Geophysical Condition by Ch9KyC


									                                               Chapter- 2

2.0     Introduction
The current chapter of the report traces the historical background of the Sylhet City, the existing
situation and the planning efforts made in the past.

2.1     Historical Background
The early history of Sylhet is hazy and obscure. The record indicates that in ancient times there
existed a separate kingdom called Srihatta and for some time it had been known as Harikel. It was
established as an administrative division called Srihattamandala under Srichandra in the 10th century
of Chandra dynasty of Bengal and ruled by feudal kings. For some time Sylhet was divided into Laur,
                                         th       th
Gaur and Jainta kingdom between the 6 and 12 centuries A. D. when human settlements increased
to a great extent in this region. Sylhet came under the rule of Muslim Sultans following its conquest by
Hazrat Shahjalal (R.) in year 1303 BC. The Mughals took control of the district in 1612. Sylhet was
brought under the rule of East India Company with their acquisition of Dewani of Bengal, Bihar and
Orissa in 1765.

Sylhet possessed a different characteristic both from Assam and Bengal because of its local
geophysical features. Though its separation from the Bengal Presidency in 1874 gave it a dominating
position in Assam in the sphere of politics, administration and education, the people of the district
however, protested the government decision. In spite of the assurance of Lord Northbrooke of getting
cultural privilege, the discontentment never subsided till it joined with East Bengal in 1947 by the
peoples’ vote.

In the early eighteenth century Sylhet was placed under the administration of Dhaka division under
the rule of East India Company. It formed a part of the Dhaka Division and continued to be so until the
district together with neighbouring district of Cachhar was incorporated with the newly created
province of Assam in 1874. In 1867, the Sylhet district was sub-divided into four administrative units
as Sylhet Sadar, Sunamganj, Karimganj and Hobiganj. Sadar was again sub-divided into two parts
namely, North sub-division and South sub-division in 1882. In 1905, the new province of East Bengal
and Assam was created and Sylhet was included in it. But in 1911 when the partition of Bengal was
annulled, Sylhet again became a part of the province of Assam and remained so till 1947. During the
colonial rule, the town of Sylhet developed as the principal center for administration of the Sylhet
district. In the past Sylhet Municipality had trade and transportation links with Assam, Calcutta and
even Patna that were cut off following political changes of 1947. But by 1961 it had readjusted to its
changed state.

Consortium of SHELTECH-EPC                                                                           2-1
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In 1878 Municipality was established in Sylhet according to the Municipality Act of 1876. The area of
the Municipality was defined by the Act as Amberkhana Road in the north, Surma River in the south,
Goalichhora in the east and Sagar Dighir Par and Ujanlane in the west.

Sylhet town became the Headquarters of Sylhet Division in 1996 and was upgraded to Sylhet City
Corporation (SCC) in 2002. SCC covers an area of 26.5 Sq km. with a population of 2, 62,899 (BBS:
2001). Most recently Sylhet has been declared as an SMA (Sylhet Metropolitan Area) with 6 thanas
within its jurisdiction. The thanas are namely the former Kotwali, South Surma and the newly included
Moglabazar, Shah Poran, Airport and Jalalabad.

2.2        Demographic Changes
According to the Population Census of 1872 the population of the Sylhet Municipality was 16,846
(Ahmed, 2003). The percentile increase of population of the period from1961-1981 was 152%. The
actual expansion of municipal area was started since 1971. The 1971 War of Liberation accelerated
the rate of migration from rural to urban areas, and this exodus led to rapid increase of urban
population throughout the country. In 1984 the boundary of Sylhet Municipality was extended to 10.49
sq. km from the former 5.82 sq. km. In the changed area of 58%, the population was residing in
municipal area (Structure Plan, 1987, UDD).

