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“The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality” (online survey based)

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					   The public perception of
 eutrophication in Stockholm
        Municipality


                           The pilot project work




Masters programme: Environmental Science, Communication
and Decision making
Dept. of Environmental Science
Södertörn University, Sweden




Mohammad Mahmodul Hasan
Martin Gregorc




                                                          June 2, 2010
      The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality



                                   ABSTRACT




    This paper focuses on the public perception of eutrophication problem in Stockholm
Municipality. Research that has been made on two different approaches offers interesting
findings about public perception on this environmental issue. Mix method, which we have
used in this paper surprisingly, has showed a curtain correlation between previous research
and our database. Moreover, statistical analyse, that have been made out of our sample frame
indicates insufficient environmental communication between civil society, authorities and
environmental organizations. According to survey data, which were collected through the
internet based questionnaire survey we can conclude eutrophication is well known
environmental issue among sampled respondents but unfortunately not in urban zones (for
instance, Stockholm Municipality). Non-understanding of activities that directly affects
eutrophication process needs to be minimised and environment communication is required to
be improved in order to ensure better risk management on the Stockholm Municipality level
and Stockholm County as well.


Keywords: Eutrophication, Stockholm Municipality, perception, questionnaire survey,
environmental communication.




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           The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality

                                                        TABLE OF CONTENTS


ABSTRACT................................................................................................................................ 2

TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................... 3

LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................... 5




SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................... 6

SECTION 2: RESEARCH PROBLEM ............................................................................................. 7

SECTION 3: RESEARCH OBLECTIVES ....................................................................................... 7

SECTION 4: RESEARCH QUESTIONS......................................................................................... 7

SECTION 5: LITERATURE REVIEW ....................................................................................... 7-10
   5.1: Scientific perspective ............................................................................................................................... 8

   5.2: Organizational perspective .....................................................................................................................9


SECTION 6: LIMITATIONS AND DRAWBACKS ................................................................... 10

SECTION 7: METHODS AND METHODOLOGY ........................................................... 12-17

   7.1: Research area ........................................................................................................................................... 12

   7.2: Research approach .................................................................................................................................. 12

   7.3: The component of survey ...................................................................................................................... 13
      7.3.1: Sampling procedure ......................................................................................................................... 13
      7.3.2: Question design ................................................................................................................................ 13
      7.3.3: Survey design .................................................................................................................................... 13
        7.3.3.1 : One stage sampling .................................................................................................................... 14
        7.3.3.2: Sample frame ............................................................................................................................... 14
        7.3.3.3: Sample size ...................................................................................................................................15
        7.3.3.4: Response rate ............................................................................................................................... 15
      7.3.4: Method of data collection ................................................................................................................ 15
      7.3.5: Time Schedule ................................................................................................................................... 16
      7.3.6 : Pilot Testing...................................................................................................................................... 16
      7.3.7: Final Survey operations ................................................................................................................... 16

   7.4: Data validation ........................................................................................................................................ 16

   7.5: Data analysis ............................................................................................................................................ 17

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           The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality

SECTION 8: RESULTS OF QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY ................................................ 17-21

   8.1: Informed about eutrophication ............................................................................................................ 17

   8.2: Source of Information ............................................................................................................................ 17

   8.3: Response to causing factors of eutrophication .................................................................................. 18

   8.4: Extent of eutrophication as a problem ................................................................................................ 18

   8.5: Natural and (or) human created problem ........................................................................................... 19

   8.6: Phosphorus contained detergent and respondents’ knowledge .................................................... 19

   8.7: Information provided by responsible govt. authority ..................................................................... 19

   8.8: Eutrophication and life in Stockholm City ........................................................................................ 20

   8.9: Semantic Differential scales 1-5 for eutrophication as a problem ................................................. 20


SECTION 9: ANALYSIS OF THE SURVEY RESULT ...................................................... 21-23
   9.1: Response on phosphorus contained detergent and wastewater from household ...................... 21

   9.2: Answering YES on quality of city life affected by eutrophication ................................................ 22

   9.3: Evaluating eutrophication in scales 1-5 by different age groups ................................................... 23


SECTION 10: DISCUSSIONS ............................................................................................... 24-25
   10.1: Proposed model on approach of perception .................................................................................... 24

   10.2: Future research area .............................................................................................................................. 25


SECTION 11: CONCLUDING REMARKS ................................................................................ 25
   ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................................................. 26


REFERECENCE ................................................................................................................................. 27

APPENDIXES.............................................................................................................................. 29-32

   APPENDIX 1: Municipalities in Stockholm with population ............................................................... 29

   APPENDIX 2: Survey: Public perceptions of the eutrophication problem in Stockholm................ 31




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      The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality



                              LIST OF FIGURES

 No. of                              List of figures                              Page No.
figures
Figure 1    Location of study area in Stockholm County                              12

Figure 2    Study area of Stockholm Municipality                                    12

            Response to question ‘Do you know there is an environmental
Figure 3                                                                            17
            problem known as eutrophication?’
Figure 4    Response about the source of information on eutrophication              17
            Respondents’ answer to question about the most common cause
Figure 5    of eutrophication they think.                                           18

            Response to question on whether eutrophication as a problem for
Figure 6    Baltic Sea or Stockholm or for both.                                    18

            Participants’ response to question what they think about
Figure 7    eutrophication problem as natural and (or) human created.               18

            Response to question ‘Did you know that phosphorus contained
Figure 8                                                                            19
            detergent is responsible for eutrophication?’
            Response to question ‘Do you think that responsible government
Figure 9    authority always active in informing people about environmental         20
            problem?’

            Response to question where asked participants ‘Do you think the
Figure 10   effects of eutrophication can affect quality of life in the City of     20
            Stockholm?’

            Response to question on ‘How big a problem (as far as you are
Figure 11   aware) is eutrophication in Stockholm?’                                 20

            Comparing the approach of response to the questions on
Figure 12   Phosphorus contained detergent and wastewater from household.           21

            Response YES on quality of city affected by eutrophication
Figure 13   plotted in relation to age group with 10 years interval.                22

            Semantic differential scale approach of eutrophication by number
Figure 14   plotted in related to different age group with 10 years interval.       23

            Proposed model based on the research project showing the
            connecting link between general perception, scientific                  24
Figure 15
            knowledge, concern about the environmental problem and
            overall perception.


