Lecture 1 18 by h6IrHf

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									 Lecture 1
 Date: Sept. 10, 004
 By Bhaweshwar Das



Section I

Natural Resources of Nepal:
Eco-climatic division of Nepal; The biodiversity and its Economic strength
Species in trade: Plant genera in trade; Species in Export, import; & Re-trade As for
example: Swertia, Nardostachys, Parmelia, Asparagus, Picrorhiza, Taxus, Daphne, Sapindus,
Euphorbia, Zanthoxylum. Etc

Challenges in commercialization of plant resources: Quality management [raw material to
finished products; Opportunity with plant resources]

 Section II
 an Introduction of Natural Product Chemistry: Alkaloids, Terpenoids, Carotenoids,
 Anthocyanins, Flavonoids, Xanthones, and Steroids

 Section III Chemistry of twenty major species of trade [Species of Export 10, import 5; &
 Alkaloids Anthraquinones, Catechins, Tannins, Glycosides, Terpenes, Xanthones,

 Section IV Isolation, purification and identification of active ingredients:
 Pulverization, Distillation, Solvent extraction, Solvent-solvent extraction, Crystallization and
 re-crystallization, T.L.C., Column chromatography; G.C., HPLC;

 Analysis of active ingredient of above selected Species: Application of modern analytical
 M.P.; B.P.; refractive index, Optical rotation, Flash point, Co-TLC; G.C.; U.V.; I.R.; N.M.R.;
 [Species in trade: Plant genera in trade: Species in Export, import; & Re-trade As for
 example: Swertia, Nardostachys, Parmelia, Asparagus, Picrorhiza, Taxus, Daphne,
 Sapindus, Euphorbia, Zanthoxylum. etc]
 What are the gaps?

 Where shall we concentrate?
 Where to read?
 Lecture 2

 Date: September 12,2004
Session Topic: Eco-climatic division of Nepal:

Ecology and climate of a place is governed by fact where the place is located.

             1)   Location:
                 Longitude
                 Latitude
             2)   Altitude from sea level
             3)   Mountains around
             4)   Ocean and sea around the place
             5)    Hot and cold water current of air and water
We are located in Asia between 80°03” E to 88°10” E and 26°30”N to 30°26”N.
This geographical location encompasses a portion of Himalayan range in the north and
gangetic plane in south.
The specific location spreads its geographical territory on either side of Himalayan range.
Districts west to Rasuwa like Manang, Mustang, Dolpa, Mugu, Humla lie in the north of

Because of its specific location on earth the country has wide altitudinal range.

These mountains contribute a lot to climate of Nepal.
The mountains are too cool some part even below -30°c; while the planes are much hotter
some places above +30° c.

                          Max.      Max.         Min.    Min.         Rainfall   Rainfall

                          temp.                  temp.
        Stations           (ºC)     temp. (ºC)    (ºC)   temp. (ºC)   (mm)#      (mm)#
          Dadeldhura      26.2      15.5         15.5    3.4          12.8       0
        * Dipayal         38        25.5         22.8    4            0          0
          Dhangadi        33        22           23      5.8          0          0
        * Birendranagar   33.2      21.5         21.8    4.5          Traces     0
         Nepalgunj        33.7        21.2      24.5    5.5        0        0
         Jumla            26          13.1      12.5    -5.5       0        0
         Dang             32.2        22.4      21.5    4          0        0
       * Pokhara          31          22.6      22      7          22.5     0
         Bhairahawa       34.9        22.6      26      6          0        0
         Simra            32.5        26        22.5    6.5        7.2      0
       * Kathmandu        30.2        20.5      20      3          0        0
         Okhaldhunga      24.6        17.6      17.6    7.5        0        0
         Taplejung        24.4        15.8      17.9    4.6        1.5      0
       * Dhankuta         26.5        21.8      20.8    8.1        Traces   0
         Biratnagar       34.2        27.5      25      7.8        12.8     0
         Nagarkot         21.2        25.8      14      8.5        0.3      0
         Jomsom           23          13.3      13      0          0        0
         Bharatpur        35          0         19      0          10.5     NA

Climatic Information is based on HMG Department of Hydrology and Metrology.

The rain in Nepal is mainly due to monsoon, which originates in Bay of Bengal and passes all
the way as lead by the Himalayan range. It is cooled due low temperature of mountains and
precipitates as rain. These rains are heavy in the eastern Nepal and as monsoon moves
west, it becomes water deficient and there is low rain in the western Nepal.
These clouds are also blocked by the mountain range the area falls in rain shadow zone.
This is why districts west to Rasuwa like Manang, Mustang, Dolpa, Mugu, Humla which lie
in the north of Himalayas have low rain.
These physiographic processes have created different climatic zones in Nepal.

Altitude: Our geographical location

                             Belts                      Altitude
                             Sub-tropical climate       Up to 1200m
                             Warm temperature climate 1200-2000m
                             Cool temperate climate     2100-3300m
                             Alpine ‘Lekali’ climate    3300-5000m
                             Himalayan desert climate   Above 5000m
Lecture 3

September 17, 2004


   1. Sub-tropical climate:

       The climate is seen in southern planes of the country earth at present, which has an altitude between
       60m to 1200m. They include Terai, Bhawar, Chure, and inner terai; it can also be observed in Besi, Tar,
       and khonch. Some part of the country with low altitudes is too hot, while others are humid semitropical
       climate. This climate is found up to 1200m. Climatologically speaking this is sub-tropical but for Nepal,
       this is tropical. Summer temperature in this zone ranges from 25°c to 40°c. The climate has hot waves
       in summer.
       Western terai districts like Kanchanpur, Kailali, Bardiya, Banke, valleys of Dang and Surkhet,
       Kapilbastu, Rupandehi are among hot compared to eastern districts like Saptari and Morang and
       Rain is due to monsoon, which originates in the Bay of Bengal and enters from east form where it
       extends to west where upon it gradually desiccates and western terai has low rain in summer.
       When the monsoon returns from Hinudkush in the winter, the winter rain prevails. The winter rain is
       more in west than in the east.
       The terai has over 200mm rain.
       Accacia, Adina, Alastonia, Annona, Bombax, Bamboo, cassia, ceaselpinea, Cinnamomum, Eagle,
       Ficus, Hollorhena, Mallotus, melia, Nerium, Oroxylon, Phyllanthus, Sapindus, Shorea, Dalbergia,
       Strychnos, Tamarind, Terminalia are the major the major tree genera of this climate, while Mucuna,
       Dioscorea, Gloriosa, Gymnema are the major climbers in this climate.
       Adhatoda, Basil, Cassia, Lantana, Pogostemon, Pandanus constitute the major shrubs and Acorus,
       Amorphophyllus, Andrographis, Asparagus, Bacopa, Boerhavia, Eclipta, Eulophia, Phyllanthus Swertia,
       Vinca, Vetiver Withania are some of the typical herbs found in this climate.

   2. Warm temperature climate: This climate prevails in the Mahabharat range from 1200m to 2100 m .The
       summer temperature is ranges between 24°c to 30°c while the winter temperature falls up to 0°c
       depending on altitude. River basins are hot and humid.
       The valleys like Kathmandu fall in a climate where summer days reaches up to 33°c and cool winter
       night are as low as minus 3°c.
       In the southern face of the Mahabharat range, there is heavy rain up to 125 cm, while on the northern
       side of the range the rain is relatively low only up to 100 cm.
       Accacia, Adina, Bombax, Bamboo, cassia, Cinnamomum, Eagle, Ficus, Mallotus, Phyllanthus,
       Sapindus, Terminalia are the major the major tree genera of this climate, while Mucuna, Dioscorea, are
       the major climbers in this climate.
       Basil, Cassia, Lantana, Pogostemon, constitute the major shrubs and Acorus, Asparagus, Swertia,
       Vinca, are some of the typical herbs found in this climate.
       This is the climate range where most of the mountainous caste lives.

   3. Cool temperate climate: The Himalayan climate above 2100m to 3300m is quite contrasting to tropical
      climate of the terai. Various districts that lie between south of Himalayas and Mahabharat range are in
      this climate zone. They include Taplejung, Panchthar, Sankhuwasbha, Ramechap, Dolkha, in the East
      and Rasuwa, Dhadhing, Gorkha, Lamjung, Parbat in the west represent such districts. With the
      exception of river basin with low altitude and small valley in the range the whole of the above districts
      are in cool temperate climate zone.
        The summer temperature in these districts ranges between 15°c to 20°c. They have near zero°c
        temperature in the winter. They have snowfall in the winter.
        Rain is mainly due to monsoon but only up to 100 cm. The rain is high in the south and in the east and
        comparatively lower in the north and west. Districts in this climate zone have cool and windy days and
        nights in the winter.
        The tree species present are Pinus, Rhododendron, Quercus, Daphnephyllum, Abies, and Tsuga
        Among the Medicinal plant, several important traded species of Nepal such as Rhubarb, Aconitum,
        Asparagus, Gaultheria, and Pseudo-panax are collected from this climate zone.
   4.   Alpine ‘Lekali’ climate: The Himalayan range above 3300m to 5000m is in this climate zone. This
        climate is similar to climate of Alps in Europe and there fore called alpine climate. The nine-month of
        the year is snow laden. The snow melts in summer months. The summer temperature ranges between
        10°c to 15°c. The Rain is below 40 cm. Tree species of the zone are Cedrus, Junipers, Cuperessus,
        Larix, Hipophae, and Taxus. Some of the high value medicinal plants like Cordyceps, Aconitum,
        Picrorhiza; Nardostachys, Ephedra, Onsoma, Rheum, Carum, are collected from this climate zone.
   5.   Himalayan desert climate: The altitude above 5000m i.e. above snowline is laden with snow all the year
        round and are not suitable for any vegetation not even lichen can grow here. Because the typically ice
        laden characters round the year like polar region it is also called third pole.