Declaration of Sylhet as a separate division of Bangladesh in 1996 is one of the reasons for rapid
urban population growth over the period of 1991 to 2001, when the decadal growth of Sylhet City
Corporation during this period was the highest (172.8%) among all other 17 Paurashavas having
population more than 100 thousand. This situation may also be explained by the high rate of
remittance from expatriates generally received by the people of Sylhet which facilitated them to settle
in the city leaving the rural part of the zila where the amenities of life is scarce and communication net
work is weak. The percentage of urban population of Sylhet city in 2001 was 72.95% of that of Sylhet
Sadar Upazila. But in respect to the total urban population of the country the city shares only 1.10

2.3        Physical Characteristics
2.3.1      Geophysical Condition
The soil of Sylhet district has different characteristics depending on age, drainage and parent
material. Almost all soils are acidic, but topsoil become near natural when under flooded for more
than 2 weeks. Soil conditions in different parts of the city vary in strength. In the Sylhet basin most
soils are grey, or locally dark grey, clays with blocky structure, about 2ft thick, overlying an order if soil
which may range from clayey to sandy at short distance.

a. Climate
Sylhet has a tropical climate and except for heavy rainfalls, the climate is much like other parts of the
country. In summer (March-May) mean temperature is approximately 26.6 c while the winter mean is

Consortium of SHELTECH-EPC                                                                                             2-2
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19.7 c. The mean annual rainfall is 3880 mm with the heaviest occurring during June-July period.
Despite the higher rainfall, the climatic regime is similar to that of the remainder of the county.

b. Topography, Natural Drainage and Natural Fault
The general topography of Sylhet town is undulating with elevations varying from +1.233 mMSL to
+84.221 mMSL. Average land height is + 18.856 mMSL. About 35.76% spots found from topographic
survey ranges between + 10.001 mMSL to + 15.000 mMSL. To the north of the city there are
numerous isolated hillocks or ‘tilas’, which relieve the otherwise monotonous terrain. The lowest point
is found in Tultikar Union, which is 5.000 mMSL above the Mean Sea Level (MSL), while the highest
point is in Tukerbazar Union. Based on the average contour level, Kuchai Union is comparatively
lower and Tukerbazar Union is comparatively higher of the study area. Again, the spot level survey
reveals that extreme southern and northern parts of the project area that is Sylhet City Corporation,
Barsala and Kuchai Unions have the lower land elevation (total average height of about 19.25 m
MSL) and the north-eastern part like Tukerbazar Union has the higher land elevation (above the total
average height).

The river Surma-Kushiayara and their tributaries flow through the district and have influenced its
growth. The importance of the river system of Sylhet city has decreased over the last decade
because of siltation on the mouth of the Surma River at the outflow of the Borak River. Surma and
other water ways flowing through the town are indispensable to its water supply and drainage system.
The ground water aquifer is constantly shrinking due to low water flow in the Surma River during dry
months. The few main Chhoras (perennial water run off canals) which play major role in drainage
system has mostly been occupied by unauthorized occupants constricting the drainage channels to
its lowest capacity. There are lot of ponds, dighis and unsanitary pools of squalor and filth but they too
serve as the catchment basins for surface water runoffs.

The tectonic framework of Bangladesh indicates that Sylhet city, due to the presence of Dauki fault
system of eastern Sylhet, the deep-seated Sylhet fault and proximity to the highly disturbed
southeastern Assam with the Jaflong thrust, the Naga thrust and the Disang thrust, is a zone of high
seismic risk. Sylhet city is located in the seismic zone 3 and so it is highly vulnerable to earthquake.
In the last 150 years three earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7.5 occurred in Sylhet. Map- 2.1
shows the fault lines around Sylhet region.

