An Overview of Interpretation

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					Teaching                  Manual
 An Intermediate Course of Interpretation

    For the Academic Year 2008-2009

             English Major
                   An Overview of Interpretation
I Introduction to the teaching schedule

II Preliminary Recognition to Interpretation

III Interpretation and the Interpreter
  3.1 The development of interpretation
  3.2 The definition of interpretation
  3.3 The characteristics of Interpretation
  3.4 The criteria of interpretation
  3.5 The Process of interpretation
  3.6 The Categorical classification of interpretation
  3.7 A tripartite model of interpretation
  3.8 Interpreter qualification requirements
  3.9 Interpreter Training
  3.10 Research in interpretation and interpreting
  3.11 Difficulties in interpretation

Guiding Lesson

I Introduction to the teaching schedule
    •      Eighteen weeks class study+ one week practical training.
    •      Sixteen weeks finish sixteen units.
    •      Two Weeks quizzes.
    •      One week practical training.
    •      Exam: Final result = 40% daily work + 60% final exam result.
           Daily work = 30% attendance + 40% performance + 30% quizzes
           Final exam result = 50% oral interpretation + 50% Exam paper.

II Preliminary Recognition to the Interpretation
1. As an English major student, have you ever thought about what
   main significance of foreign language learning is?
   To communicate with foreign culture, exchange the ideas with
foreigners. Or in some sense, we can say ultimate significance of second
language learning is translation. (Written translation and interpretation) So
some scholar said interpretation/translation is not only the contact between
two languages, but the collision/clash of two cultures.
2. What is the language and what is the interpretation? Let’s learn it
    with three exercises. After we finish these three exercises, we will
    draw a conclusion to answer the questions.
    Listen to the following two parts of remarks and then make retelling the
    main ideas respectively from Chinese to Chinese and from English to
    English. And interpreting the third part of words from English to
    Chinese firstly, and then interpreting it back to English. Taking notes is
    not permitted.

    A. Chinese to Chinese (retelling)
   闭幕式,我们要把掌声献给那些在赛场上拼搏了十多天的运动员们。 这些全
再次唱响了主题歌《我和你》 :我和你,心连心,同住地球村,永远一家人。(172
     B. English to English (retelling)
      As I watched in fascination the Chinese follow the Olympic Games
with unbridled pride and sense of accomplishment these past weeks, I
realized I may have witnessed something way more important than a
sporting gala here. What I have witnessed is a proud people, ignited by a
hunger to succeed, savoring the fruits of their confidence - a bold
declaration of a collective can-do that comes only to those who dare to
dream and believe in it.
      Barack Obama calls it the audacity of hope, and wishes it for the
United States. These past weeks, I have seen it happen in China, I have
seen 1.3 billion people say "Yes we can". This is the stuff dreams are made
of. And, when I last checked, this dream was being mass produced in
China, just the way it was in the US in the last century. With jobs, dreams
also seem to have set sail for China. Is the Chinese Dream then the new
American Dream?
     C. English to Chinese to English (interpretation)
        One listens and translates, the other goes out and then comes back
         to interpret the translation version back to source language and
         then compare the two versions of source languages.
     Like the Five Olympic Rings from which they draw their color and
inspiration, the Five Friendlies will serve as the Official Mascots of Beijing
2008 Olympic Games, carrying a message of friendship and peace--and
blessings from China--to children all over the world.
     Designed to express the playful qualities of five little children who
form an intimate circle of friends, the Five Friendlies also embody the
natural characteristics of four of China's most popular animals--the Fish,
the Panda, the Tibetan Antelope, the Swallow--and the Olympic Flame.

1) Language is a tool, is a kind of message transference with the source
   language meaning as main axis.
2) And interpretation is the process which uses the simple language to
   solve the complex things, not uses the complex language to solve the
   complex things.

III Interpretation and the Interpreter
3.1 The development of interpretation
Read the text from Page 3 to Page 5.
     With a long history, interpreters and interpretation played a very
important role to human being's life over the past 3000 years.

3.2 The definition of Interpretation
(On Interpretation By Aristotle Written 350 B.C.E)
1) 口译是指      “对口头表达的信息及文本进行的口头翻译”                            (Shuttleworth & Cowie,
1997:82)。Interpretation is a vocal translation to the information delivered
by vocal utterance and text.
2) In its purest form, consecutive interpretation is a mode in which the interpreter
begins their interpretation of a complete message after the speaker has stopped
producing the source utterance. At the time that the interpretation is rendered the
interpreter is the only person in the communication environment who is producing a
                                                    By Roberto Santiago
3) Interpretation is the process which uses the simple language to solve the
complex things, not uses the complex language to deal with the
complicated things.
                                               By Prof. Liu Heping
4) Simply speaking, by the writer of this textbook, interpretation is a kind
of vocal communicative activity by listening to and decoding the
information expressed by the source language speaker and then interpreting
it into the target language.
                                               By Prof. Mei Deming
3.3 The characteristics of Interpretation
         * Unpredictability
         * Bearing on big pressure
         * Independency
         * Comprehensive language and skill operations
         * Extensive communicative information

3.4 The Criteria of Interpretation
3.5 The Process of Interpretation
   1) Basic process:
Information inputting      Interpreting         Information Outputting

  Mode of the interpreting process:
Source language inputting

Codes transference

Target language Outputting

Contents of the interpreting process:
  Information awareness

  Information operation

  Information expression

2) The concrete process interpretation:


    Receiving                                                       Expression

    Decoding                       Information                       Encoding

Receiving information:
                  Listening: important sector
Two tunnels
                  Seeing: aided means
                           Passive receiving: concentration on the
                           language forms
Receiving information      Active receiving: concentration on the language
                                                   Language codes
Decoding: all round and multi-level decoding
                                                   Non-language codes
                                     Retention ( heart memory)
Information storage (recording)
Storage (recording): definition; main theme; points of view; plots;
                     important points; relations (logic and quantitative)

Encoding: restructuring ( quickly/ fluently)
Expressing: utterance

3.6 The Categorical Classification of Interpretation
   Professional classification:
   Consecutive interpretation
   Simultaneous interpretation
   Court interpretation
   Sight interpretation (Sight simultaneous interpretation)

3.7 A Tripartite Model of Interpretation
   Interpreting Competence (译能)
   Interpreting Techniques (译技)
   Interpreting Operations (译为)
3.8 Interpreter Qualification Requirements
   Conform to the Foreign affairs discipline
   Solid bilingual basis
   Complete ability of utterance
   Good manner
3.9 Interpreter Training
   The three elements of interpreter training are teachers, textbooks and
   Teachers: bilingual teachers with language teaching and interpreting
   1. Current remarks of government affairs or business affairs
   2. Systematic professional training textbooks.
   Pedagogy: Right pedagogy + stages teaching plan = ultimate teaching
3.10 Research in Interpretation and Interpreting
   1. General research: On some fundamental questions
   2. Special research: On bilingual research or research between two
   3. Applied research: On interpreting techniques, interpreting teaching
and training
      Interpreting Schools:
      German School represented by Kade
      Russian School represented by Chernov
      France School represented by Seleskovitch
      The interpretive theory (le théorie de l’interprétation) emerged in the
late 1960s in France and was concerned with the identification of
principles governing oral interpretation and written translation of
non-literary texts as well as translator training. Informed by the practice of
interpretation, scholars of this school insist that translation is not a
unidirectional decoding operation, but a dynamic process in which the
interpreter/translator makes sense of the source message and reformulate
the message in the target language. This paper gives a critical review of the
interpretive theory, focusing on its historical background, its perception of
the nature and purpose of translation, and its analysis of the translation
3.11 Difficulties in interpretation
 *interpreting terms of address and titles
 *interpreting proverbs, sayings and quotations
 *interpreting numbers
 Preview the content of next Unit.

