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					    WRITE!
    WRITE!
    WRITE!

Getting Ready for the Writing Test
WHEN?
Argumentative Writing


 Problem Solution

         OR


     Evaluation
        PROBLEM-SOLUTION
 Presents the problem
  coherently
 Describes the
  solution(s) clearly
 Sequences reasons
  for readers to support
  solution
               EVALUATION
 Requires writer to
  state a judgment
 Support judgment
  with reasons and
  evidence
 Uses Evidences,
  examples, and
  anecdotes
Five Features to Be Evaluated

                    FOCUS

              ORGANIZATION

        SUPPORT/ELABORATION

              CONVENTIONS

                    STYLE
                    FOCUS
 Does the writing have
  a clear idea?
 Is the writer on topic
  throughout the
  writing?
 Does the piece
  accomplish the task?
           ORGANIZATION
 Is this piece clearly organized?
(intro, body, conclusion)
 Is there enough convincing elaboration?
 Are all details important and relevant to
  the main idea?
 Do ideas progress logically?
    SUPPORT AND ELABORATION
 Is the topic developed
  with specific, relevant
  details?
 Is there enough
  elaboration?
 Are all details relevant
  to main idea?
 Do all details flow to
  the desired end?
                       STYLE
   PAC- Purpose-
    Audience-Context
   Engaging vocabulary
    $$$words
   Use of literary devices
   Well crafted
    sentences
   VOICE
            CONVENTIONS
 Appropriate sentence
  structure
 Subject –verb
  agreement
 Correct punctuation,
  capitalization, and
  spelling
 No abbreviations or
  slang terms
Steps for Writing a Paper
   (Problem-Solution)


1. READ THE PROMPT
     CAREFULLY
            EXAMPLE PROMPT
   Your school’s cafeteria is not bringing in as
    much money as it used to because more
    students are bringing their own lunches
    instead of purchasing. Write a letter to
    your principal identifying the problem with
    your recommendation for improving the
    situation
            STEP 2

Read the
  prompt
 carefully

AGAIN!!!!
            EXAMPLE PROMPT
   Your school’s cafeteria is not bringing in as
    much money as it used to because more
    students are bringing their own lunches
    instead of purchasing. Write a letter to
    your principal identifying the problem with
    your recommendation for improving the
    situation
                  Step 3

   Determine   P. A. C.

PURPOSE- (Why are you writing?)
AUDIENCE- (Who will be reading this?)
CONTEXT- (What is the form- letter,
 editorial, essay…)
            EXAMPLE PROMPT
   Your school’s cafeteria is not bringing in as
    much money as it used to because more
    students are bringing their own lunches
    instead of purchasing. Write a letter to
    your principal identifying the problem with
    your recommendation for improving the
    situation
                  P.A.C.
Purpose -To recommend solution to
 cafeteria money problem

Audience -Principal

Context -letter
           STEP 4

Identify the
   Problem
            EXAMPLE PROMPT
   Your school’s cafeteria is not bringing in as
    much money as it used to because more
    students are bringing their own lunches
    instead of purchasing. Write a letter to
    your principal identifying the problem with
    your recommendation for improving the
    situation
                PROBLEM
   Cafeteria is not making enough money
          STEP 5

Plan



                 \



Brainstorm
     Brainstorm on….
   Causes and Effects of
    Problem (multi flow
    map)

   Possible Solutions
    (circle map)

  Support/details/
benefits of solution
(tree map)
                 CAUSES/EFFECTS

   Bad food                   No supplies for
                                school
   Expensive
                      NO       Even worse food
    Long Lines

                      $$$      Parents make
   Not enough                  lunch
    choices
                 Solutions
 Better food
 Make cheaper
 More lines
 Offer more choices
  (food court)
                FOOD COURT
Explain          Benefit          Benefit +++
_________         ________         ________
(how)            *variety         *kids eat
Offer choices    *more $          *more energy
Salads           *kids will run   *pay attention
Potato bar        to lunch          in class
Different        *school $        *better grades
     STEP 6

