p(a1) --- n ways
         p(a2) --- n-1 ways      (p(a1) is fixed)
                 …
         p(an-1) --- 2 ways (p(a1),…p(an-2) are fixed)
         p(an) --- 1 way (p(a1),…p(an-1) are fixed)

Totally, there are n! permutations of A.
                            49       School of Software
5.4 Permutation Functions

 Cyclic Permutation
 Let b1, b2, …, br be distinct elements of the set
 A={a1,a2,…,an}. The permutation p: AA defined by
  p(b1)= b2                       b1
                                          b2
  p(b2)= b3                  br
                                             b3
      …
  p(br-1)= br             br-1

  p(br) = b1
  p(x)=x,     if x in A, x is not in {b1,b2,…,br}
 is called a cyclic permutation of length r, or simply a cycle
 of length r, denoted by (b1,b2,…,br)
                              50       School of Software
5.4 Permutation Functions

 Example 4
  Let A={1,2,3,4,5}.The cycle (1,3,5) denotes the
  permutation


               1 2 3 4 5                        1
                         
                3 2 5 4 1
                                              5         3

    Note: (1, 3, 5) = (3, 5, 1) = ( 5,1, 3)

                           51      School of Software
5.4 Permutation Functions

 Example 5
   Let A={1,2,3,4,5,6}. Compute (4,1,3,5) o (5,6,3) and
  (5,6,3) o (4,1,3,5)
Solutions:

                  1 2 3 4 5 6 
    (4,1, 3, 5)              
                  3 2 5 1 4 6

                  1 2 3 4 5 6 
      (5, 6, 3)              
                  1 2 5 4 6 3 

                            52      School of Software
5.4 Permutation Functions

 Example 5

                          1 2 3 4 5 6 
  (4,1, 3, 5) (5, 6, 3)              
                          3 2 4 1 6 5

                          1 2 3 4 5 6 
  (5, 6, 3) (4,1, 3, 5)              
                           5 2 6 1 4 3
 (4,1, 3, 5) (5, 6, 3)  (5, 6, 3) (4,1, 3, 5)

 Neither product is a cycle. (why?)
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5.4 Permutation Functions

 Two cycles of a set A are said to be disjoint if no
  element of A appears in both cycles.

 For instance,
 Let A={1,2,3,4,5,6}.
 Then the cycles (1,2,5) and (3,4,6) are disjoint,
 whereas the cycles (1,2,5) and (2,4,6) are not.




                            54       School of Software
  5.4 Permutation Functions

   Theorem 2
   A permutation of a finite set that is not the identity or a
   cycle can be written as a product of disjoint cycles of
   length >=2
  For instance:
                     12345678 
                   p          
                      34652187 
       p  (7, 8) (2, 4, 5) (1, 3, 6)
          (2, 4, 5) (1, 3, 6) (7, 8)  ...
Note: the product is unique except for the order of the cycles
                                   55        School of Software
5.4 Permutation Functions

 Transposition
  A cycle of length 2 is called a transposition.
                   p(ai)=aj ; p(aj)=ai
  Note:
        p o p = 1A - the identity permutation of A

 Every cycle can be written as a product of transpositions.
   (b1, b2, …, br) = (b1,br) o (b1,br-1)…(b1,b3) o (b1,b2)
(not unique! Why?)
The proof is shown as below
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5.4 Permutation Functions

 Basic Step
  r=2, then the cycle is (b1,b2) , which has the proper form
 Induction Step
  Use P(k) to show P(k+1)
    (b1,b2,…,bk,bk+1) be cycle of length k+1
     (b1,b2,…,bk,bk+1) = (b1,bk+1) o (b1,b2,…,bk) (why?)
   Using P(k),
        (b1,b2,…,bk) = (b1,bk) o (b1,bk-1) … (b1,b2)
   Thus, by substitution
(b1,b2,…,bk, bk+1) = (b1, bk+1) o (b1,bk) o (b1,bk-1)… (b1,b2)
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5.4 Permutation Functions