Unit One
I. Difficulties in interpretation

 *Interpreting terms of address and titles
 *interpreting proverbs, sayings and quotations
 *interpreting numbers

Titles interpretation:
- 汉语称谓中首席长官常以“总”表示,英语称谓中表示其含义的有: chief,
general, head, managing。
- 汉语中表示副职的头衔一般都冠以“副”字,而对应的英语称谓一般使用
“vice, associate, deputy, assistant” 等词。
- Deputy/ assistant (以 director 表示职位的副职常以 deputy director 表示,
  此外 secretary, mayor, dean 等头衔的副职也可冠以 deputy)
海外部主任 director of the Overseas Department
Director 企业厂长,    (中心)主任
Division Chief 处长 Section Chief 科长
英联邦大学校长 Principle and Vice-chancellor

总理:Prime Minister; Premier; Chancellor
    英国和日本首相 prime minister
    中国总理 premier
    德国、奥地利总理 chancellor

prime minister 是首相,首席内阁大臣,政府首脑。是英国等君主立宪国家用的。
  我们也有很长一段时间用 PM 的,后来全部规范成了 premier
  在加拿大,prime minister 也指各省省长,而(state) premier 在澳州是各州

General Manager/ President 总经理
General Manager Assistant 总经理助理
Deputy General Manager 副总经理
Managing director 行政总监
Customers executive 客户主任
Personnel Manager 人事部经理
Export Sales Manager 外销部经理
Marketing Manager 市场销售部经理
Marketing Executive 销售主管
Marketing Representative 销售代表
Sales Manager 销售部经理
Logistics manager 物流经理
CEO/ CFO (chief financial officer) /COO 首席执行官/首席财务官/首席营运官

总公司 Head Office/headquarter
分公司 Branch Office
营业部 Business Office
人事部 Personnel Department
人力资源部 Human Resources Department
财务部 General Accounting Department
销售部 Sales Department
进、出口部 Import/ Export Department
广告部 Advertising Department
研发部 Research and Development Department(R&D)
Provincial Publicity Department
the selected truths, exaggerations, and lies of wartime propaganda.
中共中央组织部 the Organization Department of the CPC Central Committee
中共中央宣传部 the Publicity Department of the CPC Central Committee
中共中央宣传部 the United Front Work Department of the CPC Central Committee
外资企业       foreign-funded/-invested enterprise
合资企业       joint venture/jointly-funded enterprise
独资企业       exclusively/solely foreign-funded enterprise
国有企业       state enterprise/state-owned enterprise(SOE)
国有公司 state-owned firm
集体企业 collectively-run business
乡镇企业 township enterprise

II Interpreting Proverbs, Quotations and Sayings
注意收集译法,做到用时信手拈来。(唐诗三百首的英译本;    、
Business is business.
Like father, like son.
Out of sight, out of mind.
Teach fish to swim.
Beat the dog before the lion.
Kill two birds with one stone.
Late fruit keeps well. 大器晚成。
All your swans are geese. 事与愿违。
The pot calls the kettle black. 五十步笑百步。

 A weasel wishing Happy New Year to a chicken-harboring no good
(Like) the Eight Immortals crossing the sea-each showing his or her special
prowess. ( Each of them shows their true worth).
 The tail of a rabbit-cannot be long; won't last long.
III Figures Interpreting
Differences in the way of expressing the figures in Chinese and
1. Digit 2. Time 3. Unit
                                   - 10 -
百百万;...  ...
汉语四段法( 十进制)
个位;十位;百位;千位;万位;十万...                        ...亿
                  亿              万
hundred thousand million billion trillion quadrillion
          K        M       B      T
A is X times as large as A; A is X times larger than B.

1) X times as … as… 或 X times the … of
两倍 Twice as … as … / twice the … of
三倍 three times as … as… / three times the … of …
四倍 four times as… as… / four times the … of …
五倍 five times as… as…/ five times the … of …
Eg. 这条河是门前小溪的三倍长。
This river is three times as long as /three times the length of the brook in
front of the house.
2) 用 to increase by … 表达
两倍 to increase by 100%
三倍 to increase by 200%
四倍 to increase by 300%
五倍 to increase by 400%
Eg. 今年进口的粮食翻了一番。
The imported grain this year has increased by 100%.
3) 用 double 表达
两倍 to double
三倍 to triple
四倍 to quadruple
五倍 to quintuple
                                    - 11 -
公斤;公里;公顷 hectare

方丈”、“平方尺”有着密切的关系:因为 1 亩=60 平方丈,1 平方丈=100 平方尺,
所以,1 亩=6000 平方尺。又因为 1 平方米=9 平方尺,所以,1 亩=6000/9=2000/3
平方米。也就是:1 亩等于六百六十六又三分之二平方米。
长春工程学院现有西校区(宽平大路)      、东校区(同志街)和南校区(前进大街)
等三个校区,占地总面积 52.50 万㎡;各类校舍总建筑面积 47.94 万㎡;运动场
地总面积 10.37 万㎡;
52.50 万㎡=787亩=53公顷
47.94 万㎡=719亩=48公顷
10.37 万㎡=155亩=10公顷
(记录时就记 XX hectares)

革。   从1978年到2008年的30年间,                      中国国内生产总值从1473亿美
元增长到16494亿美元,年均增长9.4%,进出口总额从 206 亿美元增长
到 11548 亿美元,年均增长超过16%。国家外汇储备从1.67亿美元增长
Since the adoption of the policy of opening up to the outside world proposed by
Mr. Deng Xiaoping, China had the unprecedented profound changes. Over the
30 years from 1978 to 2008, China’s GDP increased from 147.3 billion USD to
1.6494 trillion USD, the annual increasing rate reaches to 9.4%. The total
volume of Export and Import increased from 20.6 billion USD to 1.1548 trillion
USD, the annual increasing rate exceeds 16%. The state Foreign Exchange
Reserve increased from 0.167 billion USD to 609.9 billion USD. The number of
rural poor population reduced from 0.25 billion to 26 million. China’s
comprehensive national strength remarkably improved and China’s people’s
live took place great changes.
亿=hundred million

                                     - 12 -
III. Note-taking in interpreting
1. 记要点;忌全记 (概念、命题、名称、数字、组织机构、逻辑关系)
2. 快记、精记;忌潦草
3. 使用译入语(也可以使用目标语或双语)

1.带活页圈的上翻式记录本。              。







记笔记的时候,          笔向右走,读笔记的时候眼睛往下走。左边留白写关联词:因为;
in addition to …
                        - 13 -
Unit Two Interpreting for Reception Service
2-1 Greetings at the Airport
2-2 Hotel Accommodation
2-3 Banquet Service
2-4 Getting Around

1) Language is a tool, is a kind of message transference with the source
   language meaning as main axis.
2) And interpretation is the process which uses the simple language to
   solve the complex things, not uses the complex language to solve the
   complex things.

II. Introduction

To be a liaison-escort interpreter, first of all, you should be clear that the
interpreting way is by liaison-escort interpreting, One or Two way
interpreting or Consecutive Interpreting.

Second, as an interpreter, you should be clear in advance that the two
parties (hosts and guests) representatives’ identities in the interpreting

Third, as an interpreter, you also should be clear the procedure of foreign
reception service: Airport to hotel to banquet hall.

1. 汉译英中定语从句的处理
In Chinese, the attributive parts are always put before the subject; while in
English, they are always put behind the subject. And when the subject is
modified by several attributive parts, commonly we arrange them from
small units to big ones.
例一: 我是海通集团人力资源部经理戴嘉佳。
译:I’m Dai Jiajia, the Personnel Manager of Haitong Group.

            定语      中心词

                                    - 14 -
译:I’m Chen Tianming, the director of overseas department of Shanghai
Post & Telecommunication service development Company.
译:The 16th CPC National Congress is the first of its kind held by the
Party in the new century and it is a very important congress convened by
the Party in the new situation in which China has begun to take the third
step of the strategic plan for socialist modernization.

Scholars at China’s Changchun Institute of Technology

② 拆分法
例一: 我是上海邮电服务发展公司海外部主任陈天明。
                        定语                        中心词
译 : I’m Chen Tianming from Shanghai Post & Telecommunications
Service Development Company. // I’m director of the company’s Overseas

例一: 我是海通集团人力资源部经理戴嘉佳。
译:I’m Dai Jiajia from Haitong Group. I am the Personnel Manager.

2. 表示第一人称主观情感、态度的句式
① I’m very happy/pleased/glad/delighted that
② It’s a great pleasure for me to
③ It gives me great pleasure to
④ It is a great honor for me
⑤ It gives me a great honor
It is my great pleasure and privilege to have received your gracious
invitation and work with a distinguished group of China’s automobile
                                    - 15 -
It is great pleasure and privileged for us to have Premier Wen Jiabao here
to meet the journalists and reporters who take coverage the 3rd Session of
the 10th National People’s Congress and answer your questions. Now, we’d
like to invite Premier to give us a few remarks.

今天,有机会参加博鳌亚洲论坛 2004 年年会,我感到十分高兴。首先,我代表
It gives me great pleasure to attend the Boao Forum for Asia 2004
Annual Conference today. Let me begin by extending, on behalf of
the Chinese government, my warmest welcome to all of you present here.

