CS345 01 - Introduction.ppt

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					        CS 345 – Operating Systems

   Fall 2011
       Section 001, 1:00 – 1:50 pm MWF
       Section 002, 2:00 – 2:50 pm MWF

   Instructor: Paul Roper
    Office: TMCB 3370, 422-8149

   Office Hours: 9:00 – 9:50 am MWF

BYU CS 345            Introduction to Operating Systems   1
CS 345
Course Overview
        Course Information
   Required Text: “Operating Systems Internals and
    Design Principles (7th Edition)” by William
   User CS 345 Web Site

       Syllabus, schedule, projects, homework
   Use Blackboard
       Homework answers
       Grades
       Discussion board and Email
   Complete assigned reading and attend class!
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       William Stallings

William Stallings has authored 17 titles, and counting revised editions,
   a total of 35 books on various aspects of these subjects. In over 20
   years in the field, he has been a technical contributor, technical
   manager, and an executive with several high-technology firms.
   Currently he is an independent consultant whose clients have
   included computer and networking manufacturers and customers,
   software development firms, and leading-edge government
   research institutions. Bill has designed and implemented both
   TCP/IP-based and OSI-based protocol suites on a variety of
   computers and operating systems, ranging from microcomputers to
   mainframes. As a consultant, he has advised government agencies,
   computer and software vendors, and major users on the design,
   selection, and use of networking software and products.
Dr. Stallings holds a PhD from M.I.T. in Computer Science and a B.S.
   from Notre Dame in electrical engineering.

BYU CS 345               Introduction to Operating Systems             4

   Computer Science 345 is an
    introduction to the principles underlying
    the design and the implementation of
    contemporary computer operating
   Class designed for students majoring in
    Computer Science or in areas having a
    strong emphasis in Computer Science.

BYU CS 345        Introduction to Operating Systems   5
        Syllabus (continued…)
   At the end of the course, the student should have
    a basic understanding of:
       Design and implementation issues of contemporary
        operating systems
       Detailed analysis of process, multithreading,
        symmetric multiprocessing, and microkernels
       Memory management techniques, including virtual
       Various approaches to process scheduling
       Operating system control of Input/Output
       Operating system management of files
       Distributed systems
       Computer security
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   CS 124, CS 235, CS 236, CS 240.
   CS 345 is a recommended prerequisite to
    CS 360.
   Knowledge of C.
   Or, instructor’s consent.

BYU CS 345       Introduction to Operating Systems   7
BYU Computer Science Major                                                                                       CS 142
     Requirements / Prerequisite                                                                             Intro Programming
      Chain Fall 2009 (72-75 Hours)
                                                                                                                 CS 235                              CS 124
1. Complete all CS core classes. (No D credit accepted.)
                                                                                                              Data Structures                  Intro to Comp Sys
2. Complete the following supporting courses:
   a. Engl 316.
   b. Math 112, 113, 313.
   c. Phscs 121.                                              Sophomore
   d. Stat 221 (Stat 321, 331, 332, or 441 may be
                                                                                                                 CS 236
                                                                                                            Discrete Structures
      be used here or as elective credit but not both).                          CS 252
3. Complete 6 elective courses selected as follows:                         Intro to Comp Theory
   a. 4 courses from ECEn 324, 425, or                                                                           CS 240                                                     Engl 316
      400-level CS courses (except 404 and 405).                                                             Adv Programming                                             Technical Writing
   b. 1 additional course from (a) or a 500-level
      CS course.
   c. 1 additional course from (a), or CS 405, or
      ECEn 224, or Math 314, 341, 334, 365, 371,              Junior             CS 312                                                              CS 345                 CS 404
      410, 450, or Stat 321, 331, 332, 421, 441,                            Algorithm Analysis                                                Operating Systems          Comp in Society
      or PDBiol 120, or Chem 112, or Geol 112.
      (*Other science courses such as Chem 111,
      Geol 111, Phscs 123, and Phscs 220 may                                               CS 330                CS 340                    CS 360
      apply when NOT used for GE science                                                Prog Languages       SW Engineering              Internet Prog
      requirement. Check with advisement first.)