WRITE
PAPER
                        Paper
Dear Principal,
  When is the last time you ate in the school cafeteria?
  I’m guessing never, because if you had you would know
  exactly why our facility is not attracting customers. It’s
  boring!!! The cafeteria offers very little when it comes
  to variety. It seems as though every other day, we have
  a mystery meat surprise and I seriously wonder if those
  cafeteria chefs know that other fruits exist besides the
  pineapple. With choices like this it’s no wonder the
  students are either brown bagging it daily or worse, not
  eating at all!! At this rate the money made from the
  cafeteria will be nonexistent and supplies for the good of
  our education will seize to exist. Now is the time for a
  change.
                      BODY
Do you know why restaurants such as Applebee's and
Hams are so successful? It’s because the customer can
go in and order from a variety of foods to satisfy his/her
craving whatever it may be. Are you getting the idea?
Our cafeteria would triple their income if we turned it
into a Food Court like the ones they have in malls. The
area’s sections could range from soups and salads, to
Chinese food, American food, Italian, and Mexican.
There would be something for everyone and kids would
eagerly wait in line for such a feast. Students would beg
their parents to buy lunch and mom’s would no longer
have to slave or worry about preparing lunches for their
children.
                     Body 2
Imagine the need to purchase bigger cash registers!
That’s exactly what will happen if you create a food
court. Have you ever noticed how kids today have
plenty of money to purchase candy, sodas, games, and
other nonsense items? When they see that they can
have a salad, taco, and pizza all at lunch, don’t think
they won’t fork over the $4.00 that it costs. You will be
pleasantly surprised to find your school’s wallet bursting
at the seams. Just think of what you could do with all
the money you’d be making. The computer labs could
finally match up to the present century and teachers
could get a textbook for every child instead of just a
class set. Yes, a food court would show you the money.
                     Body 3
Finally, students would no longer have growling
stomachs after lunch. Being able to choose a salad,
spaghetti and bread or a bowl of chili with a hoagie
would be a nourishing dream for many students. For
some kids, lunch at school is actually the only real meal
they get in a day. With less hunger pains, students
would have more energy and be able to pay attention
better in class. Teachers would no longer be wasting
their breath to a bunch of children with roaring bellies.
All the extra learning taking place would ensure your
students respectable grades and your school would have
test scores that will raise the roof. We could actually
become the model school for the state!!
              Conclusion
Sure, installing a food court would require more
effort from the lunch ladies and you may even
have to pay them more for the extra time, but it
would all be worth it in the end. Imagine, high
performing students, up to date supplies, and
you, the principal, actually eating from the
school’s cafeteria too. What are you waiting
for???
                             Sincerely,
                             A Student
    COMPONENTS OF A PAPER
 INTRODUCTION
    Get reader’s attention
     Identify the problem

         BODY
Explain and support solutions
    Examples and details

  CONCLUSION
Reinforce problem and solution
                        INTRODUCTION
   Get the reader’s attention
Ask a question
          Have you ever…
          What would happen if..
          How would you feel if…
Put the reader in a hypothetical
situation
          What if…
          Imagine..

State an alarming fact
          Nine out of ten…
          Every year, hundreds of…
          Did you know that…

Dialogue/quotes
           My mother always said, “….”
           Other propaganda
               INTRODUCTION

