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Longitudinal Examination of Depression and Negative Feedback .ppt


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									                                                                               Attachment Insecurity and Abuse
                                                                             in Adolescent Romantic Relationships
                                                                                            Erin Miga, Joseph P. Allen & Nell Manning
                                                                                                      University of Virginia
                                                                        This study was made possible by funding from the National Institute of Mental Health awarded to Joseph P. Allen, Principal Investigator
                                                                                                                              (Grant# R01-MH58066)

                                        Abstract                                                                                                                                                                                        3) Teen romantic avoidance predicted increases in romantic
This study examines the association between attachment insecurity and physical and
psychological maltreatment in adolescent romantic relationships. Data were collected                                                         Method                                                                                        partner criticism of the teen (β=. 39, p<.0001)( see Table 2).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4) Partner anxiety predicted teen report of increases in
from 98 adolescents at age 14, and again at adolescent mean age of 18. Higher levels
                                                                                               Participants                                                                                                                                partner physical abuse and blame during conflict(β=.26,
of adolescent attachment preoccupation was associated with perpetration of
                                                                                               Data were collected from a larger multi-method, multi-reporter, longitudinal study                                                         p<.05).
psychological abuse against their partners. Higher levels of adolescent dismissing
attachment was associated with being the target of psychological abuse from their              of adolescent development in the context of peer and family relationships
partners. The dyadic interaction of adolescents scoring lower on romantic                       98 target adolescents (41 male, 57 female) were first interviewed at age 14.3                                                                     Table 2. Hierarchical Regression Analysis predicting Teen Report of Romantic Partner
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Criticism at Age 18
attachment avoidance and partners scoring higher on romantic attachment anxiety                 Target teens: 56% European American and 44% minority or mixed ethnic group                                                                                                                        β entry   β final     Δ R2    Total R2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Step I.
predicted higher levels of teens’ physical abuse towards their partners.
                                                                                               Adolescents were then re-interviewed at age 18.3 with their romantic partners                                                                       Minority
                                                                                               Couples had been dating for an average of 15 months                                                                                                 Statistics from step.                                              .08*      .08*

                          Introduction                                                         Procedures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Step IV.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Teen Self Report of Avoidance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  .39**** .39**** .15**** .23****

                                                                                               Wave 1: Adolescents interviewed at approximately 14 years of age.                                                                                   Note. * p<..05 ** p < .01. *** p < .001 ****p<.0001. N = 98
 • Intimate partner violence is a relatively common phenomenon among adolescent                Wave 2: Adolescents and their romantic partners re-interviewed at approximately 18
   couples: found in 10-25% of couples in large-scale studies.                                 years of age.                                                                                                                           5) Teen romantic avoidance moderated the relationship
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         between partner anxiety and teen physical abuse. Romantic
 This trend is of particular concern because:                                                  Measures                                                                                                                                  partner anxiety predicted increases in teen physical abuse
 • Romantic relationships play a crucial role in adolescent development (Furman, 2002).        Adult Attachment Interview and Q-set (AAI, George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996; Q-sort, Kobak et al,                                             when teen avoidance was low, while more avoidant teens
                                                                                               1993). Participants were asked to explain their childhood relationships with each of their parents and to recall                          were unaffected by their partners’ anxious attachment.
                                                                                               examples supporting their depictions. Individuals were assigned adult attachment classifications based on the
 • Aggression in adolescent intimate relationships can set the stage for volatile marital      coherence of their responses. The Attachment Q-sort procedure was used to determine a continuous score of both
   and parent-child relationships in the future.                                               the preoccupied and dismissing attachment dimensions.
                                                                                               Conflict in Relationships (Wolfe, Reitzel-Jaffe, Gough, & Wekerle, 1994).            Teens and their romantic
 Attachment Theory                                                                             partners reported on the frequency of their partner’s use of physically abusive, sexually coercive, and emotionally
 • “Intimacy anger”: violence that men exhibit in an effort to maintain proximity to           manipulative tactics during conflict in the past year.
   their partner when they perceive their romantic attachment relationship to be               Multi-Item Measure of Adult Romantic Attachment (Brennan, Clark & Shaver, 1998).
   threatened (Dutton, Saunders, Starzomski, & Bartholomew, 1994).                             This study used the “avoidance” and “anxiety” subscales to assess teen and romantic partner’s behavioral and
                                                                                               emotional attachment styles in romantic relationships.
 Insecure-preoccupied attachment:                                                              The Psychological Maltreatment Experience Scale (Petretic-Jackson, Betz, & Pitman, 1995).
 • Preoccupied individuals may exhibit vacillations between intensely positive and             Individuals reported on the frequency of their partners’ use of verbally abusive tactics.
   negation emotions; excessive dependence on attachment relationships

