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The widespread use of performance-
 enhancing drugs in sport is indicative
 of an over-emphasis on winning.
Performance-enhancing drugs are
 used by athletes
 –To gain a competitive advantage
 –For injury recovery
 –For enhanced appearance
Delay fatigue and increase the body's
 endurance capacity
Increase growth of muscles and
 enhance strength
  –Anabolic — refers to building
   of muscles
  –Androgenic — refers to the
   increase in masculine
Human growth hormone (HGH)
  –Is produced by the pituitary
   gland to promote growth
   during childhood and
Androstenedione (Andro)
  –Is a natural hormone
   produced by the body that
   increases testosterone levels
  –Too much impairs or shuts off
   the body's production of
  –Stunts growth in adolescents
Tetrahydrogestrinone (THG)
 –A purely synthetic designer
  steroid derived from another
  banned steroid (gestrinone)
  that escapes detection in
  normal drug tests
 –Classified as a controlled
  substance, like morphine and
  amphetamines, and is banned
  by the Food and Drug
Health Hazards from Use of Steroids
 Mood swings; elevation in cholesterol;
  severe acne; rapid fluid retention and
  weight gain; depression; roid rage; liver
  tumors and cancer; high blood pressure;
  heart attacks and strokes
 Specific to males — impotence;
  development of breasts; reduced sperm
  count; shrinkage of testicles; difficulty/pain
  in urination; baldness
 Specific to females — growth of facial hair;
  reduction in breasts, changes in menstrual
  cycle; deepened voice
 Specific to adolescents — premature halting
  of skeletal maturation and growth;
  accelerated puberty changes
           Taking Steroids
Cycling — involves taking multiple
 doses of steroids over cycles of weeks
 or months, stopping for a period of
 time, and starting again
Stacking — combining several
 different types of steroids to maximize
 their effectiveness
Erythropoetin (EPO) increases endurance
Ephedra delays fatigue
 –On April 12, 2004, the Food and Drug
  Administration prohibited the sale of
  dietary supplements containing
  ephedrine alkaloids (ephedra).
 –Ephedra, also called Ma huang, is a
  naturally occurring substance derived
  from plants. Its principal active
  ingredient is ephedrine, which when
  chemically synthesized is regulated as a
Ephedra products have been
 extensively promoted to aid weight
 loss, enhance sports performance,
 and increase energy.
Linked to significant adverse health
 effects, including heart attacks and
Increased risk of side effects,
 possibly may be fatal
No evidence that ephedra products
 enhance athletic performance
Short-term weight loss may be the
 only benefit
Improves energy and performance in brief,
 high-intensity activities
Short-term advantages — increased energy
 in short bursts; can aid in improving athletic
 anaerobic performance (weight lifting;
 sprinting; rowing); delays muscle fatigue
Known disadvantages — requires serious
 strength training program; dehydrates
 blood stream, so requires excessive
 consumption of water; with the
 consumption of excessive amounts it has
 the potential to cause renal disease
Long-term — side-effects and dangers are
Therapeutic or restorative drugs, such
 as anti-inflammatory drugs, are used
 for specific medical purposes
Street, entertainment, or pleasure
 drugs, such as alcohol, marijuana,
 methamphetamine, and ecstasy are
 used to alter moods or perceptions
Manufacturers — the sale of performance-
 enhancing drugs is a huge market, so the
 incentives are high to promote them as safe
 (“natural” does not mean safe) and effective
Distributors — dietary substances are not
 regulated like drugs by the Food and Drug
 Administration, so anyone is free to market
 supplements without proof of safety or
 efficacy (do they do what is claimed)
Some drugs, such as steroids, require
 a prescription, but they can easily be
 obtained via the Internet
Often are obtained from parents, trainers,
 physicians, coaches, teammates, and peers
           Professional Athletes
Many professional athletes made it to the pros
 with the help of performance-enhancing drugs
Presumed benefits — increased strength and
 power, endurance, aggressiveness, speed, and
 acceleration; enhanced competitive attitude,
 concentration, fine motor coordination, and
 eye/hand coordination; delay in onset of
 fatigue; weight control
Real costs — impaired judgment, reaction time,
 muscular coordination, balance, and eye/hand
 coordination; decreased performance of
 complex motor tasks, strength, flexibility,
 accuracy, speed, and acceleration
The media publicizes those who win
 and achieve at high levels.
          Drug Testing
NCAA institutions
  Performance-Enhancing Drugs in
Even though each NCAA athlete must sign
a statement that she or he will not use
banned drugs and will submit to random
drug testing (at least if involved in NCAA
championship competitions), seldom are
they provided information about the risks
associated with the use of performance-
enhancing drugs. Develop the outline of
the presentation that you would present
to educate student-athletes about the use
of performance-enhancing drugs with
special emphasis on the associated health
risks and ethical issues.

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