Context and Published in 1689 - middle to late Baroque.
background One of a set of 12 trio sonatas
Performance The last movement of a four movement sonata
circumstances A trio sonata, but requires 4 players as the organ fills in the harmonies supplied by
the figured bass
It is called a sonata de chiesa (church sonata) because of the use of the organ but
could be performed with any continuo instrument eg. Harpsichord, and in any
2 violins – the parts are idiomatic but not challenging.
The first violin is required to use 3rd position in bars 34/35.
Forces Violone (any sort of low pitched stringed instrument, today we use cello)
Functional harmony with cadences – a perfect cadence in the dominant key bars
Harmony Mainly root position, 1st inversion common chords.
Where 7ths are use in the figured bass to create dissonant suspensions they are
always followed by a 6th resolving the dissonance above the same bass note.
Circle of 5ths?
Starts in D major
Functional tonality defined by cadences and modulation to related keys
eg A major at b19
Tonality B minor at b27/28
E minor at b31/32
G major at b34
Other devices: circle of 5ths, pedals
Structure Each section is repeated with essentially a monothematic approach.
This is evident in the treatment of the opening 2 bars eg inversion and stretto.
Written for 2 high melody instruments and continuo bass: this produced a polarized
texture typical of Baroque music.
Texture The texture is contrapuntal most of the time with some fugal writing and
homorhythmic writing bars 3-4.
Fugal elements: eg violin 1 has 1st subject in b1 then b3 2nd violin gives a fugal
answer (on dominant) violone has 1st subject in b6.
Stretto: 1st violin has 1st subject inverted in b20 (A Maj) and 2nd violin comes in after
only 1 bar instead of the original 2 bars.
Stretto= the telescoping of imitative parts so entries are closer together.
Imitation: b28 1st violin is imitated 1 bar later by 2nd violin
Monophonic: opening 2 bars
Homorhythmic: bars 3-5
Parts moving in 3rds: b5 and 6
The metre is 6/8 and the tempo is fast ( like a gigue).
6/8 is compound time.
The note lengths are mainly quavers and semiquavers with some longer notes –
Rhythm and dotted minims, tied dotted minims and dotted crotchets.
Metre Cross rhythms in b26 (violin1 sounds as though it is in ¾)
Hemiola in b27 (all 3 parts sound as though they are in ¾)
Syncopation in bar 27?
The initial motif consists of 3rds and stepwise movement.
Melody There is a short sequence bar 8b2 – b10b1 in the top part.
Bar 20 there is an inversion of the initial theme.
Structure Binary form A bars 1 – 20 B bars 20 – 43.
Each section is repeated.
Unlike some binary pieces the themes are not contrasting.