Ladies and Gentlemen: good evening.
It gives me a great pleasure to host the banquet in honor of our dear friends
and dedicate experts, and celebrate the successful conclusion of our talks.
In particular, I’d like to thank Ms. Kelland for her coming. Without her
last-minute effort, we would still be in the middle of nowhere, probably in
the middle of negations, I’m afraid.

汉语的博大精深。 这些四字格短语有的是经过长期使用凝练出的成语,一个典故、
一种现象或一条哲理自然而然地浓缩于四字之中, 妙不可言;还有些四字格意思
上口。 正是因为四字格短语具有其它语言形式难以取代的优势,所以一直在汉语

                                    - 16 -
  例:不辞辛劳 spare no pain; make it in spite of the tiring trip
    设宴洗尘 hold a reception lunch in your honor
    原滋原味 original flavor
  特色点心 special snack
  皮薄汁醇 with thin (and translucent) wrappers and rich in tasty soap
  皮脆肉嫩 crispy skin and tender meat
  酸甜适口 with sweet and soar source
  走马观花 casting a passing glance at flowers while riding on horseback
  言归正传 come back to the subject/ story
  绿草成荫 Boasting stretches of green grass
  绿树成林 Forests of green trees
  流水潺潺 stream murmuring
  鸟儿啁啾 birds chirping
  四季花香 fragrant flowers blossoming all year round
  以绿引资 attracting investment with green environment
  以资养绿 maintaining a green environment with investment
  素雅幽静 the environment is enveloped in a peaceful, elegant and
           relaxing atmosphere.
   色香味型 color, aroma, flavor and appearance
4. 中国菜名翻译
  统食品,使用汉语拼音命名,如饺子 Jiaozi;具有中国特色且被外国人接受
  的菜名,使用方言来拼写或音译拼写,如豆腐 Tofu;中文菜肴名称难以体
  Fotiaoqiang (Steamed Abalone with Shark's Fin and Fish Maw)。
    给中国菜一个相对统一的英文菜名确实是一件非常有意义的事情, 但是
  料味道的作用,而中国菜经常需要三四种甚至七八种原材料, 要想说清楚菜
         、     、
  中国饮食文化的特色,但是完全直译不能说清楚菜品的由来, 要想讲明白典

 “四喜丸子”,翻译成英文是“Four glad meatballs”(四个高兴的肉团)
 “麻婆豆腐”翻译成“满脸雀斑的女人制作的豆腐”Tofu made by a girl with

                                  - 17 -
 serious skin problem!
 "铁板牛肉"翻译成"有皱纹的铁牛肉"Corrugated iron beef);
 "宫堡鸡"则被翻译成"政府虐待鸡"(Government abuse chicken);
 "生鱼块"成了"砍那陌生的鱼"(Chop the strange fish)
 “童子鸡”翻译成“还没有性生活的鸡(Chicken Without **ual Life )”
 “口水鸡”译成“流口水的鸡(Slobbering Chicken)”
 “回锅肉”翻译成“烹了两次的猪肉 (Twice—cooked pork)

IV. Interpreting exercises
Sentence in Focus
P. 64

    Jinghe High-Tech Park enjoys a superior location, with the Capital
Beijing as the backdrop, facing the vast expanse of the Bo Sea, bordered
by the Jingjintang Expressway to the east.

                                - 18 -
Unit Three Interpreting Conversations
3-1 Welcome
3-2 A Wish to Invest
3-3 Establishing a Jiont Venture
3-4 Cultural Differences

I Techniques
1. 副词的巧用
例一:    基本情况是这样的,外国直接在华投资可以在最大程度上发挥有关双方
译: Basically, direct foreign investment in China maximize the strengths
  of both parties concerned.
  Basically= The basic situation is as follows:
  Personally, I like you to invest in Pudong area of Shanghai.
  Personally= According to my personal opinion, …
例三:Initially, I would like to embark on this joint venture business at a
  moderate rate, with a safe scale.
2. 并列长句的处理:
英汉两种语言的长句翻译起来均较难处理, 通常采用的技巧是考虑怎样使句子
结构简单、 明了化。在从分理解原句的基础上,对各子句进行全新的逻辑安排,

例一:中国幅员辽阔,自然资源丰富,…… 以及诱人的投资环境。
     China has massive land, abundant natural resources, huge cheap
labor, low taxation, a growing consumer market, improving
infrastructure and of course, a stable social and political environment
with attractive investment policies.

     China has massive land. The natural resources in China are rich and
the cheap labor is huge. And the taxation is low. What’s more, the
consumer market is growing and infrastructure is improving. And of
course, here in China we have a stable social and political environment
with attractive investment policies.
                                   - 19 -
       Thanks to the success in the macro regulation and the control
 efforts over the past several years and also a moderately tight monetary
 and fiscal policy that we have adopted, we have effectively controlled
 the currency issue over the years and the inflation index has been kept at
 a low level. So, given these good conditions, we have the possibility of
 “channeling more financial resources to “stimulate the domestic demand.
 By stimulating domestic demand, I mean we will increase investment in
 the construction of infrastructures such as highways, railways, and also
 the farmland construction and water” conservancy facilities and
 municipal facilities and environmental protection facilities. We are also
 increasing investment in the high and the new technology industries and
 in the technical” upgrading of the existing enterprises. So, all in all, we
 are to increase the demand of the whole national economy.
  我从群众的意见中嘎受到大家对政府工作的期待和鞭策,                        也看到了一种信心
  译:I could also appreciate the confidence and strength reflected in
 those comments. Our country and our nation now stand at a new
 historical starting point. In face of new tasks, we need to be even more
 sober-minded. We need to stay firmly on the right course, and we need to
 work even harder.

在翻译成目标语时, with regard to; in terms of; as for; by…等引导主题出现的关
联结构, 使得听众首先抓住发言的主题,          对于理解整段发言的含义有积极的作用。

                                  - 20 -
     With a joint venture, a foreign partner usually brings into the enterprise or
business capital funds, machinery, advanced technology and management, while the
Chinese partner supplies land, labor and a portion of the funds for the infrastructure.
The business is then jointly run by both parties.
     As for the solely foreign –funded business, you provide all the funds and take all
the benefits, as well as all the risks. You can run the company in whatever way you
prefer, within the boundary of Chinese laws, of course.

                                         - 21 -
Unit Four Interpreting Interviews

                            - 22 -
Unit Five Interpreting Ceremonial Speeches

Text 1 Revisiting the Old Haut
Text 2 A Pleasant Trip
Text 3 Our Future
Text 4 A new Long March


Teaching objective:
Make students know why STM is so important in interpretation;
Make students grasp the components of a toast, a welcoming address, an
address for thanks, goodwill and congratulation and learn to interpret them.

Teaching requirements:
Teachers must introduce to students the methods of memorizing in
1. How to interpret a toast: components of a toast, a welcoming address, an
address for thanks, goodwill and congratulation
2. Students interpret groups of sentences on expressing one’s welcome,
thanks, goodwill and proposing a toast
4. Understand how to make a preparation for the interpreting tasks.
5. Find ways to improve your interpreting skills and performance.
6. Master the basic words and expressions about ceremonial address.
7. Know some cultural background knowledge about ceremonial address.

Main points:
1. Components of ceremonial speeches like a toast, a welcoming address,
an address for thanks, goodwill and congratulation
2. Sample Sentences
3. Techniques introduction
   - Preparations before interpreting
   - Language (Idioms) Interpretation

                                   - 23 -
Text Study
开幕/闭幕式 opening/closing ceremony
开幕词   opening speech/address
致开幕词 make an opening speech
友好访问 goodwill visit
阁下    Your/His/Her Honor/Excellency
贵宾    distinguished guest
尊敬的市长先生 Respected Mr.Mayor
远道而来/来自大洋彼岸的朋友 friends coming from a distant land/the other side of
          the Pacific
东道国      host country
宣布……开幕 declare……open
值此之际     on the occasion of
借此机会     take this opportunity to
以……名义 in the name of
本着……精神 in the spirit of
代表       on the behalf of
由衷的谢意 heartfelt thanks
友好款待     gracious hospitality
正式邀请     official invitation
回顾过去     look back on
展望未来     look ahead/look into the future
最后       in closing
圆满成功     a complete success
提议祝酒     propose a toast
一贯奉行    in persistent pursuit of
平等互利    equality and mutual benefit
双边关系    bilateral relations
持久和平    lasting peace
On the behalf of all the members of my mission, I would like to take this
opportunity to express our sincere thanks to our host for their earnest
Now, I have the pleasure to declare the 22nd Universal Postal Congress
                                  - 24 -
I have the honor to express this warm welcome on behalf of the Chinese
Government and people to the delegation from the United Kingdom.
I would like to extend my warmest welcome to all of you.
I wish the conference a complete success!