2.3.2     Structure Plan Area Land Use
Most land use information was collected during physical survey through personal inquiry of the
building/space users. Land use information was extracted from survey data according to use of
land/building by its functional activity such as, residential, industrial, commercial etc and recorded
with individual ID or code. The land use features were identified, classified and separated in different
layers during data processing stage, from where the category wise thematic land use maps were
drawn. The land uses of the project area have been analyzed union wise. For generalized land use
pattern of the entire project area, all the land uses were sub-divided into 25 major classes as per the

Consortium of SHELTECH-EPC                                                                                             2-3
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Map- 2.1: Fault Lines around Sylhet Region

Consortium of SHELTECH-EPC                                                                                             2-4
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requirement of the TOR. Table- 2.1 and Map- 2.2 present the generalized land use information of the
project area. It is clearly evident from the table that residential land use dominates the project area.

Table-2.1: Existing Overall Land Use of the Planning Area

 Land use Type                                                Area in Acres          Area in Hectares             %
 Residential                                                     4834.53                 1956.47                 22.98
 Agriculture                                                     4523.52                 1831.42                 21.50
 Tea Garden                                                      3739.60                 1513.37                 17.77
 Vacant Land                                                     1645.85                  666.06                 7.82
 Rural Settlement                                                1408.65                  570.06                 6.70
 Water body                                                      1356.33                  548.89                 6.45
 Transport & Communication                                        710.43                  287.50                 3.38
 Tilla/Hilly Area                                                 647.22                  261.92                 3.08
 Education & Research                                             547.15                  221.42                 2.60
 Bus/Truck/Launch Terminal                                        353.25                  142.96                 1.68
 Commercial (Business & Mercantile)                               314.19                  127.15                 1.49
 Defense & Security                                               273.01                  110.48                 1.30
 Industrial/Manufacturing and Processing
                                                                   157.44                    63.72                0.75
 Administrative Services                                          131.94                    53.40                 0.63
 Open Space                                                       102.64                    41.54                 0.49
 Religious                                                         74.88                    30.30                 0.36
 Health Care Services                                              56.53                    22.88                 0.27
 Grave Yard/Crematorium/Cemetery                                   53.85                    21.79                 0.26
 Transport & Communication                                         32.17                    13.02                 0.15
 Mixed Use                                                         30.82                    12.47                 0.15
 Non Government Services                                           29.40                    11.90                 0.14
 Community Centre                                                   9.04                     3.66                 0.04
 Slum Area                                                          4.06                     1.64                 0.02
 Recreational Facilities (Covered)                                  1.47                     0.59                 0.01
 Ware House/Storage                                                 1.40                     0.57                 0.01
 Vacant Land                                                        0.21                     0.09                 0.00
 Community/Municipal Services                                       0.13                     0.05                 0.00
 Power Plant/Station                                                0.05                     0.02                 0.00
 Total                                                           21039.73                  8515.32               100.00
Source: Physical Survey, 2007-2008.

Consortium of SHELTECH-EPC                                                                                                2-5
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                                Bus/Truck/     Landuse pattern of the Project Area
                                 Air Port                             Defence &                     Administrative
                                                      Commercial                  Industrial
                      Education    2%                                  Security                       Services
                                                         1%                          1%
                         3%                                              1%                             1%

                Tilla/Hilly Area
                       3%                                                                           Residential


                     Rural Settlement
                           7%                                                                   Agriculture
                                        Vacant Land      Tea Garden
                                            7%              18%

                                                  Figure- 2.1: Land Use Pattern

It has been ascertained that the highest category land use go to residential+rural homestead and it is
about 30% of the total landed area. The second major land use is agriculture and occupying about 21
% of the project area. Besides, same percentage of land goes to tea gardens and hilly area, more
than 6% to water body and 3,84% of lands are being used for transport and communication purposes.
Land use under education and research institutions and commercial activities in the entire project
area are about 2.65% and 1.48 % respectively.

