Evaluate the impact that
settlement in the West had upon
different groups of people and
upon the environment
Week 4 Day 2
Migration-the mass movement of people from one place to
Environment-Location affected by people, animals and weather.
Status-Rank or level of a person based on wealth/education.
Resources-Items that can be used for benefit or making things.
Conflict-Problem or issue that is controversial and can cause
problems with compromise.
Assimilation-The act of foreigners mixing/blending in with the
Transcontinental Railroad and its Construction
Train tracks were built across the entire United States from
connecting West to East and North to South.
Construction took place from the 1860s to 1910s.
The work was very dangerous due to terrain [cliffs, valleys and
mountains] weather [extreme heat and cold] and equipment used
Irish and Chinese immigrants were early laborers who roughed the
harsh conditions for low wages.
One of the most disgraceful events in U.S. history.
Cheyenne and Arapaho Nation peoples were mostly friendly with
U.S. citizens near their territories.
In 1864 the U.S. Civil War was still being fought and Union armies
were on high alert to threats.
The Cheyenne Chief Black Kettle approached the U.S. Army Fort
Lyon in Colorado.
U.S. Army Colonel Chivington may have misunderstood or felt
threatened by the Chief.
The result was the slaughter and mutilation by the U.S. Army of
over 100 Native Americans including women and children.
Sand Creek Massacre
Battle of Little Bighorn
One of the most embarrassing defeats in U.S. Military
During a patrol Lt. Colonel George Custer encountered a
massive camp of Lakota and Cheyenne.
Custer launched an attack in three directions
underestimating the Natives.
Custer and all of his troops but one were defeated and
killed under the leadership of Lakota Chief Sitting Bull.
One of the first all black army units in the United States.
The 10th Cavalry Regiment was formed in 1866 to fight in the U.S.
The soldiers received their nickname from the Native tribes they
According to historians it was because of both their dark skin and
dark curly hair that similar to the buffalo. Also the ferocity with
which they fought.
Wounded Knee Massacre
The U.S. Government had banned the Ghost Dance for all Native
The Ghost Dance was when Natives led by a Chief or spiritual
leader would call the spirits to help them.
The U.S. Government believed the dance threatened peace with
On December 29, 1890 at Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota
over 150 Sioux were killed by U.S. Army troops after tried to
disarm the Sioux during a ceremony.
Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce
Chief Joseph was the leader of the Nez Perce Nation
located in what is now Oregon.
U.S. Forces attempted to remove the Nez Perce Nation to
a reservation in Idaho.
His people refused and fought the U.S. Army.
Under Joseph’s leadership the Nez Perce were able to
resist by using effective military tactics.
Eventually the Nez Perce fled to Canada to avoid U.S.
Forces but later returned and accepted life on the
Reservation System and the Dawes Act
In 1891 Senator Henry Dawes led the passage of the Dawes Act
[a.k.a. the Dawes Severalty Act]
To solve the Indian Problem land was reserved [set aside] to
remove from their lands.
Vast areas called reservations were created to make room for
American settlers. “Indians” were required to live on these
Frederick Jackson Turner and Helen Hunt Jackson
Two American authors who chronicled [wrote about] the
effects of Western expansion were Frederick Jackson Turner
and Helen Hunt Jackson.
Turner explained that settlement of the Western Frontier was
important but would lead to overseas expansion later on.
Jackson wrote a book called A Century of Dishonor that
criticized the injustice and mistreatment of Native-
Americans by the United States.
Assignment: What if?
After thinking about the events you learned involving Western
Expansion you need to think about how things could have been
different [you may make things better or worse].
Select one of the events/incidents that occurred and explain about
how things could or should have been different. What if things
You can do one of the following:
[a] 8-panel cartoon strip
[b] diary entry
[d] newspaper/magazine article
[f] foldable brochure