Information Retrieval_ Hypermedia and the Web _CS 3352_.ppt by shenreng9qgrg132

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									Information Retrieval, Hypermedia
and the Web
(CS 3352)

         Web eXtensible Standards
         The Semantic Web

         Prof. Carole GOBLE
         Dr. Simon HARPER
                              2002/2003 (Lecture 17)
      In this Section…
    The role of metadata on the Web
    The Semantic Web
    The Semantic Web Technology Stack




    cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   2
                                                         [Hendler & Miller 02]
  What is the Web?




cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web      2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   3
     What we see
WWW2002
The eleventh international world wide web conference
Sheraton waikiki hotel
Honolulu, hawaii, USA
7-11 may 2002
1 location 5 days learn interact
Registered participants coming from
australia, canada, chile denmark, france, germany, ghana, hong kong, india, ireland, italy,
    japan, malta, new zealand, the netherlands, norway, singapore, switzerland, the
    united kingdom, the united states, vietnam, zaire
Register now
On the 7th May Honolulu will provide the backdrop of the eleventh international world
    wide web conference. This prestigious event …
Speakers confirmed
Tim berners-lee
Tim is the well known inventor of the Web, …
Ian Foster
Ian is the pioneer of the Grid, the next generation internet …




  cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web        2002/2003 (Lecture 17)    5
   What a machine sees
WWW2002
The eleveth iteratioal world wide web
   coferece
Sherato waikiki hotel
Hoolulu, hawaii, USA
7-11 may 2002
1 locatio 5 days lear iteract
Registered participats comig from
australia, caada, chile demark, frace,
   germay, ghaa, hog kog, idia, irelad,
   italy, japa, malta, ew zealad, the
   etherlads, orway, sigapore, switzerlad, the
   uited kigdom, the uited states, vietam,
   zaire
Register ow
O the 7th May Hoolulu will provide the backdrop
   of the eleveth iteratioal world wide web
   coferece This prestigious evet 
Speakers cofirmed
Tim berers-lee
Tim is the well kow ivetor of the Web, 
Ia Foster
Ia is the pioeer of the Grid, the ext
   geeratio iteret 


 cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   6
         World Wide Web
   Tim Berners-Lee reprise…
“... a goal of the Web was that, if the interaction
   between person and hypertext could be so intuitive
   that the machine-readable information space gave
   an accurate representation of the state of people's
   thoughts, interactions, and work patterns, then
   machine analysis could become a very powerful
   management tool, seeing patterns in our work and
   facilitating our working together through the typical
   problems which beset the management of large
   organizations.”
                                       Berners-Lee 1996

       cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   7
      An Origin of the
      Semantic Web
    The information retrieval crisis spotlighted
     metadata.
    What is metadata?
         It's just data.
         But it's data about other data
         Data intended for machine consumption
    What could metadata do for us?
         Give search engines something to work with that is
          designed for their needs.
         Give us all a place to record what a document, or any
          other resource, is for or about.
    cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   8
   XML mark-up with “meaningful tags”
WWW2002       <name>
The eleveth iteratioal world wide web                          <title>
   coferece
Sherato waikiki hotel
Hoolulu, hawaii, USA
                                    <location>
7-11 may 2002                 <date>
1 locatio 5 days lear iteract                          <slogan>
Registered participats comig from
australia, caada, chile demark, frace,
   germay, ghaa, hog kog, idia, irelad,
   italy, japa, malta, ew zealad, the
   etherlads, orway, sigapore, switzerlad, the
   uited kigdom, the uited states, vietam,
   zaire
Register ow
                                                 <participants>
O the 7th May Hoolulu will provide the backdrop
   of the eleveth iteratioal world wide web
   coferece This prestigious evet                      <introduction>
Speakers cofirmed
Tim berers-lee       <speaker>
Tim is the well kow ivetor of the Web,                              <bio>
Ia Foster         <speaker>
Ia is the pioeer of the Grid, the ext
   geeratio iteret                                            <bio>

 cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   9
          What is metadata?
   Data cataloging resources
        Administrative cataloguing: acquisition history, author…
        Structural: size, image format…
   Data describing the content and meaning of
    resources
                                                          World Cup Final
                                                             England
                                                           Bobby Moore
                                                              1966
                                                             Football

