Maps and reality.ppt

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					               Politics and Media
   Media
    – Cultural consonance: appealing to status quo and
    – Content filter and control
    – Money-making business partners
   Politics
    – Political Institutions; power - checks and balances
    – Relationship with media, source, spin
    – Peddling influence: Campaign financing, Lobbies
      and Think Tanks; pork-barrel politics and
    – Revolving door
                Maps and reality
   Maps present a mediated view of the world
    – Political representation
    – Historical representation
    – Cultural representation
   Ethnocentrism is universal and specific
    – Maps claim exactness but are in fact cultural representations
    – Naming is a claim
                  Media vector
 Worldview mediation
 Pluralist view
    – Free access to the marketplace of ideas - demand
      determines supply
    – 4th power - check and balances state
   Media is a tool of the elite
    – Elite control material and intellectual production
    – Cultural consonance: Sphere of acceptable
      values, norms, logic
                 The Burda model
van Ginneken 1998 Understanding Global News
 Selective articulation of representation
 Make sense out of reality
    – Select elements which confirm our logic
    – Politically, this articulation is even more confining
   Maintain foundations of cultural cohesion
            What is newsworthy?
   Tragic death
     – 139,097 deaths per day on the average, 7,656 die
       unintentionally, 801 homicide, an average of 882
       people get killed everyday in war
     – 10,000 deaths on another continent = 1,000 deaths in
       another country = 100 deaths in an outpost = 10 deaths
       in a city = 1 celebrity death
What is newsworthy on TV?
 image value
 Concrete vs. abstraction
    – "The Supreme Court deals overwhelmingly with
      abstractions, and ideas and abstractions are not
      easy to convey on television," says CNN's Jeff
    – major court rulings on medical marijuana, racially
      influenced jury selection and government seizure
      of private property tend to be one- or two-day
      stories at best
    – Speculation, celebrities, scandals better
      entertainment > better coverage
                Actors in the News
Herbert Gan’s Deciding What is News (1980) studied CBS and NBC + Newsweek and Time.

   News about individuals rather than groups or
    social processes:
     – Known personalities 75 – 85 % of Domestic News
     presidential incumbents, presidential candidates, leading federal
        officials, state & local officials, alleged or actual violators of
        crimes (who gets the microphone?)
     – Marked emphasis on political leaders rather than on economic,
        military, or informal ones
     – Unknowns = convention breakers, rioters, strikers, alleged or
        actual violators of social mores, participants in unusual activities
        (usually fads) survey respondents (usually not identified as
        individuals at all)
                   Actors in the News
   Coverage of Poverty in New Orleans:
    “A Nation Shame” Newsweek cover
    Hurricane brings coverage of poverty to the forefront
    Post had only one article, the NYT 2 in 10 years
    More typical articals were about “the city's black neighborhoods
      come alive" with Sunday parades in the fall.
          Activities in the News
Herbert Gan’s Deciding What is News (1980)
   Government conflicts & disagreements
   Government decisions
   Government personnel changes
   Protests: violent & non-violent
   Crimes, scandals, investigations
   Disasters: natural and averted
   Innovation & tradition
   National ceremonies
Divisions in Nation and Society
Herbert Gan’s Deciding What is News (1980)

   Conflicts centered on age, gender
   Race
   Class
   Ideology
    – National Unity
    – Portrayal of international issues
                      News Value
Johan Gaaltung and Mari Holmboe Ruge(1965)
 Time span to cover the event
 Scale and intensity of the event
 Clarity of the event
 Meaningfulness
 Consonance
 Unusual: Unpredictability & scarcity
 Continuity
 Composition
 Elite Nations
 Elite people - celebrities
 Personification : individuals preferred over groups of people
 Negativity: Bad news is good news for the media
     Personification of the news

   Personal identification; viewer sympathy or
    – Illustrates self-made man
    – Master of one’s destiny, events an outcome of one’s
      free will
 Lower class view as outcome of social forces
 Leaders represented instead of their movements
 Binary representation: Black/White, Good/Bad

 Negative events are rapid, unexpected and
  unambiguous: (Time span, clarity,
 Lower cultural proximity > more negative
    – Result: Third world portrayed as an eternal
      problem, helpless, incapable of development

 Deviancy defined at the public scaffold
 Alienation
   Immigrants and decency
   Expatriates and cruelty
   Drugs
Tyndall Report
Tyndall Report
Tyndall Report
Agenda filters in media
News Culture, Stuart Allan, Open University Press