Consortium of SHELTECH-EPC                                                                                                 2-6
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Map: 2.2: Generalized Land Use

Consortium of SHELTECH-EPC                                                                                             2-7
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2.3.3     Socio-economic Profile
From the socio-economic survey of the project area it has been found that Sylhet is the remittance
city where economic opportunities are more pronounced than any other city of Bangladesh. By
availing the opportunities of remittance the business sub-sector of the town has flourished. As
ascertained from survey about 12 percent of the respondents receive remittance from abroad.
Nuclear family is now the common characteristics of urban areas with an average family size of 5.52
for the study area. The average sex ratio for the project area is 100: 120 which is also higher than the
national average (00:117). The implication is that male in migration is a major factor in the urban
economy of the project area. About 84% of population is Muslim. Almost half of the population (43%)
is migrated. The level of literacy (91%) in the project area is much higher than the national average

About 63 percent of the respondents earn a monthly income of Tk.10,000.00 and above, 25.61
percent families are living approximately below poverty level (below Tk. 8000.00) which is lower than
the national average (28%). Almost 61% population belongs to the active age group, though 33% is
economically active and 39% of the population is within dependent age group.

2.4       Trend of Spatial Growth Pattern
Two main elements that dictate spatial growth most, are, land level and road infrastructure. However,
there are also some other factors of influence, like, important establishment, economic and social
amenity and impact establishment, market and port facilities, communication route and terminal, flow
of investment resources, etc. The trend of spatial growth in Sylhet city was influenced by many of the
above factors while having spontaneous growth. It is observed that spatial growth mostly took place
on the north-east and the west. On the south originally Sylhet is edged by the Surma River. Four
bridges across the river facilitated southward expansion. But the growth is very slow in that direction
despite development of a BSCIC Industrial Estate. Two reasons restricted growth in the south, first,
that important amenities and public sector establishments are in the main city on the other side of the
river, and the second, land on the south is lower in level and prone to flooding. On the east land is
comparatively of higher elevation (except some pockets). The area is also served by inter-regional
and bypass roads. There is another BSCIC Industrial Estate at Khidirpur that draws industrial
investment. The land is comparatively higher on the north-east, so there was a natural tendency to
develop on this direction. On the north the city’s spatial expansion is restricted by hills and hillocks
where tea gardens are located. Due to the establishment of international Airport some trend of
development occurs in this area. Some housing estates have been sprung up in this locality. On the
west the land is of higher elevation compared to adjoining areas (except SCC area). This area is also
served by good road communication including a new city bypass linking areas south of the river
Surma with Sunamganj road and across via Dhaka-Sylhet Road. So there is natural tendency for the
city to grow on this direction.           On the west there is another major attraction that is, Shahjalaj
University of Science and Technology. Within the city, the present trend of land use development
shows, rapid growth of hotels, shopping malls and apartments. Most of these investments are coming
from expatriate Sylheties living abroad. These investments are likely to boost local economy through

Consortium of SHELTECH-EPC                                                                                             2-8
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creation of more employment having multiplier effects. Spatial Growth Pattern of the project area has
been presented in Map-3.3.

2.5       Previous Planning Efforts
2.5.1     Structure Plan and Action Area Plan Prepared by UDD in 1987
The Urban Development Directorate undertook a planning effort in 1987 and prepared first Structure
Plan for Sylhet under the National Physical Planning Project (BGD/81/005). The project was assisted
by UNDP and executed by UNCHS. From GOB part, Urban Development Directorate (UDD) under
the Ministry of Housing and Public Works was the executing agency. The project document of the
phase II of the National Physical Planning Project proposed preparation of plans at regional urban
and local levels to strengthen government’s efforts for decentralization. It was also decided in the
project Steering Committee to prepare plans for 6 zilas and 5 upazilas including Sylhet Town.

2.5.2     Background Setting of the Structure Plan
Sylhet town is the most important town in the north-eastern part of Bangladesh. During late eighties,
the town was served by a High Court Bench, a Medical College, several academic institutions for
secondary, higher secondary and graduate level. The town was also the centre for tea production. It
is well connected with rest of the country by road, rail and air. Sylhet, as one of the major towns of the
country, was growing fast in late 1980s.

2.5.3     Purpose of the Structure Plan
Following were the purposes of the structure plan as documented in the plan report.
          a. lessen uncertainty about the existing conditions and future likely problems;
          b. create a base with common goal for the public and private agencies to proceed with their
               development activities;
          c.   prepare a framework for overall development of the town.