                                                                  Victory
                                                                 Patriotism
        cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web           2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   10
  Metadata on the web: meta tags




cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   11
  Metadata on the web: meta tags




cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   12
      Metadata
    "football,
    Blackburn Rovers Football Club,blfc,Blackburn
     Rovers,Rovers,
    Mark Hughes,Brad Friedel,John Curtis,Stig Inge
     Bjornebye,Craig Short,Garry Flitcroft,David Dunn,Craig
     Hignett,Damien Duff,Matt Jansen,Egil Ostenstad,Marc
     Keller,Simon Grayson,Martin Taylor,Alan Mahon,Alan
     Kelly,Henning Berg,Lucas Neil,Lucas Neill,Gordon
     Greer,James Thomas,Burton O'Brien,Ben Burgess,Jeff
     Kenna,Nils-Eric Johansson,Corrado Grabbi,Fred
     Murray,Andy Cole,Jonathan Douglas,Ryan Robinson,
     Tugay, Yordi,Hakan Unsal,Keith Gillespie,Darren
     Dunning,Alan Miller,Burton O'Brien,Jonathan
     Douglas,Marc Richards">
    cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   13
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<book isbn="0836217462">                               Metadata on the
<title>Being a Dog Is a Full-Time Job</title>          Web
<author>Charles M. Schulz</author>                     XML tags
<character>
     <name>Snoopy</name>
     <friend-of>Peppermint Patty</friend-of>
     <since>1950-10-04</since>
     <qualification> extroverted beagle </qualification>
</character>
<character>
      <name>Peppermint Patty</name>
      <since>1966-08-22</since>
      <qualification>bold, brash and tomboyish</qualification>
      </character>
</book>

      cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   14
  Metadata on the web: directories




cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   15
   What the tags mean to a machine
WWW2002       <name>
The eleventh international world wide web                          <title>
   conference
Sheraton waikiki hotel
Honolulu, hawaii, USA
                                  <location>
7-11 may 2002                 <date>
1 location 5 days learn interact         <slogan>
Registered participants coming from
australia, canada, chile denmark, france,
   germany, ghana, hong kong, india, ireland,
   italy, japan, malta, new zealand, the
   netherlands, norway, singapore, switzerland,
   the united kingdom, the united states, vietnam,
   zaire
Register now
                                                 <participants>
On the 7th May Honolulu will provide the backdrop
   of the eleventh international world wide web
   conference This prestigious event                      <introduc
Speakers confirmed
Tim berners-lee      <speaker>
Tim is the well known inventor of the Web,                              <bio>
Ian Foster         <speaker>
Ian is the pioneer of the Grid, the next
   generation internet                                            <bio>

 cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   16
            Sources of Knowledge for finding
            documents [DeRose99]
   “The user, including their current explicit query and
    any historical or profile information the system may
    have gained earlier.

   The documents on the web, including their nominal image
                                                   Text,
    "content" and whatever metadata has been
    attached                                                    Mark-up, Links,
                                                                Catalogue database
   The world, about which the system may have
                                                                            Ontologies,
    certain information, such as dictionaries and       Thesauri
    thesauri of natural language terms; basic           Knowledge
    knowledge of object categories ("dog is-a animal"),
    and much more…”

       cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   17
  Tim’s original vision…                                                 1989




cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   18
         Find a successful team sportsman who is
         European
                                                         Metadata
                                                         Integration
Blackburn                                                 Knowledge              Blackburn
Rovers is                                                                        won the
a UK
                                                          Inference              Worthing
soccer                                                                           ton Cup
team




Brad                                                                           Andy Cole
Friedal                                                                        plays for
plays for                                                                      Blackburn,
Blackburn                                                                      and he is
and he is                                                                      British
American

       cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web    2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   19
      What is the population of Bulgaria?
    Tourism Bulgaria (1999): 8.5 million (no date)
    Memory Government slide presentation (no date)
     8,948,649 (1985 census), govt est 8,989,172 (1990) est
     expected to be wrong
    CIA Fact Book: 7,707,495 (July 2001 est.)
    USA Immigration: 8,775,198 (July 1995 est.)
    European Union (no date): Approx 8 million
    World Bank (no date) Population: 8 million (2000)
    gazetteer 8487.3 (1992) 7973.7 (2001) 7946.0 (2002)
    OMDA: 8 487 317 (Dec 92 census) Decreasing
     subsequent 7 years.
    Ethnologue (no date) 8,336,000 (1998 UN).
    Answer: 7,707,495 – 8,500,000 (approx)

    cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   20
  Web Service Scenario
    FORALL X,Y,Z
      connection(X,Z)<-                                  <connection>|
                                                           <from>Washington D.C.</from>
               connection(X,Y) and
                                                           <to>Frankfurt</to>
               connection(Y,Z).         OnTo-Agents      </connection>
                                      Inference Engine