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       The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality


Section 1: Introduction

    Eutrophication is one of the most rising environmental problems in the Baltic Sea area
and broader. Since 1800s, the Baltic Sea has slowly changed from an oligotrophic clear-water
body into a eutrophic marine environment. Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) are considered as
an essential nutrients (macro nutrients) and as such do not pose any direct hazards to marine
organisms (HELCOM 2006). Eutrophication, however, is a condition where relation between
nutrients availability and organism’s uptake of it is destroyed. Ecosystems where high nutrient
concentrations are detected can be seriously damaged by many negative effects. Referring to
HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan these are: 1) first and most visible in the summers-
intensive algal growth (filamentous algae and phytoplankton blooms), 2) oxygen consumption
increase and 3) death of benthic organisms (HELCOM 2006).
To fully understand the process of eutrophication in the Stockholm Municipality, which is our
research area we need to look toward the whole Baltic Sea catchment area. Since
eutrophication is accelerated by human activities (agriculture, industry, urban zones) our
research is going to measure public concern about this environmental issue.
    According to HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan-adopted November 15, 2007,
eutrophication is one of the four main environmental issues that need special attention.
HELCOM ambitious action plan has as a main objective to improve marine environment and
drastically reduce pollution by year 2021. HELCOM has in last few decades decreased
nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads for 40 % (Vlasov 2007). Since communicational tools
are today’s most important elements for commission to communicate with public, our aim
was to measure concern about eutrophication in our research area. Public awareness about
HELCOMs and other authority’s activities in the Baltic Sea area should be an important task
for all environmental organizations. Public concern should also represent how successful
agendas are settled and to what extend do they follow environmental objectives.
    We have started our internet based questionnaire survey with general assumption where
we predicted, population living in Stockholm Municipality is aware of this problem. Our
results have later on confirmed our preliminary assumption.
Eutrophication is relatively high represented in almost all organizational web pages that we
checked (for instance, Stockholm’s municipality, Stockholm’s county, Stockholm’s
Archipelago Foundation, etc) We could even say, The City of Stockholm has, according to
sources available, already established a lot of different activities that are following
environmental legislations and are at the same time trying to minimize the effects of

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         The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality

eutrophication in the city (Stockholm Stad 2010). Even more, answers to our questions were
easy to find by reading action plans, agendas and similar.

Section 2: Research problem

    There is always gap between scientific knowledge, policy making and the public
perception about environmental problem. However, eutrophication problem has been one of
the serious problems in the Baltic Sea area, and Stockholm is not out of realm. Various
activities of daily life, agricultural activities and the management strategies related with these
factors are causing factor for eutrophication that has effect on the whole area. Outside of
everyday talking subjects like climate change, genetic modified food and hazardous waste,
etc, what people think about eutrophication problem and how they evaluate this
environmental event is the area of our research concern.

Section 3: Research objective

    In our research we would like to focus on general perception among people about
eutrophication problem in Stockholm Municipality. We would also like to analyse how
scientific knowledge is connected to public concern about eutrophication problem and finally
we expect our findings would give us general overview on situation.

Section 4: Research question

Research question is essential for research project by which the objective of the project will
be fulfilled. For that reasons, the research questions for our project are as follows:
    1.   How do people, living in the Stockholm Municipality understand the problem of
         eutrophication?
    2.   And, what is their general perception about eutrophication problem?

Section 5: Literature review

In this section we want to summarize literature, which, we think represents the majority of
work written about eutrophication. To make our review as clear as possible this section is
divided into two parts. First sub-section covers and summarizes the most significant papers
that have been done among scientific research area. Secondly, we pay attention on


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       The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality

organizational perspective, where we have tried to analyze environmental communication and
decision-making processes.


5.1 Scientific perspective
During the last few decades has science produced a plenty of different peer-reviewed articles.
To keep our focus straight we decided to take into account only the authors that are writing
about eutrophication in contests of Baltic Sea area.
Researchers along whole area agree that eutrophication is a rising problem that may highly
influence quality of daily life in this sensitive area. Many studies and reports have been
published in order to present current situation and to predict possible future effects. Among
these published works, that are available, the larger part is talking about eutrophication from
biological point of view. For instance: marine research on eutrophication, effects of
eutrophication, eutrophication and marine biology, applications and monitoring procedures,
etc. Biological approach is of course important and needed to understand the whole issue, but
not the only one. Basically, these are qualitative researches based on experimental work or
observations of unexplained features. As an example we are taking an article written by Hans
Cederwall and Ragnar Elmgren. They report about biological effects in case of increased
nutrient load in the Baltic Sea catchment area. Since eutrophication has to do with water
bodies regimes, it is not so surprisingly that authors pay much attention especially on the
coastal zones. By the way, eutrophication is detected and present on off shores areas as well.
Effects such are increasing of algal blooms, oxygen deficiency on waters bottom and
reduction of bottom fauna are just some of main negative effects induced by process of
eutrophication (Cederwall & Elmgren 1990). Many of the authors are also united in thinking
eutrophication and persistent pollutants are very high on European marine environmental list.
Tendency of co-occurrences, most often in urban areas, makes this environmental problem
complex and difficult predictable (Skei et al. 2000).
    Agriculture is according to many authors (Ryden, Migula and Andersson 2002) as well as
results of our survey major source of eutrophication. Over using of nutrients, especially
nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), organic matter and their loading into the water bodies or
remaining in the soils are big problems that directly can influence the quality our lives.
Looking for literature, which would be similar to our work or at least would contain some
aspects that are same to our paper, we have found a PhD thesis of Anna-Kaisa Kosenius from
Department of Economics and Management, University of Helsinki (Kosenius 2010). This
Work is based on qualitative method approach and she used questionnaire to evaluate

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       The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality

eutrophication effects in the Gulf of Finland. Similarities with our project that we see are
relatively high concern about problem and well settled management. Our results as well as
findings from the thesis are indicating that there is a crucial need to improve environmental
communication between these two bodies.
    Within quantitative survey on eutrophication we found an article about history of
eutrophication in the Sea Area of Helsinki in the 20th century. The aim of this research was to
investigate development of this environment issue. Authors are showing clear correlation
between wastewater treatment and level of eutrophication. Successful management, especially
introduction of sea outfall has decreased the level of negative effects in Helsinki area (Finni et
al. 2001). It would be interesting to check, how successfully the Stockholm City has faced
with this kind of problem through the history.