Class Performing 课堂练习
I. Decoding--Notes Taking (笔记记录)
Listen to the recordings of Texts. Try to catch the main ideas of the speech.
Note down the key points while you are listening. Then tell the main ideas
of the speech with the help of your notes.
II. Memorizing--Story Retelling (故事复述)
Listen to the recordings of Texts again. Try to catch more details and
improve your notes. Then retell the speech in your own words with the
help of your notes.
III. Encoding--Message Reconstructing(信息重组)
Listen to the recordings of Texts paragraph by paragraph. Take notes when
necessary and start interpreting during the pauses.

Techniques Introduction
I Short-term Preparation(译前准备)
     Short-term preparation in interpreting refers to the job that can only be
prepared shortly before the interpreting task is taken. In contrast with
long-term preparation, short-term preparation is more direct and concrete,
as each interpreting task is different from one another. The interpreter
works for different speakers and on different subjects. In real interpreting
situations, pre-interpreting preparation is usually referred to as Preparations
before Interpreting.

What to Prepare?
     After an interpreter has accepted an interpreting task, he shall start to
prepare for the task immediately. Following are the essential items that the
interpreter shall prepare.
1. Meeting Documents
     The meeting documents are a great help to the interpreters. It is
                                     - 25 -
advisable for interpreters to ask the organizer to provide the complete
documentation(文件)and background information for the task as early as
possible, such as the meeting schedule(时间表), list of participants(参加
者), introduction of the keynote speakers(主题发言人)etc. He must try to
understand “who is the speaker? what is the subject? what is the occasion?
who is the audience? and what type of speech is it?”.
2. A Glossary List
     After getting the documents, the interpreter is then able to know the
topics and subjects he is going to deal with. At this time, an experienced
interpreter will work out a list of glossary and terminology(术语)he will
potentially encounter in interpreting. A prepared glossary list sometimes
helps the interpreter out when he comes across new words.
3. Dictionaries, Notebooks and Pens
     Interpreting is often done in an uncertain situation. There are always
some words and expressions beyond the interpreter’s mind and preparation.
In this case, some classified dictionaries(分类词典)may be of great help.
An experienced interpreter always brings certain dictionaries, which they
can consult whenever possible. In addition, note-books and pens are also
necessary in interpreting. As interpreters usually take notes in interpreting,
two top-opening notebooks(竖翻式笔记本)and knock-gell pens(按压式水
笔)are therefore recommended for interpreters to carry. Such note books
and pens are easily handled in interpreting situations.
4. Dresses and Name Cards
     In addition, interpreters should know the general dress code(着装要
求)before the meeting starts. Interpreters are always expected to dress
appropriately and behave respectfully when they attend the meeting.
Moreover, business cards ( 名 片 ) are also necessary as interpreters
sometimes receive name cards from the organizer and the speakers.
Therefore, interpreters should prepare their own cards to offer them in
return. Otherwise, it would make them embarrassed.

How to Prepare?
     The following three ways are suggested that interpreter do when
making short-term pre-interpreting preparation.
1. Read through the Relevant Documents
Before an interpreter begins to work, he should read through the
documents he is able to obtain and organize all the documents in an easily
recognizable way so that he can find them immediately when the speaker is
                                    - 26 -
delivering his speech. If he has translated some of the texts beforehand, he
should also classify the translated texts and put them in order.
2. Surf the Internet
There is plenty of information in Internet. By surfing the net, the
interpreter may find some important information that is related to the
interpreting tasks, such as the background of the key-note speakers; the
introduction to the related organizations etc.. It is suggested that
interpreters find an Internet access and make full use of it.
3. Contact the Organizer and the Speaker
Briefings(碰头会) potentially a very useful part of advance preparation.
They are meetings organized for the interpreter, with the participation of
the organizer and the speakers. At the briefing, the interpreter can ask
specific questions and get some general information. Sometimes, some
speakers have strong accents. If possible, interpreters should attempt
chance to talk personally with such participants before the real task begins
so as to be familiar with their accents and improve the accuracy of the
4. Prepare a question list
Before taking the interview with the organizer and the speaker, interpreters
are supposed to prepare a question list(提问单)in advance, as both the
organizer and the speaker are usually rather busy. The questions must be to
the point. A prepared question list will be of great help during the
interviews. Following is a sample question list:

II Language Preparation
Proverbs; Idioms; Quotations

Homework: Listen to the four passages in unit 3 sentence by sentence and
do interpretation. Pay attention to those idiomatic expressions of
extending welcome, thanks and congratulations.

                                   - 27 -

   Thus the Arab Umayyad dynasty of caliphs, which had moved the
capital from Medina to Damascus in 661, came to be regarded with much
justification as a parasitic clique that had outlived its usefulness once the
conquests were completed.
作用的一个寄生集团;伍麦叶王朝曾于 661 年从麦地那迁都大马士革。
   该句中由 which 和 that 引出两个定语从句,分别修饰做主语用的 the Arab
Umayyed dynasty of caliphs 和作宾语用的 a parasitic clique,翻译时一个被译成
     Likewise in the east were the Seljuk Turks who had infiltrated from
their Central asinan homeland into the Islamic Empire where they were
employed as mercenaries by the Baghdad caliphs.
  该句中有两个定语从句,即在由 who 引出的定语从句中又套了一个由 where
成了并列句,分别修饰先行词 the Seljuk Turks 和 the Islamic Empire。
  并列式定语从句是并列成分中的定语从句的简称,          指一个句子中两个或两个
以上并列成分均带定语从句的情况。笔者刊登在《中国翻译》             (96.1)上的《英
句也可译成状语从句,即先把主句译出,     再把定语从句译成两个表示并列或转折

                                    - 28 -
     This was a defensive pact, designed to protect Germany against the
French, who aspired to recover the alsace-Lorraine provinces lost in 1871,
and also to protect Austria-hungary against the Russians, with whom they
continually clashed in the Balkans.
国免受俄国人的攻击; 因为法国人想收复 1871 年失去的阿尔萨斯-洛林地区,而
定语从句的翻译技巧和方法, 但还有其独特的地方。   归纳起来,有如下几种情况:
  1)译成定语 可以把两个定语从句译成并列的定语,   也可译成分开的定语修
      … and the old ways of earning a living rivalled by new agricultural
techniques, by commerce with hitherto unknown parts of the globe, and by
new crafts with strane machines that saved labor and that ran without the
traditional human or animal power
     Almost everything which really matters and which the world
possessed at the commencement of the modern age was already known to
man at the dawn of history.
     And it helps to explain why so many inventions that were of Chinese
origin or that had been known to the Greco-Romans, were fully developed
and exploited only by the Western Europeans.
  2)译成并列句 可以把两个定语从句简单地译成一个并列句,也可以把它
     Consequently the manor was a self-sufficient village that was worked
by serfs who were not free to leave, and who with their labor supported a
hierarchy of lay and clerical lords.

