Refresher New User Training

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Refresher New User Training Powered By Docstoc
					Refresher & New User Training

This brief presentation is intended
for all radiation workers, including
Authorized Users (AUs) and lab

 Radiationsafety program at the UA
 has been operating under:
 – Arkansas Radioactive Material
   Licenses: ARK-064-INC-01-96,
   and ARK-711-BP-RA-01-99
 – Arkansas Particle Accelerator
   License, ARK-004-ACC-12-99
  Mission of a Radiation Safety Program

•to assist researchers in keeping radiation exposures
to a minimum
•to assist the institution in complying with state and
federal regulations concerning radioactive materials
•to provide instruction to workers regarding the safe
use of radioactivity
UA Radiation Protection - Chain of
  •State/Federal oversight of radioactivity
  •UA administration (Chancellor, Provost)
  •Radiation safety committees
  •Radiation Safety Officer
  •Authorized Radiation Users
  •Individual laboratory workers
Contacting Radiation Safety at UA
  •Location – 521 S. Razorback Road
  •Phone - 575-3379
  •Radiation Safety Officer – Maksudur Sarder
  •Emergency number - 911 on the UA campus
  telephone system
  Radiation and Radioactivity
•Radiation is energy in transit, either as particles
or, electromagnetic waves

•Radioactivity is the characteristic of various
materials to emit ionizing radiation
Types of Ionizing Radiation

•X-ray -- photon from the electron shell

•Gamma ray -- photon from the nucleus

•Alpha particle -- a helium nucleus

•Beta particle -- an electron or positron

Sources of Ionizing Radiation
  •cosmic rays and naturally-occurring radioactive
  elements (natural background)

  •medical x-rays and nuclear medicine studies

  •man-made radioactive materials and radiation
Units of Radiation Measurement:
It is useful for radiation workers to be familiar with the units of
radiation exposure, amount, dose and dose equivalent. These
units take two forms:
     •Classical - e.g. curie, rad, rem
     •System International (S.I.) - e.g. becquerel, gray, sievert
     Summary of Radiation Units

Units of exposure         roentgen
                          curie (classical) and becquerel
Units of quantity
Units of absorbed dose    rad (classical) and gray (S.I.)
                          rem (classical) and sievert
Units of effective dose
Dose Units

•The rad (or, gray) is a unit for measuring the
absorbed energy from radiation

•The rem (or, sivert) is a unit of measuring the
biological damage caused by that radiation
Radiation Units:
Background radiation

•The average person in the United States receives
about 360 mrem/yr (whole body equivalent dose)

•This dose is mostly from natural sources of
Typical Annual Radiation Exposures to a
Resident of the U.S.
      Source                         mrem
      Inhaled (radon & its progeny   200
      Other internal (K-40)          39
      Terrestrial                    28
      Cosmic                         27
      Cosmogenic                     1
      Medical X-ray                  60
      Total                          ~ 360
Radiation Bioeffects
There are two types of radiation bioeffects - deterministic and stochastic.

    •Severity increases with radiation dose
    •Threshold: 50-100 rem
    •Dose and dose rate dependent
         •Cataract induction
         •Epilation (hair loss)
         •Erythema (skin reddening)
         •Blood changes
Radiation Bioeffects
  •Probability of occurrence increases with radiation dose
  •Threshold: 10 rem, but regulatory models assume no threshold
      •Cancer induction
      •Genetic mutations
      •Developmental abnormalities
                 Deterministic Radiation Effect Thresholds

   HEALTH EFFECT                 ORGAN                 DOSE (rem)

                                  Testis                     15
Temporary sterility
                                    GI                       35
                               Bone marrow                   50
Blood cell depression
                                   Skin                      200
Reversible skin effects
                                 Ovaries                 250 - 600
Permanent sterility
                                    GI                       300
                                   Skin                  300 - 500
Temporary hair loss
                                  Testis                     350
Permanent sterility
                                   Skin                  500 - 600
Skin erythema
 Thresholds for acute, low LET dose

