Political instability and Tourism.ppt by shensengvf


									Political instability
 and its effects on
Sarah JR Ryu
CRC PhD Scholar
Victoria University
According to Poirier (2000) tourism today
is second only to oil as the world’s leading
export commodity, accounting for global
earnings of more than $300 billion, or
nearly 25 per cent of total world GNP. Over
the last two decades, tourism has proved
to be the world’s fastest growing
economic sector, with average growth of
7.1 per cent per year in arrivals and 12.5
per cent in receipts. Despite these
statistics, tourism growth in many
countries has not been this high, in
particular those countries confronted with
various political instabilities that have
caused to retard development in tourism.
     This paper will examine
• How tourism can be used as a tool
  for political and ideological goals.
• How tourism reform occurs in
  industries within politically troubled
• How tourism can be moulded by the
  political purpose.
   – Political stability and political relations
     influences the image of destinations in
     tourist-generating regions (Hall and
   – Media portrayal: books, magazines,
     newspapers, satellite and cable links has a
     substantial influence.
   – Examples of political strife that cause
     problematic concerns in the attraction of
     visitors are:
      • Warfare
      • coups
      • political strikes or protests
“Any evidence of domestic turmoil is likely to result
  in a decision not to visit that country. “
      Ankomah and Crompton (1990, p19)
What is Political Instability?
• “Political instability is described as a condition
  of a country where a government has been
  toppled, or is controlled by factions following a
  coup, or where basic functional pre-requisites
  for social-order control and maintenance are
  unstable and periodically disrupted” (Cook
• Multifaceted and complex character
• Impact in various countries worldwide is
  multilevel and multidimensional.
   Relationship between politics
           and tourism
• “The political aspects of tourism are
  interwoven with its economic
  consequences…tourism is not only a
  “continuation of politics” but an integral
  part of the world’s political economy. In
  short, tourism is, or can be, a tool used not
  only for economic but for political means”
  (Edgell, 1990).
The Reasons Behind the Neglect
Unwillingness on the part of many decision
  makers both in government and in the
  private sector to acknowledge the
  political nature of tourism.
- Lack of official interest in conducting
  research into the politics of tourism.
- Tourism not regarded as a serious
  scholarly subject.

          -“ Tourism is by now too
         important and a pervasive
         activity for governments to
          ignore.” (Hughes 1984).
 Has tourism been affected by
     political instability?
      Effects of Political violence
China - Tiananmen Square, June 4
• Prime time news coverage showed
  army tanks threatening the civilian
• After the the Tianamen Square
  incident Hotel occupancy rates in
  Beijing dipped below 30 per cent.
• Tourism earnings declined by $430
  million in 1989 alone.
      Effects of Military Coups
Fiji - 1987: As a result of a mainly non-
  Fijian government being elected.
• Two military coups occurred within four
• Qantas imposed a two-month ban on
  flights to Fiji, following the hijacking
  attempt of an Air New Zealand Boeing
• Travel Insurance cover was withdrawn
  after negative Australian government
  travel advice.
    Effects of Revolutions

• Ejtrcito Zapatista de Liberacion
  National (EZLN) initiated an armed
  rebellion against the Mexican

• The revolution resulted in 145 to 500
  deaths (figures vary depending on
  the source).
• 1994 visitation to Mexico
  dropped by 70 per cent.
           Effects of Civil War
Yugoslavia – 1991, Army attacks Slovenia

•Conflict continued for 10 days before moving to
Croatia in 1991, and Bosnia-Herzegovina in1992

•Tour operators for Yugoslavia lost over one million
bookings in 1991

•Two years after the war, figures for Slovenian
tourism are still far behind pre-war figures.
   Effects of Civil War
                Sub Saharan Africa

•Zimbabwe (formerly southern Rhodesia) was the scene of a fifteen
years Liberation War of Attrition between Africans and white
The most extensive of Sub-Saharan colonial wars was fought in

Mozambique and Guinea Bissau . Nigeria had five successful coups
since gaining independence in the 1960’