The evolution of earth: The earth was formed from a solar cloud of Hydrogen under
gravitation. Earth’s first rock was formed over 3500 million year ago.
Different continent of the earth was a single landmass by that time. This single landmass;
according to continental drift theory of Alfred Wagener (1915) split into Laurasia and
gondwana land. The Gondwana land further split into India, Antarctica and Australia.

                                EVOLUTION OF EARTH
The sediments of shallow sea “Tethys Sea” between Africa and Tibetan plateau raised due to
drift of India and Africa northward. The Himalayan range emerged due to this drift.
A radical idea of plate tectonics assumes that the earth is made of series of rigid crusts called
plates. These plates are moved by convection current within the surface of earth. These
plates diverge and converge along margins, which is marked by earthquakes and volcanoes.
Molten lava within pushes plates up, by which mountains and ranges are formed.

The soil:
This formation of mountains and ridges took of years. The rain and other denudation
processes went on. The soft-top soils were carried and deposited at riverbeds.

The terai of to day is made up of such alluvial soils brought and deposited by river Ganges
and its sisters. Moreover, whole of terai except Dang, and Chitwan is made up of such
alluvial soils.
                                                                  Geological map of Nepal
Sub Himalayan basin /dun of northern Dang, Northern rauthat, Northern Sarlahi is made of
Alluvial soils brought by respective rivers.

Lesser Himalayan Fluvial soils of Kathmandu valley and northwestern Tanahun are
conglomerates and lacustrine clay.

Lower part of sivaliks in Kanchanpur, Kailali, and peripheral Dang is made up of marine
shells and limestone and fluvial soils.

South of Salyan, Rolpa, Pyuthan, North of Palpa, Nawalaparashi are mainly shallow marine
sediments phyllites, sandstone, and quartzite.

Soils of Myagdi, Kaski, and Lamjung are flyschoid sequences of bedded schist, phyllites and
Meta sandstone.

Several mountain districts are rich in high-grade metamorphic rocks; these districts include
Dolkha, north Ramechap, Solu and other eastern districts.

Thus, what we see that the soils of Nepal are made up of various types of rocks, which in
course of time denudated contributed to the formation of different soil structures of the
The difference lies not only in names of its component rocks but also in its chemical
compositions and presence or absence of micro-components like individual elements. They
also contribute to water holding capacity of the soils.
The soil composition has immense impact on growth or flourishing of individual plant species.
If a soil structure is suitable for a species of plant, it may or may not provide enough nutrients
to other plant species.

Lecture 4
September 24, 2004


Biodiversity = Bio [= plants animals] + diversity [= variances, multiplicity, difference,
    Ecosystem level
    Species level
    Genetic level [Chemo-type level]

Ecosystem level:

In our earlier lectures, we talked on how the physiography of Nepal has significant impact on
its climates; and how the origin of the mountain ranges and river-system created different soil
condition within small area of the country.
These differences in climate, water availability, soil composition and the soil moisture, create
different ecosystem in the different part of the country.
Stainton (1972) classified the country in to seven different ecosystem as follows:

          1.   Terai and Bhawar.
          2.   Siwalik, and Dun valley.
          3.   Mahabharat.
          4.   Mid lands
          5.   Himalyas.
          6.   Inner Himalayas
          7.   Arid zones

1. Terai and Bhawar. Southern part of the country adjoining Indian Territory in the south and
   siwalik range in the north is called Terai. Its altitude varies from 60 m from sea level to
   300 m. Forest zone called “charkose jhari” in the area was once very rich and diverse in
   tropical plant diversity.

2. Siwalik, and Dun valley. This lies between north of terai and south of Mahabharat
   range.The altitude of this ecosystem is between 300 m to 1500 m. The range is wide in
   the western Nepal and less wider in the east. Chitwan,Dang and trijuga are inner terai
   valley of Nepal. They are sloppy and fertile.

3. Mahabharat. Mahabharat is the range spread east to west in north of Siwalik and south of
   mid land. The altitudes ranges from 1500 m to 2700 m. River like Bagmati, Babai flow
   through it.

4. Mid lands: this ecosystem prevails in the north of Siwalik and Mahabharat and south of
   Himalyas. Altitude ranges from 600m to 3500 m. Kthmandu, Pokhara, Banepa are located
   in this zone. This is densely populated next to terai. The climate here is more appropriate
   and land is fertile.
5. Himalyas. High mountains like Saipal, Lhotse, Machpuchre, Annapurna, Choyu, Manaslu,
   Makalu, , Sagarmatha, Kanchanjungha range are located here. The altitudes above 5500
   m are snow laden and are devoid of flora.
6. Inner Himalayas: The trans Himalayan districts like Humla, Jumla, Manang, Mustng, can
   also be considered inner Himalayas. Plants species like Taxus, Abies, Tsuga, and
   Rhododendron are found here.
7. Arid zones: Some part of Dolpa, Manang, and Mustang are part of Tibetan plateau and
   the climate here is arid.

Species level:

   Living beings capable of breeding mutually are called species. Species diversity means
   number and frequency of different species in an area. The earth is expected to in habit
   from 5,000000 to 3 0,000000 species of living beings (Wilson, 1988).
   Richness in diversity means total number of different species in particular area while
   The term relative abundance indicates availability of one species compared to the other.
   The dominant species means the species which out numbers other species.
   Example cited from Class / village.
   Community forest where tree species having timber values are kept and other bushy and
   thorny species are taken out cannot be considered rich in diversity.
   Thus, Richness in diversity implies proportionate growth of all potential species in the

           Plant          Species in        Species in       Compared to world
                          the World         Nepal            [%]
           Lichen         20000             465              2.3
           Fungi          69000             1822             2.6
           Algae          26900             687              2.5
           Mosses /liver. 16600             853              5.1
           Pteridophytes 11300              380              3.4
           Gymnosperm 529                   27               5.1
           Angiosperm     220000            58600            2.6

   These different species are sources of different chemical example

Genetic level:

    Gene is the smallest entity present in DNA that carries parental character to the progeny.
   Genetic diversity indicates differences in arrangement of genes in the chromosomes. This
   leads to differentiation of brothers and sisters from among their sisters.
   Example: there are different types of rice in Nepal such as Kuriya, Basmati, Anandi,
   Thapchininya, Marsi, Chomrong etc.

   This not only creates morphological variances among the progenies but also its content
   and composition.

   To a chemist the genetic variation is significant because it differentiates the chemical
   composition from among the plant of same species.


                  1. Artemisia albida Willd.ex Ledeb.
                  2. Artemisia biennis Willd.
                  3. Artemisia caurifolia
                  4. Artemisia capillaris Thunb.
                  5. Artemisia dubia Wall.
                  6. = vulgaris
                  7. Artemisia gmelinii var. vestita (Wall.ex DC.)
                  = Artemisia vestita (Wall.ex DC.)

                   Artemisia gmelinii var. minor (Ledeb.)
                   = Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb.
                   8. Artemisia indica =vulgaris
                   Artemisia indica var. canadensis Besser
                   Artemisia indica var. orientalis (Pamp.) H.Hara
                   Artemisia indica Willd.
                9.     Artemisia japonica Thunb.
                10. Artemisia juncea Kar. & Kir.
                11. Artemisia maritima Linn.
                12. Artemisia moorcroftiana Wall.
                13. Artemisia myrianth
                14. Artemisia parviflora Buch.-Ham.ex Roxb.
                15. Artemisia roxburghiana Bess.
                16. Artemisia siversiana Ehrh.ex Willd.
                17. Artemisia vulgaris Burm.f. = indica

Lecture 5 + 6

September 26, 2004

We have seen that in a small area of Nepal we have quite good number of plant species as
high as 62834 plants (so far known), stay alive.
These species are in continuous threat of extinction due to changes in ecology, Climate and
human intervention.
In the late twentieth century, it was realized that if no attention is paid on these changes,
existence of future generation will be impossible.
Convention of Biodiversity

At the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, world leaders agreed on a comprehensive
strategy for "sustainable development" -- meeting our needs while ensuring that we leave a
healthy and viable world for future generations. One of the key agreements adopted at Rio
was the Convention on Biological Diversity. This pact among the vast majority of the world's
governments sets out commitments for maintaining the world's ecological underpinnings as
we go about the business of economic development. The Convention establishes three main

   1. Conservation of biological diversity,
   2. Sustainable use of its components,
   3. Fair and equitable sharing of the benefits from the use of genetic resources;

Representatives of 155 countries agreed this document to achieve the common goal of
sustainable development.

There are 21 articles the document. These articles are further sub articles. These article
explain the process by which the world can achieve the above goals.

International Union of Conservation Nature [IUCN] Nepal enlisted all the plant and animal
species, which are under threat or at the verge of extinction in its “red list”. It has also
published some books such as “Rare and endangered plants of Nepal” and "National
Register of Medicinal plants " second edition.

These books enlist plants, which are under threat, and especially the "National Register of
Medicinal plants " second edition tried to enlist are which has been traditionally used in

The book claims to serve the purpose of Article 15,16 and 19 of “Convention Of Biological
Diversity [CBD]”. Hence, we have tried to aware our colleagues on CBD Article 15,16 and 19.

Article 15 Access to genetic resources

1. Recognizing the sovereign rights of States over their natural resources, the authority to
determine access to genetic resources rests with the national governments and is subject to
national legislation.