5.2 Organizational perspective
    Since aim of this course is multi dimensional approach in our research we would like to
check decision-making sources, risk assessment and management and environmental
communication among different stakeholders. Generally, we got impression; eutrophication
has reached all important institutions. We detected the present of an eutrophication
terminology through the local, national, regional and international levels. At the local level,
main attention on this environmental issue is paid by Stockholm’s Municipality respectively
its environmental department. In the Stockholm’s Environmental program, the local
authorities highlighted sustainable use of land and water as well as waste treatment
management as high priorities (Stockholm Stad 2010). Nation level is mainly represented by
two Swedish Ministry departments (Ministry of Environment and Ministry of Agriculture).
We have found a document from Ministry of Environment, which is actually combination of
different organizations - for instance, EU maritime policy and The HELCOM Baltic Sea
Action Plan. Document, which was published in case of Swedish presidency of the EU 2009
is mentioning wastewater treatment, reduction of nutrients by monitoring of agriculture
activities in the Baltic Sea region, phosphates in detergents, etc. (The Swedish Presidency of
the EU 2009).
We have also found a very ambitious plan of zero eutrophication which is part of 16 national
environmental quality objectives and were established by Riksdag. Since this was published
on Ministry of Agriculture site we assume, agricultural activities are understudied as a major
source for the level of eutrophication. Here is possible to draw a parallel with our work, where
a big percentage of respondents think agricultural activities are responsible for eutrophication.

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       The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality

Organizations that also have eutrophication on their agendas are SEAP (The Swedish
Environmental Protection Agency), Stockholm’s Archipelago Foundation and private
company Vattenfall. Analyze which was made out of their sources did not lead to any new
conclusions.
    As mentioned already in introduction section, HELCOM is main actor in environmental
arena within Baltic Sea region. Eutrophication as an environmental issue is on the top of their
activities. HELCOM had in 2006 arranged a conference about Baltic Sea action plan where
eutrophication was main issue to discuss. One of the most ambitious goals that HELCOM is
trying to reach is Baltic Sea unaffected by eutrophication. Clear sea water, natural levels of
algal blooms, natural oxygen concentrations, and natural level of nutrients are main tools to
reach these objectives (HELCOM 2006).
    RISKGOV (Environmental Risk Governance of the Baltic Sea) is another organization
that has as a main objective to improve understanding and structures and processes that are
shaping environmental governance in Baltic Sea region. Important part of this understanding
is interactions between risk assessment, risk management and stakeholders’ communications
(Gilek et al. 2008). Since our findings are showing insufficient environmental communication
between local authorities on the one side and general public on the other, we believe
RISKGOV could be more visible player, especially to fulfill the gaps around environmental
communication.

Section 6: Limitations and drawbacks


During the project work, we have faced some limitations that might have effect on outcome
from survey and objective. However, we have tried to overcome the problems.

      Time is one of our main limitations that we faced in our project. Conducting so
       complex work would require long schedule of at least three months or even more. Our
       experiences are showing the exactly time schedule is extreme important factor when
       doing questionnaire survey. Phases like designing of survey and testing before
       publishing are crucial to reach sufficient final output and cannot be limited by lack of
       time. Only carefully designed on-line survey can later give useful data for analysis and
       interpretations.




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       The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality

   ●      Access to the potential respondents and question how randomly our sample would be,
          are, naturally very important things to know before conducting a survey. According to
          Creswell (2009), Research design, to really get a random sampling, each individual
          should have equal probability of being selected from the population. This fact is, to
          some extent, affecting the final value of our project and maybe even more the
          credibility of being able to make generalization from our sample to the entire
          population.


During conducting the project we tried to make an interview with responsible authorities in
our research area. Within our research design we had made an overview of different
organizations and finally selected three of them respectively their environmental departments.
Our criteria were first their appearance of environmental issues on their home web-pages and
second, relation to our research. To reach these goals we sent invitations to different
environmental departments of organizations named 1) Stockholms Archipelago Foundations/
Shärgårdsstiftelsen,     2)       Stockholm   County/Stockholm    Län    and    3)   Stockholm
Municipality/Stockholm kommun. By the May 20, 2010 we only received answer from
Stockholm's Archipelago Foundation. The answer did unfortunately not cover the questions
that were sent. Since the interviews with different organizations within political life as well
environmental area did not succeed, our final report cannot offer overall information about
risk management that eutrophication has to do with.
    Reasons for unsuccessful mission might be in our research design, where we did not pay
so much attention to really fulfill the technical side of interview. On the other hand we did not
detect any intention for cooperation from opposite side. Knowing the fact, emails are common
and from all organizations established way of communication we would have right to reach
that person/department. Our status (students) and “relatively unimportant” questions/research
can simply not be an excuse for not participating to an interview or at least answer on our
emails.


         Lack of experiences on this kind of research is also a limitation that may lead into
          errors and not enough covering statistical analysis of data. Knowledge of this methods
          offer a plenty of different options to show and interpret results. Being more
          experiences, we would automatically decrease consumption of time needed for
          research design. Correlation between time consumption and experiences is clearly
          seen in our research.
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       The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality


Section 7: Method and methodology


7.1 Research Area
    Stockholm County is with its 26 municipalities and the number of 2,019,182 people, the
most density populated area in Sweden. County is home for more than 20% of whole Swedish
population. Stockholm Municipality as our research area has 829,417 inhabitants (SCB 2010).
Municipality per se is divided into three main parts - Stockholm City centre, South Stockholm
and West Stockholm (See Appendix 1).




