History of Skyscrapers
The term "skyscraper" was coined in the 1880s, shortly after the first tall buildings were
constructed in the United States -- but the history of tall buildings dates back hundreds of
years. Since the Middle Ages, engineers have engaged in a battle for the sky.
Before there were skyscrapers, there were towers.
Made of heavy stone, towers had thick, sturdy walls, but the
rooms were dark and cramped -- too many windows would have
weakened the structure.
San Gimignano towers
Soon Gothic cathedrals joined the quest for height.
Long, stone arms, called flying buttresses, supported the
cathedral's heavy weight, allowing the walls to be filled with
colorful glass windows.
Notre Dame Cathedral
With steel came the first modern skyscrapers.
During the Industrial Revolution, engineers began
experimenting with two new materials -- iron and steel. The
10-story Home Insurance Building in Chicago was the first
tall building to be supported by a steel skeleton of vertical
columns and horizontal beams. But even with windows, the
closely spaced columns and deep beams made rooms in the
Home Insurance Building feel tight and cramped.
First steel skyscraper:
Home Insurance Building
Who wants to climb all those stairs?
In 1857, the installation of the first passenger elevator in the
Haughwout Department Store in New York City made it possible and
practical to construct buildings more than four or five stories tall.
Check out the forces that act on skyscrapers!
New structural designs made skyscrapers even lighter and stiffer.
As skyscrapers grew taller and taller, engineers were faced with a
new enemy: wind. Today's tallest skyscrapers, which are almost
1,500 feet tall, must be 50 times stronger against wind than the
typical 200-foot buildings of the 1940s.
How do engineers design skyscrapers to resist wind?
Today, the sky's the limit!
As architects and engineers experiment with new styles and building
methods, taller and more innovative structures are springing up around
the world. The tallest buildings in the world, the Petronas Towers in
Malaysia, are connected by a flexible skybridge on the 42nd floor -- a
design that improves the circulation of people between the towers and
provides an escape route from one tower to the other in case of
emergency. Petronas Towers
Information and pictures taken from
Associations Related to Construction
Compu.tecture signed a license agreement to publish ICC codes online!
The ICC was founded in 1994 as a nonprofit organization dedicated to
developing a single set of comprehensive and coordinated national model
construction codes. The founders of the ICC are Building Officials and
Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), International Conference
of Building Officials (ICBO), and Southern Building Code Congress
International, Inc. (SBCCI). Since the early part of the century, these
nonprofit organizations have developed the three sets of model codes used
throughout the United States.
Compu.tecture signed a license agreement to publish BOCA codes online!
Founded in 1915, Building Officials and Code Administrators
International, Inc. is a nonprofit membership association, comprised of
more than 16,000 members who belong to every aspect of the building
community, from code enforcement officials to materials manufacturers.
BOCA is dedicated to preserving the public health, safety and welfare in
the built environment through the effective, efficient use and enforcement
of Model Codes.
Compu.tecture signed a license agreement to publish SBCCI codes online!
The Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI) provides
technical, educational, and administrative support to governmental
departments and agencies engaged in building codes administration and
enforcement. SBCCI also provides similar support to others in the building
design and construction industry.
SBCCI's primary mission since 1940 has been to develop and maintain a
set of model building codes for use by local jurisdictions.
Compu.tecture signed a license agreement to publish ICBO codes online!
ICBO has been the preeminent source of building and construction codes
for more than 75 years. ICBO association prides itself on providing
excellent products and services to ensure the public's safety. In addition to
providing the codes, ICBO offer a broad variety of certification programs,
seminars on a number of topics, CD-ROM codes resources, training
manuals, videos and more.
Compu.tecture signed a license agreement to publish NFPA standards online!
NFPA is a worldwide leader in providing fire, electrical and life safety to
the public. Established in 1896, the mission of the international, nonprofit
member organization is to reduce the worldwide burden of fire and other
hazards on the quality of life by developing and advocating scientifically
based consensus codes and standards, research, training, and education.
Compu.tecture signed a license agreement to use CSI MASTERFORMAT as
part of the search engine of madcad.com
The Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) is a national professional
association that provides technical information and products, continuing
education, professional conferences, and product shows to enhance
communication among all the nonresidential building design and
construction industry's disciplines and meet the industry's need for a
common system of organizing and presenting construction documents. CSI
developed the MASTERFORMAT that is the accepted industry
classification numbering system.
Information taken from http://www.iccsafe.org/cs/
PETRONAS tower - List of companies that worked on it
owner Midciti associate RSP
Resources architect Architects
Sdn Bhd Planners &
developer KLCC Engineers
Sdn Bhd Limited
architect Cesar Pelli & geotechnical STS
Associates engineering Consultants,
landscape Balmori formwork PERI-HORY
architect Associates and Malaysia
structural Thornton- scaffolding Formwork
engineering Tomasetti Sdn Bhd
Engineers facade IBA
construction Consortium consultant Consultants
company Petronas civil Ove Arup &
Tower I engineering Partners
[Hazama acoustics Kirkegaard
Corporation, consultant Associates
Ho Hup facade
Berhad, J.A. supplier
Flack + Kurtz
elevator Pernas Otis
consultancy KTA Tenaga
Other Careers in Construction
Structural Engineers, Bridge
Estimators (All Levels)
Water, Drainage, Power,
Planning Eng, Planning Supervision,
Surveying - Building Surveying - Civils
QS, Building Surveyors, Property QS Civils
Local Housing, Housing
Architects pt II & III, Urban Designers
Architectural Assistants Building Services
Technicians/Technologist/CAD M&E, Sales Eng. Heating &
Operators Ventilation Eng.