                                                                 Senior                                                                                                       CS 405
      Math 112          Phscs 121                                                                                                                                            ECEn 224
      Calculus 1            Physics                CS 412                                                       CS 428                  CS 452
                                                                         CS 418              CS 431                                                        CS 465            Math 314
                                                  Models &                                                    Software Sys             Database
                                                 Optimization          BioInformatics        Compilers           Design                Modeling             Security         Math 341
      Math 113           Stat 221                                                                                                                                            Math 334
      Calculus 2       Intro Statistics            CS 450                CS 476                                 CS 455                  CS 460            ECEn 324
                                                 Signal Image                                                Comp Graphics                                                   Math 355
                                                  Processing            Data Mining                            (Math 313)               Networks          Architecture       Math 371
                         Math 313                                                                                                                                            Math 410
                       Linear Algebra              CS 470                                    CS 5xx             CS 456                  CS 462
                                                    Artificial                                                User Interface           Distributed        ECEn 425           Math 450
                                                  Intelligence                             _________            Software                Systems          Real-time OS         Stat 321
                                                                                                                                                                              Stat 331
             Core classes                          CS 478                                                                                                                     Stat 332
                                                   Learning                              Suggested 400-level Elective Tracks:                                                 Stat 421
             Elective Classes
                                                                                         Graphics & Image Processing:          Artificial Intel. / Machine Learning:
             May be taken concurrently                                                      Background – 431, 460, 478             Background – 431, 450, 460                 Stat 441
                                                                                            Specialty – 450, 455, 456, 557         Specialty – 470, 476, 478, 486           PDBiol 120
                                                                                         Systems/Networking:                   Verification / Software Engineering:         *Chem 111
             Prerequisite                       ELECTIVES                                   Background – 428, 450
                                                                                            Specialty – 431, 460, 462, 465
                                                                                                                                   Background – 431, 456, 478
                                                                                                                                   Specialty – 428, 452, 486
                                                                                                                                                                             Chem 112
             applies to all                                                              Application Development:                                                            *Geol 111
             courses within                                                                 Background – 431                                                                 Geol 112
             the box.                                                                       Specialty – 428, 452, 456, 462                                                  *Phscs 123
      BYU CS 345                                                   Introduction to Operating Systems                                Updated 03/12/2009                      *Phscs8 220
        Organization and Grading
   This class consists of lecture, homework,
    programming assignments, midterms, and
    a final. Each has a weighted contribution to
    your final grade.

       Homework: 10%
       Programming Labs: 50%
       Participation/Presentation: 10%
       2 Midterms: 18%
       Final: 12%

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        Lab Grading

   Programming Labs: (50%)
       Lab 1: Shell (CLI) (Sep 15) 10%
       Lab 2: Tasking (Sep 29) 10%
       Lab 3: Jurassic Park (Oct 13) 10%
       Lab 4: Virtual Memory (Oct 27) 10%
       Lab 5: Scheduling (Nov 10) TBA
       Lab 6: FAT (Dec 1) 10%

BYU CS 345           Introduction to Operating Systems   10
       Grades (continued…)

   Grades are assigned on the following
    scale from the composite total of above
             100-93 A      82-80 B-              69-67 D+
             92-90 A-      79-77 C+              66-63 D
             89-87 B+      76-73 C               62-60 D-
             86-83 B       72-70 C-              59-0 E

BYU CS 345              Introduction to Operating Systems   11
       Homework (10%)
   Homework assignments are designed to reinforce
    class material and help in exam preparation.
   Most homework consists of 5-10 questions and
    covers the material from the previous class
   Homework is due at the beginning of class.
   Any homework submitted after the due date will
    lose 50% per week. (After 1 week, an assignment
    has no grading value!).

BYU CS 345         Introduction to Operating Systems   12
       Homework (continued)
   Homework must have the student’s name,
    section, and homework number clearly indicated
    at the top of the homework to be accepted for
   Finally, you are welcome and encouraged to
    discuss the homework with your classmates and
    others. However, you are to do and submit your
    own work. Submitting someone's work is
    considered cheating for which you will receive an
    E grade for the class and be reported to the Honor
    Code Office.
BYU CS 345          Introduction to Operating Systems   13
       Programming Assignments (50%)
   There are six programming lab assignments
    designed to emphasize topics discussed in class.
   The programming assignments build upon each
    other and explore a variety of operating system
   Programming assignments can be found on the
    CS345 web site
   Programming assignments must be passed off by
    a TA during regular TA hours in the TA offices or
    class programming labs.
BYU CS 345         Introduction to Operating Systems   14
         Programming (continued…)
   To receive full credit, programming assignments
    must be completed and passed off with a “Date
    Modified” timestamp on or before the due date.
        NOTE: Timestamps cannot be used for extra credit
         points and cannot be more than two days delinquent.
   Any assignment completed and passed off after
    the due date will lose 10% per school day. (After
    2 weeks, an assignment has no grading value!).
   Programming assignments can be passed off
    on school computers or personal laptops.