                                   - 29 -
             Not Surprisingly, the most complex political structures appeared in
         the Sudan, where long distance trade was most highly developed and
         where Islamic influence was the strongest.
              Our aim is to establish in Ghana a strong and progressive society …
         where poverty and illiteracy no longer exist and disease is brought under
         control; and where our educational facilities provide all the children of
         Ghana with the best possible opportunities for the development of their
             This hope was nurtured by the great victories won by Genghis Khan's
         grandson, Hulagu, who was a Buddhist, and whose wife was a Christian.
开头语 It is with great pleasure that I …
    I have the great pleasure to …
    It gives me great pleasure to …
    I have the honor to extend, on behalf of …our welcome to the…
    Allow me to express our warm welcome and cordial greetings to our distinguished guests coming
    from afar.
    We are very proud and honored to receive such a group of distinguished entrepreneurs.
    This is also a very happy and memorable occasion for me personally.
    Today we are especially pleased and happy to receive the delegation led by…
    We assemble here today with great elation to welcome…
    We are happy to celebrate this glorious festival together with…
    We are very much honored and pleased to give a banquet this evening in honor of… and the other
    distinguished guests from… who have come to visit …at the invitation of ….
    Your presence adds much to our festive joy.
    With great elation and pleasure, we….
    With profound and amicable sentiments for your people, we….
        佛教徒,而他的妻子是基督教徒。                  (两个并列句,表示转折关系)
             3)其他译法 这类定语从句除上述两种正规、固定的翻译方法外,还有其他
        几种比较灵活的译法。             我们可以把翻译简单定语从句的方法融会贯通,                         运用其中,

                                            - 30 -
结束语 I wish to express my heartfelt thanks to you .
    Thank you so much for…in spite of your busy schedule.
    And that concludes my speech.
    I’d like to end/conclude my speech.
    Thank you for your attention.
         例句总结 Sample Sentences


         中外合资是一种互补互惠的合作关系。                         外国在华投资可以最大限度地发挥各自的
         A Sino-foreign joint venture is a mutually complementary and beneficial partnership.
         Foreign investment in China can maximize the strengths of both parties concerned.
         Our country has massive land, abundant resources, cheap labor and a potential
         consumer market, in addition to the stable political and social environment and
         favorable investment policies.
         Developed countries have sufficient funds, advanced technology and managerial
         expertise. When establishing a joint venture, a foreign partner may bring into the
         cooperative business capital funds, machinery, advanced technology and
         The Chinese partner, on the other hand, may supply land, labor and a portion of the
         funds. Therefore, this type of investment is supposed to yield fat economic returns for
         both parties in the partnership.
         world-renowned 世界闻名
         diversity 多样化
         dynamism 充满活力
         a special regard 特殊的敬意
         nostalgic 怀旧的、思乡的
         memorable 值得回忆的
         utmost courtesy 非常的礼貌
         extensive 广泛的

                                                 - 31 -
overshadow 使……黯然失色
non-governmental sector 民间组织
foundations 基金会
mutual benefit 互惠互利
good faith 良好的诚意
strategic relationship   战略关系
flourish      兴旺繁荣
mutual 的搭配
mutual 可以和这些词搭配
mutual respect/benefit/understanding
mutual trust/confidence/courtesy (礼尚往来)
mutual equality/complementarity
our mutual friend 我们共同的朋友
mutual aid 互助
mutual promise 相互的约定
by mutual consent 双方同意
mutual affection 相爱

Expressing Thanks
     Permit me first to thank you, our Chinese hosts, for your extraordinary
arrangements and hospitality. My wife and I, as well as our entire party, are deeply
     Thank you very much for your kind words of welcome. This is a happy and
memorable occasion for me personally as well as for the members of my delegation.
     我非常感谢阁下的友好欢迎辞,                     对我本人以及代表团所有成员来说,                     这是愉
     In closing, may I say again how delighted and privileged we are to be in your
country. We are deeply grateful for what you have done for us since our arrival in
your country.
     On behalf of all my colleagues present here, I wish to thank you for the
incomparable hospitality for which the Chinese people are justly famous throughout
the world. I particularly want to pay tribute, not only to those who prepared the
magnificent dinner, but also to those who have provided the splendid music.

                                       - 32 -
我不仅要感谢特别感谢为我们准备晚宴的人们,                                   而且还要特别感谢演奏优美音乐
On behalf of…
For myself and for our entire delegation,
On behalf of all the members of my delegation and in my own name,
For our Group and myself,
主体结构:I' d like to express / extend my heartfelt thanks to you /warm gratitude
/hearty(衷心的、亲切的)gratefulness /sincere thanks to you and through you to Mr.
for your kind invitation (to visit China / to this fair.) /kind hospitality /warm welcome
/for giving this grand banquet. /for inviting us to such a marvelous dinner tonight.
1. I' d like to take advantage of this opportunity to express my earnest gratitude for
your help.我愿借此机会对你们的帮助表示衷心的感谢。
2. I should like to express my heartfelt gratitude for your gracious reception and
3. Please accept our sincere thanks for your kind invitation.请接受我们对你友好邀
4. Thank you very much for giving me such an excellent opportunity to visit this
beautiful city and work with you.非常感谢你们给我这个极好的机会让我来访问这
5. I am very happy to have this second chance of joyful gathering with you.我非常高
6. I would like to thank Sir Broers, Vice-Chancellor, for the invitation, which brings
me to the famous Cambridge University.非常感谢布鲁尔斯校长的邀请,使我来到

which 从句
This is basically a correct observation, which says something about the American way
of life.
Greyhound is the largest long distance coach company, which offers the monthly pass.
We were part of the dramatic process which brought us back together and set us on
the road to a genuine friendly and cooperative relationship.
我们参与了那富有戏剧性的转变过程,                          它使我们重新走到一起,               使我们踏上了通

                                          - 33 -
My visit is a symbol of the good faith with which we seek to build up the strength of
our friendship, our cultural and commercial ties and our important strategic
我的访问是良好诚意的象征,                    我们怀着这种良好诚意,                希望能在友谊的基础上建
立文化和商业关系,建立重要的战略关系。                            (strategic partnership 战略伙伴关系)
On behalf of all my colleagues present here, I wish to thank you for the incomparable
hospitality for which the Chinese people are justly famous throughout the world.
So, let us start a long march together on different roads leading to the same goal, the
goal of building a world structure of peace and justice in which all may stand together
with equal dignity and in which each nation, large or small, has a right to determine
its own form of government, its own course of development, free of outside
interference or domination.
是建立一个和平与正义的世界,                     在这个世界里所有人都可以站在一起享有同等的
尊严,     所有国家无论其大小,              都有权决定自己的政府形式,                   选择自己的发展道路,
In that spirit, I ask all of you present to join me in raising your glasses to the
friendship and cooperation of our two peoples which can lead to friendship and peace
for all peoples in the world.
本着这种精神,            我敬请各位与我一起举杯,                为我们两国人民之间的友谊与合作干
I wish to take this opportunity to thank you on behalf of all my colleagues for your
warm reception and hospitality.//
The past five days in China have been truly pleasant and enjoyable and most
I particularly want to pay tribute to our Chinese partners for their sincere cooperation
and support in concluding these agreements.
May I ask all of you present here to join me in raising your glasses, to the lasting
friendship and cooperation between our two companies.

Your Excellency 阁下                                cradle of civilization 文明的摇篮

                                         - 34 -
renew old friendship 重温旧情                        establish new contacts 结交新友
a constant source of encouragement 不断的鼓舞              in the pursuit of 追求
a common aspiration 共同的愿望                             endeavor=try
in the service of 造福于                                  in closing 最后
privileged 荣幸的                                    propose a toast 提议……干杯
Ladies and gentlemen
Your Excellency, My Chinese friends
Respected Mr. chairman, ladies and gentlemen
Mr. president
" Your Excellency, Mr. Minister," Less formally, one may address government
officials as: "Mr. Director," "Mr. Minister, " "Mr. President, " related other
Your/His/Her majesty
Your/His/Her Highness/ Excellency/Royal Highness
Your/His/Her Honor/ Excellency /Madam
Mr. Smith, Ladies and Gentlemen,
Mr. and Mrs. Smith ("Dr. and Mrs. Green" if applicable)

gracious invitation
on the basis of mutual respect and equality, and mutual benefit;
warm welcome
generous/incomparable hospitality
extraordinary arrangement (精心安排)
peace, stability and prosperity
We, therefore, welcome the interest and understanding that China has shown
regarding the problems of and positions taken by small and developing countries.
China’s support is a constant source of encouragement to us in the pursuit of the goals
of developing and maintaining the independence of our country.
I look forward, in the next few days, to the opportunity of learning something from
your endeavour and experience in promoting economic and social development in the
service of your people.
我期待着在今后的几天里有机会向你们学习,                             从你们为造福人们而促进经济和社

                                        - 35 -
I’d like to take this opportunity to extend to Your Excellency an invitation to visit my
country, so that we will have an opportunity to return the warm welcome and
generous hospitality you extended to us.
我愿意借此机会邀请阁下访问我国,                         以便我们能有机会回报你们给予我们的热情


May I propose a toast
To the health of Your Excellency,
To the health of all the Chinese friends,
May I ask you to join me in a toast to the friendship and cooperation between our two
Now I would like to invite you to join me in a toast to the friendship and cooperation
between our two cities.
Ladies and Gentlemen, allow me to propose a toast.
With the wine of the host, I request you all to raise your glasses and drink to the
health of Smith!