2. Each Contracting Party shall endeavor to create conditions to facilitate access to genetic
resources for environmentally sound uses by other Contracting Parties and not to impose
restrictions that run counter to the objectives of this Convention.

3. For the purpose of this Convention, the genetic resources being provided by a Contracting
Party, as referred to in this Article and
Articles 16 and 19 are only those that are provided by Contracting Parties that are countries
of origin of such resources or by the Parties that have acquired the genetic resources in
accordance with this Convention.

4. Access, where granted, shall be on mutually agreed terms and subject to the provisions of
this Article.
5. Access to genetic resources shall be subject to prior informed consent of the Contracting
Party providing such resources, unless otherwise determined by that Party.

6. Each Contracting Party shall endeavor to develop and carry out scientific research based
on genetic resources provided by other Contracting Parties with the full participation of, and
where possible in, such Contracting Parties.

7. Each Contracting Party shall take legislative, administrative or policy measures, as
appropriate, and in accordance with Articles 16 and 19 and, where necessary, through the
financial mechanism established by Articles 20 and 21 with the aim of sharing in a fair and
equitable way the results of research and development and the benefits arising from the
commercial and other utilization of genetic resources with the Contracting Party providing
such resources; Such sharing shall be upon mutually agreed terms.

Article 16: Access to and transfer of technology

1. Each Contracting Party, recognizing that technology includes biotechnology, and that both
access to and transfer of technology among Contracting Parties are essential elements for
the attainment of the objectives of this Convention, undertakes subject to the provisions of
this Article to provide and/or facilitate access for and transfer to other Contracting Parties of
technologies that are relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity
or make use of genetic resources and do not cause significant damage to the environment.

===================Lecture 6===================================

2. Access to and transfer of technology referred to in paragraph 1 above to developing
countries shall be provided and/or facilitated under fair and most favorable terms, including
on concessional and preferential terms where mutually agreed, and, where necessary, in
accordance with the financial mechanism established by Articles 20 and 21. In the case of
technology subject to patents and other intellectual property rights, such access and transfer
shall be provided on terms, which recognize and are consistent with the adequate and
effective protection of intellectual property rights. The application of this paragraph shall be
consistent with paragraphs 3, 4 and 5 below.

3.Each Contracting Party shall take legislative, administrative or policy measures, as
appropriate, with the aim that Contracting Parties, in particular those that are developing
countries, which provide genetic resources are provided access to and transfer of technology
which makes use of those resources, on mutually agreed terms, including technology
protected by patents and other intellectual property rights, where necessary, through the
provisions of Articles 20 and 21 and in accordance with international law and consistent with
paragraphs 4 and 5 below.

4. Each Contracting Party shall take legislative, administrative or policy measures, as
appropriate, with the aim that the private sector facilitates access to, joint development and
transfer of technology referred to in paragraph 1 above for the benefit of both governmental
institutions and the private sector of developing countries and in this regard shall abide by the
obligations included in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 above.

5. The Contracting Parties, recognizing that patents and other intellectual property rights may
have an influence on the implementation of this Convention, shall cooperate in this regard
subject to national legislation and international law in order to ensure that such rights are
supportive of and do not run counter to its objectives.

Article 19: Handling of biotechnology and distribution of its benefits

1. Each Contracting Party shall take legislative, administrative or policy measures, as
appropriate, to provide for the effective participation in biotechnological research activities by
those Contracting Parties, especially developing countries, which provide the genetic
resources for such research, and where feasible in such Contracting Parties.

2. Each Contracting Party shall take all practicable measures to promote and advance
priority access on a fair and equitable basis by Contracting Parties, especially developing
countries, to the results and benefits arising from biotechnology based upon genetic
resources provided by those Contracting Parties. Such access shall be on mutually agreed

3. The Parties shall consider the need for and modalities of a protocol setting out appropriate
procedures, including, in particular, advance informed agreement, in the field of the safe
transfer, handling and use of any living modified organism resulting from biotechnology that
may have adverse effect on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.

4. Each Contracting Party shall, directly or by requiring any natural or legal person under its
jurisdiction providing the organisms referred to in paragraph 3 above, provide any available
information about the use and safety regulations required by that Contracting Party in
handling such organisms, as well as any available information on the potential adverse
impact of the specific organisms concerned to the Contracting Party into which those
organisms are to be introduced.

NTFP policy 2061, has recently been released by HMG Department of Plants Resources
[Kantipur Bhadra 2061]


The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, or
CITES, came into effect in 1975. The United Nations Environment Program administers the
Convention and 150 countries are a Party to the Convention.
The Convention was established with the aim of controlling and monitoring the international
trade in plants and animals considered being threatened, or likely to become threatened, and
affected by such trade. Generally, the Convention does not prohibit the international trade in
listed species, but seeks to prevent the unsustainable exploitation of wild populations of
plants and animals.
The Convention consists of a text setting out the main "rules" and three Appendices, or lists,
of plants and animals. Trade in species included in these Appendices is controlled and
monitored by means of a permit system. In CITES terms, "trade" means movement across
international borders.

Appendix: 1
All parts and derivatives subject to control, including live plants, hybrids, seeds, and
herbarium and spirit material.

1.Saussurea costus
2.Vanda coerulea

Appendix 2

All parts and derivatives subject to control, including live plants, hybrids, herbarium and spirit
material, but not seeds (except seeds of Mexican Cactaceae originating from Mexico),
spores and pollen (including pollinia), in vitro cultures unless otherwise annotated.

1. Aloe spp.
2. Cyathea spp.
3. Cycadaceae spp.
4. Dioscorea deltiodea
5. Euphorbia spp.
6. Hedychium philippinense
7. Nardostachys grandiflora
8. Orchidaceae spp.
9. Panax ginseng [Panax pseudoginseng]*
10. Picrorhiza kurroa*
11. Podophyllum hexandrum*
12. Pterocarpus santalinus
13. Rauvolfia serpentina
14. Taxus wallichiana

Appendix 3
Controls = As appendix 2

1. Gnetum montanum
2. Magnolia liliifera var. obovata
3. Meconopsis regia
4. Podocarpus neriifolius
5. Tetracentron sinense
Lecture 7

October 3, 2004

Economic Strength of Bio-diversity

Again we will limit our self to plant diversity because the animal are not the primary sources
   of secondary metabolite and also because by definition secondary metabolites are
   products of plant origin.

    Past trade
    Present trade
    Future trade

Past trade: In the past, several species of plants were lost due to human intervention and
popular use of plants.
To enlist few of them here:
Santalum album
Pterocarpus santalianus
Aqularia agalocha
Strychnos nuxvomica

Many others have become sparse
Melia indica, Ficus hamiltony, and perhaps several species of Ficus like religiosa,
benghalensis, and Eagle marmelos, Madhuca butyracea, Alstonia scholaris, which are, now
listed, as religious plants can be included in this list.
Several of these species are sources of novel secondary metabolites.
Present day trade:

================== Lecture 8================================

The list of plants that are in the revenue list of H.M.G. department of Forest and published in
Forest act 049 and Forest regulation 051 can be considered as sources of secondary
metabolites that are traded from Nepal.
Table below shows list plants that are in the revenue list:


NTFPs collected                                   Mid-         Far-
056/057              East      Central    Western west         west      Total
Allo                 0         0
Amarisho                       0
Amla                 100       4394       0                    300       4794
Argeli               0         11827      0         0          0         11827
Atish jara           0         0          848       1683       0         2531
Babiyo               0         0
Bair                 0         500        0         0          0         500
Ban karaila bia      0         4610       87        0          0         4697
Bel                  4000      0          0         0          0         4000
Bet ko phal          0         0          0         19365      0         19365
Bhadraksha           0         14254      0         0          0         14254
Bhoja patra          0         0          0         0          2529      2529
Bhorla ko bokra      0         7200       0         15000      12232     34432
Bhutkesh             0         681        0         0          2200      2881
Bhyakur              0         0          465       0          3104      3569
Bilauni              0         0          1450      150        0         1600
Bish jara            3670      3631       1625      1652       0         10578
Bish phenj           0         442        0         1016.5     0         1458.5
Bojho                3100      2270       1979      2885       1866      12100
Budhani              0         200        800       0          0         1000
Chabo                14752     0          0         0          0         14752
Champabati           0         444        0         0          0         444
Chiaraito            64387     62834.8    14216     24454      3470      169361.8
Choya bokra          0         0          0         0          200       200
Chyau                0         0          0         3270.5     33        3303.5
Dalchini             0         0          2586      13585      0         16171
Daru haldi           0         0          0         172        3500      3672
Dhupi pat            0         10684      1875      8557       200       21316
Gamdol              0       1910     353     220     0          2483
Ghortapre           0       2150     0       0       0          2150
Gobresalla ko pat   0       5000     0       0       0          5000
Gurjo               0       2227.5   0               0          2227.5
Harro               0       7979     0       0       0          7979
Inreni biu          1000    0        0       0       0          1000
Jatamanshi          0       3752     6224    72914   700        83590
Jhyau               700     40392    16090   83624.5 91871      232677.5
Jivanti             0       9625     0       0       0          9625
Kachur              0       0        0       0       32         32
kainyo phul         0       16030    0       0       0          16030
Kakar sighi         0       0        2958    0       0          2958
Kakoli jara         0       3348     0       800     0          4148
Kaladana            0       0        0       7381
Kantakari phul      3950    0        0       0       0          3950
chulthi/amalbet     0       0       10358    3769      0        14127
Khair                       0
Khoto                       0
Kukur tarul                 6771    0        0         0        6771
Kumkum pat          0       29600   0        0         0        29600
Kurilo              210     30850   21673    32706     1020     86459
Kutaki              370     4755    4493     35354     11933    56905
Launth salla        1000    42554   134342   0         0        177896
Lohan               10835   0       0        570       0        11405
Lokta               64000   43270   87008    11100     9140     214518
Maha                0       0
Main                0       0
Majitho             25201   30246   218      2651      100      58416
Mashala pat         0       0       0        0         20825
Mushali jara        0       11643   1487     0         0        13130
Nagbeli             1300    5787    35       0         0        7122
Nagkeshar           0       200     0        0         0        200
Nigalo gota         0       358000pcs
Nirmashi            0       266     974.5    59.5      0        1300
Nundhiki pat        0       3000    0        0         0        3000
Okhar bokra         0       0       275      0         650      925
Paban               0       500     0        0         0        500
padamchal           100     1656    1297     300       600      3953
Pangra              50      100     0        0         0        150
Pipal pat                   400     0        0         0        400
Pipla               0       0       1973.5   290       0        2263.5
Raktachandan        0       174     0        0         0        174
Rasulla             0       0       0        14000     0        14000
Ritha               54200   2589.5 150       98410.5   208388   363738
Rudraksha           1050    2797    0        0         0        3847
Salla ko Simta     100    40459   0      0         0         40559
Satawari           0      765     0      5660      27        6452
Satuwa             0      0       347    0         631       978
Setak chini        0      0              0         2448      2448
Shal dhup          0      280     0      0         0         280
Shikakai           200    2304    6800   0         0         9304
Shila jit          0      0       200    47365.5   0         47565.5
Shrikhanda         0      150     0      0         0         150
Simal khoto        0      850     0      0         0         850
Somlata            0      0       1450   2940.5    1770      6160.5
Sugandha kokila    0      0       0      835       0         835
Sugandhwal         0      1427    1610   20813     10481     34331
Sunpati            300    4860    0      0         0         5160
Tapre              0      200     0      0         0         200
Tej pat            0      0       0      3825      10160     13985
Thingure salla     5400   0       0      0         0         5400
Tigeri             0      0       0      5585      0         5585
Timmur             1870   231     125    358573    493       361292
Tite pati          0      5460    0      8663      1073      15196
Tuki phul          0      876     0      2800      0         3676
Pakhanbhed         0      0       1350   0         2997      4347

