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					                                                TENSES
Penggunaan Kata Kerja Penuh Be (Am, Is, dan Are) dalam Tenses
                                        Simple Present Tense
I             am                        now / today / every day / once a month / twice a month
He             is              here     / three times a month / on Sundays (= every Sunday)
They          are                       / this morning (= pagi ini).
                                           Simple Past Tense
I                                       yesterday / last week / last Sunday / three days ago
             was
He                             here     (= tiga hari yang lalu) / for (= selama) three days
They         were                       / this morning (= pagi tadi) / in 1999.
                                              Future Tense
     will
I
     may                                tomorrow / today / next week / next Sunday / for three
He                  be         here
     must                               days / soon (= segera) / later (= nanti) / in five minutes.
They
     can
                                        Present Perfect Tense
I                                       since yesterday / until now / up to now (= sampai
     have
They                                    sekarang) / for three days / so far (= hingga kini)
                been           here
                                        / in the last (past) few days (= dalam beberapa hari
He      has
                                        terakhir) / all day (= sepanjang hari) / lately (akhir-akhir ini).
                                          Past Perfect Tense
I
He   had been                  here     for two days before Ani came (verb II) (yesterday).
They

                                          Simple Present Tense
                     is        a lot of development
     There                                             in our country now.
                    are        a lot of advances
                                           Simple Past Tense
                    was        a lot of development
     There                                             in our country last year.
                    were       a lot of advances
                                              Future Tense
           will
                                                                       in a few years to come
           may                 a lot of development
     There                be                            in our country (= dalam beberapa tahun
           must                a lot of advances
                                                                       mendatang).
           can
                                Present Perfect Tense
           has been a lot of development
     There                                   in our country in the last few years.
           have been a lot of advances
                                 Past Perfect Tense
                     a lot of development                   before the Repelita
     There had been                          in our country
                     a lot of advances                      started (verb II).
Kalimat Tanya Ya / Tidak
1. A: ‘Were (= Apakah) you in the head office (keterangan tempat) yesterday?’
   B: ‘Yes, I was / No, I wasn’t (was not)’.

2. A: ‘Was (= Apakah) Jono absent (kata sifat) from work last Monday?’
   B: ‘No, he wasn’t / Yes, he was’.

3. A: ‘Will you (= Apakah Anda akan) be back (kata sifat) (= kembali) again soon?’
   B: ‘No, I won’t (will not) / Yes, I will’.

4. A: ‘Have you (= Apakah Anda sudah / telah) been here (keterangan tempat) since yesterday
      / since the seminar began (verb II)?’
   B: ‘Yes, I have / No, I haven’t (have not)’. (Saya masih berada di sini)

5. A: ‘Has he been here (keterangan tempat) since yesterday / since the seminar began
      (verb II)?’
   B: ‘Yes, he has / No, he hasn’t (has not)’. (Ia masih berada di sini)

6. A: ‘Have you been a computer programmer (kata benda) for a long time?’
   B: ‘Yes, I have / No I haven’t’. (= Saya masih menjadi seorang pemrogram komputer)

7. A: ‘Had he been a manager for a long time before he retired (verb II) (= pension)?’
   B: ‘Yes, he had / No he hadn’t (had not)’. (Ia sudah tidak menjadi seorang manager)

Kalimat Tanya dengan Kata Tanya
1. A: ‘Where were you yesterday?’
   B: ‘I wasn’t there yesterday, but I was in the branch office’.

2. A: ‘Why was he absent from work last Monday?’
   B: ‘He was absent from work last Monday, because he was ill (kata sifat). Now he is in
   Sarjito hospital’.

3. A: ‘When will you be back again?’
   B: ‘I’II (I will) be back again soon / in ten minutes’.

4. A: ‘How long (=Berapa lama) have you been here?’
   B: ‘I have been here for two days’.

5. A: ‘How long (=Berapa lama) have you been a computer programmer?’
   B: ‘I have been a computer programmer for about (= kira-kira) half a year (a half year)’.

6. A: ‘How long (=Berapa lama) has he been a computer programmer?’
   B: ‘He has been a computer programmer for about (= kira-kira) half a year’.

7. A: ‘How long (=Berapa lama) had he been a manager before he retired (verb II)?’
   B: ‘He had been a manager for years before he retired’.
        Penggunaan Kata Kerja Penuh Selain Be dalam Tenses

Simple Present Tense
Untuk sesuatu yang bersifat umum, contoh:

Computers do your tasks very quickly.
In Jogja, some shops open at nine a.m. and close at nine p.m., and other
shops open at the same hour but close at four p.m.
In Jakarta, most employees work for five days a week and they don’t
work on Saturdays and on Sundays
In Indonesia, most work begins at seven a.m. and finishes at four p.m.
What time do shops open in your country and what time does work begin
at your office?