Fig.1: Location of study area in Stockholm   Fig. 2: Study area of Stockholm Municipality
County (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org)     (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org)



7.2 Research approach
Our project is a combination of quantitative and qualitative research approach. Major part is
dedicated to questionnaire survey and statistical interpretation. Our data collection gave us
opportunity to create new findings directly from primary source. Literature review is a part of
qualitative method technique. It is shorter and its main function is to give a comprehensive
background picture about literature that we think is important to understand the entire


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        The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality

problem of eutrophication. We also have incorporated statistical and text analysis as well as
correlations between data collected and available literature sources.


7.3 The component of survey

7.3.1 Sampling

Sampling is the procedure by which selection is operated on a subset of a population that
might be representative of the whole population (Fowler 2002, p. 5).

7.3.2 Question design
    Question is used as tools to get information in a survey. In that case, it is very important
that question will be designed in such a way that two strategies will be perceived. Firstly,
probable participants will be able to understand easily the questions and answer the all
questions and in second point, the objectives of the survey as well as research will be fulfilled
with the answers and aftermath of the survey (Fowler 2002, p. 6). Considering the research
question by which the objective of the research was fulfilled. The number of questions was
nine.


The characteristics of the survey questionnaire are as follows:


       There were nine questions and supplementary questions were added to get information
        about respondents.
       All questions were closed questions with category named others.
       Questions are related to descriptive approach and final question was scale based and
        named ‘Semantic differential scale’ that has opposition end scale aligned to different
        or opposite characteristics (SurveyMonkey 2010b, p. 12).
       The questions were designed in Self-administered form where the respondents had
        answered the questions by self (See Appendix 2).
       ‘Google Docs’ was used to prepare the questions in smooth form and published online
        for participation of respondents within sample frame.


7.3.3 Survey design

A set of decisions is important part in survey design. Time, money, experts and objective all
are very important factors in survey design.
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       The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality



There are some issues related to survey design (Fowler 2002, p. 7) -
   1. Sampling method; probability or non probability sample.
   2. Sample frame
   3. Sample size
   4. Design of sample that is required for especial purpose on dividing the sample based on
       characteristics
   5. Rate of response


7.3.3.1 One stage sampling
No doubt, in the case of research and survey design, sampling approach is very important. It
depends on the survey objective and design what will be the survey procedure.
    In our project work, we have selected a simple random sampling. In simple random
sampling, it is possible for every person in a population to be selected one at a time and
independent to each other. One sample will be selected once. A numbered list of population is
required in random sampling (Fowler 2002, p. 14). In our project, a list of 500 email
addressed was attained and a table of randomly aligned email addresses was prepared. We had
than randomly selected 200 email addresses from the list what is considered as a random
sample for our survey.

7.3.3.2 Sample frame
    Sample frame is known as the set of people that have chance to be selected in survey
within the sampling approaches. It is required before survey to designate the sample frame.
Sample is taken from the sample frame and the number of elements in sample frame is higher
that sample size (Fowler 2002, p. 12)
    In our project work, sample frame was comprised of an email list of 500 people. From the
list, desired sample size has been optimized.
Interestingly, comprehensiveness, probability of selection and efficiency are essential for
sample frame. For example, this email list approached of sample frame exclude the people
who have no email addresses and access to internet. There might be chance of the different
type of people outside the sample frame boundary. In case of probability of selection, all 500
people had the same level chance to be selected as sample.




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       The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality

7.3.3.3 Sample size
Sample size is very important to do for generalization of population. However, we estimated
our sample size two hundred (200), due to the time frame of the project. We considered the
population of Stockholm Municipality is 829,417 (SCB 2010) and the samples of 200 has
been selected. As mentioned already in the previous section our sample frame was a list of
500 email addresses.

7.3.3.4 Response rate
The percentage of persons who response the survey by filling up the questions and send it
back is known as response rate. The equation for response rate is as follows (SurveyMonkey
2009a, p. 1) -

“Number of complete survey form returned by respondent”
                                                                  = Response rate (%)
“Number of participants contacted through email”

According to the equation, the response rate of the questionnaire survey on ‘public perception
of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality’ was 62.5%, where the number of complete
survey form was 125 and the participant numbers was 200 who were contacted as well as
considered as sample size. However, non-responding might be a source of error. It has effect
on the result getting from survey. According to DIIA (2010), the response rate of 60% in
internet based questionnaire survey is very good.

7.3.4 Method of data collection

Internet is now on top for data collection. With facilities of internet, it is possible to reach lots
of people and get responses quickly. It is also matter of fact that, access of internet and
holding of an email address is required. However, there might be chance of exclusion out of
sample frame lots of people who has no internet connection and not habituated with internet
and email services. That can make significant difference in survey results. We have used
Internet survey as data collection method. The advantages of internet survey are as follows
(Fowler 2002, p. 74):
      High speed of return from respondents
      Low costs of data collection
      It retains self administered instrument
      Allows computer assistance
      Ease to check the errors


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         The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality

On the other hand, internet survey has some drawbacks and that includes:

        Only internet user capacity to answers
        Collection of good email addresses
        Absent of interviewer and respondents are alone in the period of answering

7.3.5 Time Schedule
We had divided the time frame of internet based questionnaire survey into three phases.

1st phase: sending email on May 1, 2010 and waiting to get response on May 12, 2010.
2nd phase: Collecting and sorting data of 1st phase.
3rd phase: Sending reminder to email addresses to respondents who did not conduct survey,
and waiting by May 20, 2010 for better adjusted response rate.

7.3.6 Pilot testing
We conducted a pilot testing for checking errors. By sending the survey form to 10 defined
people and by getting their feedbacks we had made some corrections. Pilot testing is very
useful for checking any possible errors before final survey operations.


7.3.7 Final survey operations
200 emails had been sent to the email addresses within sample frame with the questionnaire
link for responses. The link of online questionnaire is:

http://spreadsheets.google.com/viewform?hl=en_GB&pli=1&formkey=dGhVVVdHZTVxdGg
zRTdtRXZsN2YzYnc6MQ

7.4 Data validation

Data validation is very important in case of data analysis and invalid data might have great
effects on result. All data in spreadsheet was several times checked against errors. Every
column was Age, sex, location and every column in raw data collection attributed with
validation of coding so that wrong answer of any different events had been shown properly
and error was possible to being reduced. It was almost impossible to compare the descriptive
data with standard data template. But in our case, we have verified the all categories of
questionnaire survey with validation option in Google Docs and advanced filter option of MS
Excel.