    Media structure
       – Links with establishment
       – Profit-making venture
 Advertiser’s influence on media viability
 Sources: overwhelmingly officials and
 Blog Flak > maintaining correctness
 Ideology: Us vs. Them
Media structure as an Agenda filters
News Culture, Stuart Allan, Open University Press

1.      Centralized production and distribution
       –      Concentration of media conglomerates
       –      Vertical and horizontal integration
       –      High entry cost
       –      Costs covered in home market, high margins for
2. Profit-making venture
3. Links with establishment: maintaining the
   status quo
Who owns what?
TV News Flow
The Globalisation of News, Boyd-Barrett & Terhi Rantanen

                                  Agency Bureaux                               News
                                TV Stations/Networks
                                 Eurovision Comus                              Wholesale
               News Agency Intake
                                           WTN                            Other regional
                REUTERSS                  (Disney)            APTV
                                                                          TV News
               News Agency Output                                         Exchanges
              Other Delivery:      Scheduled
              Unilateral Satellite Satellite                Eurovision
              Videocassette                 Feeds

             Satellite              National
                                                           Local and
             Broadcasters           Broadcasters
             CNN-I                  ABC (Disney)
             BBC-World              ITN(Reuters)           Broadcasters            Retail
             Sky-Fox                NBC
Advertising as an Agenda Filter
News Culture, Stuart Allan, Open University Press

       Media dependant upon advertising income
    Newspapers: 50-60% journals 70-80% TV 90-100%
        261 billion $ spent on advertising in 1995
       Access to customers as a commodity
       Affluent markets preferred
                     Disposable income, Business News
       Imposes conservative lean to avoid
        alienating potential customers
       Umfeld Effect: Editorial coverage
        determined by advertisers
                 10 $ billion spent on tobacco advertising
Advertising as an Agenda Filter

Censuring the news
Fox News: Monsanto’s Bovine Growth
     Reporters pressured to kill report
     They refused, were fired
     Whistleblowing law
     Fox condemned in Florida Court
     Ruling overturned in Appeals Court:
      “Fox is not required to tell the truth”
Sources as an Agenda Filter
News Culture, Stuart Allan, Open University Press

 Overwhelming preference for official
  sources: >75%
 Spin: official production feed
 Officials enhance journal credibility &
 Official source dominance excludes
  alternative voices
Flak as an Agenda Filter
News Culture, Stuart Allan, Open University Press

       Reader and listener feedback
       Blogs: Walter Cronkite / Bush National
       Government intervention for media
       Media monitoring campaigns and think tanks
       Consumer and advertiser boycotts
US vs. Them Ideology
News Culture, Stuart Allan, Open University Press

The common enemy: Alienating the subject
 Communism
 Terrorists
 Foreigners
 Deviants, law-breakers
       US: an exceptional destiny?

   Unencumbered by the past?
   Manifest destiny
   American dream: “free” access to free land and
   Private property
   Market system
   The self-made man
   Equality
   Suspicion of government
   Voluntarism
     Myth of the Self-made man

 Folk Heroes
 Individual perfectibility
 Equality of opportunity
   “free access to land and resources”
   No post barred due to birth
   Will determines one future
 Prosperity - material wealth
                Social traits

   Work ethic
   Social status is economic
   Capitalist: Free Enterprise and Free Market
   Identity as an individual
   Mobility and urbanism
 Conformity
   Entertainment society
           Economics and values
   Economic Values: Free Enterprise and A
    Free Market
   Social values: Individualism and mobility
   Political values: Pragmatism and
   Lifestyle values: Materialism and autonomy
   Ideological values: we are objective - we
    have no ideology
 Americans of all ages, all stations in life, and all
      types of disposition are forever forming the head of any new
    undertaking, where in France you would find
   the government or in England some territorial
   magnate, in the United States you are sure to
               find as an association.

                Alexis de Tocqueville (1835)

 Suspicion of majority
 common interests
 1 out of 7 US
  workforce unionized
Executive empowerment
                Department        Date created
  State Department                    1789
  Treasury                            1789
  Interior                            1849
  Justice                             1870
  Agriculture                         1889
  Commerce                            1913
  Labor                               1913
  Defense                             1949
  Housing and Urban development       1965
  Transportation                      1966
  Health and Human Services           1977
  Energy                              1979
  Education                           1979
  Veteran Affairs
  Homeland Security                   2003
           Executive empowerment
   Post WWII consensus encouraged presidential
   Departments - clientelism
   American public not very knowledgeable about
    foreign affairs > great latitude of foreign policy
   Prosperity: money + social agenda
   Crisis management
   Cold War - Containment policy
   Military-industrial complex
   Executive Office, National security advisor
Intelligence Community
                        National Security Council
                                                 George W. Bush