Thank you very much for your gracious speech of welcome. China is one of the
earliest cradles of civilization and a visit to this ancient civilization has long been my
我非常感谢您热情友好的欢迎词。                        中国是最古老的文明摇篮之一,                        访问这个文明

This visit will give me an excellent opportunity to meet old friends and establish new

                                          - 36 -
I wish to say again that I am so delighted and privileged to visit your great country
and this lovely town.
我为自己能访问伟大的贵国和这座美丽的城市,                             再次表达我的愉快之情和荣幸之

I am deeply grateful for everything you have done for me since my arrival in China.

烹调 cooking cuisine
鱼肉满架 well stocked with fish and meat
象征意义 symbolic significance
农历 lunar calendar
阳历 solar calendar
端午节 Dragon Boat Festival
元宵节 Lantern Festival
清明节 Pure Brightness Day / Tomb-sweeping Day
重阳节 Double Ninth Day
放逐 be exiled
忠臣 loyal minister
糯米粽子 glutinous rice dumplings wrapped in bamboo leaves
祭祀亡灵 in memory of sb.
龙舟比赛 dragon boat races
中秋节 Mid Autumn Festival
满月 full moon
月饼 moon cake
蜜饯 preserved fruits
豆沙 bean paste
蛋黄 egg yolk
海鲜 seafood
家禽 poultry
饺子 dumplings
八宝饭 eight treasure rice
米羹 rice balls
油条 fried sticks
麻花 fried twisted stick
炒面 Chaomian

                                        - 37 -
叉烧包 steamed bun with roast pork
粥 porridge
芋头 taro
葱油饼 pan-fried cake with sesame seeds and green onion
放鞭炮 let off firecrackers
耍龙灯 play the dragon lantern
耍狮子 play the lion dance
拜年 pay a new-year call

I am very happy to have the opportunity to talk to you about major traditional Chinese
1. to share with you brief information
   I'd like to share with you brief information in this respect.
2. to brief you on
   借此机会,        我愿意向各位朋友介绍中国加入世贸组织和参与经济全球化的有关
   I would like to avail myself of this opportunity to brief you on China's accession to
WTO and participation in economic globalization.
3. to give a brief account of
   Let me, first of all, give you a brief account of this factory.
   Before you start to look around, I would like to give you a brief account of our
4. to tell us how/what
   Will Mr. Chairman tell us how the anti-poverty drive is going on in China?
5. to show you
   I would like to show you our tentative itinerary.
6. to provide sb. with some information
   I’d like to take this opportunity to provide you with some information about

                                         - 38 -
Shanghai’s economic development and its foreign trade.
7. share a piece of my mind

Traditional holiday meals are different from everyday meals in terms of quantity and
quality. In addition, some foods with a long history and symbolic significance are
indispensable on these occasions.
For example, on the Dragon Boat Festival, a day set aside in memory of the ancient
poet Qu Yuan, people will hold dragon boat races and eat zongzi, a kind of glutinous
rice dumplings wrapped in bamboo leaves.
The Mid-autumn Festival is an occasion for viewing the full moon. The round moon
is a symbol for completeness, and family reunion. The special food of the day is the
yuebing, a round moon cake.
The Spring Festival is the Chinese lunar New Year’s holiday. In addition to the
popular seafood, poultry and meat, people will prepare traditional food, for example,
jiaozi, or boiled dumplings, and niangao, or the year cake according to their regional

                                        - 39 -

目前:at present, presently, currently, at the present stage
中国入世:China’s entry into, accession to, admission to, joining the WTO
加快:accelerate, quicken, speed up, step up, expedite
努力做:strive to do, endeavor to do
外资:Foreign capital, overseas funds
有必要做:We must do sth, it is necessary to do sth.
鼓励出口的政策:Export-stimulating policy, export-encouraging policy
扩大:Expand, augment, increase, enlarge
提升:Upgrade, update
商品:Commodity, product, merchandise
比重:Proportion, share, percentage, weight
提高:Boost, stimulate, promote, enhance
农产品:Farm produce, agricultural product
大力:Actively, vigorously, dynamically
开拓:explore, open up
新兴市场:New market, emerging market
贸易关系:Trade ties, trade relations, trade bonds, trade links, trade connections
竞争优势:Competitive superiority, advantage, edge
改善:Pay attention to, make efforts to, strengthen, intensify, streamline internal
同时:Meanwhile, at the same time, in the meantime
减少、减轻:reduce, cut, lighten
此外:Besides, in addition, moreover, furthermore
确保:Make sure of, ensure, guarantee
放松限制:Loosen control over, relax restrictions on

                                     - 40 -
当然 Of course, certainly, It goes without saying that
坚持:Adhere to, stick to, keep firmly to, keep unswervingly to
政策:Policy, principle
经济增长 Economic growth, development, expansion
基于:On the basis of, on the premise of
先决条件 prerequisite of , precondition, premise
效益:benefit, return, performance
缓解压力:Relieve, lessen, ease up, mitigate, alleviate pressure
困扰:plaguing, facing, confronting
促进推动:promote, enhance, advance, push forward, press ahead with
防范:Prevent, guard against
改善:Improve, perfect, better
关系密切:has a significant impact on, is significantly related to
处理:Handle, deal with,
设立:Set up, establish
城市居民:Urban resident, city dweller, city inhabitant
准时:On time, on schedule
思想:Idea, notion, concept
实施:Implement, carry out, execute, fulfill
强调:With focus on, with emphasis on
必须:Make mandatory, become compulsory
退休人员:Retiree, pensioner
制定综合规划:Exercise overall planning, formulate a unified plan
强调:Emphasize, give priority to, focus on, stress
在不远的将来:In a period to come, in the near future
转变为:Return … to, change … to, convert … back to
草场:Pasture, grassland
利用:make full use of, seize, exploit, take advantage of, give play to, bring into full
丰富的:Abundant, ample
A 替代 B:substitute A for B, replace B with A
根据:in the light of, in conformity with,in according with
如果条件许可:Where possible, where conditions permit
一直:Constantly, persistently,continuously
实现:Achieve, realize, actualize
关于:with respect to, with regard to, with reference to, concerning,in terms of
需要:require, necessitate, entail, call for
经历:Undergo, experience, go through, witness

                                        - 41 -
我们坚信:We believe, we are convinced, It’s our conviction that…
呈现新面貌:Take on a new look, assume a fresh look
很重要关键 Is of great significance, is crucial to, is essential to
协调发展 A coordinated, balanced development
优惠政策 Preferential, favorable policy
艰巨的任务 Formidable, arduous task
任务挑战 Task, undertaking, challenge
演讲 Speech, address
提出主张:Outline, present, offer, make a proposal
反对 Have objection to, are opposed to, challenge, oppose
推行 Carry forward, promote, develop, enrich
五千年历史 A history of 5000 years, a 5000-year-long history
凝聚力:cohesion, cohesiveness
形成 Forge, form
趋势 Trend, tendency
分裂:division, separation, split
引起:bring about, lead to, give rise to, promote
珍视:cherish, value, treasure
来之不易的:hard-won, hard-earned
意识 Awareness, consciousness
遵从 Follow, abide by, observe, purse
承诺 Commitment, promise
必将 Be bound to, will surely be
位于 Is situated on, stand on, is located on
巨大 Giant, huge
晶莹的 Sparkling, glittering, gleaming, dazzling
景色 Scene, sight
举世闻名的 World-famous, world-renowned
栩栩如生 Lifelike, vivid
具有 Are equipped, are furnished with
娱乐 Recreation, amusement, entertainment,relaxation
光彩夺目的 Radiant, splendid, brilliant, resplendent
鸟瞰 get a bird’s eye view of, get the panorama of …
隐约可见 have blurred views of, have indistinct views of …
重要嘉宾 VIP, distinguished guests
接壤 Close to, adjacent to
繁荣 Prosperous, thriving, flourishing, rich, affluent
独树一帜 unique, unparalleled

