APES 08 Chapter 3 Outline
2. Atoms are oppositely charged
2. Share electrons
3. Non-charged atoms
1. Between molecules of covalent bonds when
electrons are shared unequally
2. Electrons are pulled closer to one molecule
than another so “charged” (electrons closer to
O in water so O is slightly negative and H is
slightly positive - Polarity
II. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (Covalent bonds)
A. Hydrocarbons:combinations of hydrogen and carbon Occur in petroleum & natural gas
1. CH4 Methane Example : Jet fuel, gas, plastics,
2. C3H8 Propane Rubber, Oil
B. Chloronated hydrocarbons combination of C,H,Cl
1. DDT, C14H9Cl5 Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane – banned pesticide
2. PCB’s Polychlorinated biphenyls – weaken the immune system, retardation,
used as insulating material in electrical transformers. Non flammable, conduct
heat well. Drawbacks: Carcinogenic –Cause cancer, Persistant – Do not break
down fast in the environment, Bioaccumulate in the fatty tissues of organisms
and biomagnify through the food chain so the top consumers have the highest
concentrations in their body.
C. Chloroflourocarbons (CFC’s)
1. Freon (used as coolants in refrigeration, AC, used as propellants in
spray cans) Banned in US. A CFC starts a chain reaction that
destroys Ozone, which causes thinning of the ozone layer
2. Carbontetrachloride (drycleaning) Indoor air pollutant
D. Simple Carbohydrates (simple sugars) C,H,O 1:2:1 ratio
1. Glucose C6H12O6
E. Polymers: monomers (basic units) connected by
chemical bonds. 3 main types
1. Complex Carbohydrates: link simple
sugars to make starches
2. Proteins: made by linking amino acids
3. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)
a. Linked nucleotides (phosphate,
1) Genes: sequences of nucleotides in
a DNA molecule, code for proteins,
about 75,000/human cell
2) Chromosomes: combinations
of genes that make up a DNA
Molecule, 46 (23 pairs) in humans
4. Lipids: fats, oils, waxes, steroids
Humans use as a secondary energy source. Drawback is that
harmful chemical collect, (bioaccumulate) in out fat cells
III. INORGANIC COMPOUNDS: Does not contain the element Carbon
Joined by covalent & ionic bonds. Ex – H2O
IV. MATTER QUALITY: usefulness, based on availability and concentration. A measure of how useful a
form of matter is to us as a resource.
A. High: organized, concentrated, near surface
great potential for use, economical & profitable to extract – crude oil, natural gas
B. Low disorganized, dilute, deep in earth or Atmosphere
little potential for use, costly to extract – deep pocket crude oil
V. ENTROPY: measure of disorder or randomness
A. High: great disorder (aluminum ore, water vapor) – ore must be processed
B. Low: great order (aluminum can, ice)
VI. ENERGY FORMS
A. Kinetic Energy (energy – the ability to do work)
1. Energy in motion - Examples: falling rocks, electricity,
2. Electromagnetic radiation - a form of energy consisting of a wide band or
spectrum of electromagnetic waves.
3. Forms – light & heat – most energy in a system is lost as low quality waste heat
Ex. Light bulbs are only 5 % efficient – 95% of the electricity is turned into heat
fluorescent light – (like in the classroom) are only 15 % efficient.
a) Examples of Electromagnetic radiation: include
Ultraviolet, radio waves, TV wave, X-rays, gamma rays,
Cosmic rays, visible light, etc. Know the electromagnetic spectrum.
b) different waves have different
wavelengths and amounts of energy
c) Ionizing radiation: high energy, (strong enough to knock loose or ionize
particles from compounds ect.. ) short wavelength, potentially harmful to life –
Examples: Cosmic rays, Gamma Rays – most penetrating, two most common
particles emitted by radioisotopes are Alpha particles – fast moving positive
chunks of matter that consist of two protons and two neutrons. Beta particles –
which are high speed electrons. UV Ultraviolet waves
d) Nonionizing: low energy, longer wavelengths (ex. Radio waves, microwaves.
TV waves )
5. Heat: total kinetic energy of atoms, ions, etc.
in a substance
6. Temperature: measure of average speed of
motion of atoms, ion, etc. in sample at a
7. Something my have high heat and low temperature or vice versus
Example: Heat content – a cup of coffee has a higher temperature
than a lake but a lower heat content.