   Identify the
    problem
    Include causes and
    effects of the problem
    (Explain what makes
    it a problem and why
    it needs to be solved)
                        Paper
Dear Principal,
  When is the last time you ate in the school cafeteria?
  I’m guessing never, because if you had you would know
  exactly why our facility is not attracting customers. It’s
  boring!!! The cafeteria offers very little when it comes
  to variety. It seems as though every other day, we have
  a mystery meat surprise and I seriously wonder if those
  cafeteria chefs know that other fruits exist besides the
  pineapple. With choices like this it’s no wonder the
  students are either brown bagging it daily or worse, not
  eating at all!! At this rate the money made from the
  cafeteria will be nonexistent and supplies for the good of
  our education will seize to exist. Now is the time for a
  change.
                          BODY
   Introduce solution(s)
    – Explain the solution
    – How will it fix the problem-PROVE IT
    – What are the benefits of the solution
    (If you have more than 1 solution, elaborate each one
       in a separate paragraph…save the best for last)
    (If you have 1 solution, go into detail about benefits of
       following through with this idea)
DETAILS ! DETAILS! DETAILS!!!
                         BODY
Do you know why restaurants such as Applebee's and
Hams are so successful? It’s because the customer can
go in and order from a variety of foods to satisfy his/her
craving whatever it may be. Are you getting the idea?
Our cafeteria would triple their income if we turned it
into a Food Court like the ones they have in malls. The
area’s sections could range from soups and salads, to
Chinese food, American food, Italian, and Mexican.
There would be something for everyone and kids would
eagerly wait in line for such a feast. Students would beg
their parents to buy lunch and mom’s would no longer
have to slave or worry about preparing lunches for their
children.
                     Body 2
Imagine the need to purchase bigger cash registers!
That’s exactly what will happen if you create a food
court. Have you ever noticed how kids today have
plenty of money to purchase candy, sodas, games, and
other nonsense items? When they see that they can
have a salad, taco, and pizza all at lunch, don’t think
they won’t fork over the $4.00 that it costs. You will be
pleasantly surprised to find your school’s wallet bursting
at the seams. Just think of what you could do with all
the money you’d be making. The computer labs could
finally match up to the present century and teachers
could get a textbook for every child instead of just a
class set. Yes, a food court would show you the money.
                     Body 3
Finally, students would no longer have growling
stomachs after lunch. Being able to choose a salad,
spaghetti and bread or a bowl of chili with a hoagie
would be a nourishing dream for many students. For
some kids, lunch at school is actually the only real meal
they get in a day. With less hunger pains, students
would have more energy and be able to pay attention
better in class. Teachers would no longer be wasting
their breath to a bunch of children with roaring bellies.
All the extra learning taking place would ensure your
students respectable grades and your school would have
test scores that will raise the roof. We could actually
become the model school for the state!!
             CONCLUSION
   REMIND THAT THERE IS A PROBLEM
    THAT NEEDS ADDRESSING

   MAKE A CONVINCING STATEMENT THAT
    YOUR SOLUTION IS THE WAY TO GO

   END WITH A CLINCHER (GET THEIR
    ATTENTION or MAKE A DEMAND)
                  CLINCHER
 Without your help…
 If something isn’t done
  about this problem soon…
 Imagine a world where…
 Only the best schools…
 Don’t be another…
 For the sake of the
  children you must…

(LEAVE THEM THINKING!!!)
              Conclusion
Sure, installing a food court would require more
effort from the lunch ladies and you may even
have to pay them more for the extra time, but it
would all be worth it in the end. Imagine, high
performing students, up to date supplies, and
you, the principal, actually eating from the
school’s cafeteria too. What are you waiting
for???
                             Sincerely,
                             A Student
                  STEP 7
   Read and edit for:
      Coherence (Does it make sense???)
      Grammatical errors
      Over use of words
      Subject-verb agreement
      Choppy sentences
      Better word choice
         STEP 8

BREAK
              STEP 9
 RE-READ   and
 edit
                 EXAMPLE PROMPTS
                 (Problem-Solution)
   Write a speech to present at the next school assembly addressing
    your concern about a problem in your school’s cafeteria and what
    should be done about it.
   Due to a lack of school funds, the principal has cancelled all field
    trips. Write a letter to the Board of Education explaining the
    problem and how it could be dealt with.
   Your family’s electric bill is way too high. Write a letter to your
    parents proposing a solution to keeping the cost down.
   Your school has 1100 students, but only 700 lockers. Write a
    speech on how your school should deal with this problem.
   Your neighborhood has had numerous robberies in the past couple
    of weeks. Write a letter to the appropriate authorities with
    suggestions on how to lower the number of robberies in the
    neighborhood.
   Identify a problem in your school, community, home…etc and write
    a _______________to propose a solution to the problem.
                PROBLEM