                                    - 42 -
优势 advantage, superiority
整体 overall, comprehensive
良好 sound, good, improved
特别多 tremendous, enormous
发展 make progress, score progress
引人注目的 conspicuous, eye-catching
稳定 stable, steady
协调 well-balanced, proportionate, coordinated
增加到 rise to, increase to, shot up to, soar to, spiral up to, skyrocket to
减少 to decrease, decline, drop, fall, reduce
大约 approximately, roughly, about
开始发挥作用 put into operation, start functioning
带动了 boost, push ahead, give an impetus to, promote
标志 Symbol, hallmark
纯正的 Genuine, authentic
对--高兴 Be pleased with, be delighted by, be satisfied with
被称为 Are called as, are referred to as, are honored as
树立 Build, construct, erect
吸引人的 Attractive, fascinating, charming, enchanting
欣赏 Enjoy, appreciate
主要来自 Come mainly from, is owing chiefly to, rest mainly in, spring mainly from
漫步 stroll along, walk, saunter, ramble
优雅的 Gracefully, elegantly
决定 Judge, decide
总共 Total, amount to, come to, reach
超出 Exceed, surpass
最好记录 The record high, historical record, the highest figure
凭借 resort to, depend on, rely on
尝试 In an attempt to, try to
灾难 Disaster, catastrophe
使瘫痪 paralyze, cripple
悍 然 地 Wantonly, flagrantly, willfully, blatantly, unconcernedly, unrestrainedly,
发难 Find fault with, is fussy about
追求 In pursuit of, in seeking
更别说… Let alone, to speak nothing of, not to mention
无处不在的 prevalent, widespread, omnipresent, rampant, ubiquitous
困扰 is plagued by, is beset by

                                     - 43 -
占多少 accounts for, makes up, constitutes, assumes, stands at, represents, occupy .
研究表明 A report/study/investigation released/issued by…showed/revealed/indicated
贫穷的 Poor, impoverished
拥有 Own, have, possess, hold
落后于 Lag behind, fall behind
各方面 In every respect, aspect, category
少数民族 Ethnic group, minority
暴力 Violence, brutality
产生于 Stem from, arise from
经常 frequently, from time to time
增长 on the rise, on the increase
偏袒 is partial to, show favoritism for, is biased in favor of
宣布 Declare, disclose, announce, proclaim
总结 Sum up, summarize,
精确的 Accurate, exact, precise, highly appropriate
说法 phrase, word, description
具体来说 To be more specific, concrete/ Specifically
指引 In the charge of, under the guidance of, led by, guided by, under the leadership
前进 Press ahead with, forge ahead, advance, progress
发生 Occur, take place, happen
形象 Image, profile
逐渐 Gradually, step by step
克服 Overcome, defeat
打破 break, triumph over
中国迎接 China will usher into/ greet the arrival of/ the advent of a new century.
振兴 revitalize, invigorate, rejuvenate
知名人士 famous personages, international celebrities
同时 meanwhile, meantime, in the meantime, at the same time
主办 sponsor, organize, host, hold
各种 a wide range of, various, varied, diverse, diversified
卓有成效的 Positive, fruitful, productive, rewarding
人类 Humanity, human race, mankind, the human species
由于 Thanks to, due to, because of, owing to
大力支持 Powerful support, strong support, energetic support
体现了 Represent, symbolize, reflect, embody, show
集中 include, gather together, incorporate

                                       - 44 -
评价 appraise, evaluate, assess, judge
迎合 appeal to, suite, match, fulfill
扣人心弦的 exciting, thrilling, breath-taking
高超的 excellent, supreme, exquisite
记者 Reporter, journalist, correspondent
整合 Integrate, merge, combine, mix

                                    - 45 -
第六单元 礼仪性口译(汉译英)

6-1   新春联欢 Celebrating the Spring Festival
6-2   圣诞晚会(略)
6-3   开幕祝词 Our Future
6-4   展望未来 Looking a head

教案件 PPT 文件

                                    - 46 -
     Unit 7 Interpreting Informative Speeches (E through C)
I. Teaching contents
     A. 7-1 绿色城市 A Green City
                        Vocabulary work & Text for Interpretation
     B. 7-2 浪漫香槟 The Romantic Champagne
                       Vocabulary work & Text for Interpretation
     C. 7-3 游客之居 A Place to Stay
                       Vocabulary work & Text for Interpretation
     D. 7-4 教堂之游 A Tour around the Cathedral
                        Vocabulary work & Text for Interpretation
II. Aims of teaching
1. To make students master the characteristics of Informative speech.
2. To make students master the techniques of interpreting Informative speeches from
English into Chinese. ( information visualization)
III. Teaching Focus
1. Brief introduction to the characteristics of Informative Speeches.
2.    Sentences     interpreting   for   study       to   the   technique   of   “information
3. Passage interpreting.
4. Summary and Assignment
IV. Teaching Method
       Group work
       Class work
V. Teaching procedures
1. Brief introduction to informative speeches
   What is the informative speech and what is the characteristic of this type
of speech?
    Informative speech conveys the abundant information of some thing or
some place from the speaker to the audience. In other words, the speaker
introduces quite large of information to the audience continuously. The
information conveyed by the speakers mainly includes the introduction to
scenic spots, products distribution and development, and narration to some
concrete things such as an object, a story, etc.

                                            - 47 -
Exercise 1: Interpreting the following passage from English into Chinese
and you are advised to reproduce the information without the note-taking
aids, but you try to get hints from the clues of spatial, time and logical of
Mount Wutai
     Wutai, as its name indicates, consists of five platform-shaped peaks.
Called the East, West, South, North and Central Platforms, they stand at
altitudes of over 2,500 meters above sea level. (Spatial)
     The mountain contains as many as 48 temples, which began to be built
there during the years 25-220 AD. Hundreds of monks can be seen
performing active duties in the temples. (time)
     It is a tourist area combining natural landscape, historical relics, ancient
architecture, arts, Buddhist culture and folk customs, making it an ideal
summer resort. (logic of reasoning)

Exercise 2: Retell the following passage in Chinese and then you have to
identify how you reproduce the information without the note-taking aids,
and you have to find the answers of the 2nd question.
辖市之一,是全国政治、经济、文化、科技、交通和旅游中心。( spatial clue)
     北京具有 50 万年人类生活史、3000 多年的建城史、700 多年全国政权建都
史,是中国七大古都之一,是中国历史文化名城之一,(time clue) 万物古迹和民
国教科文卫组织列入             。
              《世界遗产名录》 北京已成为现代化的国际大都市。    (logical
引出浙江文士吕留良文字狱案。曾静等人鎯 铛入狱,后被满门抄斩,吕留良一

                                      - 48 -
民间又盛传雍正大葬时只得以金铸头代之,葬于河北省易州泰陵地宫。 Story
Narration (logic of reasoning of story development)

     From the exercises of the above, we can know that informative
speech’s characteristics:
     i. Full of information
     ii. Introduction to some thing or somewhere such as a place, a scenic
spot, a product, etc.
     iii. Narration of something such as a story, an explanation to a kind of
phenomena or some thing, etc
     iv. Whatever introduction or narration the speech is, commonly it
develops by the following facets:
       Time clues          spatial clues     logic of reasoning

2. Brief introduction to IV

Question: Why you can easily reproduce the content of the above passage
with the help of time, spatial and logic of reasoning clues?
     Since we have the hints of the time, spatial and logic of reasoning, we
can form a picture in our mind when the speech goes on. So it is very clear
that the speech is in a form of picture instead of language information
memorized by us. And we can store this picture in a relatively longer time
in the mind, so we can reproduce this speech more clearly and easily. This
way of memorizing is called “information Visualization” (IV) which is the
very common technique interpreters use.
     Because informative speeches are mainly by the way of introducing
and narrating, so it is very efficient to make the lots of information
delivered by the speakers visualized in your mind in order that you can
memorize them clearly and interpreting them into TL fluently and

Retrieval cues:
    a. Time order: narrations, stories, history, etc
    b. Spatial order: visualization, eg. 东西南北中,由远及近,由近及
    c. Logic order: logic of reasoning
                                    - 49 -

II. Passages Interpreting
Task one:
1. Learn new words and expressions
2. Listen the recordings of Passage 1( and 2) without taking notes for the
     first time and then ask some students to give the main ideas of it. (2 or
     3 pauses)
3. Listen the recordings of Passage 1( and 2) without taking notes for the
     second time and then ask some students to retell the text in SL. (2-3
4. Listen the recordings of Passage 1( and 2) with the note-taking and
     then ask someone to interpret. (2-3) pauses
Task two:
The partners design a part of speech which introduce or narrates something,
and then ask them to come in front of the classroom to display

III. Summary and assignment
1. The characteristics of Informative speech
2. The technique of “IV”
3. Two hours self-training for tourism interpreting after class.