 Corollary 1
   Every permutation of a finite set with at least
  two elements can be written as a product of
  transpositions




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5.4 Permutation Functions

 Example 9
 Write the following permutation as a product of
 transposition
                    12345678 
                p                  
                     34652187 
  p  (7, 8)    (2, 4, 5)      (1, 3, 6)
  (1, 3, 6)  (1, 6)    (1, 3)
  (2, 4, 5)  (2, 5)     (2, 4)
p  (7, 8)     (2, 5)   (2, 4)     (1, 6)    (1, 3)

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5.4 Permutation Functions

 Every permutation on a set of two or more elements can
  be written as a product of transpositions in many ways

  For instance

  (1, 2,3)  (1,3) (1, 2)         Even Transpositions

           (2,1) (2,3)           Even Transpositions

           (1,3) (3,1) (1,3) (1, 2) (3, 2) (2,3)
                                  Even Transpositions




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5.4 Permutation Functions

 Theorem 3
 If a permutation of a finite set can be written as a
 product of an even number of transpositions, then it can
 never be written as a product of an odd number of
 transpositions, and conversely

 Note: a permutation of a finite set is called even if it can be
 written as a product of an even number of transpositions,
 and it is called odd if it can be written as a product of an odd
 number of transpositions.


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5.4 Permutation Functions

 Example 10
   Is the permutation
                   1234567 
               p          
                   2457631
   even or odd?
                p  (3,5, 6) (1, 2, 4, 7)
(1, 2, 4, 7)  (1, 7) (1, 4) (1, 2)   (3,5, 6)  (3, 6) (3,5)

       p  (3, 6) (3,5) (1, 7) (1, 4) (1, 2)
                               Odd Transpositions
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5.4 Permutation Functions

 From the definition of even and odd permutations, it
  follows (see Ex. 22-24) that

 (a) the product of two even permutations is even

 (b) the product of two odd permutations is even

 (c) the product of an even and an odd permutation is odd




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5.4 Permutation Functions

 Theorem 4
 Let A={a1,a2,…,an} be a finite set with n elements,
 n>=2. There are n!/2 even permutations and n!/2 odd
 permutations.
 Proof:
 An be the set of all even permutations of A
 Bn be the set of all odd permutations of A.
 We shall define a function f: An  Bn, which we show
 is one to one and onto, and this will show that An and
 Bn have the same number of elements.

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5.4 Permutation Functions

   Since n>=2, we can choose a particular transposition q0
   of A. say that q0=(an-1,an). Define f: AnBn by
               f(p) = q0 o p     p in An
   note: p is even permutation, then f(p) is odd and thus
   f(p) in Bn.
one to one : support p1 and p2 are in An and f(p1)=f(p2)
   q0 o p1 = q0 o q2  q0 o (q0 o p1) = q0 o( q0 o q2 )
by associative property
q0 o (q0 o p1) = (q0 o q0 )o p1 = p1 (q0 oq0)=1A
q0 o (q0 o p2) = (q0 o q0 )o p2 = p2 (q0 oq0)=1A
Therefore, p1=p2
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5.4 Permutation Functions

 Onto: let q in Bn, then q0oq in An, and
  f(q0 o q) = q0 o (q0 o q) = (q0 o q0) o q = q

  Therefore, f is an onto function.

  Since f is one to one and onto, then An and Bn have the
  same number of elements. Note that An∩ Bn = ф and
  by Theorem 1 |An U Bn|= n!, we then have
     n! = |An U Bn| = |An| + |Bn| - | An ∩ Bn |= 2 |An|
so
                      |An|=|Bn|= n!/2
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5.4 Permutation Functions

 Homework
  Ex. 2, Ex. 6, Ex.24, Ex. 26, Ex. 27, Ex. 37




                        67      School of Software

				
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