 Dilemma         Catastrophe
 Trouble         Disaster
 Puzzle          Difficulty
 Situation       Setback
 Concern         Crisis
 Disturbance     Challenge
 Issue           Obstacle
         SOLUTION/ solve
 Answer            mend
 Key               fix
 Resolution        help
 Way out           aid
 Means to an end   repair
 Recipe            improve
                    resolve
                    mend
                     HINTS
   Recognize your audience with the appropriate
    voice
   ELABORATE
   Show style
    $$$words
    similes/metaphors/imagery
   Use transition
   Make it so the reader is convinced that your
    solution is the only way
                    Transition
 First of all            In conclusion
 To begin with           Finally
 Even though             As a result
 As a matter of fact     For this reason
 More importantly        In order to
 In addition             In fact
 Furthermore             For example
 As well as              Still
 Not only                While
 Equally important
                           DON’TS
   Abbreviate
   Use slang terms
   Use choppy sentences
   Repeat or over use words
   Sound insecure about your
    idea
   Use…
             – “This is my paper”
             – “I hope you liked
               my paper”
             – “I am going to
               write about…”
             – Vulgar language
Steps for Writing a Paper
      (Evaluation)


1. READ THE PROMPT
     CAREFULLY
        EVALUATION PROMPT
   Movies are an extremely popular form of
    entertainment for all age groups. Write a
    movie review for students recommending
    a movie that you have seen.
            STEP 2

Read the
  prompt
 carefully

AGAIN!!!!
        EVALUATION PROMPT
   Movies are an extremely popular form of
    entertainment for all age groups. Write a
    movie review for students recommending
    a movie that you have seen.
                  Step 3

   Determine   P. A. C.

PURPOSE- (Why are you writing?)
AUDIENCE- (Who will be reading this?)
CONTEXT- (What is the form- letter,
 editorial, essay…)
               P.A.C.
Purpose -To recommend a movie

Audience -students

Context –movie review
            STEP 4

 Identify the
    thesis or
  topic of your
      paper
(circle map or
       web)
            MOVIE TITLES
Titanic
A Cinderella Story
Polar Express
The Incredibles
Ray
Scooby Doo
Shrek 2
                    Thesis

   “Shrek 2” is a movie that I would
    recommend to people of all ages.
          STEP 5

Plan



                 \



Brainstorm
     Brainstorm on….

   Reasons for topic
    (multi flow)

  Support/details/
elaboration
(tree map)
              Reasons

 Good
  Actors
 Funny         Recommend
 Something
                “Shrek 2”
  for
  everyone
 Teaches a
  lesson
   Select and Support Reasons
Good Actors         Teaches lesson
  Something for all
Cameron Diaz    *Be happy with *Humor
Mike Myers      who you are
     *Animated
Eddie Murphy    *So many self     *Magical
Antonio Banderas      esteem problems *Fairy tale
                today
     STEP 6