2.5.4     The Plan Area
Sylhet Municipality had an area of about 9.7 (3.5 sq.m) during preparation of the Structure
Plan. The project, before starting the planning activities, had delineated an area of 19 as the
plan area, covering municipal area and potential areas around the town, with the apprehension that
urban growth would extend within the year 2000.

Consortium of SHELTECH-EPC                                                                                             2-9
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                             Map-3.3: Spatial Growth Pattern of the Project Area

Consortium of SHELTECH-EPC                                                                                            2-10
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The development proposals were followed by some strategic policies to support development. The
policies covered such issues as, employment, infrastructure, transportation, drainage, water supply,
sanitation, energy, education, health, market and shopping, Development Proposals
The plan realized that the development would be primarily carried out by a large number of private
land owners, but among the public agencies the key role will be with the municipality. The structure
plan recommended three categories of actions:
1. a public agency to initiate development of a new area by construction of a new road, or provision
     of some public facilities;
2. measures for maintenance and improvement of existing services and extension of such services
     to new areas;
3. specific actions for specific development proposals.
The plan report suggested a set of development proposals over a plan period of 20 years. The
suggestion indicated the magnitude of the task, to cater for expected growth in population. The
projects were phased into three periods with those in 1987-90 considered to be the most significant.
However, three periods were preceded by proposals in hand.

2.5.5     Implementation of Structure Plan
Regarding implementation of the structure plan proposals the prime responsibilities were imposed on
the municipality. However, at the same time the plan expressed doubt about the capacity of the
municipality to undertake those responsibilities. The report also found the municipality to control large
number of public sector agencies that would be responsible for development of the town. The report
expressed its inability to suggest any administrative reform, but recommended that pourashava
should have the administrative power to control, guide and coordinate development within its

Regarding development control in the town the plan report observed that the urban form that evolved
in absence of land use and building controls did not respect environment, public health and safety.
The report observed that the planning control powers had seldom been used by the pourashava,
partly due to lack of skilled manpower and partly because adoption of such plans would make it
difficult for the pourashava to enforce them. The structure plan expected that the appropriate urban
land use legislation to be operational during the plan period. It also expected that in the long run the
pourashava would be designated as an agency having appropriate power to control land use. In the
short term it was expected that appropriate locations would be determined for infrastructure and

2.5.6    Action Plan
Action Plan was the second stage of the hierarchical planning order of the Sylhet Town Planning. The
objective of the Action Plan was to evaluate the projects proposed by the structure plan and prepares

Consortium of SHELTECH-EPC                                                                                            2-11
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a refined priority list with details of design and costing. These projects are to be executed within first
three years of life of the structure plan.

After thorough review 18 projects of the structure were retained as action plan projects. Out of these
18 projects, 8 were to be funded by the national agencies and 10 by the pourashava itself. Priorities
of these 10 projects were worked out following certain methods. The intention for setting of priority
was to allow local officials to choose projects which had all been deemed technically worthy of
funding. The criteria used for prioritization
       -   how the projects addressed human need,
       -   priority to low income people,
       -   benefits derived to cover costs,
       -   urgency of the project,
       -   how the project encourages recommended land use development,
       -   meeting the project objectives.
The 10 projects were than ranked based on above mentioned criteria producing a final list of 10
projects on priority basis shown in Table-2.2.