Lecture 9

October 10, 2004

                    Name of the herb      IRs per kg at Delhi Oct.1st 04
                    Amaltashphal                        12
                    Anwala                              32 –38
                    Arjun bokra                         8
                    Ashwagandha                         45-65
                    Babari                              11-25
                    Barro bokra                         7
                    Barro singo                         4-5
                    Banapsha                            350-550
                    Banslochannila                      35
                    Bayabidang                          35-50
                    Bel                                 20-25
                    Chobchini                           11-140
                    Dalchini                            50-51
                    Guggul                              150-175
Harro [syanu+thulo]   9-11
Harro syanu           35-50
Harro thulo           5
Indrajau chal
Jatamanshi            100-130
Jhyau                 60
Kalmegha              14
Kapurkachari          11
Kutaki                175-210
Laha [pipal]          80-100
Lodha                 16-22
Lokhandi              200-225
Maida lakari          20-28
Makoya                35-36
Manjuphal             56-58
Menhandi              30-32
Mushali kalo          50
Mushali seto          250-1350
Nagermotha            9-11
Padamchal             60
Panchaunle            700-1500
Pashanbhed            15
Pipala syanu          90
Pipalathulo           200
Rasot/chutro sar      70-100
Ritha                 15
Salabgantha           65-80
Salabmishri           2800-3200
Sarpagnadha           95-105
Shahijan gunda        35-110
Shatawari /kurilo

[panhelo]             110-220
                        Shikakai                                    30
                        Shilajeet rock/                             150
                        Shitalchini                                 192-200
                        Suddha shilajit                             550-1100
                        Sugandhabal                                 65
                        Sugandhakokila                              90
                        Talishpatra                                 25
                        Tejpat                                      25
                        Timmur                                      120

Sources of price information:

Primary source are the traders dealing the item; and secondary sources are price bulletin like
daily and weekly magazines ex Navbharat times; Financial express
Alternatively, specialty reporters like Public ledger are the sources of information for prices.

Shorting of MAP by volume TOP 10 is

                    Name                      Rate(NRs.)
                    Chiaraito     169361.8    200           33872360
                    Jatamanshi    83590       150           12538500
                    Jhyau         232677.5    32.5          7562018.75
                    Kurilo        86459       210           18156390
                    Kutaki        56905       110           6259550
                    Salla         177896      85            15121160
                    Lokta         214518      100           21451800
                    Ritha         363738      13.5          4910463
                    Sila jit      47565.5     150           7134825
                    Timmur        361292      80            28903360
                    TOTAL                                   15,59,10,426.8

Export of NTFPs and their derivatives:

                   Commodity                     Revenue Million NRs
                   HERBS                         94
                   Herbal oil                    44.5
                   Herbal Medicine               8.18
                   Taxus resin                   25
                   Pine Resin                    361.6
     Home assignment:
 Short out next twenty major plants collected:
 Give assign Scientific names to the major twenty plants collected.

 Lecture 10
 Date October 31, 2004

Challenges in commercialization of plant resources:

Let me explain you the case with an instance by a clip from to-days Kantipur: [October 31st,

                  Translation by Author:

                  Kantipur reporter: -
                  Sarlalhi, 14 Kartik – A couple dies by eating an herbal drug
                  being sold by himself as a remedy of gastric.
                  Indra Bahdur shrestha and his wife man maya shrestha of
                  karmaiya VDC ward no 1 died by eating an herbal drug
                  called Nirmashi.
                  According to family sources the couple ate 3 pieces of the
                  drug before bed.When the trouble increased they were
                  brought to Ekta Nursing Home.Man Maya was declared
                  dead on arrival to the hospital.Indra Bhadur was refered to
                  Birgunj Hospital the he doed.
                  According to Govind bahadur mainali a local health worker
                  the drug taken was Bish [poison].Indra bahadur used to
                  sale the same drug as nirmashi.According to Deepak Rana
                  Bhat the took the drug clear the bowel toxicity.
The above instance explains how our knowledge on identity & the activity of Herbal crude drug
of regarding is fatal to us: Similar knowledge has caused near death of Herbal trade.

        1. Local Name: Bikh, Bish                Local Name: Nirbisi, Nirmansi, Nilo bish
     English Name: Nepali aconite                English Name:
     Scientific Name: Aconitum spicatum          Scientific Name: Delphinium
     Summary of Information                      denudatum
     Distribution: Found around 3500m in         Summary of Information
     high altitude.                              Distribution: which is distributed in
     The plant: A herb with tuberous roots,      between 1300-4500m.
     60-90cm in height.                          The plant: A glabrous branching annual
     Parts used: tubers, roots                   herb, 60-90 cm in height. Found on
     Uses: Tubers and roots are used for         private lands. Harvesting time during
     medicinal                                   September-October.
                                                 Part used: roots
                                                 Properties and uses: The roots are
                                                 acrid, bitter, thermogenic, digestive, and
                                                 carminative and are useful in jaundice,
                                                 fever, ulcer, leprosy, cough and ulcers.

First barrier to commercialization therefore is true identity of the material.
Majority herbs are traded in crude form. And the exact identity; and the quality requirements
for the products are not defined.

 WHO and Crude drugs trade:
The plant material, crude drugs are used through out the developed and developing
countries as home remedies, over the counter drug products and raw material for the
pharmaceutical industries and represent a substantial proportion of the global market. It is
therefore essential to establish internationally recognized monographs and analytical
The World health Assembly –in its resolution WHA 31.33[1978], WHA 40.33[1987] and WHA
42.43[1989 has emphasized the need to ensure the quality of medicinal plant products by
using modern quality control techniques and applying suitable standards.
International pharmacopoeia provides information on selected medicinal plants that are
included in model list, besides many countries has their herbal pharmacopoeia.
The WHO monographs are available for a number of globally accepted plant materials
though while monographs are not available for regionally traded medicinal plant materials.
These pharmacopoeias and monograph have testing procedures for the test of medicinal
plant materials.
The testing and set standards are optional in Nepal but are mandatory for once the country
becomes parties of WTO after 2006.
There are ample example of technical barrier that barred Chinese Honey and crude drugs
not complying the standards for entry in European market.
The following list of test is enlisted in “quality control methods for Medicinal plants”.

            1. Determination of foreign matterMacroscopic and microscopic
            3. Thin layer chromatography
            4. Determination of ash value
            5. Determination of extractable matter
            6. Determination of water and volatile matter
            7. Determination of Volatile oil
            8. Determination of bitterness value
            9. Determination of hemolytic activity
            10. Determination of tannin
            11. Determination of swelling index
            12. Determination of foaming index
            13. Determination of Pesticides residue
            14. Determination of arsenic and heavy metals
            15. Determination of microorganism
            16. Determination of radioactive contamination.