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       The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality

7.5 Data analysis
Answers as response of questionnaire survey had been entered into particular column in a
spreadsheet prepared in Google Docs according to the questions of the survey. After
collecting all data, data had been transferred to MS Excel worksheet for further sorting,
correcting and arranging data proper way. Data had also been coded and filtered for analysis.
Various charts had been prepared from the data.


Section 8: Results of questionnaire survey

After sorting and analyzing the valid data we have got the result of the questionnaire survey
and the result have been shown below for every question separately with help of pie, bar,
column and line charts.
8.1 Informed about eutrophication

                Informed about                             82% people of total respondents (total
                'Eutrophication'                           respondents’ number 125) know that
                                                           there is an environmental problem named
                                                 Yes       eutrophication.           However,            18%
                  18%
                                                 No        respondents do not know about the
                                                           eutrophication. That was the response to
                          82%
                                                           the question one of survey, where people
                                                           were asked whether they know about the
  Fig.3: Response to question ‘Do you know there is an   eutrophication problem or not (Figure 3).
  environmental problem known as eutrophication?’

8.2 Source of information

In the survey, newspaper was
                                                              Source of information
marked     as    top    source     of
                                                    Other
information about eutrophication
                                         All of the above
problem. 29% respondents get
                                                  Internet
information      from   newspaper.           Newspapers
Television, books and internet                      Radio
                                               Television
corresponded to 21%, 13% and
                                                    Books
14% respectively. Furthermore,
                                                             0%       10%        20%        30%        40%
4% respondents get information
                                        Fig.4: Response about the source of information on eutrophication.


                                                                                                   Page 17
        The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality

from all of the sources combined (Figure 4). Interestingly, 8% respondents identified different
sources to inform about eutrophication. Among them, education marked as 45%, professional
connection 25%, personal experiences 15% and discussion 15% also.

8.3 Response to causing factors of eutrophication


                       Causing factors of eutrophication
                                    Other
                         Climate change
                               Fossil fuel
                  Agricultural activities
            Waste water from industry
         Waste water from households

                                             0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%

       Fig.5: Respondents’ answer to question about the most common cause of
       eutrophication they think.

There are various point and diffuse sources of eutrophication. However, agriculture has been
identified as top main causing factor of eutrophication by respondent (60%). On the other
hand, many respondents think that wastewater from household (13%) and wastewater from
industry (16%) are responsible for eutrophication. Moreover, fossil fuel, climate change and
others got 5%, 4% and 2% respectively (Figure 5).

8.4 Extent of eutrophication as a problem

Highest numbers of respondents (89%) think that eutrophication is a problem for both
Stockholm and Baltic Sea (Figure 6). However, 10% respondents don’t think. According to
their responses it is a problem for Baltic Sea.

   Extent of eutrophication as a                             Natural and (or) human
             problem      Problem for                           created problem
                                                                                            Natural
              1%10%                Baltic Sea                           1%                  problem

                                   Problem for                                              Problem created
                                                                  32%
                                   both Baltic Sea                                          by humans
                                   and Stockholm
           89%                                                               67%
                                   I don't know                                             Natural and
                                                                                            caused by
                                                                                            humans
Fig.6: Response to question on whether eutrophication   Fig.7: Participants’ response to question what they think
as a problem for Baltic Sea or Stockholm or for both.   about eutrophication problem as natural and (or) human
                                                        created.


                                                                                                   Page 18
          The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality

8.5 Natural problem and (or) human created problem

Participants’ response to the question about the nature of the eutrophication problem was
interesting. 67% respondents answered that eutrophication is a human created problem
(Figure 7). In contrary, 32% respondents think that it is both natural and human induced
problem. Only 1% respondents are in favor of mentioning it as a natural problem.


8.6 Phosphorus (P) contained detergent and respondents’ knowledge

    It     is    scientifically   proved   that
phosphorus contained detergent is culprit                    Phosphorus contained
                                                           detergent and respondents'
in causing eutrophication problem in
                                                                  knowledge
water body (Köhler 2006, p.19). For that
                                                             6% 1%
reason,         Sweden    has     banned   the
                                                                                     I know
phosphate contained laundry detergent                                                I know little
                                                           27%
from September 1, 2008 and wants to                                                  I don't know
                                                                     66%
introduce ban on phosphate contained                                                 I don't care

dishwasher detergents from July 1, 2011
(MoE 2009). 66% respondents of this Fig.8: Response on question ‘Did you know that
                                                  phosphorus contained detergent is responsible for
particular survey answered that they eutrophication?’
know the fact. Moreover, 27% respondents know little about the P- contained detergents and
its effect in eutrophication. But, 6% has been marked to answer ‘I don’t know’. However, 1%
respondents do not care about it.

8.7 Information provided by responsible government authority

    Only 14% respondents answered that responsible government authority is always active
informing the people about environment problem. The percentage of satisfied citizens about
the government activity is 6. But 41% respondents totally opposed the activity of government
about informing people on environmental problem. Interestingly, 36% respondents are middle
position and their answer was sometimes responsible authority is active. 4% respondents have
been included in others category (Figure 9).




                                                                                           Page 19
       The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality


    Information provided by                               Eutrophication and life in
   responsible govt. authority                                 Stockholm City
              4%                  Yes                               1%
                                                                                          Yes
                   20%            No                            18%
                                                                                          No
        35%                                              4%
                                                                                          A little
                                  Sometimes
                                  they are active                         76%             I don't care
                    41%
                                                                                          Other
                                  Other


Fig.9: Response to question ‘Do you think that Fig.10: Response to question where asked
responsible government authority always active in participants ‘Do you think the effects of
informing people about environmental problem?’    eutrophication can affect quality of life in the City
                                                  of Stockholm?’