Table-2.2: Project Priority
 Original     New SL. No          Project                                       Score        Cost (Tk.)      Cumulative
 SL. No.      after ranking                                                                                  Costs (Tk.)
 4.           1.                  Installation of twin pit latrines in public   27.5         35300           -
 7.           2.                  Provision of 200 tube wells.                  27.5         2256000         2308200
 13.          3.                  Design of comprehensive drainage              27.5         1000000         3308200
 5.           4.                  Repair of 30 standpipes                       26.5         16900           52200
 12.          5.                  Improvement of garbage collection             26.0         5666000         8974200
                                  and disposal.
 11.          6.                  Upgrading of 2000 service latrines            22.5         511000          9485200
                                  into twin pits.
 3.           7.                  Construction of bus terminal for north        19           1226000         10711200
                                  bound buses.
 10.          8.                  Community centre                              19           154000          10865200
 1.           9.                  Brick pavement of kutcha roads                16.5         4461000         15326200
 14.          10.                 Drainage improvement: brick lining of         14.5         2794000         18120200
                                  kutcha drains

2.5.7      Review of Execution of Plan Proposals
Review of performance of execution of structure plan proposals shows a frustrating picture. This plan
for Sylhet town was not officially approved or significantly implemented. It could not also foresee the
town as a future Divisional Headquarter. The plan does not provide a breakdown of land allocations
by major use types. It was presumed that land for urban type use would be made available from
agricultural land and vacant land found within the plan area. Many of the development proposals
remained unexecuted. Although there are provisions that Development Plans should be revised every
10 years in order to keep on update of the development process, but the existing master plan for

Consortium of SHELTECH-EPC                                                                                                 2-12
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Sylhet Divisional Town had not been reviewed till now. Due to the passage of time the over all Plan
became obsolete. The major reason for non-implementation lies in absence of cooperation and
understanding between the concerned ministries-the ministry that controls local government and the
ministry that was responsible for planning. Unless an effective understanding is reached between the
two ministries it is unlikely that anything effective would come out despite several policies and plans.
This is particularly true when the agency making plan does not have the power to execute the plans
or allocate funds for execution. Unless effective coordination is established between UDD and the
Sylhet City Corporation it is not expected that development in Sylhet would start with a sound pace.

2.6       Housing Projects of NHA in 1990s
The most important agency of the Central Government which has involvement in land and housing
supply provision is The National Housing Authority under the Ministry of Housing and Public Works.
The NHA has been the principal public sector agency engaged in solving the enormous housing
problem of the country, particularly for the poor, the low and the middle-income group of people.
During 1958-1997, the Housing and Settlement Directorate (HSD), the predecessor of National
Housing Authority, has successfully carried out numerous refugee rehabilitation schemes, low and
middle income housing projects and squatter resettlement projects. It has so far established 34
housing estates throughout the country with all civic and infrastructure facilities. These housing
estates consist of residential and rehabilitation plots, flats, core houses, shops, commercial industrial
and institutional plots, health centers, schools, mosques, parks, play grounds etc. These housing
estates located in Sylhet City are-
1. Shahjalal Housing Estate (1st Phase)- There are 747 plots of different categories within an area
      of 60 acres.
2. Sylhet Housing Estate (2nd Phase)- There are 755 plots in an area of 65.5 acres.

Both the housing estates are in Ward No. 22 and locally known as ShahJalal Upashahar, a residential
area for the upper and upper middle class. In the period of last five year plan the government was
trying its best to fulfill the basic needs of the people. The National Housing Authority (NHA) has
placed proposals to the government for implementation of flat construction projects, sites and
services projects and projects for rehabilitation of the destitute and resettlements of squatters. Out of
the total 21 projects the following two are for Sylhet.

2.7       Implementation of Site and Service Plans by Various Agencies
Very recently at the local level towns, Non Government Organizations (NGOs) and Community
Based Organizations (CBOs) are implementing some projects to improve the condition of slum and
squatter settlements through external financial support of donors which is also insufficient to meet
the demand. Slum improvement activities are also going on in Pourashava by the government
initiative but it is quite insufficient for the need.