          National Security Advisor                                       Secretary of Defense
              Condoleezza Rice                                              Donald Rumsfeld

              Secretary of State                                              Vice-President
                 Colin Powell                                                  Dick Cheney

            Secretary of Treasury                                            Director of CIA
                  John Snow                                                   George Tenet

Assistant to the President for Economic Policy                    Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
                 Stephen Friedman                                             Hugh Shelton

           Counsel to the President                                         Attorney General
              Alberto Gonzales                                                John Ashcroft

        Chief of Staff to the President                  Director of the Office of Budget and Management
                   Andy Card                                                   Josh Bolton
          Media market coverage
          GDP in billions of US$
           GDP in billions of US$
            for native-speakers
       Market GDP in billions of US$ per
 90         for in billions of US$
                  World Bank 2002
 80                       langue
                  for native-speakers
                       Global News 2000
                        Global News 2000
            1 464        506
 60                                                         English
 50 1 660   874
                    494 421                                Est
              874       421                                 German
11 275                                                German
 40 1275
      1 275                                                 Spanish
 30                                          12 728
 2 257                                                      Chinese
 20 1562
1 562 562                                  8417
                                           8 417417
                                              8             Chinese
              4 2065                                  Portuguese
 10            2 065
             2 065                                    Arab
      1er trim.   2e trim.     3e trim.    4e trim.
                Umfeld effect
   Financial dependency on advertising
   Litmus test: Are editorials promoting
   How many articles are PR?
   Which group of consumers is being
              Financial Audiences
    Core audience of media is business & finance
     Financial services of Reuter’s, Bloomberg
     AP entering market with Dow Jones
     1/4 of all American correspondents abroad work
       for financial newspapers
     Mainline newspapers: Wall Street Journal, The
       Economist, Far Eastern Economic Review,
       magazines: Fortune, Forbes, German Capital,
       French l’Expansion
Media at the service of….
   “Since we are a medium of mass communication, it
    seems to me that we should be primarily concerned with
    majority programming. What puzzles me a great deal
    about critics of TV is their persistent attack on the
    fundamental concept of the vote of the majority”
    Leonard Goldstein, 1960, President of ABC
    Les Médias et L’Information aux Etats-Unis, Suzanne Durruty and Jean-Paul Gabillet

   TF1 n’offre pas des programmes aux téléspectacteurs,
    mais des possibilities de diffusion à des annonceurs.”
    Patrick LeLay, 1987
    Télérama, 5 novembre 2003, p. 89
Media at the service of….
   Collin Powell, “Once you’ve got all the forces
    moving and everything’s being taken care of by
    the commanders, turn your attention to the media
    because you can win or loose the battle if you
    don’t handle the story right.””
    p 128 Les Médias et L’Information aux Etats-Unis, Suzanne Durruty and Jean-Paul Gabillet

   CBS 4-part series on President Reagan
    production relegated to secondary cable channel
    to avoid public uproar and advertising
            Journalists: objectiveness
   Inverse pyramid teletype shorts
   Television:
       Interruption/discontinuity
       Liveliness
       Time/Space
       Professionalism
         Direct eye-to-eye contact (teleprompter)
         Direct speech of anchor
         Direct access to authority
       Indirect speech of reporter
       Closure
                  Journalistic culture
   Vectors of cultural values
       Journalism and Public Relations
       Glass Ceiling
       Predominately young WASP male
   Reproduces elite values
   Vertical integration - hierarchy
   Horizontal constraints - gate keeping
   Peer groups - esprit du corps
       Following the pack - Trend-setting media outlets
   Occupational techniques - claiming objectivity
              Journalistic culture:
    techniques for portraying “objectiveness”

   Frames: patterns of recognition, organization,
    presentation, selection and omission
   Presenting conflicting-truth claims
   Numbers game precision
   TV whirlwind of images without crediting
   Fragmented
   Attributing story to sources
Journalistic culture - sources

   News is not what happens, but what someone says
    has happened…
   “News is not reality, but a sample of sources’
    portrayals of reality, mediated by news
    organizations” Leon Sigal Sources make the News
   To what extent do journalist rely on interested
    parties as sources?
         Journalistic culture - sources

   for a sample of 2850 front page articles from the New York
    Times and Washington Post
    relied over 50% on official US government
    transmitted through the usual information channels:
    press releases, conferences, and official gatherings.
                                  Leon Sigal Reporters and Officials 1973

