Nonprofit Organizations and Social Institutions.ppt by tongxiamy


									  Nonprofit Organizations
   and Social Institutions
  Nonprofits have become essential
aspects of “institutional life” in that they
fulfill basic functions necessary for our
             social way of life.
Chapter 2, pp 44-64
       The mission of the nonprofit
         organization manager:
• Fulfilling the institutional role of the
  nonprofit organization:
  – Nonprofits allow individuals to foster their
    passion to benefit others.
  – To pull people together to make collective
    meaning out of actions important to them.
  – To link their organization in myriad ways to
    the world outside it.
  pp. 44-45
Roles played by nonprofit executive
                  • Directing
                  • Motivating
                  • Coordinating
                  • Innovating
                  • External
                  • “Gladiator”
                  • Crisis managing
                  p. 45
  Societies create institutions to provide
          for basic social needs.
• 1. Family and community structures develop to
  meet basic needs for meaning and support.
• 2. Political institutions emerge to define and
  articulate public goals.
• 3. Economic institutions exist to develop
• 4. Social institutions exist to harmonize the
  various actions of organizations.

pp. 46-47
Institutions that respond to these
needs are thought of as sectors.
  We divide our institutions into four
  major sectors to accomplish our
           societal tasks.
The First Sector
        • Corporations and
        • Makes most of our
        • Hires most of our
        • Provides jobs that
          amount to 80% of
             Second Sector
• Government
• Provides military
• Ancillary regulatory
• Welfare services.
• Meets about 13% of
  national payroll.
Third Sector
      • Voluntary and nonprofit
      • Address number of
        educational, charitable
        and membership
      • Meets about 7% of
        national payroll.
      • Supplemented by MUCH
        valuable voluntary effort.
               Fourth Sector
• Households
• Informal community
• Performs
  – Home management
  – Child care
• Functions performed
  without any transfer of
The Environment of Nonprofit
  Nonprofits are institutions capable of
   solving human problems when we
   distrust government and business.
    Nonprofit management must take
        following into account:
•   The family               • Government, Politics and
•   Religion                   Law.
                                – Welfare Mix
•   Education
                                – Certification
•   Social and Demographic
                                – Regulation
                             • Nonprofits and Economy
    – Poverty and Economic
      Malaise                   – Productivity
    – Racism                    – Distribution
    – Alienation                – Globalization. Including
                                  Mass Media
    – Incapacity
    pp. 46 - 56
        Nonprofits and family
• Current issues related to interpretations of
  “family values” have impacted nonprofits’
  approaches to their work.
• Post-modern family changes
  interpretations of what is appropriate.
• The “Moral Majority” has become a force
  that complicates the mission of some
      Nonprofits and Religion
• Religious organizations impose their
  version of truth on what is appropriate for
• Issues like “choice” and birth control are
  critiqued by religious positions.
• The examples such as the American Boy
  Scouts and the Salvation Army limiting
  activity by sexual preference show the
  impact of religion on nonprofits.
     Nonprofits and Education
• Education is a cultural force that shapes
  the “learning society.”
• The battle over public and private
  education shapes the nonprofit
• The educational initiative of “service
  learning,” internships, and shared
  community responsibility impact the
 Social and Demographic Conditions:
   Poverty and Economic Malaise
• The economic condition of citizens will
  shape the kind of problems with which
  nonprofits have to deal.
• Structural unemployment, unemployment
  rate shapes life chances and life struggles.
• Consider what it means for nonprofits
  when one in five American children live in
       Social and Demographic
         Conditions: Racism
• Nonprofits need to focus on racism as it
  increases or decreases.
• As government decreases its focus on
  affirmative action, nonprofits must take up
  the slack.
• Conservative social policy calls for more
  effort from non-government organizations
  when it comes to fighting racism
      Social and Demographic
       Conditions: Alienation
• Alienation is a structurally caused
  condition that makes it difficult to find
  meaning and connection in everyday life.
• Our democracy can’t work when people
  believe “what I think doesn’t matter.”
• Those expressing disaffection with
  community/social life increased from 29%
  to over 60% in the 25 years 1966-1989.
      Social and Demographic
       Conditions: Incapacity
• The political and social definition of
  “disability” will influence the amount and
  type of effort directed toward this issue.
• Both physical and mental disability has
  been compensated for by nonprofit efforts.
• When governmental policy is more
  conservative fewer resources are directed
  toward assisting individuals in their
  struggle with disability.
 Government, Politics, and Law
• The approach to social policy; more
  conservative (it is up to the individual) or
  more liberal (society as a service provider
  to the individual) will have dramatic effect
  on the need for specific types of
• Government decides on tax deduction
  eligibility and which services are needed.
           The Welfare Mix
• Government chooses degree to which it
  will provide services and to whom.
• We have seen dramatic shifts in aid to the
  poor, the provision of child care, support
  for education, and unemployment
• The approach to policy supporting
  housing, higher education, health care, job
  training, etc. will impact nonprofits.
     Government certification
• The nonprofit environment is impacted by
  the decisions to certify certain service
  areas as tax exempt.
• The deductibility of a donation to a
  nonprofit is of significant help in nonprofit
• The power to certify also carries restriction
  of the independence of the nonprofit.
   Government and regulation
• Governmental regulation can make a
  nonprofit venture much easier or much
• Government contracts add a large degree
  of control over the nonprofit effort.
• Government can direct the kind and
  quality of services through regulation.
  Nonprofits and the Economy
• When the economy is productive people
  feel hopeful and optimistic. When it
  stagnates people feel powerless and left
• In a “bad” economy fewer people give
  support to nonprofits while more people
  feel the need for the services nonprofits
  have to offer.
        Distribution of wealth
• How a political administration chooses to
  distribute wealth will have a critical affect
  on nonprofits.
• Since 1980s (the Ragan revolution) social
  policy has fostered a “reverse Robin
  Hood” pattern.
• Nonprofits have had to contend with an
  attitude of hard hearted individuality.
• Globalization: One world – one economy –
  one information system.
• Globalization offers reduced prospect for
  world war.
• It creates a single market and makes all
  economies interdependent.
• It creates the possibility of international
  problem solving.
       Major Players on the Nonprofit
• Givers: more than ½ of American population
  volunteer service, financial contributions make
  nonprofits possible, altruism is rewarding and
  has a humanizing affect.
• Intermediaries: Foundations provide resources
  for problems of special import.
• Regulators: 1. State agencies of taxation, 2.
  nonprofit sector monitors, 3. program evaluators,
  4. congressional subcommittees.
p. 56-61
      Nonprofits and Charitable
    Organizations: We all benefit!
• Over a million nonprofits in the U.S. employ
  about 10% of total number of workers.
• Work of nonprofits directed at service, advocacy
  and member benefit.
• Involved in all aspects of American life: Boy and
  Girl Scouts, the Catholic Church, the Brookings
  Institution, Blue Cross, Mayo Clinic, Yale and
  Amherst, the Ford Foundation, the National
  Football League, the Motion Picture Academy of
  America, the Red Cross, Habitat for Humanity…

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