PERFORMANCE- ENHANCING DRUGS IN SPORT The widespread use of performance- enhancing drugs in sport is indicative of an over-emphasis on winning. Performance-enhancing drugs are used by athletes –To gain a competitive advantage –For injury recovery –For enhanced appearance Stimulants Delay fatigue and increase the body's endurance capacity –Amphetamines –Caffeine Steroids Increase growth of muscles and enhance strength –Anabolic — refers to building of muscles –Androgenic — refers to the increase in masculine characteristics Human growth hormone (HGH) –Is produced by the pituitary gland to promote growth during childhood and adolescence Steroids Androstenedione (Andro) –Is a natural hormone produced by the body that increases testosterone levels –Too much impairs or shuts off the body's production of testosterone –Stunts growth in adolescents Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Steroids Tetrahydrogestrinone (THG) –A purely synthetic designer steroid derived from another banned steroid (gestrinone) that escapes detection in normal drug tests –Classified as a controlled substance, like morphine and amphetamines, and is banned by the Food and Drug Administration Health Hazards from Use of Steroids Mood swings; elevation in cholesterol; severe acne; rapid fluid retention and weight gain; depression; roid rage; liver tumors and cancer; high blood pressure; heart attacks and strokes Specific to males — impotence; development of breasts; reduced sperm count; shrinkage of testicles; difficulty/pain in urination; baldness Specific to females — growth of facial hair; reduction in breasts, changes in menstrual cycle; deepened voice Specific to adolescents — premature halting of skeletal maturation and growth; accelerated puberty changes Taking Steroids Cycling — involves taking multiple doses of steroids over cycles of weeks or months, stopping for a period of time, and starting again Stacking — combining several different types of steroids to maximize their effectiveness Erythropoetin (EPO) increases endurance Ephedra delays fatigue –On April 12, 2004, the Food and Drug Administration prohibited the sale of dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids (ephedra). –Ephedra, also called Ma huang, is a naturally occurring substance derived from plants. Its principal active ingredient is ephedrine, which when chemically synthesized is regulated as a drug. Ephedra Ephedra products have been extensively promoted to aid weight loss, enhance sports performance, and increase energy. Linked to significant adverse health effects, including heart attacks and strokes Increased risk of side effects, possibly may be fatal No evidence that ephedra products enhance athletic performance Short-term weight loss may be the only benefit Creatine Improves energy and performance in brief, high-intensity activities Short-term advantages — increased energy in short bursts; can aid in improving athletic anaerobic performance (weight lifting; sprinting; rowing); delays muscle fatigue Known disadvantages — requires serious strength training program; dehydrates blood stream, so requires excessive consumption of water; with the consumption of excessive amounts it has the potential to cause renal disease Long-term — side-effects and dangers are unknown Therapeutic or restorative drugs, such as anti-inflammatory drugs, are used for specific medical purposes Street, entertainment, or pleasure drugs, such as alcohol, marijuana, methamphetamine, and ecstasy are used to alter moods or perceptions Sources Manufacturers — the sale of performance- enhancing drugs is a huge market, so the incentives are high to promote them as safe (“natural” does not mean safe) and effective Distributors — dietary substances are not regulated like drugs by the Food and Drug Administration, so anyone is free to market supplements without proof of safety or efficacy (do they do what is claimed) Some drugs, such as steroids, require a prescription, but they can easily be obtained via the Internet Often are obtained from parents, trainers, physicians, coaches, teammates, and peers Professional Athletes Many professional athletes made it to the pros with the help of performance-enhancing drugs Presumed benefits — increased strength and power, endurance, aggressiveness, speed, and acceleration; enhanced competitive attitude, concentration, fine motor coordination, and eye/hand coordination; delay in onset of fatigue; weight control Real costs — impaired judgment, reaction time, muscular coordination, balance, and eye/hand coordination; decreased performance of complex motor tasks, strength, flexibility, accuracy, speed, and acceleration The media publicizes those who win and achieve at high levels. Drug Testing NCAA institutions http://www.ncaa.org/library/spo rts_sciences/drug_testing_progra m/2003-04/2003- 04_drug_testing_program.pdf Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Sport Even though each NCAA athlete must sign a statement that she or he will not use banned drugs and will submit to random drug testing (at least if involved in NCAA championship competitions), seldom are they provided information about the risks associated with the use of performance- enhancing drugs. Develop the outline of the presentation that you would present to educate student-athletes about the use of performance-enhancing drugs with special emphasis on the associated health risks and ethical issues.
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