BYU CS 345             Introduction to Operating Systems   15
       Programming (continued…)
   As an incentive to get your assignments done
    early, assignments passed off at least one day
    before the due date (timestamps do not count)
    with a TA, will receive an additional 10% extra
   Any grade points earned on assignments above
    the allotted percentage may apply to your
    overall grade.
   All assignments MUST BE COMPLETED,
    the final day of class.
BYU CS 345         Introduction to Operating Systems   16
       Programming (continued…)

   All six programming assignments must be
    completed to receive and “A” or “A-”
   Everyone who completes all six
    programming assignments (regardless of
    their scores) and passes the final exam
    (70% or better) will pass the class with at
    least a “C-” grade.

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       Exams (30%)

   Midterms and the final exam are
    administered in the testing center.
   The midterms are available from Thursday
    until closing on Saturday.
   The final will be given during finals week
    at the testing center.
   Anyone missing a midterm without prior
    arrangement is automatically assessed a
    50% penalty.
BYU CS 345       Introduction to Operating Systems   18
       Presentations (10%)
   Discuss subject matter with respect to assigned
    contemporary operating system.
   Use slides, handouts, and/or examples as
   Presentations are to last NO LONGER THAN 15
   Submit 2 questions that may be used on the
    class final exam and your presentation material.
   Presentation is worth 10% of final grade.

BYU CS 345         Introduction to Operating Systems   19
       Programming Environments…

   Programming of the assignments will be
    done in the C programming language.
   The choice of the software tools and
    programming environment is left to the
    student’s discretion.
   In any case, it is the student’s
    responsibility to present their work to a
    TA in the designated CS 345 lab for
    pass off. (Downstairs TMCB)
BYU CS 345        Introduction to Operating Systems   20
       Programming Environments (continued…)

   Windows users can download a very good free C
    compiler at the LCC website
   For those wanting to use Linux on their personal
    computers, look at the KNOPPIX website
    ( for a free Linux system
    bootable from CD ROM.
   For those who do not own a computer or would
    just rather do their work using BYU facilities, there
    are Linux/Unix labs available in the Computer
    Science building using the gcc compiler.

BYU CS 345           Introduction to Operating Systems   21
       Grade Verification and Appeals

   It is the student’s responsibility to verify
    that scores have been correctly recorded
    on Blackboard.
   If a score is incorrect on Blackboard, then
    the student should appeal through email
    to the grading TA.
   The student can appeal a grade on an
    exam directly to their instructor through
BYU CS 345        Introduction to Operating Systems   22
       Academic Honesty

   Academic honesty includes completing
    your own homework, labs, midterms, and
   Students should work together to help
    each other understand material, but
    should always turn in their own work.
   Examples of academic dishonesty include
    sharing code for labs with other students,
    turning in someone else's writing as your
    own report, and cheating on an exam.
BYU CS 345       Introduction to Operating Systems   23
       Academic Honesty

   The first violation of academic honesty
    standards will result in the student failing
    the class.
   All violations of academic honesty are
    documented and reported to the Honor
    Code office.

BYU CS 345        Introduction to Operating Systems   24
       OS345 Labs
   Lab 1: Shell. Write a Shell (Command
    Language Interpreter) to parse textual
    commands entered from the user’s keyboard,
    malloc argument variables, handle signals, and
    execute programs directly or as child processes.
   Lab 2: Scheduler. Write a five-state task
    scheduler capable of simultaneously executing
    up to 128 tasks in a preemptive, prioritized,
    round-robin manner. Implement binary and
    counting semaphores and schedule your CLI as
    its first task with pseudo-interrupt driven
    character input. Add timer semaphores and
    tasks to validate your implementation.