   For the same reason, other subjects are ignored
    because those sources do not offer information
Journalistic culture - sources

   The media may not
  determine what to think,
   but they do determine
    what to think about
                      Agenda setting
   US government has the capacity to set the agenda
    when industry and public opinion don’t oppose
     Atomic bombs
    Quantity, economy benefiting from military contracts,
        minimalizing alternative expenditures and policy
     Nicaragua missile build-up
    ignored Honduras military escalation, financing Contra wars
        and human rights violations, drug traffic, mining
        Nicaraguan ports, UN condemnation
     Iraq: WMD, terrorism+Al-Qaeda vs. fragmentation bombs,
        civilian deaths, interest in petroleum, contracts with private
        firms to rebuild Iraq
                Source criteria

 Hierarchy - Authority
 Credibility - experts
 Availability
     Western sources preferred
     Mutual access - IOUs
           Public relations services

   Freedom of Information Act
   Government and Industry PR and information

   White House President media superstar with
    supporting actors
   State Department
   Pentagon - 2x the number of Washington
                    Party evolution

   The Machine: Boss
   Primaries
   Candidates
       Need their own campaign organization
       Seek advice of private campaign organizers
       Raise funds
   Results in idiosyncrasy
Campaign Spending and the First Amendment

   Commercial networks and stations
    perpetuate campaign spending crisis
    because it creates profits
   Campaign spending protected by the First
    Amendment as freedom of speech
   Supreme Court rules that spending cannot
    be limited, only federal matching funds
                Presidential Elections

   Primaries
       Open primaries - not required registered with party
       Closed primaries - registered with party
   Caucuses: local > district > state delegations
   National Conventions - choose presidential
    candidate and assign vice - presidential partner
Primary dates 2004
               Presidential Elections

   Primaries
       More democratic representation
       Less controlled by party bosses
       More media coverage
       Candidates only respond to public opinion
   Caucuses
       Insure consensual platform for party
       Brokering for influence
        Iowa and New Hampshire

   First binding primaries
   Builds momentum
   Focuses presidential attention on state
    Campaign managers - Spin control

   It is easier to change the way people think about reality than it
    is to change reality” Morris Wolfe
   Campaign managers offer a non-partisan product - managing
    political image
   Focus on tactics, ads and strategies - ignore substance of
    public policy
    Clinton dies hair grey for 1992 campaign to appear more
   Create image of politician to match constituency profile
   Market this image to the constituency
   Feedback and analysis: demographic polling
    Campaign managers - Spin control

Create image of politician to match constituency profile
   “Taylor the message - with radio, TV, presidential visit - to
    press the precinct button” Karl Rove, Bush campaign
   Link to for volunteers
   1/2 of $25.4 million raised on internet for Dean, “the
    perfect storm of democracy” Joe Trippi
               Spin control

“To govern successfully, the government
   has to set the agenda; it cannot let the
   press set the agenda for it”
   David Gergen,
   White House communication director under
   President Reagan
                   Spin control

   Deny direct access when it doesn’t suit your
   Plan news events in relation to news deadline
   Include colorful sound-bites
   Provide photo-op with authoritative symbols in

   Determine headline, photo and lead paragraph
         Planning the media agenda
             at the White House

   Weekly long-term strategy meetings of policy
    officers and press handlers - define agenda and
    access ongoing media control
   Daily White House communication group meetings
    define “what we want the press to cover and how”
   “We would take a theme, which we worked on for
    six weeks - say the economy. The President would
    say the same thing, but we had a different visual for
    every one of the regularly scheduled media events.”
    Michael Deaver
    Planning the media agenda at the White

    Repetition is the key
     Provide the media with the same message but with
     new (and therefore newsworthy) visual opportunities
    Coordination: Make sure everyone at the White
     House is saying the same thing
    Make sure the President isn’t preempted
    Follow-up, call reporters and their bosses to make
     sure they got the story right - Spin Control
Image Control
                     Interest Groups