     <connection>|                                          <connection>|
       <from>Washington D.C.</from>                           <from>New York</from>
       <to>New York</to>                                      <to>Frankfurt</to>
     </connection>                                          </connection>




cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web                  [Staab, Maedche]
                                                                                     22
                                                                     2002/2003 (Lecture 17)
      Machine Process-able
      Knowledge on the Web
    Unique identity of resources and objects- URI
    Metadata Annotations
       Data describing the content and meaning of resources

       But everyone must speak the same language…

    Terminologies
       Shared and common vocabularies

       For search engines, agents, curators, authors and users

       But everyone must mean the same thing…

    Ontologies
       Shared and common understanding of a domain

       Essential for exchange and discovery

    Inference
       Apply the knowledge in the metadata and the ontology to create

         new metadata and new knowledge
    cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   23
      What is an ontology?
    An ontology is an explicit specification of a
     conceptualization
    An ontology is a shared understanding of some domain
     of interest.
    There are many definitions
         a formal specification EXECUTABLE
         of a conceptualization of a domain COMMUNITY
         of some part of world that is of interest APPLICATION
    Defines
         A common vocabulary of terms
         Some specification of the meaning of the terms
         A shared understanding for people and machines



    cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   24
Ontologies:
The Semantic Backbone




cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   25
    AKT Communities of Practice Ontology

Representations of
ontologies will put
semantics on
the web




  cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   26
                  What is an Ontology?

                  Thesauri
                 “narrower                       Formal          Frames
                                                               (properties)       General
                   term”                          is-a
Catalog/                                                                           Logical
                  relation                                                     constraints
ID



                               Informal                   Formal                Disjointn
    Terms/                       is-a                    instance Value Restrs.
                                                                                  ess,
    glossary                                                                    Inverse,
                                                                                part-of…



                                                         From Debbie McGuinness

      cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web        2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   27
        XML is not good for describing ontologies

      XML defines grammars to verify and structure documents
      The grammar enforces constraints on tags
      Different grammars define the same content
      XML lacks a semantic model – it only has a surface
       model which is a tree.
                                                                  course
<course date=“...”>
      <title>...</title>
      <teacher>...</teacher>                              title   teacher students
            <name>...</name>
            <http>...</http>
                                                               name       http
      <students>...</students>
</course>
                          • node = label + attr/values + contents

      cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web      2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   28
      XML is not good for describing ontologies

    Meaning of XML documents is intuitively clear
         “semantic” markup tags are domain terms
    But computers do not have intuition
         Tag names per se do not provide semantics
         The semantics are encoded outside the XML specification
 XML makes no commitment on:
 Domain specific ontological vocabulary

 Ontological modelling primitives

 requires pre-arranged agreement on  & 
Feasible for closed collaboration
         agents in a small & stable community
         pages on a small & stable intranet

    cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   29
      XML DTDs and XML Schema
    DTD does not distinguish between objects and relations
    XML Schema’s type extension mechanism is a red herring
     – it can’t be used to model ontological subtypes
    XML has been used as a serialisation syntax for other
     markup languages – e.g. SMIL, XOL
<class>
   <name> person </name>
</class>
<slot>
   <name>year-of-birth</name>
   <domain.person</domain>
   <slot-cardinality>1</slot-cardinality>
</slot>


    cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   30
      What is the Semantic Web?
    Power search
    Semantic integration
    The metadata fuel necessary for Web Services
    Distributed agents revisited
    The mother of all databases
    The mother of all knowledge bases
         How many cows in Texas?
         Query answering a knowledge base
    Enquire / Xanadu / Memex / Augment revisited
         “Collective IQ”; All have the right to comment on all
    A bunch of technologies
                                                             All of the above
    cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web        2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   31
  The Semantic Web




cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   32
  Language Tower


                                                         Attribution
                                                         Explanation
                                                         Rules & Inference
                                                         Ontologies
                                                         Metadata annotations
                                                         Standard Syntax
                                                         Identity


cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web     2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   33
      Metadata annotations: RDF
    RDF Data Model and Syntax to give us recognisable
     metadata.
    A triple: “Resource has Property with Value”
         Values can be resources or atomic XML Schema data types.
    Some extra stuff: containers, reification.
    http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/home/carole                      Carole Goble
                                           s:Creator

    Assertions on the resources.
    Promoted by the digital library community.
    First champions: Dublin Core, R Syndication Service




    cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   34
      Information Aggregation
    A directed graph.
    RDF repositories &
     query languages.
    Graph matching &
     graph merging.