Standards for Spices and Condiments:

International Standard Organization [ISO] has 191 technical committees out of which ISO
/TC 34 is one. ISO /TC 34 has 15 sub committee one of which is ISO /TC 34 /SC 7. The ISO
/TC 34 /SC 7deals with spices and condiments and its secretariat is in Bureau of Indian
Standards. The ISO /TC 34 /SC 7 has finalized over 59 international standards for spices.
These standards have included testing procedures also.
American Spice Traders Association [ASTA] has cleanliness specification of 29 spices.
 ASTA specification effective from 1 January 1990 has minimum permissible limit of Whole
 insect, excreta of mammalian by mg /lb; excreta other by mg/lb; mould % weight; insect
 defiled % weight and extraneous foreign matter % weight.
 Nepal Standards of common spices : Part 50,Number 42 of Nepal Gazette section 3 date
 2057/10/23 describes standards for Nepal Cardamom [Amomum subulatum], fruit, seed,
 powder; Dried Ginger, Dried ginger powder; Turmeric, Turmeric powder; Cumin, cumin
 powder; Whole pepper, pepper powder; Chilies, Chilies powder; Coriander and coriander

 Nepal Standards of common spices has defined specification based on moisture %,
 Volatile oil %, Cold-water soluble extract, alcohol soluble extract Total ash Dil HCl insoluble
 ash and fiber content in some cases. It does refer CaO in dry ginger, lead chromate and
 curcumin in case of turmeric and fiber content in case of pepper.

           Part 50; Number 42 of Nepal Gazette section 3; date 2057/10/23 is
           silent in many other requirements required globally. It also does not
           talk on testing procedure. Similarly it is also silent on Zanthoxylum .

Thus, we can infer that quality management and certification is one of the major

Lecture 11
Date: Friday November 05,2004

 Section: An Introduction To Natural Product Chemistry:

 Primary metabolites: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats & oils. These primary metabolites in plant
 chemistry is neither less important nor unrelated to metabolites but because we have limited
 time in a semester we do not focus here, and also because trade of Jaributi of Nepal
 [medicinal plant / NTFPs] are often due to unique secondary metabolites in it.

 Say for example: Asparagus racemosus and Saussurea sps are traded because of unique
 combination of Polysccharides with glycosides, and traces of alkaloids and other secondary
 metabolites in it.

 Secondary Metabolites: Alkaloids, Terpenoids, Carotenoids, Anthocyanins, Flavonoids,
 Xanthones, and Steroids

 Here from we enter to organic chemistry


These compounds are renown for their potent pharmacological activities. Whilst tiny
amounts of some can immobilise an elephant or a rhinoceros, others have important clinical
use such as analgesics, antimalerial, antispasmotics, for pupil dilation, and treatment of
hypertension, mental disorders and tumours.
They are all nitrogen heterocycles which occur mainly in plants as their salts of common
carboxylic acids such as citric, lactic, oxalic, acetic, malic and tartaric acids as well as
fumaric, benzoic, aconitic and veratric acids. Their amine character produce an alkaline
solution in water and hence the origin of their name -alkaloids.

The alkaloids are extracted from plants by extraction with organic solvent. For example Just
as seeds, which are rich in oils, can be extracted with petroleum ether. Solvents like Ethanol
and Methanol is also used to extract the alkaloids and after filtration and evaporation the
extract is diluted with water acidified and steam distilled to remove the last traces of
methanol. After several days at 0 - 5oC the aqueous residue usually clears and it is then
possible to separate the organic layer. The organic material is extracted with ether or
chloroform, the extracts evaporated and steam distilled again. Volatile alkaloids are
separated. The aqueous residue is made alkaline and extracted yet again. The extracts are
evaporated and then begin the task of trying to separate the constituents in crystalline form
either as the freebase or if not as acid salts.
There is a wide variety of structural types of alkaloid e.g. monocyclic, dicyclic, tricyclic,
tetracyclic etc. as well as cage structures.

Monocyclic alkaloids:

Coniine (1), whose structure is based on piperidine, is highly toxic. It may be extracted from
Conium Maculatum [hemlock] and it was used by the ancient Greeks for state executions,
Socrates being the most famous victim.
On the other hand, nicotine (2), the main alkaloid constituent of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum ,
is based on the five membered pyrrolidine and six membered pyridine structures. It is without
doubt the most well known alkaloid, and its calming effect together with its addictiveness has
probably caused the death of more people in the world than any other compound.

The Biosynthesis of Coniine. - Lysine was thought to be the most likely precursor and indeed
feeding the hemlock plant with 14C labelled lysine produced radioactive coniine. However it
is possible that lysine is degraded to a simpler compound which is the real precursor. Indeed
feeding the hemlock plant with diamino pentane and also with labelled acetate also led to
incorporation of the label. The feeding of labelled acetate produces coniine with alternating
carbon atoms (2, 4, 6, and 2’) labelled. The high level of label incorporation indicates that the
actual biosynthesis of coniine originates from a polyketide.

The tropane alakaloids are based on 1,4 nitrogen bridged cyclohepatane structure.The
compound atropine is isolated from Atropa belladonna .

Atropine is widely used in medicine in doses of about 0.1 mg for its muscle relaxant
properties. Thus it is used as an antispasmotic including the dilation of the pupil by relaxing
the eye muscles and so assists eye treatment, and it is available for the treatment of
organophosphate/nerve gas poisoning.
Not surprisingly cocaine, which comes from the coca plant, has similar properties to atropine
and at one time it was used as a local anaesthetic but is rarely used medically nowadays due
to its toxic and addictive effects.
There are a number of alkaloids, which are derivatives of quinoline, isoquinoline and their
hydrogenated analogues.
Papaverine, an opium constituent, has antispasmotic properties and has also been used as
an analgesic. Today it is used as a minor constituent with morphine usually to enhance the
analgesic properties of a weaker drug such as aspirin.
Emetine is a derivative of tetrahydro isoquinoline which is isolated from the root of a S.
African creeper. It has been used as an expectorant, but now replaced by codeine and other
non alkaloid drugs such as ephedrine and diphenylhydramine.
The most widely used of the quinoline alkaloids is quinine which is isolated from the bark of
the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug in 0.6 g doses, as a skeletal muscle
relaxant it is used in .2 g doses to relieve nocturnal cramps and at trace levels as a bitter
flavouring in tonic water.
The indole structure is also a common feature of alkaloid structures and can be identified as
part of polycyclic alkaloids such as reserpine Rauwlofia serpentina , vinblastine of Vinca
rosea , strychnine of Strychnos nuxvomica and lysergic acid.

Of these reserpine has the most important clinical use i.e. for the treatment of high blood
pressure and as a tranquilliser.
Vinoblastine and its analogues are used to treat acute leukaemia, lymphomas and some
solid breast and lung tumours.
Strychnine is very poisonous and was once used to control rodents, but it has been replaced
by poisons which are less toxic to man.

The active ingredient of the ergot fungus which grows on cereal grasses such as rye, is a
lysergic acid amide. LSD is the diethylamide derivative (X = NEt2) of lysergic acid has
hallucinogenic properties. It has no medical applications, but ergotamine tartrate (a tripeptide
derivative) is used to treat acute migraine. Its dihydro derivative is even more powerful.
Note that Cannabis (marijuana/Indian hemp), which is a mild hallucinogen, is a pyrone
dreivative and not an alkaloid. It is also said to be "habit forming"
Morphine, which constitutes ca 10% of the extract from opium poppies, is one of the most
potent alkaloids. It is a very effective pain killer and is used in medicine when pain is
absolutely intolerable.
On the other hand, its acetyl derivative, heroin, is widely abused because of its short-term
production of an overwhelming relaxing well-being feeling. Both are highly addictive and with
prolonged use produce very harmful physiological effects on the body.

The most commonly used of this class of opioids in medicine is codeine. It is a minor
constituent of opium but is made by the methylation of morphine. It is a fairly good analgesic
but causes constipation. Thus about 8 mg is often added to either .4 or .5 g. tablets of
aspirin or paracetamol. It is also used as a cough suppressant and as an antidiarrhoeal
drug. It must be used with care since it is still addictive although to a lesser extent than
Lecture 12

      November 07,2004

      Terpenes are probably the most widespread group of natural products. They
      may be defined as a group of molecules whose structure is based on a various
      but definite number of isoprene units (methylbuta-1,3-diene, named
      hemiterpene, with 5 carbon atoms).

      This definition leads to a rational classification of the terpenes depending upon
      the number of such isoprene (or isopentane) units incorporated in the basic
      molecular skeleton.
                                               Isoprene                Carbon
                                               units                   atoms
 1               Monoterpenes                  2                       10
 2               Sesquiterpenes                3                       15
 3               Diterpenes                    4                       20
 4               Sesterpenes                   5                       25
 5               Triterpenes                   6                       30
 6               Carotenoids                   8                       40
 7               Rubber                        > 100                   > 500

Mono-, sesqui-, di-, and sesterpenes contain the isoprene units linked in a head
to tail fashion.

The triterpenes and carotenoids (tetraterpenes) contain two C15 and C20 units
respectively linked head to head.
Many terpenes are hydrocarbons, but oxygen-containing compounds such as
alcohols, aldehydes or ketones are also found. These derivatives are frequently
named terpenoids [meaning terpene likes].

While the Mono- and sesquiterpenes are the chief constituents of the essential
oils the other terpenes are constituents of balsams, resins, waxes, and rubber.

Isoprenoid units are also found within the framework of other natural molecules.
Thus, indole alkaloids, several quinones (vitamin K, E) vitamin formed         -
carotene, phenols, isoprenoid alcohol also known as terpenols or polyprenols)
also contain terpenoid fragments. The origin of the ubiquitous isoprene unit and
its conversion into various compound has been extensively studied.

Terpenes history spans various civilizations

      Ravan [Treta Yug]                        Arkprakash satak
      11th century                             The Arabs introduced
                                               camphor in Europe from
                                               the East.