A minimum dose (threshold dose) is required before deterministic
bioeffects begin to appear in the exposed population. These
effects are not observed at lower doses
Stochastic Radiation Effects
   •incidence begins to increase in populations acutely exposed
   to more than 10 rem
   •continues to increase with increasing dose
   •nominal risk 0.0001/rem for high dose and dose rate
Genetic Effects
   •more than 100 rem of low-dose rate, low LET radiation
   needed to double the incidence of genetic defects in humans
   •no human hereditary effects seen at gonadal doses less than
   50 rem
In Utero Irradiation
   •developmental and other effects begin to increase at 10 rem
   •assessment of radiation risk should be limited to dose
   estimates near and above 10 rem (10,000 mrem)
Occupational Exposure Limits
  •The amount of radiation dose a worker can receive in one
  year is limited by Federal Law (Title 10, Code of Federal
  Regulations, Part 20)

  •You are entitled to regular reports of your occupational
  exposure at University of Arkansas
Annual Occupational Dose Limits - 10 CFR 20
  •Total effective dose equivalent to whole body: 5 rem (5,000

  •Lens of eye: 15 rem (15,000 mrem)

  •Sum of deep-dose and committed dose equivalents to all
  other tissues and extremities: 50 rem (50,000 mrem)
ALARA Principle:

•UA radiation safety activities strive to keep all radiation doses
associated with University activities well below the regulatory
limits and As Low As Reasonable Achievable (ALARA)

•ALARA (as low as reasonable achievable) limits are 10% of
these: 500 mrem deep, 1500 mrem eye and 5000 mrem
shallow extremity
Where can lab radiation sources be found?
On a campus as large and complex as UA's, radiation sources
can pop up anywhere. From a standpoint of controlling inventory
and security, it is important to know where sources can be hiding:

   •liquid scintillation counter external "quench" sources

   •gas chromatographs

   •soil moisture gauges

   •materials thickness gauges

   •smoke detectors

   •static electricity dissipation units
Protection of the Public
Due to the large number of potential radiation sources on campus,
the general public and non-radiation workers at UA must be
advised of their presence. This is accomplished through the use
of official signs that are posted in areas where radioactive
materials are in use. Dose limits for member of public is 100
mrem/year. No dosimetry badge required.
    Isotope Ordering, Receiving
            and Delivery
 Before placing your order know your
  license limit
 Contact RSO (e-mail, phone or fax) get
  your approval
 Place an order
 Receiving and delivery by RSO
 Maintain all records for RSO/state audits
     Lab Personnel Training
 Make a list of all radiation users or non-
  users but directly involved with radiation
 Radiation training history
 Training schedule for new users and refresh
  for others
 Maintain all records for RSO/state audits
 AU responsible for staff training
Radiation signage

> 5 mrem/hour            > 100 mrem/hour

> 500 rem/hour   Depends on radionuclide: > 10 mCi
                  H-3, 1 mCi S-35, 0.1 mCi P-32,
                         0.001 mCi I-125
Notice to Employees
Radioactive Materials Security
Each year, radioactive materials are stolen from campus labs
across the country - often by people who are unaware of what
they are stealing. Federal and state laws are clear on this
matter: radioactive materials that are not actively in use shall be
locked up. Radioactive materials shall not be left unattended on
lab bench tops. Unauthorized personnel must be excluded from
labs -- by the police, if necessary.
Types of Radiation Exposure
  •External - from gamma photons, x-rays or high-energy beta
  particles emitted from a source outside the body

  •Internal - from sources inside the body, which presumably
  came to be there following ingestion or inhalation of
Some "Don'ts" for Avoiding Internal Exposure
Radionuclides that represent trivial external hazards, such as
carbon-14 or tritium, can become significant internal hazards if

Do Not Ever:
   •pipette radioactive materials by mouth suction
   •smoke in the labs
   •eat or drink in the labs
   •apply cosmetics in the labs
   •leave radioactive materials unattended

In general, keep your hands away from your mouth, eyes and
other mucosal surfaces.
Protection Against Internal Exposure
•Pathways of contamination:
     •Inhalation, ingestion, wound, through skin

     •awareness of the hazard

     •good laboratory technique

     •use of personal protective equipment (ppe) such as
     gloves, lab coats and fume hoods