WRITE
PAPER
      Paper Introduction
If you are looking for a movie that is
actually worth spending $7.50 a ticket,
then I recommend “Shrek 2”. Great
acting, entertainment for all, and a
touching lesson accompany this feel good
movie of the year.
                            Body
First of all, “Shrek 2” has all your favorite actors voicing the parts.
Shrek, himself, is actually portrayed by none other than Mike Myers.
Mr. Myers’ acting ability makes this movie the success it is. If you
thought he was good in “The Cat in the Hat”, you are in for an even
bigger treat with this movie. He makes the ogre character so real
and lovable that you’ll want one for yourself. Then you have Justin
Timberlake’s woman, Cameron Diaz, who plays the princess, Fiona.
Ms. Diaz brings the same charm to this movie as she does all her
others. I can’t think of a better choice of actresses to play Shrek’s
love interest. Even better is Eddie Murphy’s portrayal of Donkey
which will make you laugh one minute and sympathize with his
jealousy the next. This film is overflowing with more voices of
phenomenal actors like Antonio Banderas, Julie Andrews, Rupert
Everett and many more. If a film can afford so many talented
actors, it’s inevitably got to to be good.
                           Body 2
How many times today can you find a movie that not only you will
love, but so will your parents, grandparents, and younger siblings.
“Shrek 2” is such an entertaining movie that it appeals to the young
and old. It’s full of intrigue for the adults with it’s jokes, satire, and
play on words. It’s setting is so full of spoofs from other movies
that it will keep them and you busy looking for all it’s creativity. For
example, “Olde Knavery” is the film’s version of our Old Navy while
the entrance to the kingdom resembles the actual Paramount Movie
studio.
The animation and fairy tale characters keep the young children
excited as they watch Pinocchio dance like Michael Jackson or
Hansel (from Hansel and Gretel) as the owner of a hotel made out
of cookies and candy.
“Shrek 2” definitely has something for all. It’s packed with so much
symbolism that you’ll want to see it more than once to catch it all!
                     Body 3
Best of all, “Shrek 2” is a movie that will have everyone
feeling good as they leave. This movie teaches the
ultimate lesson that everyone can relate to. Shrek and
his bride Fiona try to make each other happy through
appearances, but learn that true happiness and beauty is
found within, a lesson that many people both young and
old today have a hard time understanding. Television
media seems to push beauty through extreme and costly
measures such as plastic surgery. Sure they look good
after it’s done, but are they truly beautiful or even more
importantly, are they happy? Shrek and Fiona teach us
that beauty is only skin deep and that they are happiest
as ogres on the outside, but “Swans” inside. “Shrek 2”
is a celebration of life that everyone will enjoy.
             Conclusion
How many times have you wasted $7.50
on a ticket for a movie that was about as
interesting as reading the dictionary? If
you want quality acting, pure
entertainment, and a burst of self esteem,
“Shrek 2” is the movie for you. Now, a
more important question is… would you
like butter on your popcorn?
     COMPONENTS OF A PAPER
           Evaluation
 INTRODUCTION
   Get reader’s attention
     Identify the thesis

        BODY
Explain and support reasons
   Examples and details

  CONCLUSION
Reinforce thesis and reasons
           clincher
                 INTRODUCTION

   Identify the thesis
    Include reasons for topic
                     BODY
   Introduce reason (s)
    – Explain the reason
    – Elaborate on reason
    – Give examples
    – Tell why
    (If you have more than 1 reason, elaborate
      each one in a separate paragraph…save the
      best for last)
DETAILS ! DETAILS! DETAILS!!!
               CONCLUSION
   Restate the thesis

   Reinforce the reasons

   END WITH A CLINCHER (GET THEIR
    ATTENTION or MAKE A DEMAND)
               Example Prompts
                  Evaluation
   Write an editorial to evaluate the most effective
    teacher you ever had.
   Write a book review recommending a book
    you’ve read to another student.
   Write an essay on the most desirable vacation
    spot to visit.
   Identify someone you know to be a hero. Write
    an essay on what makes this person a hero.
   Write a letter to your school’s new principal
    recommending a restaurant for him to take his
    family.
                    Good
   Great                Fantastic
   Best                 Superb
   Wonderful            Unique
   Marvelous            Splendid
   Phenomenal           Remarkable
   Extraordinary        Unbelievable
   Exquisite            Perfect
   Fine                 amazing
              Recommend

 Suggest
 Offer
 Favor
 Urge
 Vouch for
 propose

				
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