    Model theoretic
     semantics by Pat
     Hayes
    www.w3c.org/TR/rdf-
     mt


    cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   35
      DAML+OIL / OWL
                                                      DAML+OIL /OWL ontology
DAML+ OIL / OWL designed to                           consists of set of axioms
describe structure of domain                           asserting characteristics of
                                                       classes and properties and
(schema)                                               individuals, each of which can
                                                       have an ID which is URI
                                                       reference
                                                     E.g. Person is kind of Animal
                                                       whose parents are Persons
                                                  RDF used for class/property
                                                   membership assertions (data)
                                                       E.g. John is an instance of
                                                       Person; h John ; Mary i is an
                                                       instance of parent
                                                  OWL Web Ontology Language
                                                   1.0 Reference
                                                    •  http://www.w3.org/TR/owl-
                                                       ref/

    cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web      2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   36
                                                              Person


                                                                                   Sport

                                                            Team-based Sport

                 Blackburn Rovers


Blackburn              Soccer Club

                              Sports Club                                   Soccer
   UK
          partof
                                  Club                 Sport
             Europe
 Country
                              Organisation
   cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web         2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   37
                                                               Event

                                                                       Competition




                                                                       Tournament



                                                                       Sports
                                                                     Tournament




                 Brad Friedal            Andy Cole                       Soccer
                                                                       Tournament
Blackburn Rovers             Soccer Player
                                                                   Worthington
   cs3352 - Information Retrieval, HypermediaSports Player
                                             and the Web                  Cup
                                                             2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   38
                                                         Blackburn Rovers




                                                           Nottingham

                                                               UK
                                                                      partof

                                              birthplace                  Europe
                       Andy Cole                              Country

          Soccer Player                                       nationality


                      Sports Player                  Person
cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web         2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   39
                                                         Blackburn Rovers




                                                         Lakewood



                                                           USA       UK
                                                                             partof

                                                                                Europe
                      Brad Friedal            birthplace            Country

          Soccer Player                                             nationality


                      Sports Player                        Person
cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web       2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   40
      RuleML




    XML
    Horn
     clauses +
     OWL



    cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   41
                                         Logical Inference
                                             If a person plays football they play a
                                              team based sport
                                             The USA is not in Europe
                                             Blackburn Rovers won the Worthington
                                              Cup in 2002.
                                             The Worthington Cup was played in Feb
                                              2002
                                             Andy Cole scored the winning goal in
                                              the Worthington Cup final
                                             There were no own goals
                                             Therefore Andy Cole played for
                                              Blackburn Rovers in Feb 2002.
                                         DAML+OIL (http://www.daml.org/)
                                         RuleML (http://www.dfki.uni-
                                          kl.de/ruleml/)
cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web      2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   42
                                           Proof and Trust
                                                Andy Cole plays for Man
                                                 Utd
                                                Andy Cole plays for
                                                 Blackburn Rovers
                                                Andy Cole plays for XX

                                                Context
                                                Digital Signatures
                                                Trust
                                                Proof = inferred items +
                                                 trust

cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web     2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   43
      What IS the population of Bulgaria?

    With DAML+OIL/OWL we build a consistent and well
     founded ontology about census, countries and
     populations.
    RDF assertions using the ontology will give 10 different
     answers.
    At least one site has 3 different answers.
    More than one ontology for population.
    An ontology for population and an ontology for countries
     that must be used together.
    What if Bulgaria extends its borders?
    Which site do you believe?



    cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   44
                                                             [Guha and McCool]
      TAP
    Simple tools that make the web a giant distributed
     Database.
    Provides a set of protocols and conventions that create a
     coherent whole of independantly produced bits of
     information, and a simple API to navigate the graph.
    Local, independantly managed knowledge bases
     aggregated to form selected centres of knowledge
     useful for particular applications.
    Interesting example of what Semantic Web and Web
     Services have to offer each other.
    Open Source



    cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web        2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   45
  TAP




cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   46
          TAP

   Semantic Search
   Thin layer above
    full text search
    engines that help
    contextualize
    queries and overlay
    results in terms of
    a knowledge base.




        cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   47
      COHSE               http://cohse.semanticweb.org


    Annotation of web
     resources with DAML+OIL
     concepts from ontologies
    Dynamic linking of
     resources based on
     concepts and reasoning.