“In no country has the principle of association been more
successfully used or applied to a greater multitude of objects than
in America,” Alexis de Toqueville
   Business Groups
   Unions
   Professional Associations
   Agriculture
   Public Interest
   Single Issue Groups
Interest Groups
   Business Groups - huge but diversified
       Chamber of Commerce: 200,000 members
        National Association of Manufacturers
       Greatest business have permanent representation
        General Electric 130 full time representative in Washington
       National Security transcends partisan interests: issues
        defined by the Iron Triangle
       Business interests defended abroad: ITT, Copper in Chili -
        CIA coordinated overthrow of Allende
       United Fruit - Guatemala in 1956, Honduras
   Professional Associations
       Coal, oil interests
       Steel
       Textile…
                        Interest Groups
   Agriculture
    protectionist tariff barriers to importation, Farm products, price
    protection for agriculture through price guarantees, and fallow
    payments for not growing products
   Public Interest
       Greenpeace, Sierra Club
       American Civil Liberties Organization
   Single Issue Groups
       Pro-Life, Pro-choice, National Rifle Association
   Ethnic Groups:
       NAACP
       Immigrant groups lobby Congress heavily for national interests
           B’nai B’rith, American-Israeli Political Action Committee
           Greek, Mexican--American immigrants

   Patronage - nominations, federal expenditures
   Private donations
       Campaign reform Act 1974
   PAC (Political Action Committees)
   Lobbyists
   Think Tanks - Foundations
   PR (Public Relations)
    Influences - patronage for business
   Land issuance for railways
   Build and maintain highway system (Eisenhower 1959) US interstate
    system and other forms of protection:
   Patents and copyrights
   Special conditions for petroleum companies to compensate for well
    value loss, price guarantees
   Build and maintain airport system
   Advantageous contracts to airline companies for carrying the mail
   Preferential (loss-leader) rates for second-class mail – publicity and
   Import Export Bank: guarantee payment for exports
   Partnership between major banks, Treasury and Federal Reserve to
    determine financial policy & defend American business interests
             Influences - patronage
   Bush receives major funding from coal industry
   Bush retains Cheney as VP candidate
   Renegs on Kyoto agreement
   Lowers EPA standards
   Raises limits on mercury emissions from coal
   Widens alternative energy financing to include coal
    sprayed with oil
   Tries to have drilling for oil in Alaskan National
    Parks authorized
Donations and PAC

   1974 Federal Campaign Act
    Imposes limits on donations:
   $5000/primary, additional $5000/general election
   Introduces federal matching funds for federal
    presidential campaigns > Hard money

   PACs explode, no limits on the donations
  Donations, PAC and National Committees

Before 1992 Campaign reform
   National committees: no limits on soft money through PAC
   Limits on hard money with matching federal funds:
   $20000/year from individuals, $15000/year through PACS,
    businesses can give “hard money” only through PACS
   Only hard money can be used to directly influence federal
   Soft money can be used for administration or issues debates
   State committee loopholes allow money to be transferred and
    spent with less constraints:
      Federal constraints 65-60% hard money for advertising
      State constraints variable: Michigan 20% hard money
                      Influences - Lobbies

   Lobbyists have considerable influence on Washington
    and at the State level
   Politicians make the best lobbyists
   Revolving doors:
    Richard Wiley, a senior partner in the Washington
       lobbying powerhouse Wiley, Rein and Fielding, FCC
       chairman in 1975, - now a lobbyist at FCC
    Henri Kissinger, the international lobbyist
   Controls: Make lobbying financially visible
    Lobbyists report to the Secretary of the Senate and the Clerk of the House their clients,
        income they receive. Companies have to report their lobbying expenditures and
        names of any lobbyists employed.
         Influences - Public Relations
    “Put your words in someone else’s mouth”
                Merrill Rose, Exec. VP PR firm Porter/Novelli

    Public relations: employs 200,000 people in the US
     - $10 billion industry in 1995
    11 out of 12 of the largest PR firms owned by
     advertising firms
    US firms spend over a billion dollars a year
     greenwashing PR
                  Influences - PR

 Selling the War to a hostile American public:
Walter Lippmann advised Woodrow Wilson to create a
   propaganda apparatus
Committee on public information (CPI) headed by
   journalist George Creel
     created patriotic activities
     drummed up press support
     had defiant groups arrested
           PR - Burson-Marsteller

   “Global perception management firm”
   Ranked # 1: 258 million $ fees in 1998
   Clients: Nike, World Bank, Philip Morris, McDonalds
   Cleaned up Argentinean image during junta
   Helped build “smoker’s rights movement” for
    tobacco client Philip Morris
   Helped Monsanto gain acceptance for Bovine
    Growth Hormone
                   PR - Ogilvy

   “Multinational firms depend on Ogilvy PR to
    translate brands and messages across cultures and
    local markets”
   Ranked # 11: 77.9 million $ fees in 1998
   Clients: Chemical Manufacturers Association, IBM,
    US Department of Labor, Forest Products
   Hired by Nestlé to create a strategy of “pro-active
    neutralization” to fight critics of baby formula
            PR - Hill and Knowlton
   “Change Agent” promising “a long-term plan that will
    help you change the way you do business. Not out
    of necessity but out of design”
   Ranked # 2: 206 million fees in 1998
   Clients: Bell Atlantic, Price waterhouse, Chicago
   Represented Big tobacco in the 50’s
   Managed crisis after Three Mile Island nuclear
   Represented Turkish and Indonesian governments
    during human rights abuses
   Citizens for a Free Kuwait pushes for Gulf
PR at work - Hill and Knowlton
acknowledges receiving $6 million for efforts to sway American

public in favor of the war.