Untuk sesuatu yang bersifat tetap, contoh:

The girl comes from Australia. She lives with a relative of hers (her
relative) at 19 Jl Ki Ageng Pemanahan, Yogyakarta. She studies
Information Technology (IT) at Amikom College. Besides she studies at the
College at the day time, she also works part-time at a hotel in the city at
night / in the night. She is very young, but she doesn’t live on her family.

Untuk kebiasaan pada waktu sekarang dengan Adverbials of Frequency:
usually (= biasanya), always (= selalu), often / frequently (= sering),
sometimes (= kadang-kadang), seldom / rarely (= jarang), hardly ever (=
hampir tidak pernah), never (= tidak pernah), contoh:

We always delete unimportant files.
She cleans the disk drive every day / once a week.

Untuk waktu yang akan datang dengan kata kerja tertentu: begin / start,
leave, arrive, contoh:

His exams begin next month.
The plane leaves at 7:30 a.m.
Untuk tulisan dalam cerita fiktif: novel dan sebagainya.

Present Continuous Tense
Untuk sesuatu yang sedang terjadi pada waktu sekarang atau pada waktu
berbicara, contoh:
Please turn of the radio. I am trying to concentrate on my work. (= Saya
sedang mencoba / berusaha berkonsentrasi pada pekerjaan saya)
Please don’t make so much noise. I am studying.

Untuk sesuatu yang bersifat sementara, contoh:

I am staying here until I can find an apartment.
Untuk suatu perubahan, contoh:
The price of a computer is going up.
His English is getting better.

Untuk sesuatu yang telah diputuskan / telah direncanakan akan dilakukan,
contoh:

This is my schedule for next week:
I am making reports on Monday. (Future Tense)
I am attending the meeting on Tuesday. (Future Tense)

I am making reports. (Future Tense)
(= I am going to make reports)
(= I will be making reports)
(= I intend to make reports)

Present Continuous Tense untuk sesuatu yang sedang terjadi pada
waktu sekarang; Past Continuous Tense (untuk sesuatu yang sedang
terjadi pada waktu lampau), dan Future Continuous Tense untuk sesuatu
yang sedang terjadi pada waktu yang akan datang. Contoh:

John works every morning from 9 o’clock till noon. It is 10 o’clock now. He
is working (Present Continuous Tense). At 10 o’clock yesterday he was
working (Past Continuous Tense). At 10 o’clock tomorrow he will be
working (Future Continuous Tense).

John is an industrious man. He works in a shop. The shop opens at 9
o’clock and closes at 5.30. At 10 o’clock yesterday he was working. It’s
10 o’clock now. He is working. At 10 o’clock tomorrow he will be working.
He is never absent from work.
Future Tense
Untuk sesuatu yang diputuskan akan dilakukan pada saat berbicara,
contoh:

I think
I suppose
I am sure
I bet                       he will come
I guess
Probably / possibly /
maybe / perhaps

I don’t think he will come. (= Saya pikir ia tidak akan datang)
Do you think he will come? (= Apakah Anda pikir / Apakah menurut
                                pendapat Anda ia akan datang?)
I will not come to the meeting. (= Saya tidak akan datang ke rapat itu)
                                    (Penolakan)
I will not be coming to the meeting. (= Saya tidak akan datang ke rapat
                                          itu) (Tidak ada kesempatan)
Will you come to the meeting? (=Maukah Anda datang ke rapat itu?)
Will you be coming to the meeting? (= Apakah Anda akan datang ke
                                           rapat itu?)
Shall we go there now? (= Bagaimana kalau kita pergi ke sana sekarang?)
(= What about going there now?)
(= How about going there now?)
(= Let’s (Let us) go there now?) (= Mari kita pergi ke sana sekarang)
(Jawabannya: Yes, let’s / No, let’s not)

Simple Past Tense
Untuk memberikan pernyataan atau pertanyaan pada waktu sekarang
mengenai sesuatu yang terjadi atau dilakukan pada waktu lampau atau
sebelumnya, dan tidak berhubungan dengan waktu sekarang, contoh:

+ ‘He calculated (verb II) the expense yesterday / last Monday / two
  hours ago / this morning (= pagi tadi) / in 1996 / for two hours’.
  (calculate – calculated – calculated)
- ‘He didn’t calculate the expense’.
? Did he calculate the expense? ‘Yes, he did’ / ‘No, he didn’t’.
This is a list of things I did yesterday:
7:30         8:30 typed letters
8:30         9:30 processed data
9:30         10:30 ….

Untuk kebiasaan pada waktu lampau dengan Adverbials of Frequency:
usually, always, often, sometimes, seldom, hardly ever, never, contoh:

Ani and I used to work at the same office. She often got to work late. Her
manager didn’t know she often came late because he often came late, too.

When Ani was younger (Simple Past dari penggunaan kata kerja
penghubung be sebagai kata kerja penuh), She seldom / rarely went to
bed before 9. She often stayed up the whole night
(= begadang) and never got up early.

Past Future Tense
Untuk sesuatu yang akan dilakukan pada waktu lampau, contoh:

Yesterday I called at Jono’s office. When I got there, he would go out with
his pretty, new secretary.