2.8       Establishment of BSCIC Industrial Estate

Consortium of SHELTECH-EPC                                                                                            2-13
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Two important industrial estates such as Khadimnagar Industrial Unit and Gotatikar BSCIC industrial
unit are located within the city area. Year of establishment of Gotatikar and Khadimnagar Industrial
Units started in 1965 and 1985 respectively and continued up to 1997. Total area of these two
industrial units is 52.64 acres. Out of 52.64 acres 39.06 acres are used for industrial purposes and
rest area is for the road network and infrastructure. though 141 plots had been allotted for small and
medium size industrial establishment out of the total 253 plots, only 100 industrial units of different
varieties are in production (Table-2.3). Like other BSCIC estates in Bangladesh, these estates in
Sylhet did not utilize with their full capacity.

Table- 2.3: Descriptions of the Industrial Estate
        Name of          Location      Year of       Total       Industrial      Total         Allotted       Industrial    Others
    Industrial Estate                   Est.       Industrial      Land        Industrial     Industrial        Unit in      Land
                                                     Area           Use           Plot           Plot        Production      Use
      Khadimnagar       Khadimnagar      1985        27.75         19.16          119             69             46          8.59
    Industrial Estate                      -         Acres                                                                  Acres
       Gotatikar         Gotatikar       1965        24.89         19.90          134             72             56          4.99
    Industrial Estate                      -         Acres                                                                   Acres
                                          Total      52.64         39.06          253            141             100         13.58
                                                     Acres                                                                   Acres
Source: BSCIC, Sylhet, 2007.

2.9         Road Transportation Development Planning
For the economic development of a country one of the most important preconditions is smooth and
developed transport system. Road communication plays a vital role in this regard. It also plays an
important role for up-gradation of the socio-economic condition of the poor people.
There are some ongoing projects for the improvement of transportation system of Sylhet region. Out
of them 5 were for the construction of Bridges and Culverts on different roads started from late 90’s
and almost are at the completion stage.

      Construction of Beanibazar-Golapgonj-Fenchuganj Road and Completion of remaining Work of
       Sylhet-Salutikor-Companigonj-Bholagonj Road and Osmani Airport By-pass Road are the two
       important projects for better road communication.

      Improvement of Amberkhana-Tukerbazar portion of Sylhet-Sunamgonj Road in Sylhet City Area,
       Improvement of Sylhet-Zakigonj (Charkhai-Zakiganj) Road, Improvement of three important
       Roads at Sylhet Town are the three projects which will mitigate the delay travel time and traffic
       congestion at the improved area after their completion.

      Reconstruction of Masimpur Bridge & Development of Bridge Connecting Road in Sylhet Town
       has been expected to complete within this year will improve the present condition. The Sylhet City
       Corporation as a main agency for Sylhet city development under took some projects for the
       betterment of the city. These are:
      Widening and Improvement of VIP Road, construction of RCC Drain and Footpath adjacent to the
       Sylhet Govt. Alyeea Madrasha (1/1/2004-31/12/2007).

      Improvement of important roads and drainage system of Sylhet City Corporation Area.

Consortium of SHELTECH-EPC                                                                                                 2-14
Final Plan Report (Structure Plan & Urban Area Plan)
Preparation of Master Plan (Structure Plan, Urban Area Plan and Detailed Area Plan) for Sylhet Divisional Town

    Construction of Central Truck Terminal in Sylhet at Tilaghar.

Railway is known as an easily available and pro-poor mode of transport. Specially this class of people
use railway to travel their work-places and ordinary businessmen carry goods by train at a low cost.
On this perspective the National Strategy for Accelerated Poverty Reduction of the government of
Bangladesh some strategic goals have been taken. Of them this development with also enhance this
goal for Sylhet region.

Sylhet Station Remodeling (Phase-II) under Bangladesh Railway will expect to be completed in this
year is a positive step for the improved of rail transport. Modernization of interlocking and Signaling
System of 10 (Ten) Stations of Akhaura-Sylhet Section of Bangladesh Railway in East Zone (1
Revised) is another project to be completed in 2008.

The list of present and future development projects under different government development
agencies has been given in Annex- 2.1 along with their cost and purpose of work.

Consortium of SHELTECH-EPC                                                                                            2-15

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