   Identified resonant approaches with American public
   Monitored swings in public opinion
   Create “Citizens for a Free Kuwait” to push for Gulf intervention
   The most effective use of propaganda - “Dead babies” story:
    10/10/90 Al-Adan hospital massacre in Kuwait city– 15 babies taken
    out of incubators and left on cold floor to die

    To be continued…
PR at work - Hill and Knowlton
acknowledges receiving $6 million for efforts to sway American
public in favor of the war.
   H&K produced VNR, distributed to 700 TV stations, broadcast on
    NBC Nightly News, viewed by an estimated 35 million Americans
   President Bush made reference > 10 times in the 40 days following
    release, 7 senators specifically focused on the story
   At crucial congressional vote: Congress had 312 “documented”
    incubator deaths

    John MacArthur, NYT, 6.01.92 revealed story to be false.
     Source: 15 year old Kuwaiti “Nayirah” later revealed to daughter
        to Suad Nasir el-Sabah, ambassador in Washington DC and
        member of Kuwaiti royal family
    Revelations in NYT, on ABC (20/20), CBS (60 minutes) of public
     manipulation failed to produce an outcry.
    Fragmented news: causes of situation outside of news focus which prefers
        emotional stories.
          PR at work - Allergy Crisis

   Olgivy hired to help Pfizer Pharmaceuticals to hype allergy
    medication Zyrtec
   Oligy cultivates partnership with National Allergy Bureau (NAB
    supported by grant from Pfizer)
   NAB distributes video and radio press releases promoting
    links between El Niño/Allergy
   NAB hotline gives product-driven phone support
   Campaign relaunches subject periodically, with timely angles
   Media coverage estimated at “100 million audience
   Received top tier placements in USA Today, LA Times, San
    Francisco Chronicle, Boston Globe
   Video release by MediaLink includes Dateline NBC
           Influences - Think Tanks

   Pools experts to influence public opinion - providing
    carefully tuned studies to promote their interests
   Heritage foundation; $25 million budget
   Cato Institute: Libertarian - reduce government
    spending and unnecessary regulation
   Washington Office on Central America
           Military Industrial complex
    A mutually beneficial structure of informal relationships between
                 Congress, industry and the Pentagon

Armed services and appropriations committee held by
   Congress members of constituencies having
   defense contractors
    “I’m a congressman from that district and I’m on the Armed services
    committee… it’s my job, whether I think the A6 is good or not, to
    support it”
   Contractors lobby Congress heavily and widely
   Pentagon distributes contracts over a large number
    of districts to ensure support
           Military Industrial complex
    A mutually beneficial structure of informal relationships between
                 Congress, industry and the Pentagon

   Revolving door -
    military contractors  Pentagon staff
   55% R&D in US is military = 22% total world R&D
   Maintaining fear leads to maintaining defense
    expenditures - and beneficial media coverage:
    Westinghouse and GE each are major media
           Military Industrial complex
    A mutually beneficial structure of informal relationships between
                 Congress, industry and the Pentagon

   Revolving door - military contractors  Pentagon
    Richard Perle, Defense policy Board
   Dick Cheney Secretary of Defense
   Halliburton benefits from his connections
           Military Industrial complex
    A mutually beneficial structure of informal relationships between
                 Congress, industry and the Pentagon

   Revolving door -
    military contractors  Pentagon staff:
    Air Force chief procurement officer Darleen Druyun was responsible
    for overseeing hundreds of Boeing contracts including a $27.6 billion
    contract for aerial refueling tankers. Michael Sears, chief financial
    officer for Boeing hired Druyun as senior vice president.
   Proprietary information:
    Druyun leaks Airbus information
    Lockheed Martin proprietary documents stolen concerning
       rocket launch bids
           Military Industrial complex
    A mutually beneficial structure of informal relationships between
                 Congress, industry and the Pentagon

   Budget balancing leads to more grassroots
    resistance to increased military spending
   Presidents Carter and Bush Sr. both present a
    reduced military budget which is rejected by
   The war on terror is received like a godsend to
    resolve the legitimation crisis for military spending
                Military Industrial complex
                Information in times of war