     •proper and timely performance of surveys for radioactive
Personal Protective Equipment

           Lab Coat

          Protective Gloves

         Fume Hood
Protection Against External Exposure
The three important factors in protecting against external
exposure are:
  • time,
  •distance and

  •Judicious use of a combination of these factors can
  minimize radiation exposure.
The total exposure received is the product of the exposure rate
(determined in part by the amount of radioactive material present)
and the exposure time. Work quickly (but safely) to minimize the
exposure time.
Radiation exposure obeys an inverse-square law. That is, if you
double your distance from a radiation source, you reduce the
exposure rate by a factor of four. Work at a maximum comfortable
distance and use long tongs or forceps to reduce finger exposure.
Low-energy beta emitters (<250 keV), such as C-14 and H-3, are
stopped in a few centimeters of air and require no
shielding. High-energy betas (>250 keV) like P-32 require several
millimeters of plastic to stop. Avoid using bare lead to shield P-32,
since secondary x-rays (Brehmstrahlung) are produced.
           Laboratory Survey
           Areas             Condition              Frequency

Unsealed   Use area          Use 200Ci/operation   After each
source                       or more                operation

                             Use                    Weekly

                             No use                 No survey required

           Storage area      Any use                In conjunction with
           (source, waste)                          use area survey

                             0                      Monthly

Sealed                       Leak test              Quarterly or
source                                              Every 6 months
                             Storage survey         Monthly
What if my survey result is above the action level
     Action level:   2 X Background (UA policy)

     • Meter reading at Non-RAM area
     • Unused wipes (Blank)
     • Swipe samples taken from Non-RAM area

     > 2x Background
       Decontaminate & Document

     >> 2x Background & can not decontaminate
        by yourself ---> Call the RSO
- Wipe with cleaning agent
- Water & mild soap
Survey the area again

Keep records
Initial counts
Action taken
Counts after cleanup
Dosimetry Badges
Personnel dosimeters (film badges) are issued by the Radiation
Safety Division to document your occupational
exposure. Depending on what you work with, you may or may not
need one.
   •Labs using H-3, C-14, P-33, S-35 and/or Ca-45: no
   monitoring required
   •Labs using P-32: a finger ring dosimeter is required
   •Labs using Cr-51, I-125, I-131, other gamma emitters and/or
   analytical x-ray equipment: whole body dosimeter is required
Obtaining a Dosimeter
    •Order one (contact RSO/AU)
    •Obtain and complete a "Personnel Dosimeter Request and
    Radiation Exposure History" form
If you have had previous employment involving radiation
exposure, you must complete a release form.
Lost Dosimeter
  •see radiation safety contact person
  •obtain and complete “ Certificate of Lost badge” form
  •another dosimeter will be ordered
  •yearly average dose will be assigned to your record
Pregnant Female
  •state regulatory limit to the embryo/fetus is 500 mrem for
  entire gestation period

  •if pregnant, a confidential reproductive health consultation is

  •a fetal dosimetry badge will be ordered, if necessary
How to Correctly Wear Your Badge
Whole body badges should be worn between the neck and the

Ring badges can be worn on any finger. The badge should be on
the inside of your palm, facing the radioactive work.
Gamma rays (such as from I-125, Na-22 or Cr-51) require lead or
tungsten as a shielding material. Neutrons are not effectively
shielded by lead; they require high-proton materials such as
water, paraffin or concrete. High energy (>250 keV) betas (e.g.
from P-32) should be shielded by Plexiglas to minimize
Bremstrahlung X-rays.
Radiation Detection Instruments
A radiation field or contamination can be detected by a number of

Geiger Counter ("GM detector"): very sensitive instrument used
to detect surface contamination

Ionization Chamber: used to measure higher-exposure fields
(milliroentgens per hour and above). Can be used as fixed-
position "area monitors", or portable survey instruments.
Radiation Detection Instruments
Liquid scintillation/gamma counters: used to quantify surface
contamination assessed by "wipe" tests (example H-3 and C-14 )
 Contamination Control
The internal hazard from radioactive materials can be minimized
by good lab techniques and proper performance of surveys.
Good Laboratory Techniques