BYU CS 345         Introduction to Operating Systems   25
       OS345 Labs

   Lab 3: Jurassic Park. Jurassic Park is an inter-
    process communication and synchronization
    problem between multiple tasks. Visitors to the
    park purchase a ticket, wait to take a ride on a
    park tour car to see the dinosaurs, and then visit
    the museum and gift shops before leaving the
    park. Since the park is on a limited budget,
    drivers must perform double duty when not
    sleeping by selling tickets and driving the tour
    cars. Visitors, drivers, and cars are represents
    by concurrent tasks while an additional task is
    used to display the park status every second.
BYU CS 345          Introduction to Operating Systems   26
       OS345 Labs

   Lab 4: Virtual Memory. Add a Memory
    Management Unit (MMU) to your OS that
    translates virtual LC-3 addresses to
    physical addresses in a restricted memory
    space. Validate your implementation by
    successfully executing up to 10 LC-3
    crawler and/or memory test programs
    concurrently in 2 frames of physical
    memory (128 words).

BYU CS 345       Introduction to Operating Systems   27
       OS345 Labs

   Lab 5: Scheduling. Integrate a
    distributed banking system consisting of
    nine remote ATM’s (clients) and one
    centralized Bank (server) into your OS
    and implement a distributed mutual
    exclusion mechanism (Lamport’s
    algorithm) to protect asynchronous
    accesses to the Bank (critical section).

BYU CS 345       Introduction to Operating Systems   28
       OS345 Labs

   Lab 6: FAT File Manager. Add a MS-
    DOS® FAT-12 file manager to your OS
    that is able to traverse file directories, view
    file data, and load/execute LC-3 programs
    from files. Implement creation, access,
    and modification of FAT-12 files by adding
    file manager functions and commands that
    use file system buffering, basic file I/O, file
    descriptors, and file pointers to modify file
    allocation tables (FAT), directory structures
    and cluster chains.
BYU CS 345         Introduction to Operating Systems   29

   TA’s
   Help sessions
   Office hours
   Student manual
   Linux vs Microsoft users
   Questions?

BYU CS 345       Introduction to Operating Systems   30
             Why CS 345?

BYU CS 345      Introduction to Operating Systems   31
         Operating Systems

   What is an operating system?
        Hard to define precisely, because operating
         systems arose historically as people needed to
         solve problems associated with using
        How about…
             “Software that makes computing power available to
               users by controlling the hardware.”
             “Software executes when nothing else is happening.”
             “A collection of software modules including device
               drivers, libraries, and access routines.”
BYU CS 345                Introduction to Operating Systems   32
        What Does a Modern OS Do?
   Provides Abstractions:
       Hardware has low-level physical resources with
        complicated, idiosyncratic interfaces.
       OS provides abstractions that present clean interfaces.
       Goal: make computer easier to use.
       Examples: Processes, Unbounded Memory, Files,
        Synchronization and Communication Mechanisms.
   Provides Standard Interface:
       Goal: portability.
       Unix runs on many very different computer systems.

BYU CS 345              Introduction to Operating Systems    33
        What Does a Modern OS Do?
   Mediates Resource Usage:
       Goal: allow multiple users to share resources fairly,
        efficiently, safely and securely.
       Examples:
            Multiple processes share one processor. (preemptable resource)
            Multiple programs share one physical memory (preemptable
            Multiple users and files share one disk. (non-preemptable resource)
            Multiple programs share a given amount of disk and network
             bandwidth (preemptable resource).
   Consumes Resources:
       Windows XP: 45 million SLOC’s
       Windows 7: Download size: 2,557,416KB (2.5GB), Size on HDD:
        About 16GB
       Debian 5.0: 324 million SLOC’s

BYU CS 345                    Introduction to Operating Systems                34
       The Future…
   In the future, computers will continue to become
    physically smaller and more portable.
   Operating systems have to deal with issues like
    disconnected operation, power consumption,
    and mobility.
   Media rich information within the grasp of
    common people - information with psuedo-real
    time components like voice and video.
   Operating systems will have to adjust to deliver
    acceptable performance for these new forms of
BYU CS 345         Introduction to Operating Systems   35
   Operating systems are so large no one person
    understands whole system. Outlives any of its
    original builders.
   The major problem facing computer science
    today is how to build large, reliable software
   Operating systems are one of very few
    examples of existing large software systems,
    and by studying operating systems we may
    learn lessons applicable to the construction of
    larger systems.

BYU CS 345         Introduction to Operating Systems   36

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