8.8 Eutrophication and life in Stockholm city

Response was positively high to the question in survey about the effect of eutrophication in
the quality of life in Stockholm and 76% respondents agreed that it would affect the city life.
On the other hand, 18% respondents’ answer was NO (Figure 10). But ‘a little’ effect might
happened, was marked by the 18% respondents. 1% respondents do not care about the effect
of eutrophication in city life.

8.9 Semantic differential Scale 1-5 for eutrophication as a problem


                   Scale 1-5 for eutrophication as a problem
            50%
            40%
            30%
            20%
            10%
              0%
                      Major                                                Not a
                     problem                                              problem
                          1            2            3           4             5

          Fig. 11: Response to question on ‘How big a problem (as far as you are aware)
          is eutrophication in Stockholm?’

    The final question of the survey was scale based, where participants were asked about
how big the eutrophication problem is, according to their acknowledgment. This was mixed
opinion. Scale 1 and scale 5 were assigned as major problem and not a problem respectively


                                                                                           Page 20
       The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality

and Scale 2, 3 and 4 were attributed within the boundaries (Figure 11). 39% respondents
chose Scale 3 for the mentioning eutrophication as a problem. Scale 2 and scale 3 were
answered by 27% and 24% respondents respectively. However, scale 1 and scale 5 were
selected by 1% respondents.


Section 9: Analysis of the survey result

9.1 Response on Phosphorus (P) contained detergent and waste water from
household

    Participants in survey were asked to answer the question about the capability of causing
eutrophication by P-contained detergent. 66% respondents (67 in number) answered ‘I know’
which indicates that they know about the P-contained detergent as responsible to increase
eutrophication. However, 27% respondents (28 in number) know little. They identified the
source of eutrophication like wastewater from household and industry, agricultural activities
and fossil fuel also. But only 19% respondents among 67 persons (who answered YES for
action of P-contained detergent in eutrophication) identified ‘wastewater from household’ as
source of eutrophication and overall response was 13%. It is very well known that detergent is
used in household work especially as cleaning agent. Moreover, detergents are used in almost
all houses and wastewater from household is somehow source of this P-contained detergent.
Interestingly, respondents are not intended to identify their own house produced waste water
as source of increasing eutrophication.


               Answer on P-contained detergent and wast
                        water from household
         70%
         60%
         50%
         40%
         30%
         20%
         10%
          0%
                 I know P-contained detergent's   Wasterwater from household as
                     effect on eutrophication       source of eutrophication

        Fig.12: Comparing the approach of response to the questions on P-contained
        detergent and waste water from household

Agricultural activities are always focused as main source of eutrophication. The respondents
who do not know (6%) about the facts of P-contained detergent in eutrophication identified
                                                                                     Page 21
       The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality

the wastewater from industry, agriculture, fossil fuel and climate change as source of
eutrophication and none of them marked wastewater from household. This might happen due
to gap between communication of scientific knowledge and concern about eutrophication
problem. It is interesting, large scale of area is more contented to be more focused and
addressed like agricultural area. In contrary, the core area of household activities of daily life
is beyond of our focus. Environmental communication is attained in perspective to this area of
scientific knowledge and public perception.


9.2 Answering ‘YES’ on quality of city life affected by eutrophication

In analysis the concern about eutrophication problem, the response ‘YES’ who think that


                                          Answering 'YES' on quality of city life
                                              affected by eutrophication
            Percentage among respective




                                          100%
                                          80%
                     age group




                                          60%
                                          40%
                                          20%
                                           0%
                                                 21-30     31-40      41-50      51-60      61-70
                                                         Age group with 10 years interval

         Fig. 13: Response YES on quality of city affected by eutrophication plotted in
         relation to age group with 10 years interval.


eutrophication problem might affect the city life of Stockholm has been plotted with the
respective age groups. Interesting to observe that, the respondents in age group (41-50) think
much than other group that the effects of eutrophication can affect quality of life in the city of
Stockholm and 95% respondents of this age group answered YES. The concern about quality
of city life to be affected by eutrophication has been increased gradually from the age group
(21-30) and 61% respondents of this age group said YES. Moreover, age group (31-40), (51-
60) and (61-70) responded to 81%, 71% and 86% respectively. Noticeably, response YES has
been decreased gradually from age group (41-50) to age group (51-60) and slightly increased
to group (61-70).




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       The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality

9.3 Evaluating eutrophication in scale 1-5 by different age groups

Respondents were asked through the final question in survey that what they think about the
eutrophication problem with its extensiveness and interestingly, most of the respondents
mentioned it as scale 3, that is just middle of the boundaries of two scales (Scale 1 assigned
for ‘major problem’ and scale 5 for ‘not a problem’.


                                           Evaluating eutrophication in semantic
                                        differential scale 1-5 by different age groups
                                   12
           Number of respondents




                                   10
                                    8                                                         Scale 1
                                    6                                                         Scale 2
                                    4                                                         Scale 3
                                    2
                                                                                              Scale 4
                                    0
                                           21-30     31-40      41-50      51-60      61-70   Scale 5
                                                   Age group with 10 years interval

         Fig. 14: Semantic differential scale approach of eutrophication by number plotted in
         related to different age group with 10 years interval.



With analysis of responses to particular scale within the various age groups of 10 years
interval, age group (31-40) was more prominent to mark the eutrophication as scale 2 and
scale 3 and their response were same in both scales 2 and 3 (Figure 14). This indicates that
this age group of respondents considers the eutrophication attributed to major problem.
However, age group (21-30) and (41-50) show the similar tendency to mark eutrophication in
scale 2 and 3, but in this case, scale 2 was responded more than scale 3 and they think it is a
problem.
     On the other hand, age group (51-60) was more intended to mark the eutrophication
problem as scale 3 and scale 4 and in this case, response to scale 4 is higher than scale 2 and it
can be assumed that within the survey this group was not intended to mention eutrophication
is a major problem and tends to not a problem. Furthermore, eutrophication has been
identified as major problem to some extent by age groups (21-30), (31-40) and (41-50), but
not by age groups (51-60) and (61-70).




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       The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality


Section 10: Discussions
10.1 Proposed model on approach of perception

We have tried to make a model based on the information from survey and core basis of our
project work (Figure 15).