   •liberal use of absorbent paper

   •proper use of lab coats and protective gloves

   •careful planning: arrange work area and apparatus to avoid
   touching contaminated surfaces and spreading contamination
   to "clean" surfaces
Surveying Contamination
  •use GM detector to survey hands, feet, clothing and lab floors
  and countertops
  •perform "wipe" tests to quantify removable
  contamination: wipe 100 square centimeters of a surface with
  dry filter paper and measure disintegrations per minute (dpm)
  in a scintillation counter
•Spills of Radioactive Material
  1.Notify other persons in the area of the spill.
  2. Evacuate if spill is of a volatile material.
  3. Immediately remove contaminated shoes or clothing.
  4. Mark the spill area and limit access to avoid the inadvertent
  spread of contamination.
  5. Flush contaminated skin thoroughly with water.
  6. Notify the Radiation Safety Division.
Segregating Radioactive Waste
There are two ways to separate radioactive waste: by half-life and
by physical form. Half-life categories:
   •< 30 days (example: P-32)
   •30 - 90 days (example: S-35)
   •> 90 days (example: C-14)
          Waste Management
   Our Waste site:
    – Geology building, PAD, Chemistry Building
   RAM Waste Management
By isotope /By half life – long-lived/short-lived
By type – Dry (gloves, absorption paper, tubes …etc
            NO LIQUID)
          Liquid (sample/equipment washes…etc)
          LSC (vials/cocktail)

Remove Lead ! Separate bags for source vials !

Record keeping – isotope, responsible individual,
             estimated activity, close date,
             other hazard information,
             pick up date
          RAM Waste Pick Up
1.   Go to EH&S website and download pick-up request

2.   Fill out the form

3.   Send filled form to
      RSO, EH&S PHPL or 5-6474 (fax)

4.   The RSO or EH&S staff will pick up waste and
     leave a copy of your request form

5.   Keep the copy for your record
Special Provisions
No sharps in the waste barrels!
Sharps must go into a sharps container. Sharps include, but are
not limited to, needles, razor blades and broken glass. Needles
that are capped are not acceptable in the dry waste barrel.
Lead Pigs
No lead pigs in the waste barrels!
   •Lead pigs must be recycled
   •Costs $.20/lb with Environmental Programs
      •fill out an IR form and call the rad waste pickup line (575-
   •You can also pay to ship the lead pigs back to the company
   you got them from
Note: contaminated lead must be cleaned prior to
recycling it.
What you have to do if you put radioactive
waste in regular trash!
Always dispose of radioactive materials properly.
Injuries Involving Radioactive Material
    •For serious injuries, call 911
    •Notify the Radiation Safety Division
    •Wash minor wounds thoroughly with water
    •If something contaminated with human
    blood or body fluids caused the wound, call
    575-3379 (Blood and Body Fluids Exposure
    •For minor injuries, seek care from
    Employee Occupational Health and
    Wellness (EOHW) or the Emergency
    •Notify Radiation Safety of any accidental
    ingestion, inhalation or absorption of any
    quantity of radioactive material
Radioactive Spills
Small spills
  •Follow AU's written spill procedure
Major spills
  •Notify other persons in the area
  •Evacuate if it is a volatile material
  •Mark the spill area and limit access to avoid
  the inadvertent spread of contamination
  •Remove contaminated shoes or clothing
  •Flush contaminated skin thoroughly with
  •Notify the Radiation Safety Division
Escalated Enforcement
   •ADH inspectors "encouraged" better oversight of campus
   radiation-related activities:
       •improved Lab Audit Program
       •instituted improved and simplified measures to document
       findings and ensure compliance
   •Repeat violations will prompt escalated enforcement
"Documenting findings" includes sending you written or
electronic correspondence that reviews areas of non-compliance
discovered in your lab during an audit. AUs should respond
promptly to these communications, outlining corrective actions
you will take to prevent recurrences. Radiation Safety will perform
extensive reviews of deficiencies and responses.
Questions/Comments about
Radioactive Waste Disposal

Contact Maksudur Sarder
 •phone number: 575-3379
 •Cell phone: 263-2572

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