   Pentagon produces videogame quality images for TV public - missile-borne
    cameras flying through windows
   Patriot missles portrayed as war heroes when destroying Scuds
    “Patriot Hailed as Making a Difference” The Washington Times (1/21).
    “War Hero Status Possible for the Computer Chip” New York Times
    “Patriots vs. Scuds: Iraqi Touchdown is Averted” New York Times, 1/27.
   But the only successful Patriots were those televised by crews conveniently
    on hand - Congress later confirms that the number of successful hits is
    between 1 and 10.
   869 more missiles ordered: Raytheon stock soars: ABC's Sam Donaldson
    had jokingly exhorted viewers to "Buy Raytheon."
   After war Congress uses false success figures to justify increasing military
         Military Industrial complex
         Information in times of war

“Naturally the common people don't want war ... but after
   all it is the leaders of a country who determine policy,
   and it is always a simple matter to drag the people
   along ... All you have to do is tell them they are being
   attacked, and denounce the pacifists for lack of
   patriotism and exposing the country to danger.”
   Hermann Goering, 1936
    Federal Communications Commission

    Responsible for regulating communications industry
    Establishing public interest standards
    1996 deregulation
       Allowed NBC not to be forced to sell off channels under
        new ownership limits
       Clause required FCC to give licenses for digital TV to
        analog broadcasters
       Once under their control, analog TV broadcasters showed
        little interest to expand into this market
    FCC - 1996 Telecommunications Act

   Murdoch, Fox News guides Rep. Jack Fields in key committee
   Existing television stations receive an additional 6Mz for free
   Dole resists the plan as corporate welfare
   Private meeting media, Dole complains of negative media coverage
    of his presidential primary
   Dole resigns from Senate for presidential race, with verbal promise
    that digital spectrum will be examined in next Senate session
   Trent Lott, new Senate majority leader, signs off bill, declares Senate
    has no interest in digital TV hearings - authorizes issuing licenses
       Trent Lott & NAB Ernie Fritts close friends and classmates
    1996 Telecommunications Act for sale
    Telecommunications industry contributed more than $2 million in
     six-month period,. $640,000 went to the 45 representatives and
     senators on the joint conference committee for final version of the
     bill in late fall 1995.
    Senator Dole selling Pressler in Masssachusetts,
     “I want to thank Senator Pressler for coming in. I want to say just one word
     about Senator Pressler. He's running for reelection in `96--he takes money.
     He takes checks. It's legal in South Dakota to take money out of
     Massachusetts. Well, let me tell you something about Senator Pressler. There
     are probably a lot of people here interested in the Telecommunications Bill--it's
     the best thing that we've done all year as far as the future's concemed in
     technology and jobs. And the chairman of that committee, and the one leading
     the effort right now on a day-to-day basis, has been Senator Larry PrettIer
     from South Dakota. Larry, thank you very much.”
     Harpers Weekly
    1996 Telecommunications Act for sale

    PAC money the National Association of Broadcasters NAB - $142,000 in the first
     half of 1995 to Congress . On top of that came big money from other companies with
     interests in broadcasting, such as General Electric, Time Wamer and Viacom.
     Telecommunications gave $847,000 in PAC money to Congress in the first half of
     l995--heavily targeted at Republicans and members of the key committees-- while
     long-distance companies gave $371,000.
    Lobbyists
     –   Fox's Peggy Birizel, who was formerly legislative director for Rep. Fields of the
         Telecommunications Subcommittee.
     –   Martin Franks, a senior vice president at CBS and the former head of the Democratic
         Congressional Campaign Committee.
    The long-distance companies' lobbyists:
     –   AT&T hired Republicans Charles Black and Vin Weber as well as Democrat Robert Strauss,
         not to mention the law firm of Reagan Chief of Staff Howard Baker. MCI retained lawyer-
         lobbyist Tommy Boggs
    Telecommunications and the FCC

Media companies have
  given $28 million in political contributions since 2000
  political contributions since 2000
  spent $82 million in lobbying since 1999
   lobbying since 1999

  Source Commmon Cause/Federal Election Commission reports and federal lobbying reports
                            FCC - ISP

   Merger frenzy - Bell Atlantic & GTE, Ameritech & SBC
   WorldCom-MCI, GTE/Bell Atlantic, Sprint own the “backbone” of fiber
    optic links

   1998 FCC authorizes monopolies of ISP to regional Bell companies
   Hopes to promote at least 2 ISP providers: cable and telephone
   AT&T-TCI-Liberty Media