                                     - 50 -
    Unit 9 Interpreting Persuasive Speeches ( E through C)
I. Teaching contents
  A. 9-1 应试之灾 The Examination Oriented Education
                       Vocabulary work & Text for Interpretation
  B. 9-2 广而误之 The Effects of Misleading Advertising
                      Vocabulary work & Text for Interpretation
  C. 9-3 共创未来 The Future Is ours to Build
                      Vocabulary work & Text for Interpretation
  D. 9-4 继往开来 The New beginning of an Old Story
                       Vocabulary work & Text for Interpretation
II. Aims of teaching
1. To make students master the techniques of memory and the note-taking.
2. To make students master the characteristics of persuasive speech.
III. Teaching Focus
1. Short Term Memory (STM) ability training.
2. The characteristics of Persuasive Speeches.
IV. Teaching Method
     Group work
     Class work
V. Teaching procedures
1. Brief introduction to the tasks of the class learning.
2. Brief introduction to the characteristics of persuasive speech.
3. Playing a movie with a part of persuasive speech and then ask students
   to retell the speech.
4. Passage interpreting exercise 1. Listen to the recordings of Text 3 and
   ask students to paraphrase and interpret the text.
5. Passage interpreting exercise 2. Play a movie with a part of persuasive
   speech and then ask students to interpret the speech.
6. Summarizing and providing reference booklist.
7. Assignment.
   What is the persuasive speech?
       A persuasive speech is a kind of public speaking which the speaker
   states facts, value, viewpoints or policy in order to help the listeners
   change views, or to influence and convince them to act, or to agree with
                                          - 51 -
speaker’s attitude, opinion and solutions.
    It involves directing, guiding, or appealing to the thinking, logic or
emotions of an individual or the audience.
  What is the characteristic of persuasive speech, esp. in language?
    It is commonly accomplished by the use of distinct theme, strong
argumentation, deep rationalization, accurate symbolisms, and
presenting supportive information. The speaker are eloquent and usually
holds the very affirmative and passionate calling tone.
    And speakers like to deliver persuasive speeches in the occasions in
public assembly, court presentation, academic lectures, business
negotiation, etc.
    Then watching the movie and then ask students to retell the
speech. Students should pay attention to catching the main idea and
important details of the speech, fully understanding of the context,
and holding the sense of SL correctly. Students could take notes
when necessary.
Zion! Hear me!
It is true what many of you have heard.
The machines have gathered an army, and as I speak...
...that army is drawing nearer to our home.
Believe me when I say we have a difficult time ahead of us.
But if we are to be prepared for it, we must first shed our fear of it.
想要赢得这场战争的胜利, 首先要斩除内心的恐惧
I stand here before you now truthfully unafraid.
Because I believe something you do not?
I stand here without fear because I remember.

                                   - 52 -
I remember that I am here not because of the path that lies before me...
我记得我之所以能在这里, 不是因为遵从前人所铺下的路
...but because of the path that lies behind me.
I remember that for 100 years we have fought these machines.
I remember that for 100 years they have sent their armies to destroy us.
And after a century of war, I remember that which matters most:
We are still here!
...let us send a message to that army.
Tonight, let us shake this cave.
Tonight, let us tremble these halls...
...of earth, steel and stone.
Let us be heard from red core to black sky.
Tonight, let us make them remember:
This is Zion and we are not afraid!

The speaker calls for the people of Zion to shed the fear to the coming
attacks of Machine Troops, and encourages them not to give up the hope.
With affirmative and encouraging tone, the speaker holds a fearless and
optimistic spirits to make the people believe they will win this battle
between Zion and the Machines.
Ask students in what way they memorize the details of the speech.
Emphasize the use of techniques of integration of heart memory and
note-taking to improve the STM.

                                   - 53 -
Text Interpreting
Text 3 The future is ours to build

① Vocabulary work
go forward hand-in-hand                   from our roots
differences in ideology and institution      draw …from faith and
hold forth                        heart and soul
dwell on                          revere our elders
the deepest aspirations            industrious, frugal and intelligent
heritage of our past              vitality and optimism
suspicion and mistrust                   going forward in a mighty
for one’s part
② Class Performing 课堂练习
I. Decoding & Memorizing 听辨(心记+笔记+理解)
     Listen to the recordings of Text 3 by sense groups’ pauses. Try to
catch the main ideas of the speeches while listening with the help of
note-taking. Then paraphrasing the main ideas of each part of speech in
     Students should pay attention to following the main theme of
the speech, and taking heart memorizing and understanding as the
     Especially, students should hold the sense of context mainly on
speaker’s attitude, viewpoints and stand correctly.
II. Encoding--Message Reconstructing 信息重组(理解+编码)
     Listen to the recordings of Text 3 by sense groups’ pauses. Taking
notes, students start interpreting during the pauses on the basis of
understanding. Making use of relevant techniques on handling the
cultural differences between the SL and TL.

Key sentences: ( Paraphrasing the underlined part)
① I believe if we were to ask citizens all over this world what they
 most for their children, and for their children’s children, their answer,
 in English, Chinese, or any language would likely be the same: We
 want peace,we want freedom and we want a better life. (calling tone
 for intensifying and emphasizing)
                                     - 54 -
② Trust the people -- these three words are not only the heart and soul
  American history, but the most powerful force for human progress in
  the world today. (Difference between E and C; Emphasis function of
  the usage of conjunctive structure for intensifying and emphasizing)
③ Therefore, I, Joseph Keenan, on behalf of my colleagues and the
  Ally prosecution team, solemnly request the honorable judges of the
  International Military Tribunal for the Fareast to severely punish those
  responsible for this horrible war of aggression, in the name of justice,
  in the spirit of compassion, and in the name of humanity. (parallelism
  for intensifying and emphasizing)
 ④ We have always believed the heritage of our past is the seed that
 brings forth the harvest of our future. And from our roots, we have
 drawn tremendous power from faith and freedom.
 ⑤ Today, China’s economy crackles with the dynamics of change.
 ⑥We Americans have always considered ourselves pioneers, so we
  appreciate such vitality and optimism. ( Whose vitality and
 ⑦ The future is ours to build.
 Exercise for persuasive speech interpreting in court.
     Students should pay attention to following the main theme of the
speech, and taking heart memorizing and understanding as the core.
     Especially, students should hold the sense of context mainly on
speaker’s attitude, viewpoints and stand correctly.
     Students will be provided listening to the recordings just one time
and then interpret the speech.

Vocabulary work:
                                 - 55 -
formulation and execution of a plan
embark on a war
a peak of cruelty and barbarity
feed Japan's insatiable appetite for expansion
Ally prosecution team
the International Military Tribunal for the Fareast

Ladies and gentleman,
Honorable judges and members of the court:
     All of the accused joined in the formulation and execution of a plan,
a conspiracy, whose purpose was to establish Japan's military, political,
and economic control over the countries within the Pacific and Indian
Oceans. In order to achieve this goal, Japan alone, or working with other
countries of like mind, embarked on a war of aggression to subjugate all
who stood in their way.
  全体被告参与了这一共同计划的拟定或执行,这一共同计划的目的, 是为
    My prosecution team and I have produced more than enough
evidence to approve the participation of the accused in his criminal
actions. Throughout the history of civilization, no one has ever seen
human nature at such a peak of cruelty and barbarity. Countless people
have died horrendous, unthinkable death to feed Japan's insatiable
appetite for expansion.
   By their actions, they have challenged human civilization, they have
challenged peace, and they have challenged the whole world. Their
common objective, a criminal objective, was to ensure the domination of
                                  - 56 -
 Japan's empire. There is no greater crime than plotting and executing a
 war of aggression. The security of the world and its people was threaten
 by this plot, and destroyed by this war, the only possible outcome, which
 is the great suffering the world has faced.
     Therefore, I, Joseph Keenan, on behalf of my colleagues of the Ally
prosecution team, solemnly request the honorable judges of the
International Military Tribunal for the Fareast to severely punish those
responsible for this horrible war of aggression, in the name of justice, in
the spirit of compassion, and in the name of humanity.

   全体被告参与了这一共同计划的拟定或执行,这一共同计划的目的, 是为
 4. Summary and Assignments
    ① The language characteristics of persuasive speeches can be
    summed up: Distinct theme, strong argumentation, deep
    rationalization, accurate symbolisms, and presenting supportive
                                  - 57 -
information. The speaker are eloquent and usually holds the very
affirmative and passionate calling tone.
② Interpreting should be based on fully understanding of the context,
and holding correctly the sense of SL to handle the TL expression. For
memorizing, students should practice the techniques of heart memory
with note taking.
③ Preview the rest of texts in this unit.

                              - 58 -
第十单元 说服性口译 (汉译英)
Text 2 环境保护
Text 3

                   - 59 -

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