     Arnaud de Villanosa                       described distillation of
     [12th century]                            oils from rosemary and
                                               sage. "oleum mirabile".
     Nuremberg [1592]                          Edited "Dispensatorium
                                               valerii cordi"
     JJ Houston de la                          Analysis of oils of
     Billardière[1818]                         turpentine
     Dumas [1866]                              Determined & proposed
                                               the name terpene
     Wallach [1887]                            “Isoprene rule” proposed
                                               to distinguish the
                                               monoterpenes and the
     Bredt in 1893                             Structure of camphor
     Wagner [1894]                             pinene
     Tiemann [1895]                            citral
     Wackenrodder [1837]                         -carotene was isolated
                                               from carrots
     Willstätter [1907]                        Correct molecular form ß-
                                               carotene determined

The period since 1945 has seen an extensive explosion in natural product
chemistry due to the advent of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques.
Mevalonic acid was shown in 1956 to be a biosynthetic precursor of cholesterol
and later, its incorporation into a number of terpenoids has been demonstrated.

Actually, an increasing number of terpenoids are described in the plant
kingdom and many of them were shown to have important biological activities.
Thus, several sesquiterpenes and diterpenes have antibiotic properties; some
sesquiterpenes and diterpenes are insect and plant hormones, respectively.
Componds like Car-3-ene, is present in turpentine oil from pinus, Sabinene is
present in Dhupi the Juniper, α- Thujone is presnt in Thuja occidentalis .

Similarly camphor is present in Kapur [Cinnamomum camphora], umbelol in
coriander, α-pinene in pine.


Sesquiterpenoids are defined as the group of 15 carbon compounds derived by
the assembly of 3 isoprenoid units and they are found mainly in higher plants.
Sesquiterpene structures present several acyclic, mono-, bi-, tri-, and tetracyclic
systems. Some of natural sesquiterpenoids are shown below.

The farnesol is present in large quantity in chamomile distilled in Nepal and
east Indian sandal oil of Australia. Nerolidol is present on Neroli oil a ctrus type
Similarirly curcumene is yellow pigment in turmeric, Bergamotene is present in
“kalo Jyamir” ctrus bergamia

Gossypol is present in cotton seed and Thujopsene in thuja, Cedrol is principle
phenol in cedrus deodara [deodar]


They have 20 carbon atoms and are derived from geranylgraniol
They are of fungal or plant origin and include the resin acids and the gibberellin
plant growth hormones.
The diterpenes have exceptionally open chain, as found in geranylgeraniol or
phytol, which forms a part of chlorophyll and the side chain of vitamin E and K.

Examples of diterpene substances are given below:
Lecture 13

November 19,2004

Carotenes: Yellow or orange-red fat soluble pigments in plants.

Distribution in nature: They are widely distributed in nature some common
sources of carotenes are Capsicum annum [Chilly], Lycopersicum esculentum
[Tomato],Cucurbita maxima [Sweet guard] Carica papaya, Citrus fruits like
orange, lemon, mandarins , etc

Tomatoes and tomato-based food products are the major source of lycopene
and a number of other carotenoids, such as phytoene, phytofluene, -
carotene, -carotene, ß-carotene, and neurosporene Other commonly
consumed fruits that contain lycopene are pink grapefruit and papaya.
Apricots (fresh, canned, dried) also contain low concentrations of lycopene
and related carotenoids. Among these foods that are the major source of
hydrocarbon carotenoids, only ß-carotene, -carotene, and -carotene are
precursors of vitamin A (Fig.). Because the reduced risk of prostate cancer
has been specifically correlated with the high consumption of tomato-based
food products, this protective effect has been largely attributed to lycopene.
Although lycopene is the major carotenoid in these foods, the presence of a
wide range of other carotenoids in tomato-based food products cannot be

Uses: It is quite likely that lycopene in combination with other related tomato
carotenoids mentioned above might be responsible for the observed biological
activity. In 1995, Tonucci et al. reported on the qualitative and quantitative
distribution of carotenoids in name-brand and store-brand tomato-based food
products purchased in three major U.S. cities.

Analysis: These foods were extracted and analyzed by high-performance
liquid chromatography (HPLC) according to the methodology developed by
Khachik et al.
other lycopene-containing foods (pink grapefruit, papaya, apricot) as well as
those with similar carotenoid profiles (oranges, mandarin oranges, squash).
The carotenoids in these foods have been recently analyzed and quantified by
HPLC by the author (F.K.). Although lycopene has, to some extent, been
investigated for its biological properties in the prevention of carcinogenesis,
Other major hydrocarbon carotenoids have not received much attention.

Therefore, the contribution of other related tomato carotenoids besides
lycopene to the chemoprevention of cancer remains unclear.

You can see how these and many other carotenes are made up of repetition of isoprene
Question first term November 21,2004

Long question 3x10 -2

1.        How many different types of climate are available in Nepal and explain the reason for
variation of climate.
2.        Validate the statement “Climate has strong effect on vegetation of a location” enlist at
list [scientific names] of three plants from growing in each climate zone.
3.        Explain, “Knowledge and skill are primary barriers in commercialization of medicinal

Short questions

1.       What do you mean by CBD? Explain articles 15 of CBD.
2.       What do you mean by CITES? Explain with example The ban list of Ministry of Forest
and soil conservation do not truly reflect CITES spirits!
3.       What are alkaloids? Draw the structure of one monocyclic and one bicyclic alkaloid.
4.       What are terpenes? Draw the structure α and β pinene
5.       What are carotenes? Draw the structures of β carotene.

Very short questions 8 X 2

1.          Flora
2.          CBD
3.          CITES
4.          Secondary metabolites
5.          Species level diversity
6.          Terpenes
7.          Alkaloids
8.          Carotenes

                                      =========50 marks
Lecture 14

December 3, 2004

Anthocyanins, Flavonoids

Definition,Chemical structure,Distribution in Plants of Nepal, major link with trade

Anthocyanins are naturally occurring compounds that impart color to fruit,
vegetables, and plants. Derived from two Greek words meaning plant and blue,
Anthocyanins are the pigments that make Vaccinium [ blueberries] blue,
raspberries red, Rubus [Aiselu] yellow and are thought to play a major role in the
high antioxidant activity levels observed in red and blue fruits and vegetables.
Anthocyanins are also largely responsible for the red coloring of buds and young
shoots and the purple and purple-red colors of autumn leaves. Close to 300
Anthocyanins have been discovered.

Each fruit and vegetable has its own anthocyanin profile, providing a distinct
"fingerprint." Red wine, for example, contains over 15 anthocyanin monomers (type
of chemical compound), the varying proportions of which, depending on the type of
grape, establish the various shades of the wine's color.

Chemically, they are water soluble flavonoid derivatives, which can be glycosylated
and acylated.structures responsible are pelargonidin [scarlet color],cyanidin[
crimson],delphinidin [mauve] color

                             Numbering in anthocyanins

The aglycone is referred to as an anthocyanidin. There are 6 commonly occurring
anthocyanidin structures. However, anthocyanidins are rarely found in plants -
rather they are almost always found as the more stable glycosylated derivatives,
referred to as anthocyanins.

     Pelargonidin                                                Cyanidin

      Delphinidin                                                Peonidin

                Petunidin                                       Malvidin

These colors and their combination imparts various color to vegetables and fruits

These colors are PH sensitive
Recently, there has been interest in anthocyanins, not only for their colour properties,
but due to their activity as antioxidants.
Flavones are a group of multi-ring, hydroxyl-containing compounds that are being
studied widely for their nutritional value and their use in preventive health care
measures. These compounds are found in products as diverse as Ginkgo Biloba,
orange juice, and in garden herbs such as dill, oregano and parsley.

Figure shows the structures of some common flavones. Note the large number of OH
groups on the rings.

Q: What are anthocyanins? Draw the structure of pelargonidin, cyanidin, Delphinidin,
Peonidin, Petunidin, and malvidin .Why anthocyanins have become commercially
important these days?

Q: What are anthocyanins? Draw the basic structure of anthcyanins and number the
carbon in ring A and ring B.
                           1. Swertia chirata
                           2. Nardostachys jatamansi
                           3. Zanthoxylum alatum
                           4. Taxus wallichiana
                           5. Asparagus racemosus
                           6. Picrorhiza scrophulariflora
                           7. Lichen sps
                           8. Accacia sps
                           9. Daphne bholua
                           10. Shilajit
                           11. Terminalia sps
                           12. Emblica officinalis
                           13. Mentha sps

Lecture 15
December 5, 2004

Xanthones, and Steroids

Xanthone are ketone with a molecular formula C13H8O2 that is the parent of several
natural yellow pigments.

                            xanthone skelton & numbering

The molecules as stated above are present in several medicinal plants and are
medicinally much important.
These 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 carbons can be substituted by hydroxyl and methoxy function,
which give various compounds.
Xanthone derivatives are present in several plants traded from Nepal one such plant is

Swertia chirata :
Which contains
 Swerchirin: 1,8-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyxanthone . Hypoglycemic

xanthones are present in several other members of gentian family like Picrorhiza kurroa

Andrographis paniculata is yet another plant with xanthone.It has following four

 (i) 1,8-di-hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy-xanthone, (ii) 4,8-dihydroxy-2,7-dimethoxy-xanthone,
(iii)1,2-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxy-xanthone and (iv) 3,7,8-trimethoxy-1-hydroxy xanthone

Garcinia cambogia, rheediaxanthone A ,garbogiol, was isolated from the root;

Mangostein is another fruit with high xanthones, which are commercially important.
Like anthocyanins, which we discussed earlier, they also have free radical scavenging
property and have become extremely important in recent years.


Steroids are fat-soluble hormones with a tetracyclic base structure. The base structure
consists of four fused rings: three cyclohexane rings and one cyclopentane. The basic
structural backbone can be seen below:

As you can see, each of the rings is designated by a letter. Rings A and D are the most
commonly modified rings. The following diagram shows the numbering of the carbons in
steroids, which will be useful later in this article. The two methyl groups on C10 and C13
are also designated with numbers, as they are present in most steroids.