Present Perfect Continuous Tense dan Present Perfect Tense
Present Perfect Continuous Tense untuk sesuatu yang dilakukan atau
yang terjadi dalam rentang waktu dari waktu lampau sampai sekarang, dan
sekarang masih terus berlangsung. Dengan kata lain, dalam bahasa
Indonesia Present Perfect Continuous Tense bisa sama dengan
mengatakan sudah / telah / pada waktu sekarang dengan rentang waktu.
Present Perfect Tense untuk sesuatu yang sudah / telah terjadi atau yang
sudah / telah / baru saja selesai dilakukan pada waktu sekarang. Dengan
kata lain, dalam bahasa Indonesia Present Perfect Tense bisa sama
dengan mengatakan sudah / telah / baru saja pada waktu sekarang tanpa
rentang waktu. Contoh:

Johno is reading a book. He began reading (the book) two hours ago. He is
on page 52. He has been reading for two hours (Present Perfect
Continuous Tense). He has read (verb III) 52 pages (Present Perfect
Tense). (read – read – read)
Johno is studying English. He began studying (English) six years ago. He
has been studying English for six years. He has read a lot of English
books.

Jono began studying IT at Amikom College in 1999. Now he is still
studying at the College. So far, he has been studying there for about nine
years, but he has not completed / finished his study yet.

Untuk sesuatu yang baru saja dilakukan dan masih ada tanda tanda akibat
perbuatan yang telah dilakukan, contoh:

I am very tired. I have been working hard all day / lately / in the last few
days / for hours / since last Monday / so far / up to now
/ until now.

Bandingkan!
I lived in Yogyakarta for two years. - I have been living in Yogyakarta for
                                       two years. (= I have lived in
                                       Yogyakarta for two years)
I mailed the letter yesterday.       - I have mailed the letter.
Did you see Johno this morning? - Have you seen Johno this morning?

Yesterday I went to a party. John went to the party, too.
When I arrived at the party, he was singing.
When I arrived at the party, he had been singing for a few minutes.(Past
                             Perfect Continuous Tense yang merupakan
                             bentuk lampau Present Perfect Continuous
                             Tense)
When I arrived at the party, he had been there for a few minutes. (Past
                             Perfect Tense dari Pola Kalimat Tunggal I
                             yang merupakan bentuk lampau Present
                             Perfect Tense)
When I arrived at the party, he sang a song. (= I arrived at the party and
                             then he sang a song)
When I arrived at the party, he would go home. (Past Future Tense
                             yang merupakan bentuk lampau Future
                             Tense)
When I arrived at the party, he wasn’t there. He had gone home. (Past
                             Perfect Tense yang merupakan bentuk
                             lampau Present Perfect Tense)
This is the first time I have driven a car.
It is time we went home.
Future Perfect Tense (Bentuk yang akan datang Present Perfect Tense)
Contoh:

Perawan always goes to bed at 11:00. Joko is going to visit her at 11:30
this evening. When Joko arrives, Perawan will have gone to bed.
By (= menjelang) the end of this year he will have graduated from
Amikom College.

Future Perfect Continuous Tense (Bentuk yang akan datang Present
Perfect Continuous Tense)
Contoh:

By the end of this year he will have been studying at Amikom College for
two years.

Past Perfect Tense / Simple Past Tense
Contoh:

By 1999 he had graduated (Past Perfect Tense) / graduated (Simple
Past Tense) from Amikom College.
                                          BANDINGKAN
           SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE                          SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
                     +                                              +
     am                                                work      worked    worked
                 was
      is                           been                come       came      come
     are         were                                  write      wrote    written

I               am                               I
He                                               You                 come
                is
The student                 from Japan.          The students                   from Japan.
You                                              He
                are                                                  comes
The students                                     The student
                        ?                                               ?
         Is       he                                      Does he              come from
Apakah                    from Japan?            Apakah
         Are you                                          Do        you        Japan?
Yes, I am / No, I am not.                        Yes, I do / No, I don’t (do not).
Where are         you     from?                  Where do           you        come from?

            SIMPLE PAST TENSE                                SIMPLE PAST TENSE
                    +                                                 +
     am                                                 call       called     called
                 was
      is                           been                 go          went      gone
     are        were                                   read         read       read

I                                                I
He              was                              He


                                                                                              Yesterday.
                            in
The student                       yesterday.     The student         went to Japan
                            Japan
You                                              You
                were
The students                                     The students
                        ?                                               ?
         Was    he
                                                                                              Yesterday?


                you         in                                       he              to
Apakah                            yesterday?     Apakah    Did               go
         Were               Japan                                    you             Japan

Yes, I was / No, I wasn’t (was not).             Yes, I did / No, I didn’t (did not).
Where were            you         yesterday?
                                                                             to
                                                                                              Yesterday?




                                                 I         didn’t     go
                                                                             Japan

                                                 Where       did      you          go

				
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