   Getting a piece of the action - portals
            Getting a piece of the action

Microsoft enters the market by buying a piece of every pie:
    Internet Explorer
    11% Comcast, Cable modem
    Intel, Baby Bells, GTE for ADSL
    MSNBC joint venture webTV and cable

Convergence: bundling cable, ISP and telephone services
Joint ventures
     Time Warner/ AOL - Baby Bell, AT&T, Oracle
     Disney with AOL
     Newscorp with WorldCom(MCI) & British Telecom
     AT&T purchased TCI cable giant in 1998, cable, telephone, TCI
      Liberty Media
                   Digital television

   Internet vs. Satellite vs. cable
   Increase the number of channels - by the same
    media companies
       Helps advertisers target consumers - individually profiled
       “Designed to work best for the advertising community”
        John Malone, TCI
       Click on ads to purchase directly
       Merchandising media company products
Getting a piece of the action - portals
Portals become ISPs, contain exclusive rights
Offer e-mail, search engine and easy access to e-
Objective : transform internet into something more
    manageable for familiar for consumers, investors
    and advertisers
   Time Warner/ AOL - Baby Bell, AT&T, Oracle
   Disney with AOL
   Newscorp with WorldCom(MCI) & British Telecom
   AT&T purchased TCI cable giant in 1998, cable, telephone,
    TCI Liberty Media
Getting a piece of the action - portals
“Consolidation wars are starting to spread to the
   internet as media oligarchs try to set themselves up
   as online toll collectors,” warns Barry Diller

AOL 22 million household subscribers spend 80% of
   their time on AOL provided links
   AOL proposes a unique search criteria for finding links
   Controls advertising & shopping revenue
“Opening a e-store without a portal is like opening a
   store in the desert, it may be cheap but nobody will
   come there”
Getting a piece of the action - portals
In connected homes, Internet has reduced TV watching by 15%

Web publishers think like merchandisers
Advertising - traditional methods fail on internet
    Users can avoid advertising too easily
    Click-through banners
    “All those advertisers who make a living on wasting everybody’s time will have
     to find new gigs”
    Pop-up banners and complicated advertising use bandwidth and may cause
     users to avoid portals

> Catastrophe - to be successful on internet: “Media companies must remove the
     barriers between editorial, advertising sales and technical staff.”
            Identification and control on internet

Controlling public opinion over Multilateral Agreement on Investment
    MAI was largely not covered by the media
    Popular upswell on internet prevented it from passing
    Governments find quelling political defiance on internet difficult if not

Echelon and Homeland Security Department
   Monitor all electronic communication

Digital certification and identification to be sold as a security measure
     Next Generation Secure Computing Base ex-Palladium by Microsoft
     Processor ID, copyright authorization, tracking
        Controlling content on internet -
            the case of Al-Jazeera
   Iraq war: Al-Jazeera Website broken into by hackers
   Al-Jazeera was 8th most visited site on internet
   Akamai renegs on server contract for Al-Jazeera website just at the
    beginning of the war
   linked to political pressure:
       Akamai declined to comment
       Akamai has many governement contracts

   Potential competitor for US News and US public orientation
   Not reported on major media, but rather only in internet industry
   AOL refuses to host link to Al-Jazeera on their website
Questions for discussion:

 Is the US an effective democracy?
 Do all Americans have equal
  representation in the political process?
 Does the system of checks and
  balances prevent special interests from
  controlling politics and the economy?
 Does the US effectively promote
  democracy overseas?
Questions for discussion:
   How effectively the media play a roll of
    checking US government?
   How does TV news give an impression of
   What role does media play in influencing the
    content of political debate?
   What role did US media play in promoting or
    criticizing the last war in Iraq?
   How do sources influence what is and isn’t
    covered by media?
   Has the increase in the number of TV
    channels increased the quality and variety of
Intelligence Community
                        National Security Council
                                                 George W. Bush

          National Security Advisor                                       Secretary of Defense
              Condoleezza Rice                                              Donald Rumsfeld

              Secretary of State                                              Vice-President
                 Colin Powell                                                  Dick Cheney

            Secretary of Treasury                                            Director of CIA
                  John Snow                                                   George Tenet

Assistant to the President for Economic Policy                    Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
                 Stephen Friedman                                             Hugh Shelton

           Counsel to the President                                         Attorney General
              Alberto Gonzales                                                John Ashcroft

        Chief of Staff to the President                  Director of the Office of Budget and Management
                   Andy Card                                                   Josh Bolton

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