•In total, more than 20 major wars have taken place on the sub-
Saharan region of Africa since the 1960s (Ankomah and Crompton
1990, p19).
         Effects of Civil War
• IPRA targets included senior British
  government officials, British military and
• Visitor arrivals fell from a 1967 peak of
  1,080,000 to 321,000 in 1976
• Ceasefire which began on August 31 1994 was
  observed until February 9 1996 when a bomb
  exploded in London killing two bystanders and
  injuring 43 people
• 18-month cease-fire recorded a 59 per cent
  increase (from previous year) in inquiries, 11
  per cent increase in hotel occupancy, 18 per
  cent increase with out-of-state visitors, and a 68
  per cent increase in holiday visitors.
         Effects of Terrorism

      Turkey – 1974, PKK Seeks to Establish
           Southeastern Marxist State

 •Kurdistan Worker’s Party specifically targeted
Turkey’s tourism industry between 1991 and 1996.
   •Bombed tourist sites, hotels and kidnapped
                foreign tourists.
  •Foreign visitor arrivals dropped eight per cent
                   from 1992-1993
•After self-imposed ceasefire, international arrivals
     reached record levels (9.5 million) in 1996.
Effects of Terrorism
    Peru –Formation of
   Maoist Terrorist Group
     •Aim of replacing
     existing Peruvian
     institutions with a
   peasant revolutionary
   •Attacks led to a steep
   decline in tourism from
    350,000 international
     visitors in 1989 to
       33,000 in 1991.
             Effects of Terrorism
Egypt – Late 1970s, Islamic Extremist Group Activity
  •Egyptian Islamic extremist group works toward
           establishing an Islamic state
•Specifically targeted and launched attacks against
       Egypt’s tourism industry since 1992.
•Egypt removed from programs of international tour
   •Experienced a 22 per cent drop in international
visitors, 30 per cent drop in tourist nights and 43 per
           cent decrease in tourism receipts.
     Effects of Terrorism
        The First Gulf War, 1990
 Massive impact on tourist visitation to
           the Middle East
Broader impact on international tourism
because of potential for terrorist attacks
Effects of Political Instability
              North and South Korea
 Shooting down of South Korean civilian airliner in
          •South Korean student protests.
Ongoing political instability in North and   South
                          Summer Olympics
                          (1988) was used to
                       refute the idea of Korea
                      as a “dangerous place to
   Tourism as a Political Objective :
      Arab and Israeli ideology
 •So far, Tourism has been passively affected by
                 political events
 •The direct involvement of tourism in the
         battle of political ideology
  •The ongoing conflict Israel v Palestine
•Not only economical and street conflict, but
      political competition (Kobi, 2004)
 •Israel = promotion of own image through
tourism, stimulate Zionist view of Palestine
•Palestine = Promotion of a distinctly Arab-
          oriented image of Israel
    Tourism as Political Tool
•Promotional vehicle to convey a positive
  image or as a sanction against others.
•Massive tourism program after election of
          Marcos in Philippines.
   •Use of tourist arrivals as a form of
      legitimisation for the regime.
  •Manipulating tourism development to
       benefit Marcos’ supporters
         Tourism for Political
        Objectives the backlash
  •Bombing attempt on Marcos at 1980
  American Society of Travel Agents
•Bombing attempt resulted in a dramatic
reduction in tourist visitation from the USA.
•Misuse of tourist infrastructure caused spill-
over effects such as enormous inflation,
housing shortages, energy and water
shortages, and mass prostitution.
• Western governments issue regular travel
advisories for their citizens warning them of risks in
travelling to certain destinations.
•Governments can and do exert political pressure
through tourism and use it as a promotional vehicle
to convey a positive image or as a sanction against
unfriendly countries.
•The tourist may take into account the perceived risk
of travelling to destinations that receive government
warnings, and therefore choose not to travel or may
alter the travel destination..
• Political instability and war can increase the
perception of risk at a destination
Political instability generates negative
publicity, which results in an inevitable
decrease in tourist arrivals
• Risk perception can influence tourist
decision-making and destinations can be
severely affected.
• Policymakers from tourism destination
countries need to be aware of how political
instability is perceived
Despite the considerable body of evidence on the
effects of political instability on both tourism income
and potential for negative social and cultural
outcomes, tourism management courses do not
include any serious discussion of international
politics and its influence on tourism. This paper,
which is part of an ongoing research into risk
management in tourism, attempts to address that by
discussing the ways in which the political nature of
tourism can be incorporated into tourism
management subjects, particularly at postgraduate
Thank you!

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