 Insecure-dismissing attachment:
 • Dismissing individuals may withdraw during periods of intense emotion; minimize
                                                                                                                                              Results                                                                                                                   Conclusions
   importance of intimacy, emotional experiences, and communication in relationships                Hierarchical regression analyses using Full Information Maximum Likelihood revealed that:                        •Results provide evidence for preoccupied and dismissing working models of
                                                                                                            1)Teen attachment preoccupation at age 14 predicted partner                                              attachment serving as unique risk factors for later perpetration and victimization of
 Adolescent partner violence as a dyadic process:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     psychological abuse in adolescent romantic relationships.
 • Females and males exhibit comparable rates of aggressive behaviors, albeit differing                       report of increases in teen verbal abuse at age 18, after
   in intensity (Archer, 2000), yet most studies place an exclusive focus on males as sole                    controlling for insecure-dismissing attachment ((β=. 41,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     •Results highlight the importance of viewing relationship violence as a dyadic
   perpetrators of partner aggression.                                                                        p<.01).                                                                                                process; severity of aggressive behavior may vary as a function of each partner’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     romantic attachment style.
 Hypotheses                                                                                                         Table 1. Hierarchical Regression Analysis predicting Romantic Partner Report of Teen
 The current study uses hierarchical regression analyses to explore the following                                   Verbal Abuse at Age 18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     •Lack of gender differences found for perpetration of partner violence supports
                                                                                                                                                                   β entry   β final    Δ R2     Total R2
   questions:                                                                                                        Step I.                                                                                         previous findings for comparable rates of aggression across gender.
 1.Does preoccupied/anxious attachment serve as a unique risk factor for the                                         Minority
   perpetration of physical and psychological aggression against one’s partner?                                      Statistics from step.                                               .02        .02
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     •Exhibiting avoidant strategies in the face of conflict may be a protective factor
                                                                                                                     Step II.
                                                                                                                     Adolescent Dismissing Attachment                .01      -.24        00        .02              against exhibiting physical violence towards one’s partner.
 2.Does dismissing/avoidant attachment predict one’s risk for being victimized                                       Step III.
                                                                                                                     Adolescent Preoccupied Attachment
   by intimate partner violence?
                                                                                                                    Note. * p < .05. ** p < .01. N = 98
                                                                                                                                                                     .41**     .41**     .12**      .14**
 3.Does the interaction of differing insecure romantic attachment styles predict                                                                                                                               Archer, J. (2000). Sex differences in aggression between heterosexual partners: A meta-analytic review.Psychological Bulletin, 126(5), 651.
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Brennan, K.A., Clark, C.L., Shaver, P.R. (1998). Self-report measurement of adult attachment. In Simpson, J.A. & Rholes, W.(Eds.), Attachment Theory and Close Relationships, (46-76). New
   more severe forms of partner aggression among adolescent couples?                                        2) Teen dismissing attachment at age 14 predicted increases                                        York: Guilford Press.
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Dutton, D. G., Saunders, K., Starzomski, A., & Bartholomew, K. (1994). Intimacy-anger and insecure attachment as precursors of abuse in intimate relationships. Journal of Applied Social
                                                                                                                in romantic partner use of verbal abuse against the teen at                                    Psychology, 24(15), 1367-1386.
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Furman, W. (2002). The emerging field of adolescent romantic relationships. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(5), 177.
                                                                                                                age 18 (β=.28 , p <.05).                                                                       George, C., Kaplan, N., & Main, M.(1996). Adult attachment interview. Unpublished interview, University of California, Berkeley.
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Kobak, R. (1989). The attachment interview q-set. Unpublished document, University of Virginia.
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Petretic-Jackson, P., Betz, W., & Pitman, L. The Psychological Maltreatment Experience Scale (PMES): Assessing psychological maltreatment in childhood and adolescence. In Vandecreek, L.
                                                                                                                                                                                                               & Knapp, S. (Eds), Innovations in clinical practice: A source book (331-443). Florida: Professional Resource Press/ Professional Resource Exchange, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Wolfe, D.A., Reitzel-Jaffe, D., Gough, R., & Wekerle, C. (1994). Conflicts in relationships: Measuring physical and sexual coercion among youth. Unpublished manuscript, University of
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Western Ontario, London, Canada.

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