              General
             perception
                                                                             Environmental
                                                                             Science perspective
                                           Connection to
                                       scientific knowledge
                                                                              Environmental
                                                                              communication
                                                                              perspective
                                          Concern about
                                          Environmental
                                            problem                            Decision making
                                                                               perspective
              Overall
             perception


 Fig. 15: Proposed model based on the research project showing the connecting link between general
 perception, scientific knowledge, concern about the environmental problem and overall perception.


Five groups of approaches have been tried to connect. Those are as follows:


     1.    General perception connected to scientific knowledge
     2.    General perception linked to concern about environmental problem
     3.    Scientific knowledge related to concern about environmental problem
     4.    Connection to scientific knowledge attributed to overall perception
     5.   Concern about environmental problem related to overall perception


Common- sense reasoning, social communication, cultural facts, personal observation and
experiences are base of perception (Renn 2008, p.93). Connection to the scientific knowledge
attributes to someone’s perception. On the other hand, this perception about environmental
problem makes the person more concerned about the situations. Furthermore, information
from science and concern about the problem, general perception is converted to overall
perception that is required for good and well established management to cope environmental
problem. At the same time, general perception and connection to scientific knowledge are the

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       The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality

mixing area of environmental science approach, where the assessment and result on
eutrophication problem will be generated and people will be well communicated through the
different approaches of environmental communication. Moreover, for being more concerned
about the problem and forming better strategies, different governmental organizations will be
activated in same area of decision making platform and provide the link between public’s
general perception and scientific knowledge. Concern will be developed within the frame of
highly mobilized government policy and overall perception might be formed among society
with help of environmental intercommunication.

10.2 Future research area
Our project is design as a pilot project and offers many possibilities for further research. Not
only are our ideas, valuable recommendations from our respondents also important. We think,
it would be reasonable to extend this kind of research to Stockholm County. Since there is no
clear border between Stockholm Municipality and Stockholm County (due to daily migration,
waste water management, etc) research in this direction would be logical. According to our
findings, project which would compare and measure the different effects that mainly are
detected in urban zones (wastewaters treatment, public transport, industry, food waste, etc)
with agricultural activities. We believe that agriculture, as so far most responsible activity for
eutrophication would become less responsible for eutrophication in urban zones. This,
however, does not mean we would like to artificially raise the importance of urban zones for
eutrophication. What we would like to share with audience is aware that there is not just
agriculture which is most responsible for the level of eutrophication in the region.


Section 11: Concluding remarks


The research project has a big educational moment. During conducting it we came closer to
many unknown issues. In order to answer these challenges we were explored different
literature and discuss about many possible alternatives. Our final report is, however, not only
analyze of eutrophication as an environmental problem in Stockholm Municipality. Even
more, the aim of our final report is either not providing public view on current situation in the
city. It is, finally, a source of valuable primary data that are collected in order to come as close
to our research objectives as possible. Our main research question has been answered through
precise data analysis and through discussion section. To what extend? Maybe is one of our
most important conclusions the gap that we see between organizational understanding of

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       The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality

eutrophication and public perception. Communication between HELCOM for instance, where
eutrophication is identified as one of the major environmental issues comparing with answers
of our most respondents does not fit. While organizational concern follows the highest
standards available the public perception is surprisingly not so high. In case of eutrophication
problem should public aware be much higher, especially if we know that our daily lives
contain a large specter of activities that directly accelerate the process of eutrophication which
should be kept to its natural pathways.


Acknowledgment


We would like to thank all of our respondents. Without their cooperation we would not learn
so much and we would not find out many interest things. We would also like to thank our
classmates who gave us many good ideas during entire project work. We are grateful to Björn
Hassler who led our thoughts to right direction.




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        The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality


References

Cederwall, H & Elmgren, R 1990, ‘Biological Effects of Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, Particularly the
     Coastal Zone,’ Ambio, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 109-112.


City of Stockholm (Stockholm Stad) 2010, Stockholm Water Programme 2006-2015, viewed April 18, 2010,
     <http://international.stockholm.se/Global/Centrala%20st%c3%b6d-
     %20och%20styrdokument/StockholmWaterProgramme_20062015.pdf >.


Creswell, JW 2009, Research Design; Qualitative Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches, SAGE
     Publications, London.


Division of Instructional Innovation and Assessment (DIIA) 2010, Guidelines for Maximizing Response Rates,
     Instructional Assessment Resources, The University of Texas at Austin, viewed April 22, 2010,
     <http://www.utexas.edu/academic/diia/assessment/iar/teaching/gather/method/survey-Response.php>


Finni, T, Kononen, K, Olsonen, R & Wallström, K 2001, ‘The History of Cyanobacterial Blooms in the Baltic
     Sea,’ Ambio, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 172-178.


Fowler, FJ 2002, Survey Research Method, SAGE Publications, London.


Gilek, M, Lundberg, C, Renn, O & Wolowicz, M 2008, Environmental Risk Governance of the Baltic Sea
     (RISKGOV), RISKGOV Research Plan to BONUS+ , viewed April 14, 2010,
     <http://webappl.web.sh.se/C1257290004B5AA4/0/E56FD06BD0230238C125754B0042CF14/$file/riskgo
     v_research_plan_2.pdf>.


HELCOM 2006, Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, Draft HELCOM Thematic Assessment in 2006, HELCOM
     Stakeholder Conference on the Baltic Sea Action Plan, Helsinki, Finland, 7 March      2006, viewed April
     12, 2010, <http://helcom.navigo.fi/stc/files/BSAP/FINAL%20Eutrophication.pdf>.


Köhler, J 2006, ‘Detergent Phosphates: an EU Policy Assessment,’ Journal of Business Chemistry, Vol. 3, no. 2,
     pp. 15-30.


Kosenius, AK 2010, ‘Valuation of reduced eutrophication in the Gulf of Finland’, PhD Thesis, Department of
     Economics and Management, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.


Lundberg, C 2005, ‘Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea -rom area-specific biological effects to interdisciplinary
     consequences,’ Environmental and Marine Biology, Department of Biology, Åbo Akademi University,
     Finland.