B. Potential energy: stored, rock in hand, unlit dynamite, Potential Energy can
be turned into Kinetic Energy
C. Energy Quality: energy’s ability to do work
1. High quality: organized, concentration,
much work Example: electrical energy
2. Low quality: disorganized, little ability to
useful work Example: Geothermal energy
VII. Physical/Chemical change
A. Physical: change in state, water freezing, mowing the lawn, no change in
B. Chemical: chemical compositions of elements or
compounds change , Ex. Frying an egg, baking a cake
C. Law of Conservation of Matter
1. “May change various elements and
compounds from one physical or chemical form
to another, but in no physical and chemical
change can we create or destroy any of the
atoms involved.” We only rearrange.
5g of substance A + 5g of substance B = 10 g substance C
2. Earth has all matter basically will ever have
(Very small changes do occur. We lose some gaseous molecules into
space & gain molecules in the form of cosmic dust, meteorites,..)—
3. No away in “throw away”. The waste, called sludge, is taken from a
treatment plant and buried or burned –turned into air pollution
VIII. Nuclear Changes
A. Isotopes (same element different number of neutrons Example
Carbon 12 and Carbon 14)
B. Three types:
1. Natural radioactive decay: unstable isotopes
spontaneously emit fast moving particles,
high energy radiation, or both. Continues
until reach a stable form.
a. Most common is U238 that decays to its
daughter element Pb206.
b. Emits ionizing radiation--gamma
rays, alpha particle, beta particles.
c. Half-life: decreases by ½ every “X”
number of years Common rule: After 10 half life cycles, that
substance is deemed safe to life. A substance has a half life of
1000 years, how many years must pass by before this
substance is deemed safe?
d. Half-life useful in dating rocks, bones,
fossils, and as tracers in pollution
detection, diagnosis and treatment of diseases
2. Nuclear Fission: nuclei of certain isotopes are split
a. Releases neutrons and energy
b. Ex. Atomic bomb, nuclear power plants (U235 is the nuclear fuel)
3. Nuclear Fusion: two isotopes of light elements
are forced together at extremely high temperatures
a. More difficult to start than fission but
much more energy produced
b. Energy of sun is fusion (hydrogen is converted to
helium is the initial fusion reaction of all stars)
c. Hydrogen of thermonuclear weapons
IX. ENERGY LAWS (Energy is an OPEN System)
A. First Law of Thermodynamics: Energy is neither
created nor destroyed, it only changes from one
form to another (thermodynamics refers to
internal energies of systems)
1. Energy input = energy output
2. Can’t get something for nothing
B. Second Law of Thermodynamics Every time there is an energy conversion,
there is an energy loss. Energy is lost in the form of low quality waste heat to
1. It is not possible to change heat energy
completely into work, with no other change
2. We can’t break even because energy always
goes from a more useful to a less useful form
3. High-quality energy is never recycled or
reused to perform useful work because it
has become lower quality energy (usually
X. MATTER/ENERGY LAWS AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
A. High-Throughput/High-Waste Societies
1. Developed countries
2. Sustain increasing economic growth by
increasing throughput of matter and energy
B. Matter-Recycling Societies
1. Slows down unsustainability--buys time
2. Still requires source of affordable high-
quality energy and still produces waste heat
XI. Factors That Determine a Pollutants Harmful Effects:
1. Concentration ppm ppb
XII. Positive and Negative Feedback Loops
1. Positive Feedback Loop- A system proceeds in one direction. The loop
occurs when something make the system continue in the same direction.
Example: as populations increase we need more food , more people, more
food, more people, more food.
Our economy is based on a positive feedback loop. More people – more
resources – more products – more people – more resources – more products.
Ultimately all positive feedback loops will crash. What happens when we run
out of a resource? Look at what is currently happening to crude oil.
2. Negative Feedback Loop – A change that leads to a lessening of the effects.
Example: Recycling an aluminum can lessens the need to mine for the
aluminum ore. Separate the ore from the waste material, Convert the metal
into a can.
Synergistic Interactions: Two or more processes interact so the combined effect is greater
than the separate effects. This mainly deals with pollutants in our environment. Example: If
you are exposed to pesticide A, it will make you sick. If you are exposed to pesticide B, it will
make you sick. If you are exposed to a combination –mixture of A and B it will be lethal.
XIII. The pH Scale
1. The pH scale measures the amount of hydrogen ions or hydronium ions (H+) in a solution.
According to this measurement, it indicates whether a substance is acidic or basic or alkaline.
2. In the space below – during lecture draw and label the pH scale
3. How many hydrogen ions are in a solution with a pH of 4? A Ph of 9?