           Linking               Annotation
    cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   48
  COHSE                 http://www.java.com




cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   49
   Content Services - OntoWeb Community Portal
                                                                           [Studer et al, 2002]


http://www.ontoweb.org
                                                                      {         }

                                                                  Participating Siten

                                                   Content
                                                  Syndication             ...
                                                    Service


                                                                     {          }

                                                                  Participating Site2

                                                                     {          }
                   Annotated
   Generated       Web Pages      Ontology
 Content Objects               Browse & Query                     Participating Site1
                                  Front End


                                                                OntoWeb Community

 cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web             2002/2003 (Lecture 17)        50
  News Services - RDF Site Summary RSS (II)




           title

                            channel       hasItem
           link                                                      title
                                                       item
          description
                        language
                                                              link
                                             description
cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web         2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   51
      Semantic Web Research Issues
    A language for representing metadata and ontologies
         RDF(S), Topic Maps, OIL  DAML+OIL
    Ontology creation
         Millions of ontologies will be built
         Ontology Engineering is difficult and time-consuming
         Ontology Learning
         Scalable RDF Repositories (all is built on top of the same data
          model !)
    Infrastructure
         Scalable reasoning services for different languages
         Resource-ID Management
         Versioning of ontologies and corresponding metadata


    cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   52
      Semantic Web Research Issues
    Metadata Management
         legacy data (HTML, XML, ...) -> legacy data migration:
         Annotation of Web documents (HTML, PDF, ...)
         Semi-automation using information extraction
         XML-Wrapper / Transformer
         Database Converter / Exporter
    Maintenance of Metadata, ontologies and
     resources
         sources, ontologies, and metadata have to be maintained in
          a consistent way
              organizational process is needed
              tools are needed
              Metadata have to reflect changes of the sources
              metadata have to reflect changes of the ontologies

    cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   53
                                                  Semantic
      Key Properties of the Web
    Its huge – scale, scale, scale, scale
    Its democratic – everyone has a say
    Its bottom up – html copying
    It changes a lot - 404
    Its dirty and untidy – don’t prevent, cure
    Its heterogeneous – hidden web, multiple pages
     on same stuff




    cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   54
   Community Ontologies
“… I envision a complex web of semantics ruled by the
  same sort of anarchy that currently rules the … Web.

  Rather than a few large, complex, consistent ontologies,
  shared by [many] users, I envision [many] small
  ontological components largely created of pointers to
  each other … ” .

                                                             [Hendler 2001]




 cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   55
  Community Ontologies




cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web                 [Uschold]
                                                                             56
                                                         2002/2003 (Lecture 17)
          Parting Shots
   Just getting part of this done will be amazing.
   There will be no ONE semantic web but multiple specific
    semantic webs.
       Scalability of technologies and management.
       Something like search engines to jump between them.
   Low-level of entry.
       Metadata must be incidental, Emergent semantics.
   Assume it will break: fix it or get over it.
       This is what made the web successful and hypermedia fail.
   The more agreement, the less you need machine processable
    semantics – too much techno push?


        cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   57
      Important Information                                  (enclosed)


    The Semantic Web (Scientific American)
    SemanticWeb.org
    RDF a Taster




    cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web        2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   58
      For Next Lecture
    Nothing




    cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   59
      Additional Information                                 (not enclosed)


    The Semantic Web Community Portal
         http://www.semanticweb.org/
    Reading
         Tim Berners-Lee, Jim Hendler, and Ora Lassila
          http://www.scientificamerican.com/2001/0501issue/0501berners
          -lee.html
         Sean B. Palmer, The Semantic Web: An Introduction
          http://infomesh.net/2001/swintro/
    Language Standards
         Topic Maps http://www.topicmaps.org/
         W3C http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/WebOnt/
    Semantic Web Research agenda
         http://www.ercim.org/EU-NSF/semweb.html

    cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web         2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   60
      Self Assessment Questions
    What is metadata on the Web?
    What is the Semantic Web?
    Why is the current Web not the Semantic Web?
    Why isn’t XML enough?
    How will the Semantic Web help search?
    What are the components required to make the
     Semantic Web a reality?




    cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   61
  Any Questions




cs3352 - Information Retrieval, Hypermedia and the Web   2002/2003 (Lecture 17)   62
Additional material




                      2002/2003 (Lecture 17)

								
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