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        The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality

Ministry of Environment (MoE), 2009, Phosphates in dishwasher detergent banned from 1 July 2011, press
     release, March 3, 2010, Regeringskansliet, Sweden, viewed May 2, 2010,
     <http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/586/a/121557t>.


Renn, O 2008, Risk Governance: Coping with Uncertainty in a complex world, Eathscan, London.


Ryden, L, Migula, P & Andersson, M 2002, Environmental Science: Understanding protecting and managing
     the environment in the Baltic sea region, The Baltic Sea University Press, Uppsala.


Skei, J, Larsson, P, Rosenberg, R, Jonsson, P, Olsson, M & Broman, D 2000, ‘Eutrophication and Contaminants
     in Aquatic Ecosystems,’ Ambio, vol. 29, nos. 4-5, pp. 184-194.


Statistiska centralbyrån (SCB) 2010, Population in the country, counties and municipalities on 31/12/2009 and
     Population Change in 2009 (corrected 2010-03-26), viewed April 23, 2010,
     <http://www.scb.se/Statistik/BE/BE0101/2009A01b/Be0101tab3beforandr09eng_ny.xls >.


SurveyMonkey 2010b, Smart Survey Design, viewed on April 20, 2010,
     <http://s3.amazonaws.com/SurveyMonkeyFiles/SmartSurvey.pdf>.


SurveyMonkey 2009a, Response Rates & Surveying Techniques: Tips to Enhance Survey Respondent
     Participation, viewed on April 20, 2010,
     <http://s3.amazonaws.com/SurveyMonkeyFiles/Response_Rates.pdf>.


The Swedish Presidency of the EU 2009, The marine environment and the EU strategy for the Baltic Sea
     region” Ministry of the Environment, Stockholm, Sweden, viewed April 20, 2010,
     <http://www.regeringen.se/content/1/c6/12/93/08/4fa743d6.pdf>.


Vlasov, N 2007, HELCOM- The focal point for environmental information in the Baltic Sea Area, Helsinki
     Commission (HELCOM), Helsinki, Finland, viewed April 12, 2010,
     <http://69.90.183.227/doc/cepa/cepafair/helcom-2008-05-en.pdf>.




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    The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality


APPENDIXES

APPENDIX 1

                          County
       Code               Municipality      Population
                          Sweden                         9 340 682

       01                 Stockholm                      2 019 182

       0127               Botkyrka                         81 195
       0162               Danderyd                         31 150
       0125               Ekerö                            25 095
       0136               Haninge                          76 237
       0126               Huddinge                         95 798
       0123               Järfälla                         65 295
       0186               Lidingö                          43 445
       0182               Nacka                            88 085
       0188               Norrtälje                        55 927
       0140               Nykvarn                           9 227
       0192               Nynäshamn                        25 781
       0128               Salem                            15 313
       0191               Sigtuna                          39 219
       0163               Sollentuna                       63 347
       0184               Solna                            66 909
       0180               Stockholm                      829 417
       0183               Sundbyberg                       37 722
       0181               Södertälje                       85 270
       0138               Tyresö                           42 602
       0160               Täby                             63 014
       0114               Upplands Väsby                   38 641
       0139               Upplands-Bro                     23 202
       0115               Vallentuna                       29 361
       0187               Vaxholm                          11 001
       0120               Värmdö                           37 756
       0117               Österåker                        39 173
       Source: SCB (2010)

                                                                     Page 29
The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality




       Stockholms municipality/Stockholms
       kommun

       1: Stockholm City Centre/Innerstaden
          * Kungsholmen
          * Norrmalm
          * Södermalm
          * Östermalm

       2: South Stockhol/Söderort
          * Enskede-Årsta-Vantör
          * Farsta
          * Hägersten-Liljeholmen
          * Skarpnäck
          * Skärholmen
          * Älvsjö

       3: West Stockhol/Västerort
          * Bromma
          * Hässelby-Vällingby
          * Rinkeby-Kista
          * Spånga-Tensta
       Source: SCB (2010) and http://en.wikipedia.org




                                                              Page 30
          The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality

APPENDIX 2

            Survey: Public perceptions of the eutrophication problem in Stockholm

Hi. We are Martin Gregorc and Mohammad Mahmodul Hasan, students of a Master's
Programme at Södertörn University, Stockholm. We have recently started a research project
on "Public perceptions of the eutrophication problem in Stockholm". We have chosen to
conduct a survey to improve our understanding of the current situation in Stockholm. Your
participation is highly important to our project and we would be grateful if you could answer
the following questions.


Sex
      M       F

Age

Profession (For example: student, engineer or retired, etc)

Where do you live?

Country of origin (For example: Sweden, Slovenia, Bangladesh, etc)

Q.1: Do you know that there is an environmental problem known as 'Eutrophication'? *
(If your answer is No, please do not fill in the rest of all questions) *
      Yes         No     Other:

Q.2: How do you know about eutrophication?
      Books         Television     Radio      Newspapers     Internet    Other:

Q.3: Which of the following is in your opinion the most common cause of
eutrophication?
      Waste water from households          Waste water from industry    Agricultural activities
      Fossil fuel      Climate change        Other:

Q.4: Do you think eutrophication is a problem for the Baltic Sea and not a problem for
Stockholm?
      Problem for Baltic Sea       Problem for Stockholm      Problem for both Baltic Sea and
Stockholm           I don't know    Other:

Q.5: Is eutrophication a natural problem or a problem created by humans?
      Natural problem        Problem created by humans       Natural and caused by humans
      I don't know       Other:


                                                                                       Page 31
       The public perception of eutrophication in Stockholm Municipality

Q.6: Did you know that detergents containing phosphorus are responsible for
eutrophication?
    I know          I know little   I don't know       I don't care   Other:

Q.7: Do you think that the responsible government authority is always active in
informing you about environmental problems?
    Yes        No        Sometimes they are active      I am satisfied with information provided
by authority        Other:

Q.8: Do you think the effects of eutrophication can affect quality of life in the City of
Stockholm?
    Yes        No        A little   I don't care     Other:

Q.9: How big a problem (as far as you are aware) is eutrophication in Stockholm?
                1   2    3     4    5

Major problem                                  Not a problem




                                                                                        Page 32

				
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