Steroids are synthesized in the body from squalene, a complex linear aromatic Molecule.

Steroids have a variety of uses in the human body, including, but not limited to:
controlling meiosis, carbohydrate metabolism, fat storage, muscle growth, immune
function and nerve cell membrane chemistry. Steroids can be separated into three main
groups: gonadal compounds, glucocorticoids and mineralcorticoids. This distinction
depends on the site of synthesis of the steroid. The gonadal variety are mainly
synthesized in the gonads, as is suggested by the name, while the glucocorticoids (eg
cortisol, cortisone) and mineralcorticoids (eg aldosterone) are synthesized in the adrenal

Steroids can also be divided into groups by function: androgens, estrogens,
progestogens, anabolics, and catabolics. The two main types of steroids that we will
consider are anabolics and androgens. Androgens exert some kind of masculinizing
physical effect on the body, while anabolics promote growth. However, these
distinctions are not completely exclusive. For example, testosterone is synthesized by
the adrenal cortex as well as the testes, and has both anabolic and androgenic

Cholesterol well known molecule supposed to be responsible for cardiac troubles.
Molecules like Pregnenolone is a hormone secreted in the uterus controlling ovum
implantation, and is the precursor for the androgens, estrogens, and
glucocorticoids.;Testosterone are synthesized in testes

Steroidal skeletons are present in several plants of Nepal:

 Several plant traded from Nepal are primarily traded because one or the other
steroid is present in it.
Dioscorea genera is source of Diosgenin which can be converted Pregnane
and several hormonal drugs
Asparagus spp phytoecdysteroids
Cordyceps sinessis antitumor compounds 5 ,8 -epidioxy-24(R)-
methylcholesta-6,22-dien-3 - -glucopyranoside and 5,6-epoxy-24(R)-
methylcholesta-7,22-dien-3 -ol
Dactylorhiza latagirea ecdysteroids
Dioscoria spp. diosgenin
Panax ginsenoside-Rh1, a component of ginseng saponin, activates estrogen
receptor in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells
Sapindus mukorossi mukorossides industrial saponin for production
shampoos and fiber softening agent.

 Saussurea costus : Four steroids were isolated from the Saussurea
 gossypiphora for the fist time. They were determined as 3-stigmastanol, beta-
 sitosterol, stigmast-7-en-3-ol and ergostan-3,24-diol by spectral and chemical
 Paris polyphylla : phytoecdysteroids
Lecture 16
December 12, 2004

                             Name                    kg
                             Chiaraito               169361.8
                             Jatamanshi              83590
                             Jhyau                   232677.5
                             Kurilo                  86459
                             Kutaki                  56905
                             Salla                   177896
                             Lokta                   214518
                             Ritha                   363738
                             Sila jit                47565.5
                             Timmur                  361292


Scientific Name: Swertia chirata Buch.-Ham.ex Wall.
Cat. n. 4372.
Original Data
Notes: Reg. Himal
English: Chirata
Local name : Tite,Tikto,Chirayito,Chirayata ,Chirata
Family : Gentianaceae
 Genus swertia is represented by over 21 species in Nepal out of which about 9
 species appear in trade.
 urascens,S.racemosa among those in trade.


  055/056   056/057       057/058       058/059     059/060
  166451    169361        337497.5      Missing     119315.5

 Average flow per year 224436 kg per year
 Royalty Rate NRs 3 per kg
 The price trend

NRs 20/- per kg in 2040 NRs 120/- per kg in 2051; NRs 500 per kg in 2058;




Antitubercular; Pesticide
Antiedemic IC27=40 mg/kg ipr rat; Antiinflammatory; Antinociceptive
Analgesic; Antianaphylactic; Antiarthritic; Antibacterial; Antiedemic; Antihistaminic;
Antiinflammatory; Antimeningitic ivn man; Antipsychotic; Antirheumatic; Antishigellic;
Antistaphylococcic; Antistreptococcic; Ataractic; CNS-Paralytic; CNS-Stimulant;
Corticosterogenic; Emetic; Hypoglycemic; Hypotensive; Myorelaxant; Neurotoxic;
Pesticide; Sedative
Antimalarial; Fungicide; Larvicide 1,300-2,00 mg/man; Pesticide
Antiedemic; Antiflu; Antihyperglycemic; Antiinflammatory 1/3 Indomethacin; Antilithic
25 mg/kg/day; Antimalarial IC50=46.8 ug/ml; Antioxalate 25 mg/kg/day; Antioxidant;
Antiperoxidant; Antirheumatic; Antitumor; Antiurethrotic; Antiviral; Cytotoxic 50-500
ppm; FPTase-Inhibitor IC50=65 ug/ml; Hypotensive; Pesticide; TOPO-2-Inhibitor
IC50=10.4 uM
Antihepatotoxic; Hypoglycemic; MAO-Inhibitor
Antitubercular; Mutagenic; Pesticide


Antidermatitic; Antidiabetic; Antifibrotic; Antihepatotic; Antihepatotoxic; Antiherpetic;
Antiinflammatory; Antioxidant; Antispasmodic; Antiviral; Cardiotonic; Choleretic 20
mg/kg; CNS-Stimulant 50-100 mg/kg; Diuretic; Immunostimulant; MAO-Inhibitor;
Pesticide; T-Cell-Stimulant

Anthelmintic; Antibacterial; Anticancer; Anticariogenic; Antidiarrheic; Antidysenteric;
Antihepatotoxic; AntiHIV; Antihypertensive; Antilipolytic; Antimutagenic; Antinephritic;
Antiophidic; Antioxidant 1/3 quercetin IC50=1.44 ug/ml; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin 500
mg/kg/day orl mus; Antirenitic; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter; Antiulcer; Antiviral;
Cancer-Preventive; Carcinogenic; Chelator; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor; Glucosyl-
Transferase-Inhibitor; Hepatoprotective; Immunosuppressant; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor;
MAO-Inhibitor; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor; Pesticide; Psychotropic; Xanthine-

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic; Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Anemiagenic;
Antialopecic; Antiandrogenic; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM; Antileukotriene-D4;
Cancer-Preventive; Choleretic 5 ml/man; Dermatitigenic; FLavor FEMA 1-30;
Hypocholesterolemic; Insectifuge; Irritant; Percutaneostimulant; Perfumery; Propecic

5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antialopecic; Antiandrogenic; Antifibrinolytic; Antioxidant
IC40=60; FLavor FEMA 1; Hemolytic; Hypercholesterolemic; Lubricant; Nematicide;
Pesticide; Propecic; Soap
5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Cosmetic; FLavor FEMA 2-4,000; Hypocholesterolemic;
Lubricant; Perfumery; Propecic; Suppository



ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

 Lecture 17

 December 17, 2004

 Essential oils

 Nepal exports under HS code 3301[3301 Essential oils; resinoids; terpenic by-products
 etc]; 55 ton worth 335000 US$, representing 2% of global trade positioning the country 72 in
 the list of exporters of the category:

 Other major players are ranked below

                            [HS code 3301] Year 2003

                       US $ thousand        Quantity in Ton         % share
  World estimation       1,606,725            196,492                100
   United States          282,010              27,944                 17
      France              191,905              6,056                  11
       Brazil             114,385              69,521                  7
  United kingdom          108,575              6,856                   6
                 India              101,987                  8,778                 6
                China                62,873                  10454                 3
               Argentina             56,019                  4,977                 3

       These five-countries account for 53 % of total essential oil traded in the world.

       Nepal’s export of essential oil under HS code 330129 [essential oils, whether or not
       terpeneless, incl. concretes and absolutes (excl. those of citrus fruit, geranium, jasmine,
       lavender, lavandine, mint and vetiver)]

       Nepal exported about 34 ton of essential oil under HS code worth 389000 US$ of which 29
       ton (60%) of essential oils were exported to India. Other countries to which essential oil under
       HS code 330129 were exported are Belgium, Austria, Hungary, Spain, and Germany t. This
       comprised mainly of grass oils.
       Nepal exported mainly

1.    Acorus calamus oil. [ ]
2.  Artemisia vulagaris oil.[ ]
3.  Cinnamomum glausecens oil [  ]
4.  Curcuma zeodaria oil
 5.    Cymbopogon flexuosus oil [
 6.    Cymbopogon martini [].
 7.                                  ]
 8.    Gaultheria fragarantissima oil[ ]
 9.    Juniperous recurva oil [
 10.   Matricaria chamomilla oil.[
 11.   Mentha arvensis oil.[]
 12.   Nardostachys grandiflora oil[].
 13.   Ocimum basilicum oil[ 
 14.                                    
15. Zanthoxylum armatum oil[  ]
 16.   Turpentine oil.*[ ]


        HS Code        Essential Oil imported                 Quantity   Cost          Supplier
                                                              ton        US$
        3301           Essential oils; resinoids; terpenic               515000        Ind,Sing,Uk
                       by-products etc
        330124         Mentha piperita oil                      23       145000        India
        330125         Mentha arvensis oil                       4       23000         India
        330129         Essential oils, whether or not            1       13000         India
                       terpeneless, incl. concretes and
                       absolutes (excl. those of citrus
                       fruit, geranium, jasmine, lavender,
                 lavandine, mint and vetiver)
 Total import in US $                                            696000


[updated on December 17, 2004]

Family : Valerianaceae

All the classical information are recorded by the name

Valerianaceae Nardostachys DC.
Coll. Mem. vii. 4. tt. 1, 2 (1830).

Original Data

Notes: Benth. & Hook. f. Gen. Pl. ii. 153. {Corrected when editing for database}

The original plant of CIS-Himalayas perhaps was

1.     Nardostachys jatamansi DC.
Coll. Mem. vii. 4. t. 2 (1830).

       Original Data
       Notes: Reg. Himal

2.     Nardostachys grandiflora DC.
Coll. Mem. vii. 4. t. 2 (1830).

                             A Collector with N. grandiflora
       Original Data
       Notes: =Nardostachys Jatamansi

The species was also recorded by earlier Botanist at nearly similar altitude but with bigger leaf
and prominent flower
3.      Nardostachys gracilis Kitamura
in Acta Phytotax. & Geobot., Kyoto, xv. 134 (1954).

This species is recorded from Manang /Nepal

Nardostachys chinensis Batalin
in Act. Hort. Petrop. xiii. (1894) 376.

The species may occur in trans Himalayas may be the plant recorded by Kitamura from
Manamg is N.chinenesis

All 3 species N.jatamansi, N.grandiflora and N.gracilis are treated as synonym by current
Perhaps the confusion came after 1960 when the taxonomist using the morphology as key for
classification found similar morphology.

Distribution: commercially the “Jatamansi” is collected from Taplejung and Terhathum in
eastern Nepal.Dolkha,Rasuwa in central Nepal Manang and Gorkha in western Nepal
Humla,Jumla,Dolpa,Mugub and Bajhang in mid western Nepal and Darchula in far western
Nepal. Though the plant species is present in all mountain districts.

The plant is in human use since vedic era / Charak samhita also describes the use of
“The plant is in religious, and cultural use and is also mentioned in “Durga Saptasati” where is
said to used “Hawan”.
The plant is in found to used by ethnic groups of Jordan, turkey and Israel and mentioned in
Bibilical citation where the medicinal property has been attributed.

Perhaps this wide application has resulted the trade of the plant since olden days and appears
in trade by various name
English : Spikenard
Nepali : Jatamansi,Jatamasi,
Humli and people in western Nepal call it Bhulte
In Indian market it is called “Jatamansi & Balchar”

LEGAL STATUS          Nardostachys was added to the Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species (CITES) in 18.09.1997 at the request of India. Only the bulk herb
materials (whole and sliced roots) are currently restricted from trade; manufactured
preparations, such as powders, pills, extracts, and teas are still permitted in trade.
Neighboring Nepal also recognized the declining supplies of the herb, stating:

The HMG Nepal (1991) formally recognizes the need to preserve the threaten species
restricts trade except in unprocessed form . Jatamansi (Nardostachys grandiflora) is banned
trade in crude form.
However large quantity of crude drug is still collected and traded both in processed and un
processed form.

      055/056          056/057         057/058       058/059        059/060
       29068            83210           51936                        46734

In average 54738 kg per year Jatamanshi has collected and traded in past three years.
The royalty rate per kg is NRs 25 and NRs 13,686,50/- has been collected per year
The average price per kg of jatamanshi rate was found to be above 120 /- and thus
NRs 65,68,560/- worth of Jatamanshi appeared in trade in these years.
The price hike in last decade is NRs 65/- per kg NRs 165/- per kg.

Olsen (1999) estimated that Nepal’s annual export of dried unprocessed rhizomes of
Nardostachys grandiflora is approximately 1000 ton per year.Bhattarai(2000) “marc”
of N.grandiflora exported from Nepal to India was 3202 kg throough


EO Root 19,000 - 20,000 ppm

1(10)-ARISTOLEN-2-ONE Root 18 - 120 ppm

18,9,10-DEHYDROARISTOLAN0NE-(2) Root 6 - 40 ppm


BETA-IONONE Root 25 - 180 ppm















Two guaiane- and two aristolane-type sesquiterpenoids (1–4) were isolated from
Nardostachys chinensis roots, and none exhibited antimalarial properties.


Salim S et al (2003) have shown the protective effect of Nardostachys jatamansi (NJ) on
neurobehavioral activities, cerebral ischemia in rats. The study provides first evidence of
effectiveness of NJ in focal ischemia most probably by virtue of its antioxidant property.

The known sesquiterpene valeranone (= Yatamanson) was isolated from the subterranian
parts of Nardostachys yatamansi (DC). It was pharmacologically investigated in animal
experiments of sedative, tranquilizing and antihypertensive properties

A weak activity hypotensive was demonstrated on ratsand mice . The toxicological studies on
rats and mice showed an oral LD50 of greater than 3160 mg/kg was found, which suggests
the possibility of a therapeutically useful dose ratio.

In three other pharmacological models an anti-ulcer action was detected

Ali S et al (2002) has shown that 50% ethanolic extract of the rhizomes of N. jatamansi is
shown to possess hepatoprotective activity in rats at (800 mg/kg body wt, orally).
Lecture 18

December 19, 2004

Family : Rutaceae

1.    Zanthoxylum armatum DC
     Syn :Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb
     Syn: Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC
2.    Zanthoxylum oxyphyllum Edgew

Trade name Eng: Indian Prickly Ash; Hindi : Tomer beej ; Nepali : Timmur, Bale timur;
Tejmal ; Yerma

Plant habitat: Forest undergrowth and hot valleys. 600 to 2100 metres in the

Plant Distribution
     The plant is found as an under growth in eastern to western mountains. In the east
      it is distributed from 600m to 1800 m .Mid western mountain region is the principal
     region of collection though small amount is collected from eastern and far western-
     mid hill also. It is found up to 2100m in the western Nepal.
     It is also found in trans Himalayan Districts and southern china.

     Plant description

     Zanthoxylum is an armed,scandent or esrect shrub or a small tree up to 6m high with
     dense foliage. The branches are armed with flattened prickles up to 2 cm long. Bark is
     pale brown ,deep furrowed imparipinate or tri foliate. The leaves are 5 to 25 cm in
     length often with lanceolate shape, entire to grandular crenate margin ; acute or
     obtusely acuminate ;Flwoers white to greeninsh in dense terminal or axillary panicles
     ;Fruit sub globose ,glabrous with shining black seed

     The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires
     well-drained soil. The plant can grow all type soil [acid, neutral and basic

    Older references are found in Charak (  ;

     Part used: ripe fruit, steam bark, wood.
      Used as spice
      The fruit contains 1.5% essential oil.
        The fruit is used to purify water.
        Toothbrushes are made from the branches.
        Wood - heavy, hard, close-grained. Used for walking sticks.

055/056 056/057                057/058                    058/059                  058/059
355403 361292                  553792                     NA                       650193.8

                           055/056 056/057 057/058 059/060

                      Export of Zanthoxylum alatum fruit [timur] from Nepal

The of Price of Zanthoxylum alatum fruit [timur] in 1991 was NRS 20/- per kg and in
2001 the price NRs 85/- per kg the current year price is about 120/- per kg
All most entire of timur produced in the country goes to India. Dabur is the principal
buyer which now pulverizes in Nepal and exports to Dabur India as “Dantasakti”
In the year 2003 Zanthoxylum alatum worth NRs 78,023160/= was traded and NRs
1,968964.30 revenue was generated.
Tigeri is the principal aultrant besides fruits of other z.species.

Plant part           Chemicals                    Concentration
                     α -Phellandrene              10,000 to 20,000 ppm
                     Linalol                      14,745 ppm
Fruit /pericarp      Linalyl actate
α –Phellandrene                     Linalol           Linalyl actate

Isoquinoline alkaloids present in the Zanthoxylum alatum bark and roots;

           Magnoflorine 1700 ppm                       Berberine

Leaf contains linalool and linalyl acetate

Seed of zanthoxylum alatum contains fixed oil


Das et al (1999) have noticed mosquito repellent property zanthoxylum armatum oil.
At 0.57 mg/cm2 concentration timur oil in brassica oil gave significantly higher
protection up to 445 min.It was found to be better than dimethyl phthalate.

Kumar S and Muller K have noticed antiproliferative activity against the growth of
human keratinocytes.

Manandhar N.P. (1995) has documented traditional application of fruit of Zanthoxyllum
in abdominal pain.

Joshi K and Joshi A.R.(2000) have recorded the traditional use of this zanthoxylum
armatum fruit in gandaki valley.
D.Eigner and D.Scholz (1996) have recorded 05 to 1.5 g of zanthoxylum armatum
fruits are used in Nepali cuisine.

Nath DR have compared leech repellent action in volatile oil of Zanthoxylum armatum
DC. syn. Z. alatum Roxb (Timur) .According to Nath et al to Timur oil was at par with
Citronyl and exhibited better results than dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and N-benzoyl
piperidine (NBP).

Xiong QB and Shi DW have recorded its traditional use of pericarp of zanthoxylum
fruit “Hua Jiao” in epigastric pain accompanied by cold sensation, vomiting, diarrhea
and abdominal pain due to intestinal parasitosis, ascariasis and used externally for
eczema in China.


           1.         J Commun Dis. 1999 Dec; 31(4): 241-5.
           2.         Phytother Res. 1999 May; 13(3): 214-7.
           3.         A
           4.         B
           5.         Indian J Med Res. 1993 May; 97:128-31.
           6.         Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1991; 26(12): 938-47.

Class test question

What are anthocyanins ? draw the structure of pelargonidin and cyanidin.

What are xanthones ? How many species of swertia are traded from Nepal Name the unique compounds of Swertia chirata.

What are HS codes for essential oil exported from Nepal? Write the pharmacological effect of any one Nardostacys jatamansi or
Zanthoxylum alatum

Draw the basic skelton of anthocyanins, Flavones, and Xanthones showing numbering as per IUPAC system.

Write short notes on Pahrmacological activity of any one of the followings

anthocynin, (b) flavone,(c) xanthone, (d) terpenoids (e) alkaloids

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